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Sample records for metal coating removal

  1. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  2. Metal monitoring for process control of laser-based coating removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark E.; Hunter, Amy J.; Panagiotou, Thomai; Davis, Steven J.; Freiwald, David A.

    1999-12-01

    Cost-effective and environmentally-sound means of paint and coatings removal is a problem spanning many government, commercial, industrial and municipal applications. For example, the Department of Energy is currently engaged in removing paint and other coatings from concrete and structural steel as part of decommissioning former nuclear processing facilities. Laser-based coatings removal is an attractive new technology for these applications as it promises to reduce the waste volume by up to 75 percent. To function more efficiently, however, the laser-based systems require some form of process control.

  3. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from pre-settled stormwater runoff by iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J.; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2002-01-01

    Sorption to iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS) is a promosing technology for removal of the dissolved heavy metal fraction in stormwater runoff. The development of a new technology is necessary since studies of stormwater runoff from traffic areas indicate that an oil separator and detention pond may...... by IOCS after 480 pore volumes. Control columns with uncoated filter sand show that lead, copper and zinc were removed with >95%, 35% and 5%, respectively. The removal of the negative metaloxy-ion, CrO4-3 was insignificant in both IOCS and sand columns at pH=7.7. Destruction of the columns after...

  4. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Sanchez-Salcedo, S.; Cicuendez, M.; Izquierdo-Barba, I.; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams as potential devices for the treatment of heavy metal ions. → HA stable foams coated with biopolymers. → Feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. - Abstract: 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb 2+ , 378 μmol/g of Cu 2+ and 316 μmol/g of Cd 2+ . These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods.

  5. In vitro removal of toxic heavy metals by poly(γ-glutamic acid-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbaraj BS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Chelation therapy involving organic chelators for treatment of heavy metal intoxication can cause cardiac arrest, kidney overload, mineral deficiency, and anemia.Methods: In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs modified with an edible biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA were synthesized by coprecipitation method, characterized and evaluated for their removal efficiency of heavy metals from a metal solution, and simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGIF.Results: Instrumental characterization of bare- and PGA-SPIONs revealed 7% coating of PGA on SPIONs with a spherical shape and an iron oxide spinel structure belonging to magnetite. The particle sizes as determined from transmission electron microscopy images were 8.5 and 11.7 nm for bare- and PGA-SPIONs, respectively, while the magnetization values were 70.3 and 61.5 emu/g. Upon coating with PGA, the zeta potentials were shifted from positive to negative at most of the environmental pH (3–8 and biological pH (1–8, implying good dispersion in aqueous suspension and favorable conditions for heavy metal removal. Batch studies showed rapid removal of lead and cadmium with the kinetic rates estimated by pseudo-second-order model being 0.212 and 0.424 g/mg•min, respectively. A maximum removal occurred in the pH range 4–8 in deionized water and 5–8 in SGIF corresponding to most gastrointestinal pH except for the stomach. Addition of different ionic strengths (0.001–1 M sodium acetate and essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K did not show any marked influence on lead removal by PGA-SPIONs, but significantly reduced the binding of cadmium. Compared to deionized water, the lead removal from SGIF was high at all pH with the Langmuir monolayer removal capacity being 98.70 mg/g for the former and 147.71 mg/g for the

  6. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Cicuéndez, M; Izquierdo-Barba, I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-08-15

    3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb(2+), 378 μmol/g of Cu(2+) and 316 μmol/g of Cd(2+). These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hierarchically structured manganese oxide-coated magnetic nanocomposites for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Seop; Chang, Yoon-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-10-09

    In this study, hierarchical MnO2-coated magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4/MnO2) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal process, and its application for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water systems was examined. Structural characterization showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticle core was coated with amorphous MnO2 shell with flowerlike morphology. The as-prepared nanocomposite had a large surface area and high magnetic saturation value, which ensured its good sorption ability and convenience of separation. Fe3O4/MnO2 exhibited a greatly improved removal capacity toward four different heavy metals (Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) compared to unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The adsorption property of Fe3O4/MnO2 was studied with Cd(II) in more detail. The sorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) was 53.2 mg g(-1). Fe3O4/MnO2 retained over 80% of its adsorption capacity under various solution conditions that are typically encountered in natural waters. This nanocomposite was easily recovered and reused through consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments with the assistance of an external magnetic field. Overall, the findings propose that Fe3O4/MnO2 could be used as an effective recyclable adsorbent for heavy metal ions.

  8. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from pre-settled stormwater runoff by iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J.; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2002-01-01

    by IOCS after 480 pore volumes. Control columns with uncoated filter sand show that lead, copper and zinc were removed with >95%, 35% and 5%, respectively. The removal of the negative metaloxy-ion, CrO4-3 was insignificant in both IOCS and sand columns at pH=7.7. Destruction of the columns after......Sorption to iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS) is a promosing technology for removal of the dissolved heavy metal fraction in stormwater runoff. The development of a new technology is necessary since studies of stormwater runoff from traffic areas indicate that an oil separator and detention pond may...... (Pb=20, Cu=40, Zn=110, and Cr=15 ppb). Column experiments were conducted to test the influence of the infiltration rate (1 or 3 m/h) and the type of iron(hydr)oxide mineral (amorphous ferrihydrite and goethite coated sand). The results show that at least 90% of lead, copper and zinc can be removed...

  9. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  10. Metallic coating of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  11. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  12. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings

  13. AMOchar: Amorphous manganese oxide coating of biochar improves its efficiency at removing metal(loid)s from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakal, Lukáš; Michálková, Zuzana; Beesley, Luke; Vítková, Martina; Ouředníček, Petr; Barceló, Andreu Piqueras; Ettler, Vojtěch; Číhalová, Sylva; Komárek, Michael

    2018-06-01

    A novel sorbent made from biochar modified with an amorphous Mn oxide (AMOchar) was compared with pure biochar, pure AMO, AMO+biochar mixtures and biochar+birnessite composite for the removal of various metal(loid)s from aqueous solutions using adsorption and solid-state analyses. In comparison with the pristine biochar, both Mn oxide-biochar composites were able to remove significantly greater quantities of various metal(loid)s from the aqueous solutions, especially at a ratio 2:1 (AMO:biochar). The AMOchar proved most efficient, removing almost 99, 91 and 51% of Pb, As and Cd, respectively. Additionally, AMOchar and AMO+biochar mixture exhibited reduced Mn leaching, compared to pure AMO. Therefore, it is concluded that the synthesis of AMO and biochar is able to produce a double acting sorbent ('dorbent') of enhanced efficiency, compared with the individual deployment of their component materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Pure and Metal-Doped Titania Nanoparticles Coated on Glass Beads: Adsorption and Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Danish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized metal oxide, Titania, provides high surface area and specific affinity for the adsorption of heavy metals, including arsenic (As, which is posing a great threat to the world population due to its carcinogenic nature. In this study, As(III adsorption was studied on pure and metal- (Ag- and Fe- doped Titania nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by liquid impregnation method with some modifications, with crystallite size in the range of 30 to 40 nm. Band gap analysis, using Kubelka-Munk function showed a shift of absorption band from UV to visible region for the metal-doped Titania. Effect of operational parameters like dose of nanoparticles, initial As(III concentration, and pH was evaluated at 25°C. The data obtained gave a good fit with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics. In batch studies, over 90% of arsenic removal was observed for both types of metal-doped Titania nanoparticles from a solution containing up to 2 ppm of the heavy metal. Fixed bed columns of nanoparticles, coated on glass beads, were used for As(III removal under different operating conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict the breakthrough curves and to find the characteristic column parameters useful for process design. The columns were regenerated using 10% NaOH solution.

  15. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  16. Magnetic silica-coated sub-microspheres with immobilized metal ions for the selective removal of bovine hemoglobin from bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cheng, Dan; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres with immobilized metal-affinity ligands are prepared for protein adsorption. First, magnetite sub-microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Then silica was coated on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) particles using a sol-gel method to obtain magnetic silica sub-microspheres with core-shell morphology. Next, the trichloro(4-chloromethylphenyl) silane was immobilized on them, reacted with iminodiacetic acid (IDA), and charged with Cu(2+). The obtained magnetic silica sub-microspheres with immobilized Cu(2+) were applied for the absorption of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and the removal of BHb from bovine blood. The size, morphology, and magnetic properties of the resulting magnetic micro(nano) spheres were investigated by using scanning microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The measurements showed that the magnetic sub-microspheres are spherical in shape, very uniform in size with a core-shell, and are almost superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization of silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres reached about 33 emu g(-1). Protein adsorption results showed that the sub-microspheres had a high adsorption capacity for BHb (418.6 mg g(-1)), low nonspecific adsorption, and good removal of BHb from bovine blood. This opens a novel route for future applications in removing abundant proteins in proteomic analysis.

  17. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  18. Metals removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  19. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    cell, 0.0020  inch nominal foil, Al  alloy  3003‐H18 or H19 or optional  5052 ‐H38 or H‐39.  MH‐b  Aluminum  Honeycomb  24 inch x 18 inch  Face Sheets...Description  Al‐2a  Aluminum   alloy : 2024‐T3 (Bare)  24 inch x 18 inch x 0.025 inch.  Cleaned according to ASTM F22‐02, chromic  acid anodized, conforming to MIL...A‐8625, (Anodic Coatings for  Aluminum   and  Aluminum   Alloys , issued September 10, 1993), Type 1B.  Al‐2b  Aluminum   alloy : 2024‐T3 (Bare)  24 inch x 18

  20. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  1. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  2. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  3. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  4. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  5. Coatings for osseointegration of metallic biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Wu, G.; Lin, X.; Liu, Y.; Wen, C.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of coatings for improving the osseointegration of metallic implant materials. First, the definition of osseointegration and the methods for evaluating the osseointegration are described. The chapter then reviews the biological process of osseointegration.

  6. Thin Film Heater for Removable Volatile Protecting Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly coated aluminum mirrors have excellent reflectivity at far ultraviolet wavelengths. However, reflectivity rapidly degrades when the mirror surfaces are exposed to atmosphere. In order to avoid this problem, freshly coated aluminum surface can be protected by over-coating of a removable volatile protecting coating. This protecting coating can be re-evaporated by controlled heating or by some other methods when required. This type of removable coating has immediate application in UV space astronomy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of re-evaporation of removable volatile Zn protecting coating using a NiCr thin film heater without affecting the reflection properties of Al mirror surfaces.

  7. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  8. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  9. Studies of decontamination using easy removable coatings technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oglaza, J.; Nowak, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The usefulness of removable coatings for decontamination of steel and epoxy-resin painted surfaces was examined. Natural latex, Revultex, butadiene-styrene latex as well as mixtures of latex with complexing agents and surfactants were used as decontaminating coats. The best decontamination was obtained by removable coatings of natural latex with EDTA additive for all surfaces and radionuclides tested. (author). 16 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  11. Removable colored coatings based on calcium alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaslija, Muris; McQuade, D Tyler

    2006-08-01

    This article describes the creation of a nontoxic, biodegradable coating using calcium alginate and FD&C approved dyes. The coating is robust but is rapidly removed upon treatment with disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA). Dye leaching from calcium alginate films was studied, and it was determined that the efficiency of dye retention is proportional to the degree of cross-linking. Degradation rates were studied on calcium alginate beads serving as a model for a coating. We determined that degradation rates depend on the gel's cross-linking and on the amount of EDTA used. Bead size also influenced the degradation rates; smaller beads degraded faster than larger beads. We show that the coating can be used as an easily removable and environmentally friendly logotype on an artificial turf surface. Applications of these coatings can be extended to food, cosmetic, medicinal, and textile uses and to wherever nontoxic, easily removable colored coating is desired.

  12. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  13. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  14. Dry Sintered Metal Coating of Halloysite Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Nicholson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs are a naturally-occurring aluminosilicate whose dimensions measure microns in length and tens of nanometers in diameter. Bonding defects between the alumina and silica lead to net negative and positive charges on the exterior and interior lumen, respectively. HNTs have been shown to enhance the material properties of polymer matrices and enable the sustained release of loaded chemicals, drugs, and growth factors. Due to the net charges, these nanotubes can also be readily coated in layered-depositions using the HNT exterior lumen’s net negative charge as the basis for assembly. These coatings are primarily done through wet chemical processes, the majority of which are limited in their use of desired chemicals, due to the polarity of the halloysite. Furthermore, this restriction in the type of chemicals used often requires the use of more toxic chemicals in place of greener options, and typically necessitates the use of a significantly longer chemical process to achieve the desired coating. In this study, we show that HNTs can be coated with metal acetylacetonates—compounds primarily employed in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as metal catalysts, and as NMR shift reagents—through a dry sintering process. This method was capable of thermally decaying the metal acetylacetonate, resulting in a free positively-charged metal ion that readily bonded to the negatively-charged HNT exterior, resulting in metallic coatings forming on the HNT surface. Our coating method may enable greater deposition of coated material onto these nanotubes as required for a desired application. Furthermore, the use of chemical processes using toxic chemicals is not required, thus eliminating exposure to toxic chemicals and costs associated with the disposal of the resultant chemical waste.

  15. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V.; Cowen, James P.; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-01-01

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15 L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 μg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 μg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1 L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e ) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis

  16. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  17. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel alternative base metal/palladium coat has been developed that has limited NO2 formation and which even removes NO2 in a wide temperature range.Soot combustion, HC conversion and CO conversion properties are comparable to current platinum based solutions but the coating has a more attracti...

  18. Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelnikova, M. B.; Komarova, E. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Tolkacheva, T. V.; Khlusov, I. A.; Sheikin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Biocomposites based on bioinert metals or alloys and bioactive calcium phosphate coatings are a promising tendency of the new-generation implants development. In recent years, the approach of regenerative medicine based on the use of biodegradable biomaterials has been priority direction. Such materials are capable of initiating the bone tissue regeneration and replaced by the newly formed bone. The microarc oxidation (MAO) method allows obtaining the bioactive coatings with a porous structure, special functional properties, and modified by the essential elements. During the last decade, the investigations in the field of the nanostructured biocomposites based on bioinert Ti, Zr, Nb and their alloys with a calcium phosphate coatings deposited by the MAO method have been studied in the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk. In this article the possibility to produce the bioactive coatings with high antibacterial and osseoconductive properties due to the introduction in the coatings of Zn, Cu, Ag, La, Si elements and wollastonite CaSiO3 was shown. The high hydrophilic and bioresorbed coatings stimulate the processes of osseointegration of the implant into the bone tissue. A promising direction in the field of the medical material science is a development of the metallic implants with good biomechanical compatibility to the bone, such as Ti-Nb alloys with a low elastic modulus that can be classified as biomaterials of the second generation. Zr and its alloys are promising materials for the dentistry and orthopedic surgery due to their high strength and corrosion resistance. Biodegradable Mg alloys are biomaterials of third generation. Such materials can dissolve with a certain speed in human body and excreted from the body thereby excluding the need for reoperation. This article presents the analysis of the study results of bioactive MAO coatings on Ti, Ti-Nb, Zr-Nb and Mg alloys and their promising medical application.

  19. Arsenic removal from water using iron-coated seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bárbara R C; Pintor, Ariana M A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S; Santos, Sílvia C R

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic is a semi-metal element that can enter in water bodies and drinking water supplies from natural deposits and from mining, industrial and agricultural practices. The aim of the present work was to propose an alternative process for removing As from water, based on adsorption on a brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum), after a simple and inexpensive treatment: coating with iron-oxy (hydroxides). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were studied and modeled in terms of As oxidation state (III and V), pH and initial adsorbate concentration. Maximum adsorption capacities of 4.2 mg/g and 7.3 mg/g were obtained at pH 7 and 20 °C for arsenite and arsenate, respectively. When arsenite was used as adsorbate, experimental evidences pointed to the occurrence of redox reactions involving As(III) oxidation to As(V) and Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II), with As(V) uptake by the adsorbent. The proposed adsorption mechanism was then based on the assumption that arsenate was the adsorbed arsenic species. The most relevant drawback found in the present work was the considerable leaching of iron to the solution. Arsenite removal from a mining-influenced water by adsorption plus precipitation was studied and compared to a traditional process of coagulation/flocculation. Both kinds of treatment provided practically 100% of arsenite removal from the contaminated water, leading at best in 12.9 μg/L As after the adsorption and precipitation assays and 14.2 μg/L after the coagulation/flocculation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... biomass indicates that they are effective in removing metal ions from single metal solutions as well as other co-ions with ... been devised for the treatment and removal of heavy metals. The commonly used procedures for removing metal ions from aqueous streams include phyto- ...... Removal of uranium (vi).

  2. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  3. Removable coating for contamination protection of concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Beaulardi, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to research protective coatings for concrete surfaces, assuring an effective protection against contamination and that it be easily removed before dismantling the structures, commercial stripping paints have been characterized for their conventional and nuclear properties: water and chemicals, abrasion, impact, tensile stress resistance, stripping capacity, decontaminability. The protective power of the coatings against contamination has been checked by recording the surface activity before and after stripping the paint film: the activity filtered through the coating was, in any case, very low (< 1% of the deposited activity). Indications from large scale application of a stripping paint in NUCLEO (Rome) establishments and technical evaluation of the possible utilization of removable coatings in the CAORSO Nuclear Power Station, are also reported

  4. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  5. The removal of actinide metals from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.D.; Howell, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A process is specified for removing actinide metals (e.g. uranium) from solutions. The solution is contacted with a substrate comprising the product obtained by reacting an inorganic solid containing surface hydroxyl groups (e.g. silica gel) with a compound containing a silane grouping, a nitrogen-containing group (e.g. an amine) and other specified radicals. After treatment, the actinide metal is recovered from the substrate. (U.K.)

  6. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  7. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  8. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Shoji; Sugiyama, Shuta; Shimura, Kojiro; Tobayama, Go; Togashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface ...

  9. [Designing metal frame removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Barel, J.C.; Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Oral health care providers have the full responsibility for designing metal frame removable partial dentures and making all of the necessary preparations. Important principles of design are that the denture should hamper natural cleaning and daily oral hygiene as little as possible and that it

  10. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  11. Protection of uranium by metallic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Koch, P.; Dominget, R.; Darras, R.

    1968-01-01

    A study is made of the possibilities of inhibiting or limiting, by means of protective metallic coatings, the oxidation of uranium by carbon dioxide at high temperature. In general, surface films containing intermetallic compounds or solid solutions of uranium with aluminium, zirconium, copper, niobium, nickel or chromium are formed, according to the techniques employed which are described here. The processes most to be recommended are those of direct diffusion starting from a thin sheet or tube, of vacuum deposition, or of immersion in a molten bath of suitable composition. The conditions for preparing these coatings have been optimized as a function of the protective effect obtained in carbon dioxide at 450 or at 500 C. Only the aluminium and zirconium based coatings are really satisfactory since they can lead to a reduction by a factor of 5 to 10 in the oxidation rate of uranium in the conditions considered; they make it possible in particular to avoid or to reduce to a very large extent the liberation of powdered oxide. Furthermore, the coatings produced generally give the uranium good protection against atmospheric corrosion. (author) [fr

  12. Enhanced extinction of electromagnetic radiation by metal-coated fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiman, Moshe [Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel)]. E-mail: moshe@iibr.gov.il; Gurwich, Ioseph [Life Science Research Israel, Ltd., P.O. Box 139, Ness-Ziona 70451 (Israel); Shiloah, Nir [Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    The scattering properties of metal-coated fibers are studied. It is shown that an optimal thickness of the metal layer exists, for which the extinction efficiency can significantly exceed the extinction efficiency of uncoated homogeneous metal fibers of identical size. At the same time the scattering efficiency of coated fibers remains lower than that of the homogeneous ones.

  13. Superconductivity in metal-coated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco [IMPMC, Universite Paris 6, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Profeta, Gianni [SPIN-CNR - Dipartimento di Fisica Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    In this work we explore, by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the possibility of inducing electron-phonon mediated superconductivity in a graphene sheet by doping its surface with alkaline metal adatoms. We demonstrate that, contrary to what could be naively believed, simple exfoliation to one layer of superconducting graphite intercalated compounds (GICs) does not necessarily lead to superconducting graphene, as it is the case in CaC{sub 6}. On the contrary, it is meaningful to look for superconductivity in monolayers obtained by exfoliating non-superconducting GICs. In particular, we demonstrate that Li coating and double-coating of graphene leads to superconductivity in graphene with T{sub c} that could be as large as 18 K. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Test plan for techniques to measure and remove coatings from K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, A.E.; Pitner, A.L.; Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several types of coatings have previously been visually identified on the surface of 105-K East and 105-K West Basins fuel elements. One type of coating (found only in K West Basin) in particular was found to be a thick translucent material that was often seen to be dislodged from the elements as flakes when the elements were handled during visual examinations (Pitner 1997). Subsequently it was determined (for one element only in a hot cell) that this material, in the dry condition, could easily be removed from the element using a scraping tool. The coating was identified as Al(OH) 3 through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and to be approximately 60 microm thick via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, brushing under water in the basin using numerous mechanical strokes failed to satisfactorily remove these coatings in their thickest form as judged by appearance. Such brushing was done with only one type of metal brush, a brush design previously found satisfactory for removing UO 4 .xH 2 O coatings from the elements

  15. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of

  16. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating) were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated. PMID:28772757

  17. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated.

  18. A Nickel Coating Removal Process for ITER Superconducting Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nengtao; Wu, Jiefeng; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Xueqin; Lu, Yu

    2014-05-01

    A new method is developed for removing the nickel coating on ITER superconducting cables by mechanical polishing. The obvious advantage of the mechanical method, which uses a nylon brush, is that there is no chemical residual left in the cable, which would otherwise result in passive effects on the joint resistance. The coating resistance test results of this newly developed method are compared with those of the two other methods that can meet the requirements of ITER. An automatic polishing machine is designed and manufactured for the procedure to provide quality under precise control. This new technique can replace the conventional manual method due to its improved efficiency.

  19. The Dependency of Surfactants on the Metal Surface Removal Using CO2-HNO3 Microemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Jungkeun; Koh, Moosung; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Koh, Moosung

    2007-01-01

    Metal surface removal is one of important steps in decontamination of radioactive contaminated metal parts and components. The conventional chemical stripping method prevalently used today cleans materials by dipping them into a strong acidic or alkaline solution in order to remove metal film. Because so much more toxic solvent is used than needed, excessive expense is incurred in treating the waste by-products. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has excellent properties; economical, environment.friendly, good in penetration and reasonable in critical conditions. However, CO 2 is a non-polar compound that is very poor at dissolving polarized materials. To increase the dissolving power of CO 2 against polar materials, our laboratory has developed a CO 2 micro-emulsion method. We use acid- CO 2 microemulsion in metal surface or coating removal. Formation of microemulsion in liquid or supercritical CO 2 essentially needs surfactants. So far, we have developed 3 types of surfactants- fluorinated AOT, proline, and NP-4. This three surfactants help the formation of microemulsion of water (or acid) with CO 2 . In this paper, we compare the characteristics of microemulsion formed by each surfactant in metal coating removal. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to measure the rate of metal coating removal

  20. Biosorbents for Removing Hazardous Metals and Metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Parajuli, Durga; Ghimire, Kedar Nath; Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Oshima, Tatsuya; Ohto, Keisuke

    2017-07-26

    Biosorbents for remediating aquatic environmental media polluted with hazardous heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb(II), Cr(VI), Sb(III and V), and As(III and V) were prepared from lignin waste, orange and apple juice residues, seaweed and persimmon and grape wastes using simple and cheap methods. A lignophenol gel such as lignocatechol gel was prepared by immobilizing the catechol functional groups onto lignin from sawdust, while lignosulfonate gel was prepared directly from waste liquor generated during pulp production. These gels effectively removed Pb(II). Orange and apple juice residues, which are rich in pectic acid, were easily converted using alkali (e.g., calcium hydroxide) into biosorbents that effectively removed Pb(II). These materials also effectively removed Sb(III and V) and As(III and V) when these were preloaded with multi-valent metal ions such as Zr(IV) and Fe(III). Similar biosorbents were prepared from seaweed waste, which is rich in alginic acid. Other biosorbents, which effectively removed Cr(VI), were prepared by simply treating persimmon and grape wastes with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  1. Biosorbents for Removing Hazardous Metals and Metalloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Inoue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biosorbents for remediating aquatic environmental media polluted with hazardous heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb(II, Cr(VI, Sb(III and V, and As(III and V were prepared from lignin waste, orange and apple juice residues, seaweed and persimmon and grape wastes using simple and cheap methods. A lignophenol gel such as lignocatechol gel was prepared by immobilizing the catechol functional groups onto lignin from sawdust, while lignosulfonate gel was prepared directly from waste liquor generated during pulp production. These gels effectively removed Pb(II. Orange and apple juice residues, which are rich in pectic acid, were easily converted using alkali (e.g., calcium hydroxide into biosorbents that effectively removed Pb(II. These materials also effectively removed Sb(III and V and As(III and V when these were preloaded with multi-valent metal ions such as Zr(IV and Fe(III. Similar biosorbents were prepared from seaweed waste, which is rich in alginic acid. Other biosorbents, which effectively removed Cr(VI, were prepared by simply treating persimmon and grape wastes with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  2. Metal nanoparticle doped coloured coatings on glasses and plastics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal (single/mixed/alloy) nanoparticles; surface plasmon; coloured coatings on glasses and plas- tics; layer-by-layer coatings by sol–gel ... the particle size and shape, concentration, refractive index of the surrounding medium .... coatings were also prepared for the measurement of matrix refractive index values. The details ...

  3. Investigation of metal coatings for the free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.L.; Arendt, P.N.; Springer, R.W.; Cordi, R.C.; McCreary, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    We are investigating the deposition and characteristics of metal coatings for use in environments such as the Free Electron Laser where the radiation resistance of metal coatings could prove to be of great benefit. We have concentrated our initial efforts on silver laminate coatings due to the high reflectance of silver at 1 micron wavelength. Our initial laminate coatings have utilized thin layers of titanium oxide to break up the columnar structure of the silver during electron-beam deposition on fused silica substrates. Our initial results on equal coating thickness samples indicate an improvement in damage threshold that ranges from 1.07 to 1.71 at 351 nm

  4. A new material for removing heavy metals from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center developed and is patenting a new high capacity ion exchange material (IEM) that removes toxic metals from contaminated water in laboratory tests. The IEM can be made into many forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As a result, it can be adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water wherever it is found, be it in waste water treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or in homes. Laboratory tests have been conducted on aqueous solutions containing only one of the following metal cations: lead, copper, mercury, cadmium, silver, chromium (III), nickel, zinc, and yttrium. Tests were also conducted with: (1) calcium present to determine its effects on the uptake of cadmium and copper, and (2) uranium and lanthanides which are stand-ins for other radioactive elements, (3) drinking water for the removal of copper and lead, and (3) others compositions. The results revealed that the IEM removes all these cations, even in the presence of the calcium. Of particular interest are the results of the tests with the drinking water: the lead concentration was reduced from 142 ppb down to 2.8 ppb (well below the accepted EPA standard).

  5. Removal of soluble toxic metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Vijayan, S.; McConeghy, G.J.; Maves, S.R.; Martin, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    The removal of selected, soluble toxic metals from aqueous solutions has been accomplished using a combination of chemical treatment and ultrafiltration. The process has been evaluated at the bench-scale and is undergoing pilot-scale testing. Removal efficiencies in excess of 95-99% have been realized. The test program at the bench-scale investigated the limitations and established the optimum range of operating parameters for the process, while the tests conducted with the pilot-scale process equipment are providing information on longer-term process efficiencies, effective processing rates, and fouling potential of the membranes. With the typically found average concentrations of the toxic metals in groundwaters at Superfund sites used as the feed solution, the process has decreased levels up to 100-fold or more. Experiments were also conducted with concentrated solutions to determine their release from silica-based matrices. The solidified wastes were subjected to EP Toxicity test procedures and met the criteria successfully. The final phase of the program involving a field demonstration at a uranium tailings site will be outlined

  6. Metals and the Integrity of a Biological Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Mates, Thomas E.; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Zok, Frank W.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The cuticle of mussel byssal threads is a robust natural coating that combines high extensibility with high stiffness and hardness. In this study, fluorescence microscopy and elemental analysis were exploited to show that the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (dopa) residues of mussel foot protein-1 colocalize with Fe and Ca distributions in the cuticle of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel byssal threads. Chelated removal of Fe and Ca from the cuticle of intact threads resulted in a 50% reduction in cuticle hardness, and thin sections subjected to the same treatment showed a disruption of cuticle integrity. Dopa-metal complexes may provide significant interactions for the integrity of composite cuticles deformed under tension. PMID:18847291

  7. Metallic component with a chromium carbide base protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfla, T.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a coating system to protect metal components in sodium and helium cooled nuclear reactors. It includes a nickel or iron based alloy metal substrate, a first coat formed on the substrate and comprising chromium carbides and a binder selected among the chromium-nickel, chromium-cobalt, chromium-iron alloys and the super-alloys, the first coating being between 25 and 380 microns thick, and a surface coating comprising pure chromium carbides and being between 12.5 and 125 microns thick [fr

  8. Removing paint from a metal substrate using a flattened top laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shu-Dong; Li Wei; Du Peng; Wang Meng; Song Feng; Liu Shu-Jing; Chen Nian-Jiang; Zhao Hong; Yang Wen-Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate laser cleaning using a flattened top laser to remove paint coating from a metal substrate. Under the irradiation of a flattened top laser, the coating paint of the metal substrate can be removed efficiently by laser induced ablation, stress, and displacement force. The temperature distribution, stress, and displacement are calculated in the coating layer and substrate using finite element analysis. The effects of a Gaussian laser and a flattened top laser and the results of different diameters of laser spot are compared. The investigation shows that the flattened top laser can reduce the substrate damage and enhance the cleaning efficiency. This method meets the need of large area industrial cleaning applications by optimizing the flattened top laser parameters

  9. Removing paint from a metal substrate using a flattened top laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shu-Dong; Li, Wei; Du, Peng; Wang, Meng; Song, Feng; Liu, Shu-Jing; Chen, Nian-Jiang; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Wen-Shi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate laser cleaning using a flattened top laser to remove paint coating from a metal substrate. Under the irradiation of a flattened top laser, the coating paint of the metal substrate can be removed efficiently by laser induced ablation, stress, and displacement force. The temperature distribution, stress, and displacement are calculated in the coating layer and substrate using finite element analysis. The effects of a Gaussian laser and a flattened top laser and the results of different diameters of laser spot are compared. The investigation shows that the flattened top laser can reduce the substrate damage and enhance the cleaning efficiency. This method meets the need of large area industrial cleaning applications by optimizing the flattened top laser parameters.

  10. Laser cladding of wear resistant metal matrix composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, A.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    A number of coatings with wear-resistant properties as well as with a low friction coefficient are produced by laser cladding. The structure of these coatings is determined by required performance and realized as metal matrix composite (MMC), where solid lubricant serves as a ductile matrix (e.g. CuSn), reinforced by appropriate ceramic phase (e.g. WC/Co). One of the engineered coating with functionally graded material (FGM) structure has a dry friction coefficient 0.12. Coatings were produced by coaxial injection of powder blend into the zone of laser beam action. Metallographic and tribological examinations were carried out confirming the advanced performance of engineered coatings

  11. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack

  12. Dielectric relaxation in metal-coated particles: the dramatic role of nano-scale coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, I J; Bowler, N; Lymer, K P; Hussain, S

    2005-01-01

    Insulating materials filled with conducting particles permit tailoring of electrical, electromagnetic and thermal properties of the resulting composite. When the filler particles are small and metallic, a dielectric relaxation due to interfacial polarization is commonly observed at optical or smaller wavelengths. Here, experimental results are presented in which the dielectric relaxation is shifted to microwave frequencies as a result of using metal-coated dielectric particles with a nano-scale coating thickness. The results are analysed in the context of effective medium theory adapted for multi-layer particles. Such a large shift in relaxation frequency, compared with that for a similar composite with solid metal filler particles, is shown to be a function of both the coating geometry and a thin-film-related reduction in the conductivity of the metal. The observed broadening of the relaxation peak is attributed to non-uniformity of the coating thickness and a consequent distribution of coating conductivity

  13. Chitosan-coated magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for the removal of molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Jose S.; Egute, Nayara S.; Yamaura, Mitiko; Freitas, Antonio A.; Holland, Helber; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Metal ions in wastewater, even at low concentrations, affect a large number of organisms due to their high degree of toxicity. Research has developed some alternative methods for metal removal from the wastewater, as adsorption using a bio sorbent of combined chitosan with magnetic particles. Chitosan is a natural bio polymer, which has a highly reactive active sites in its structure, composed of amino and hydroxyl groups with affinity to bind to metal ions. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles of coated magnetite with chitosan as an adsorbent of molybdenum(Vi) ions in aqueous medium was investigated. The adsorption experiments were performed varying the time contact from 5 to 150 min, the p H from 0.5 to 11 and the molybdenum concentrations in nitric solutions. All molybdenum analyses were carried out by gamma spectroscopy using a Hp Ge detector and 99 Mo as radioactive tracer. Results showed that the chitosan-coated magnetite particles are good adsorbent for Mo ions from aqueous medium in the range of p H from 0.5 to 9 with a removal higher than 99%. Among the studied isotherm models, the Freundlich model fitted best the equilibrium adsorption isotherm of Mo(VI) ions. (author)

  14. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO 2 is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO 2 and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO 2 cooling has

  15. Removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solutions onto polypyrrole coated reticulated vitreous carbon eletrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontina Jucelânia; Machado Giovanna; Azambuja Denise S.; Piatnicki Clarisse M.S.; Samios Dimitrios

    2001-01-01

    The development of simple methods for removal of heavy metals from aqueous samples is a relevant field of research. In this connection, the electrodeposition of the Cd+2 ion, one of the most toxic species for animals and human beings, was investigated in aerated pH 4.8 sulfuric-sulfate solutions. In potentiostatic conditions, the maximum rate of cadmium deposition at a neutral polypyrrole (PPy0) coated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) working electrode occurs at -3.0 V vs. the saturated calo...

  16. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    1 (2009): pp 1012-1013. 9. X. Zhang, F.Wang, Y. Du, “Effect of Nano-Sized Titanium Powder Addition on Corrosion Performance of Epoxy Coatings...choosing a coating is the substrate in question, the desired end use for the final product , and the environment in which the final product will be... product . Herein, we discuss the performance of one type of organic coatingmetal-rich organic primer – as an ionic and electronic barrier for

  17. Efficiency of SPIONs functionalized with polyethylene glycol bis(amine) for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanna, Yongyuth, E-mail: yongyuth.wanna@gmail.com [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Nara Machinery Co., Ltd., 2-5-7, Jonan-Jima, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0002 (Japan); Chindaduang, Anon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), 111 Thailand Science Park, Pahol Yothin Rd, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Phromyothin, Darinee [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Porntheerapat, Supanit [NECTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Nukeaw, Jiti [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hofmann, Heirich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles based on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopaticles (SPIONs) with selective surface modification has been developed for heavy metal removal by applying external magnetic fields. The nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique in an aqueous suspension of SPIONs. The hydrolysis of carboxyl functional group was then applied for grafting polyethylene glycol bis(amine)(PEG-bis(amine)) onto the PMMA-coated SPIONs. The morphology, the chemical structure and the magnetic properties of the grafted nanoparticles were investigated. The efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal were conducted on Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) in aqueous solutions.The metal concentration in the solutions after separation by the hybrid nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results show the heavy metal uptake ratios of 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.01 mM per gramme of the grafted SPIONs for Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), and Co(II), respectively. A competitive removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Hg(II) ions in mixed metal salt solutions has also been studied.The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparitcles was found to depend on the cation radius, in accordance with capture of metal ions by the amine group. - Highlights: • We synthesis hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for heavy metal removal. • The efficiency of hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal is proposed. • We investigated the characteristic of hybrid nanoparticle. • The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticle was founded that depend on the heavy metal cation radius.

  18. Performance of Bond Coats Modified by Platinum Group Metals for Applications in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Alhems, Luai M.; Aboelfotoh, M. O.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the partial replacement of Pt with other less expensive Pt group metals on the properties of γ' + γ bond coats used in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited on a nickel-base superalloy. The microstructure, thermal stability, oxidation behavior and performance in TBC systems of bond coats synthesized with Pt + Ru, Pt + Ir and Pt + Rh are compared with those of a reference bond coat synthesized with Pt. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been employed as top coat in all coating systems. It is shown that at high temperatures all bond coats are degraded by interdiffusion and oxidation, however, with different kinetics. The lifetime of each TBC system is found to be limited by the cohesion between the thermally grown oxide and underlying bond coat. Differences in the behavior of various bond coats are correlated with their properties. Among the three Pt group metals investigated, the properties of the Pt + Ru bond coat are shown to closely approach those of the Pt bond coat. It is concluded that Ru with much lower cost presents a potential candidate for reducing the consumption of Pt.

  19. Metallic artifact in MRI after removal of orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini, Mehrdad Mohammad; Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Foroughi, Amin Aiboulhassani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metallic artifacts in MRI of the orthopedic patients after removal of metallic implants. Subjects and methods: From March to August 2009, 40 orthopedic patients operated for removal of orthopedic metallic implants were studied by post-operative MRI from the site of removal of implants. A grading scale of 0–3 was assigned for artifact in MR images whereby 0 was considered no artifact; and I–III were considered mild, moderate, and severe metallic artifacts, respectively. These grading records were correlated with other variables including the type, size, number, and composition of metallic devices; and the site and duration of orthopedic devices stay in the body. Results: Metallic susceptibly artifacts were detected in MRI of 18 of 40 cases (45%). Screws and pins in removed hardware were the most important factors for causing artifacts in MRI. The artifacts were found more frequently in the patients who had more screws and pins in the removed implants. Gender, age, site of implantation of the device, length of the hardware, composition of the metallic implants (stainless steel versus titanium), and duration of implantation of the hardware exerted no effect in producing metallic artifacts after removal of implants. Short TE sequences of MRI (such as T1 weighted) showed fewer artifacts. Conclusion: Susceptibility of metallic artifacts is a frequent phenomenon in MRI of patients upon removal of metallic orthopedic implants.

  20. Metal plating removal from insulator substrate using pulsed arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, K.; Gnapowski, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2014-06-01

    Removal technique of metal materials from a metal plating insulator substrate using a pulsed arc discharge was proposed and its fundamental characteristics were investigated. The metal plating substrate with three metal-layers structure (cupper, nickel and gold layers) is used as the sample substrate. Repetitive pulsed arc discharge plasma is generated using three types of electrode systems. Effects of the electrode systems on the metal plating removal from the insulator substrate were investigated. The metal plating was removed by the pulsed arc discharge between the electrode and substrate surface. A part of the gold layer, which is the topmost metal layer on the insulator substrate is vaporized and removed by the repetitive pulsed arc discharges.

  1. Diagnostics of transparent polymer coatings of metal items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varepo, L. G.; Ermakova, I. N.; Nagornova, I. V.; Kondratov, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    The methods of visual and instrumental express diagnostics of safety critical defects and non-uniform thickness of transparent mono- and multilayer polyolefin surface coating of metal items are analyzed in the paper. The instrumental diagnostics method relates to colorimetric measuring based on effects, which appear in the polarized light for extrusion polymer coatings. A color coordinates dependence (in the color system CIE La*b*) on both HDPE / PVC coating thickness fluctuation values (from average ones) and coating interlayer or adhesion layer delaminating is shown. A variation of color characteristics in the polarized light at a liquid penetration into delaminated polymer layers is found. Measuring parameters and critical uncertainties are defined.

  2. Compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsiao, Shin-Tien

    2008-03-01

    A novel process, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX), was developed to generate micro-sized solvent-coated air bubbles (MSAB) for metal extraction. Through pressurization of solvent with compressed air followed by releasing air-oversaturated solvent into metal-containing wastewater, MSAB were generated instantaneously. The enormous surface area of MSAB makes extraction process extremely fast and achieves very high aqueous/solvent weight ratio (A/S ratio). CASX process completely removed Cr(VI) from acidic electroplating wastewater under A/S ratio of 115 and extraction time of less than 10s. When synthetic wastewater containing Cd(II) of 50mgl(-1) was treated, A/S ratios of higher than 714 and 1190 could be achieved using solvent with extractant/diluent weight ratio of 1:1 and 5:1, respectively. Also, MSAB have very different physical properties, such as size and density, compared to the emulsified solvent droplets, making separation and recovery of solvent from treated effluent very easy.

  3. Testing internal coatings in metal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, A.; Perkins, P.

    1978-01-01

    Presence of pinholes or defects in nonconductive protective coating on inside surface of closed vessel is detected if vessel has one opening into which small stainless-steel probe can be introduced. By inserting probe and attaching another to outside surface, and by filling vessel with ten percent sodium chloride solution, integrity of coating is determined by measuring electrical conductivity through vessel wall.

  4. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  5. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. 888.3358 Section 888.3358 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a device...

  6. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  7. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more...

  8. Novel Thiol-Ene Hybrid Coating for Metal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Taghavikish

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid anticorrosion coating with dual network of inorganic (Si–O–Si and organic bonds (C–S–C was prepared on metal through an in situ sol-gel and thiol-ene click reaction. This novel interfacial thin film coating incorporates (3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium butane bisbromide based polymerizable ionic liquid (PIL to form a thiol-ene based photo-polymerized film, which on subsequent sol-gel reaction forms a thin hybrid interfacial layer on metal surface. On top of this PIL hybrid film, a self-assembled nanophase particle (SNAP coating was employed to prepare a multilayer thin film coating for better corrosion protection and barrier performance. The novel PIL hybrid film was characterised for structure and properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The corrosion protection performance of the multilayer coating was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The results reveal that this novel double layer coating on metal offers excellent protection against corrosion and has remarkably improved the barrier effect of the coating.

  9. Electro-chemical deposition of nano hydroxyapatite-zinc coating on titanium metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wassefy, N A; Reicha, F M; Aref, N S

    2017-08-13

    Titanium is an inert metal that does not induce osteogenesis and has no antibacterial properties; it is proposed that hydroxyapatite coating can enhance its bioactivity, while zinc can contribute to antibacterial properties and improve osseointegration. A nano-sized hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was deposited on commercially pure titanium using an electro-chemical process, in order to increase its surface roughness and enhance adhesion properties. The hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was attained using an electro-chemical deposition in a solution composed of a naturally derived calcium carbonate, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate, with a pure zinc metal as the anode and titanium as the cathode. The applied voltage was -2.5 for 2 h at a temperature of 85 °C. The resultant coating was characterized for its surface morphology and chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. The coated specimens were also evaluated for their surface roughness and adhesion quality. Hydroxyapatite-zinc coating had shown rosette-shaped, homogenous structure with nano-size distribution, as confirmed by SEM analysis. FT-IR and EDS proved that coatings are composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and zinc. The surface roughness assessment revealed that the coating procedure had significantly increased average roughness (Ra) than the control, while the adhesive tape test demonstrated a high-quality adhesive coat with no laceration on tape removal. The developed in vitro electro-chemical method can be employed for the deposition of an even thickness of nano HA-Zn adhered coatings on titanium substrate and increases its surface roughness significantly.

  10. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  11. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Aktaş, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  12. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  13. Metallic and nonmetallic coatings for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Crane, J.K.; Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Some fusion targets designed to be driven by 0.35 to 1 μm laser light are glass spheres coated with layers of various materials such as hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, beryllium, copper, gold, platinum, etc. The glass shell, which is filled with gas, liquid or solid deuterium-tritium fuel, must have remarkably good surface and wall thickness uniformity. Methods for depositing the various materials will be discussed. They include plasma polymerization, electro-deposition, sputtering and evaporation. Many of the difficulties encountered in the coating processes are the result of coating on free spheres with very small radii - 35 to 500 micrometers. Several means of overcoming the problems will be described and experimental results presented

  14. Removal of chromium(VI) and dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) using polymer-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Sara; Shahzad, Asma

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted with an aim to develop such adsorbent system: polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can remove heavy metal and dye from water of different concentration. Synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contaminated water purification has been one of the outcomes of application of rapidly growing field of Nanotechnology in Environmental Science. In the present study, the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cr(VI) and dye (alizarin) from water solutions of known concentrations were evaluated. The nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymer-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying functional groups on their surface were synthesized by different methods for permanent magnet-assisted removal of heavy metal (chromium) and dye (Alizarin Red S) from water. The characterization showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 10-50 nm. The adsorption capacities of the Fe3O4 using polyMETAC-coated particles for dye (Alizarin Red S) removal were 80-96 % and chromium 62-91 %. The chromium concentration was determined after magnetic separation using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and dye concentration was estimated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. Nanoparticles of polymer coated showed the highest removal capacity from water for metal and dye. The developed adsorbents had higher capacity for removal of heavy metal ions and dye.

  15. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A DC magnetron sputtering system has been used to actively coat optical fibers with hermetic metal coatings during the fiber draw process. Thin films of Inconel 625 have been deposited on optical fibers and annealed in air at 2000 F. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy have been used to investigate the morphology and composition of the films prior to and following thermal cycling. Issues to be addressed include film adhesion, other coating materials, and a discussion of additional applications for this novel technology.

  16. An Optically Driven Bistable Janus Rotor with Patterned Metal Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yiwu; Liu, Jing; Liu, Rui; Guo, Honglian; Yang, Mingcheng; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Ke

    2015-11-24

    Bistable rotation is realized for a gold-coated Janus colloidal particle in an infrared optical trap. The metal coating on the Janus particles are patterned by sputtering gold on a monolayer of closely packed polystyrene particles. The Janus particle is observed to stably rotate in an optical trap. Both the direction and the rate of rotation can be experimentally controlled. Numerical calculations reveal that the bistable rotation is the result of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the uneven curvature of the coating patterns on the Janus sphere. Our results thus provide a simple method to construct large quantities of fully functional rotary motors for nano- or microdevices.

  17. Protective coatings for metal alloys and methods incorporating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Ibanez, Sergio; Swartz, Scott L.

    2015-06-09

    An electrochemical device having one or more solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), each of the SOFCs including a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte layer positioned between the cathode and anode; and at least one additional component comprising a metallic substrate having an electronically conductive, chromium-free perovskite coating deposited directly thereon. The perovskite coating has the formula ABO.sub.3, wherein A is a lanthanide element or Y, and B is a mixture of two or more transition elements, with the A site undoped by any alkaline earth element, and the perovskite coating exhibits limited or no ionic transport of oxygen.

  18. Graded coatings for metallic implant alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Fujino, Shigeru; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.

    2002-08-01

    Graded glass and glass-hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been prepared using a simple enameling technique. The composition of the glasses has been tailored to match the thermal expansion of the alloys. By controlling the firing time, and temperature, it has been possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25 to 150 mu m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate, resistant to corrosion and able to precipitate hydroxyapatite during in vitro tests in simulated body fluid.

  19. Metallic Coatings for Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Perforated Foil-Coated Graphite/ Epoxy Panel .............. ........................... 4-6 4-4 Two-In. -Diameter 5052 Aluminum Alloy Repair Patch...The Phase I L i4-1 I1 evaluation indicated a need for a more corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy . The coating system selected was 0.0019-in. -thick 5052 ...application techniques on moisture resistance. The selected foil was 0.0025 in.-thick, 5052 aluminum alloy perforated with 0.010-in.-dlameter holes at a

  20. Mechanisms of bacterial metals removal from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Lakes area sediments are contaminated with varying amounts of heavy metals and polychlorinated organic matter. With respect to the bioremediation of metallic contents of these sediments, it was shown that a number of microorganisms exist which can effectively solubilize heavy metals. The basic reaction mechanisms of bioleaching processes were discussed and the effects of semiconductor character of the sulfide substrate explained. A special emphasis was made to comment on INEL's bioremediation capability. 37 refs

  1. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  2. Individual and competitive removal of heavy metals using capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Lu, Lu; Cai, Zhenxiao; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-01-25

    This study presents the viability and preference of capacitive deionization (CDI) for removing different heavy metal ions in various conditions. The removal performance and mechanisms of three ions, cadmium (Cd(2+)), lead (Pb(2+)) and chromium (Cr(3+)) were investigated individually and as a mixture under different applied voltages and ion concentrations. It was found that CDI could effectively remove these metals, and the performance was positively correlated with the applied voltage. When 1.2 V was applied into solution containing 0.5mM individual ions, the Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cr(3+) removal was 32%, 43%, and 52%, respectively, and the electrosorption played a bigger role in Cd(2+) removal than for the other two ions. Interestingly, while the removal of Pb(2+) and Cr(3+) remained at a similar level of 46% in the mixture of three ions, the Cd(2+) removal significantly decreased to 14%. Similar patterns were observed when 0.05 mM was used to simulate natural contaminated water condition, but the removal efficiencies were much higher, with the removal of Pb(2+), Cr(3+), and Cd(2+) increased to 81%, 78%, and 42%, respectively. The low valence charge and lack of physical sorption of Cd(2+) were believed to be the reason for the removal behavior, and advanced microscopic analysis showed clear deposits of metal ions on the cathode surface after operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, O. [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34720 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500, B. Cekmece-Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Functional Materials Division, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Yildirim Beyazit University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulus-Ankara (Turkey); Coruh, Ali [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Aktas, B., E-mail: aktas@gyte.edu.tr [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni, Co and Ni-Co alloyed coatings on PAN were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles leads to interfacial polarization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite prepared in Ni bath at 0.5 min leads to a wider absorption bandwidth and minimum coefficient of reflection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About of -42 dB, more than 99.99% of the microwave absorption.

  4. Removal of copper, nickel and zinc by sodium dodecyl sulphate coated magnetite nanoparticles from water and wastewater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Adeli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sodium dodecyl sulphate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SDS–Fe3O4 NPs were applied to remove Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II ions from water and wastewater samples. The effects of pH of solution, SDS, Fe3O4 NPs and salt addition on removal efficiency of the metal ions were investigated and optimized. Salt addition has a negative effect on the removal efficiency of the metal ions, thus extraction follows the ion exchange mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption process onto the adsorbent is very fast under optimum conditions and nearly 1 min of contact time was found to be sufficient for completion of the metal ions' adsorption. Adsorption equilibrium of the metal ions reveals that data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm. Also, the maximum monolayer capacity, qmax, obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was 24.3, 41.2 and 59.2 mg g−1 for Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, respectively. Desorption experiments by elution of the adsorbent with methanol show that the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs could be reconditioned without significant loss of its initial properties even after three adsorption–desorption cycles. Finally, application of the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs as efficient adsorbent material for removal of the metal ions from Iran Khodro's wastewater samples was investigated and satisfactory results were obtained.

  5. Removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solutions onto polypyrrole coated reticulated vitreous carbon eletrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Jucelânia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of simple methods for removal of heavy metals from aqueous samples is a relevant field of research. In this connection, the electrodeposition of the Cd+2 ion, one of the most toxic species for animals and human beings, was investigated in aerated pH 4.8 sulfuric-sulfate solutions. In potentiostatic conditions, the maximum rate of cadmium deposition at a neutral polypyrrole (PPy0 coated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC working electrode occurs at -3.0 V vs. the saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. Moreover, the conversion rate depends both on the applied potential and on the mass transport regime, and, for solutions containing 10 mg L-1 of Cd2+, the highest removal efficiency achieved is 84% after 90 min of electrolysis. The concentration decay of the Cd+2 ion in the solution was monitored by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV at a hanging mercury drop electrode. Besides, metallic cadmium deposited onto the polypyrrole modified RVC electrode was evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis using the backscattered electron image (BEI technique and by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS.

  6. SILANE-BASED CONVERSION COATING FOR METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the past three years, a project to develop new pretreatment rinses for metals was carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Cincinnati. The project involved optimization of laboratory rinses with dilute aqueous solutions organofunctional s...

  7. Metal Ir coatings on endocardial electrode tips, obtained by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikulova, Evgeniia S.; Kal'nyi, Danila B.; Shubin, Yury V.; Kokovkin, Vasily V.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Hassan, Aseel; Basova, Tamara V.

    2017-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition technique to fabricate metal iridium coatings onto the pole tips of endocardial electrodes. Using iridium (III) acetylacetonate as a volatile precursor, the target coatings were successfully applied to the working surface of cathodes and anodes of pacemaker electrodes in the flow type reactor in hydrogen atmosphere at deposition temperature of 550 °C. The coating samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, Raman- and XPS-spectroscopies. The formation of non-textured coatings with fractal-like morphology and 7-24 nm crystallite size has been realized. The electrochemical properties of the coatings were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge storage capacity values of the electrochemically activated samples were 17.0-115 mC cm-2 and 14.4-76.5 mC cm-2 for measurements carried out in 0.1 M sulfuric acid and in phosphate buffer saline solutions, respectively. A comparison of some characteristics of the samples obtained with commercially available cathode of pacemaker electrodes is also presented.

  8. Treatment of heavy metals by iron oxide coated and natural gravel media in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Pulford, I D; Haynes, H; Dorea, C C; Phoenix, V R

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) filter drains are simple, low-cost systems utilized as a first defence to treat road runoff by employing biogeochemical processes to reduce pollutants. However, the mechanisms involved in pollution attenuation are poorly understood. This work aims to develop a better understanding of these mechanisms to facilitate improved SuDS design. Since heavy metals are a large fraction of pollution in road runoff, this study aimed to enhance heavy metal removal of filter drain gravel with an iron oxide mineral amendment to increase surface area for heavy metal scavenging. Experiments showed that amendment-coated and uncoated (control) gravel removed similar quantities of heavy metals. Moreover, when normalized to surface area, iron oxide coated gravels (IOCGs) showed poorer metal removal capacities than uncoated gravel. Inspection of the uncoated microgabbro gravel indicated that clay particulates on the surface (a natural product of weathering of this material) augmented heavy metal removal, generating metal sequestration capacities that were competitive compared with IOCGs. Furthermore, when the weathered surface was scrubbed and removed, metal removal capacities were reduced by 20%. When compared with other lithologies, adsorption of heavy metals by microgabbro was 10-70% higher, indicating that both the lithology of the gravel, and the presence of a weathered surface, considerably influence its ability to immobilize heavy metals. These results contradict previous assumptions which suggest that gravel lithology is not a significant factor in SuDS design. Based upon these results, weathered microgabbro is suggested to be an ideal lithology for use in SuDS.

  9. Biosorbents for Removing Hazardous Metals and Metalloids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Parajuli, Durga; Ghimire, Kedar Nath; Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Oshima, Tatsuya; Ohto, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Biosorbents for remediating aquatic environmental media polluted with hazardous heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb(II), Cr(VI), Sb(III and V), and As(III and V) were prepared from lignin waste, orange and apple juice residues, seaweed and persimmon and grape wastes using simple and cheap methods. A lignophenol gel such as lignocatechol gel was prepared by immobilizing the catechol functional groups onto lignin from sawdust, while lignosulfonate gel was prepared directly from waste liquor ...

  10. In vitro corrosion behavior of bioceramic, metallic, and bioceramic-metallic coated stainless steel dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M H; Salehi, M; Saatchi, A; Mortazavi, V; Moosavi, S B

    2003-05-01

    The most common metals and alloys used in dentistry may be exposed to a process of corrosion in vivo that make them cytotoxic. The biocompatibility of dental alloys is primarily related to their corrosion behavior. The aim of this work was to evaluate the corrosion behavior and thus the biocompatibility of the uncoated and coated stainless steels and compare the effect of type of coatings on corrosion behavior. Three types of coatings, hydroxyapatite (HA), titanium (Ti), and a double-layer HA/Ti on AISI 316L stainless steel were made. HA coating was produced using plasma-spraying technique and Ti coating was made using physical vapor deposition process. In order to perform a novel double-layer composite coating, a top layer of HA was plasma-sprayed over a physical vapor deposited Ti layer on AISI 316L stainless steel. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were used to investigate the microstructure, morphology and crystallinity of the coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens as an indication of biocompatibility. Double-layer HA/Ti coating on AISI 316L SS had a positive effect on improvement of corrosion behavior. The decrease in corrosion current densities was significant for these coated specimens and was much lower than the values obtained for uncoated and single HA coated specimens. Ti coating on AISI 316L SS also has a beneficial effect on corrosion behavior. The results were compared with the results of corrosion behavior of HA coated commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and uncoated cpTi. These results demonstrated that the double-layer HA/Ti coated 316L SS can be used as an endodontic implant and two goals including improvement of corrosion resistance and bone osteointegration can be obtained simultaneously.

  11. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  12. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  13. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2003-01-01

    A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...... that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed...

  15. Assessment of Automotive Coatings Used on Different Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bensalah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four epoxy primers commonly used in the automotive industry were applied by gravity pneumatic spray gun over metallic substrates, specifically, steel, electrogalvanized steel, hot-dip galvanized steel, and aluminum. A two-component polyurethane resin was used as topcoat. To evaluate the performance of the different coating systems, the treated panels were submitted to mechanical testing using Persoz hardness, impact resistance, cupping, lattice method, and bending. Tribological properties of different coating systems were conducted using pin on disc machine. Immersion tests were carried out in 5% NaCl and immersion tests in 3% NaOH solutions. Results showed which of the coating systems is more suitable for each substrate in terms of mechanical, tribological, and anticorrosive performance.

  16. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  17. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Environment-friendly approach for the removal of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.; Mehmood, F.; Sheikh, S.T.; Javed, K.; Amin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Water pollution is serious economical problem and the presence of toxic metals like lead causes contamination of plants and then through nutritional chain it affects the health of humans and animals. This research work describes the removal of lead from wastewater using natural bentonites taken from various areas of Pakistan. The batch adsorption process was applied to remove this toxic metal. The quantities of lead metal before and after the treatment of standard solutions with different samples of bentonite were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopic method. The studies were carried out at room temperature, pH 7 and -200 mesh particle size using 50 ml of metal solutions. The time taken to maintain equilibrium was one hour. Then percentage adsorption was estimated on bentonite samples. (author)

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  20. Metal removal efficiency and ecotoxicological assessment of field-scale passive treatment biochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic biochemical reactors (BCRs) are useful for removing metals from mining-impacted water (MIW) at remote sites. Removal processes include sorption and precipitation of metal sulfides, carbonates and hydroxides. A question of interest is whether BCRs remove aquatic toxicit...

  1. Assessment of Automotive Coatings Used on Different Metallic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bensalah, W.; Loukil, N.; Wery, M. De-Petris; Ayedi, H. F.

    2014-01-01

    Four epoxy primers commonly used in the automotive industry were applied by gravity pneumatic spray gun over metallic substrates, specifically, steel, electrogalvanized steel, hot-dip galvanized steel, and aluminum. A two-component polyurethane resin was used as topcoat. To evaluate the performance of the different coating systems, the treated panels were submitted to mechanical testing using Persoz hardness, impact resistance, cupping, lattice method, and bending. Tribological properties of ...

  2. A novel metal ion source for preparing hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.C.; Wong, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal ion source, Electron Beam Evaporation Metal Ion Source, has been developed for material modifications. This ion source is based on the electron beam evaporation technology. It can provide gaseous, solid or gaseous and solid mixed intense ion beams for preparing a variety of thin films. In this ion source, a focusing electron beam is used to bombard and vaporize the metal or other solid element within same chamber where the metal or solid atoms are ionized and plasma medium from which ions are extracted is formed by arc discharge. A small aperture diameter extraction system is used for extracting the ion beam from this source. Ion beams of a series of elements, which include C, W, Ta, Mo, Cr, Ti, B, Cu, Ni, Al, Ar, N, C+N, Ti+N, Cr+N, etc., have been extracted. The source has a 3.6 cm extraction diameter. The beam energy ranges from 0.3 to 4 keV for single charge state ions, and the maximum beam current extractable is over 90 mA. The source has been used for preparing hard coatings. The films of carbon nitride and titanium nitride have been synthesized by direct deposition with C+N and Ti+N mixed ion beams. The results have shown to exhibit very high hardness value for carbon nitride films. The microhardness is up to HK 5800 kgf/mm 2 . In comparison with other methods, it is also to exhibit higher hardness value for titanium nitride coating. The highest hardness value obtained for titanium nitride is about 3000 kgf/mm 2 . The AES profile shows that there is a good intermixture between coating and substrate for both films. The principle, structure and performance of this ion source will be described. The preliminary results for forming hard coatings are also presented in this article

  3. Metal organic frameworks for removal of compounds from a fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-03

    Embodiments provide a method of compound removal from a fluid. The method includes contacting one or more metal organic framework (MOF) compositions with a fluid and sorbing one or more compounds, such as CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons. One or more of CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons can be sorbed simultaneously or in series. The metal organic framework can be an M-soc-MOF.

  4. COATING OF POLYMERIC SUBSTRATE CATALYSTS ON METALLIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HOSSEINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a study on coating of a polymeric substrate ca-talyst on metallic surface. Stability of coating on metallic surfaces is a proper specification. Sol-gel technology was used to synthesize adhesion promoters of polysilane compounds that act as a mediator. The intermediate layer was coated by synthesized sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene as a catalyst for production of MTBE in catalytic distillation process. Swelling of catalyst and its separation from the metal surface was improved by i increasing the quantity of divinylbenzene in the resin’s production process and ii applying adhesion pro¬moters based on the sol-gel process. The rate of ethyl silicate hydrolysis was intensified by increasing the concentration of utilized acid while the conden¬sation polymerization was enhanced in the presence of OH–. Sol was formed at pH 2, while the pH should be 8 for the formation of gel. By setting the ratio of the initial concentrations of water to ethyl silicate to 8, the gel formation time was minimized.

  5. Effects of metal coatings on adhesive characteristics of Gecko-like microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Kyu Hye; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Recently, there have been several studies on the inspiration and application of optimized natural structures. One study introduced a new adhesion method that was inspired by the feet of geckos because of their superior features such as high adhesion strength, ease-of-removal, and they are environmentally friendly. Various micro- or nano-structures were fabricated and tested for gecko-like dry adhesives, but gecko-like dry adhesives that were developed became easily worn from frequent use. In this study, we propose a metal-coating method to improve the durability of gecko-like dry adhesives. We evaluate the initial adhesion strength and durability by performing repeated adhesion tests on a glass plate. The initial adhesive strength of gold-coated micro-structures was 60% of that for non-coated ones. However, the adhesive strength of gold-coated micro-structures was kept as 58% of their initial adhesion strength, while that of non-coated ones was only 40%.

  6. Effects of metal coatings on adhesive characteristics of Gecko-like microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Kyu Hye; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there have been several studies on the inspiration and application of optimized natural structures. One study introduced a new adhesion method that was inspired by the feet of geckos because of their superior features such as high adhesion strength, ease-of-removal, and they are environmentally friendly. Various micro- or nano-structures were fabricated and tested for gecko-like dry adhesives, but gecko-like dry adhesives that were developed became easily worn from frequent use. In this study, we propose a metal-coating method to improve the durability of gecko-like dry adhesives. We evaluate the initial adhesion strength and durability by performing repeated adhesion tests on a glass plate. The initial adhesive strength of gold-coated micro-structures was 60% of that for non-coated ones. However, the adhesive strength of gold-coated micro-structures was kept as 58% of their initial adhesion strength, while that of non-coated ones was only 40%

  7. Interaction of beam and coated metals at high power continuous irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hyeon; Baek, Won-Kye; Yoh, Jack J.

    2011-07-01

    The beam-matter interaction with various coating effects has received continued attention in the high power laser community. Previous works suggest that coatings promote target damage when compared to beaming on uncoated surface. Three types of paint coatings (acrylic urethane, silicone alkyd and stealth blend) and a water coat on metals (Al, Ti and STS) are irradiated with a CO 2 laser. Both strain and temperature measurements are provided for assessing the instantaneous response characteristics of each coating on different metals. A selective combination of surface coats with metals has been proven to be effective in either preventing or enhancing damage, both thermal and mechanical, associated with focused beaming on a target.

  8. Controlled and facile synthesis of a self-assembled enzyme-inorganic catalyst based on flexible metal-coated fiber for an excellent removal of synthetic pollutants from aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Rong, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Jicheng; Dai, Yuting; Qiu, Fengxian

    2018-04-01

    The development of green sustainable chemistry opens the door to the application of biocatalytic in numerous fields for the research in industry and academia. As a common biological catalyst, enzyme catalysis is ideally suited and widely applicable for various desired reaction. In this work, a hierarchical structure laccase-Cu3(PO4)2·3H2O nanoflower-coated silica fiber (La-CNSF) was successfully fabricated with hundreds of Cu3(PO4)2 nanosheets formed on the processed silica fibers as the petal and laccase as the enzyme catalyst. It included two processes: first, Cu nanoparticles were directly grown on silica fiber cloth as a precursor and three-dimensional (3D) Cu3(PO4)2·3H2O nanoflower was self-assembled on Cu-coated fibers by post-processing. Then, La-CNSF was successfully immobilized via a simple one-step immersion reaction in a laccase-phosphate buffer solution (PBS) solution. The product was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. Congo red was realized using La-CNSF as a biocatalyst. Compared with pure laccase, La-CNSF sample exhibits an enhanced catalytic activity. The flower-like structure assembled on the fiber provided La-CNSF high storage stability and reusability in contrast with free laccase. The superior catalytic performance of La-CNSF supports a potential strategy for purification of water pollutants, and it favors the realization of the engineering of large scale applications of enzyme catalysis.

  9. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  10. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. 888.3565 Section 888.3565 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a device...

  11. Heavy Metal Removal by Chitosan and Chitosan Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Mohdy, F.A.; El-Sawy, S.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation grafting of diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) on chitosan to impart ion exchange properties and to be used for the separation of metal ions from waste water, was carried out. The effect of experimental conditions such as monomer concentration and the radiation dose on grafting were studied. On using chitosan, grafted chitosan and some chitosan composites in metal ion removal they show high up-take capacity for Cu 2+ and lower uptake capacities for the other divalent metal ions used (Zn and Co). Competitive study, performed with solutions containing mixture of metal salts, showed high selectivity for Cu 2+ than the other metal ion. Limited grafting of DEAEMA polymer -containing specific functional groups-onto the chitosan backbone improves the sorption performance

  12. Minimization of metal debris while cutting and removing orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, J D

    2001-09-01

    High-speed cutting burrs often throw minute particles of metal, bone, and soft tissue in the air during removal or revision of fracture fixation. A simple technique using lap sponges, water-soluble lubricant, and a smoke evacuator and shield can nearly eliminate soft-tissue contamination.

  13. Removal of metal ions using dead-end filtration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... Surfactants due to their high selectivity properties have been used in enhancing membrane filtration for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solutions. Natural surfactants are preferred to synthetic surfactants because the synthetic surfactants have the disadvantage of introducing secondary pollutants into ...

  14. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  15. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The batch removal of heavy metals lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from industrial wastewater effluent under different experimental conditions using hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Experimental results indicated that at pH 6.5, pre-treatment analysis gave the following values: Pb 57.63 mg/l, Zn 18.9 mg/l and Cu ...

  16. Vanadium removal by metal (hydr)oxide adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, A; Westerhoff, P; Mustafa, S

    2007-04-01

    Vanadium is listed on the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) candidate contaminant list # 2 (CCL2), and regulatory guidelines for vanadium exist in some US states. The USEPA requires treatability studies before making regulatory decisions on CCL2 contaminants. Previous studies have examined vanadium adsorption onto some metal hydroxides but not onto commercially available adsorbents. This paper briefly summarizes known vanadium occurrence in North American groundwater and assesses vanadium removal by three commercially available metal oxide adsorbents with different mineralogies. GTO (Dow) is TiO2 based and E-33 (Seven Trents) and GFH (US Filter) are iron based. Preliminary vanadate adsorption kinetics onto GFH, E-33 and GTO has been studied and the homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) is used to describe the adsorption kinetics data. The effects of pH, vanadium concentration, and volume/mass ratio are assessed. Vanadium adsorption decreases with increasing pH, with maximum adsorption capacities achieved in at pH 3-4. Results indicate that all adsorbents remove vanadium; GFH has the highest adsorption capacity, followed by GTO and E-33. Data are best fit with the Langmuir model rather than Freundlich isotherms. Both the sorption maxima (Xm) and binding energy constant (b) follow the trend GFH>GTO>E-33. Naturally occurring vanadium is also removed from Arizona ground water in rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Metal oxide adsorption technologies currently used for arsenic removal may also remove vanadium but not always with the same effectiveness.

  17. Mercury Removal From Aqueous Solutions With Chitosan-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles Optimized Using the Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nadereh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Boumi, Shahin; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, removal of heavy metals from the environment is an important problem due to their toxicity. Objectives: In this study, a modified method was used to synthesize chitosan-coated magnetite nanoparticles (CCMN) to be used as a low cost and nontoxic adsorbent. CCMN was then employed to remove Hg2+ from water solutions. Materials and Methods: To remove the highest percentage of mercury ions, the Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to simultaneously optimize all parameters affecting the adsorption process. Studied parameters of the process were pH (5-8), initial metal concentration (2-8 mg/L), and the amount of damped adsorbent (0.25-0.75 g). A second-order mathematical model was developed using regression analysis of experimental data obtained from 15 batch runs. Results: The optimal conditions predicted by the model were pH = 5, initial concentration of mercury ions = 6.2 mg/L, and the amount of damped adsorbent = 0.67 g. Confirmatory testing was performed and the maximum percentage of Hg2+ removed was found to be 99.91%. Kinetic studies of the adsorption process specified the efficiency of the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm was well-fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Conclusions: CCMN as an excellent adsorbent could remove the mercury ions from water solutions at low and moderate concentrations, which is the usual amount found in environment. PMID:24872943

  18. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger T.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO.sub.x and optionally SO.sub.2 from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe.sup.2+) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC' is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  19. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  20. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  1. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmoji Kosuru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  2. Origin of Shear Stability and Compressive Ductility Enhancement of Metallic Glasses by Metal Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B. A.; Chen, S. H.; Lu, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. L.; Yang, Y.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are notorious for the poor macroscopic ductility and to overcome the weakness various intrinsic and extrinsic strategies have been proposed in past decades. Among them, the metal coating is regarded as a flexible and facile approach, yet the physical origin is poorly understood due to the complex nature of shear banding process. Here, we studied the origin of ductile enhancement in the Cu-coating both experimentally and theoretically. By examining serrated shear events and their stability of MGs, we revealed that the thin coating layer plays a key role in stopping the final catastrophic failure of MGs by slowing down shear band dynamics and thus retarding its attainment to a critical instable state. The mechanical analysis on interplay between the coating layer and shear banding process showed the enhanced shear stability mainly comes from the lateral tension of coating layer induced by the surface shear step and the bonding between the coating layer and MGs rather than the layer thickness is found to play a key role in contributing to the shear stability. PMID:27271435

  3. Manganese dioxide-coated filters for removing radium from drinking water. Report for 19 September 1983-1 September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Anderson, D.G.; Stahel, E.P.

    1988-09-01

    Research was performed using manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) to demonstrate that above pH3 cations are adsorbed from solution in the order of their affinity, and that the interaction is characterized by the pH dependence of the metal. The relationship of the zero-point charge of pH and the solution ionic strength effects on interfacial surface potential and adsorption were addressed. Characteristics of MnO 2 behavior, structure, and stability found in research investigation were reviewed. Most of the study was on the use of MnO 2 coated filters for the removal of radium. A few comparison tests on radium removal with ion exchange were also made. Specifically, these tests have shown that acrylic-fiber filters coated with MnO 2 will remove radium from water. For a high-hardness water with pH = 7.4, total radium removal was 14,200 pCi/g MnO 2 before the MCL of 5 pCi/L was exceeded, and for a low-hardness water with pH = 4.5, total radium removal was 5000 pCi/g MnO 2 before the MCL of 5 pCi/L was exceeded. Hardness passed through the MnO 2 filters with little change and, therefore, radium was highly preferred over hardness. A step-by-step process for the preparation of acrylic-fiber filters coated with MnO 2 was designed and operated successfully

  4. Adsorptive Removal of Metal Ions from Water using Functionalized Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kanchanmala

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis and modification of cost-effective sorbents for removing heavy metals from water resources is an area of significance. It had been reported that materials with biological origins, such as agricultural and animal waste, are excellent alternatives to conventional adsorbents due to their higher affinity, capacity and selectivity towards metal ions. These properties of biomaterials help to reduce or detoxify metal ions concentration in contaminated water to acceptable regulatory standards. Synthesis of novel, efficient, cost effective, eco-friendly biomaterials for heavy metal adsorption from water is still an area of challenge. In this comprehensive review, acompilation of patents as well as published articles is carried out to outline the properties of different biomaterials based on their precursors along withdetailed description of biomaterial morphology and various surface modification approaches. A detailed study of the performance of adsorbents and the role of physical and chemical modification in terms of enhancing their potential for metal adsorption from water is compiled here. The factors affecting adsorption behavior i.e., capacity and affinity of e biomaterials is also compiled. This paper presents a concise review of reported studies on the synthesis and modification of biomaterials, their use for heavy metal removal from waters and future prospects of this technology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  6. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  7. Magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool for As(V) removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) removal from contaminated groundwater is a key environmental concern worldwide. In this study, glass wool was coated with magnetite nanoparticles under argon gas flow and magnetite coated glass wool have been investigated for application as an adsorbent for As(V) removal from water. The adsorbent was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and arsenic contaminated water treated with adsorbent was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS results showed that 10 g/L of adsorbent removed 99.4% of As(V) within 5 hours at pH-7 and initial arsenic concentration of 360µg/L. Adsorption kinetics data fitted well in pseudo-first-order kinetics model with high correlation coefficient (R 2 = 0.995). As magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool showed favorable adsorption behavior for As(V), it can be a promising tool for water purification

  8. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  9. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm , D.; Hutchings , I.; Clyne , T.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp...

  10. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  11. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A high power 1kW pulsed transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser that has been developed for the paint stripping of missiles was used to test paint stripping on several metallic and composite aircraft panels to determine the rate at which...

  13. Removal of Toxic Metals from Aqueous Solution by Saw Dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, feasibility studies of using a natural and low cost adsorbent; saw dust for the removal of Cr(VI), Ni(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution was carried out. The efficiency of the adsorbent was judged from the variation of the % adsorption with (i) contact time, (ii) adsorbent dose, (iii) initial metal ion concentration ...

  14. An innovative zinc oxide-coated zeolite adsorbent for removal of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingling, E-mail: lasier_wang@hotmail.com [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou 362000, Fujian (China); Environmental Engineering and Science Program, 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Han, Changseok [ORISE Post-doctoral Fellow, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, STD, CPB, 26 W. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N. [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, WQMB, 26 W. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • An innovative adsorbent was successfully synthesized to remove humic acid. • The adsorbent possessed high adsorption capacity for humic acid. • The adsorption capacity remarkably increased after an acid modification. • The adsorption capacity was proportional to the amount of ZnO coated on zeolite. • Electrostatic interactions are a major factor at the first stage of the process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated zeolite adsorbents were developed by both nitric acid modification and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O functionalization of zeolite 4A. The developed adsorbents were used for the removal of humic acid (HA) from aqueous solutions. The synthesized materials were characterized by porosimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction analysis, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents at 21 ± 1 °C was about 60 mgC g{sup −1}. The results showed that the positive charge density of ZnO-coated zeolite adsorbents was proportional to the amount of ZnO coated on zeolite and thus, ZnO-coated zeolite adsorbents exhibited a greater affinity for negatively charged ions. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of ZnO-coated zeolite adsorbents increased markedly after acid modification. Adsorption experiments demonstrated ZnO-coated zeolite adsorbents possessed high adsorption capacity to remove HA from aqueous solutions mainly due to strong electrostatic interactions between negative functional groups of HA and the positive charges of ZnO-coated zeolite adsorbents.

  15. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pelar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  16. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelar, Christopher; Greenaway, Karima; Zea, Hugo; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Luhrs, Claudia C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-05

    This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  17. Biosorbents for Removing Hazardous Metals and Metalloids †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Parajuli, Durga; Ghimire, Kedar Nath; Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Oshima, Tatsuya; Ohto, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Biosorbents for remediating aquatic environmental media polluted with hazardous heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb(II), Cr(VI), Sb(III and V), and As(III and V) were prepared from lignin waste, orange and apple juice residues, seaweed and persimmon and grape wastes using simple and cheap methods. A lignophenol gel such as lignocatechol gel was prepared by immobilizing the catechol functional groups onto lignin from sawdust, while lignosulfonate gel was prepared directly from waste liquor generated during pulp production. These gels effectively removed Pb(II). Orange and apple juice residues, which are rich in pectic acid, were easily converted using alkali (e.g., calcium hydroxide) into biosorbents that effectively removed Pb(II). These materials also effectively removed Sb(III and V) and As(III and V) when these were preloaded with multi-valent metal ions such as Zr(IV) and Fe(III). Similar biosorbents were prepared from seaweed waste, which is rich in alginic acid. Other biosorbents, which effectively removed Cr(VI), were prepared by simply treating persimmon and grape wastes with concentrated sulfuric acid. PMID:28773217

  18. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Removal of Metal Nanoparticles Colloidal Solutions by Water Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Svietlova, Nataliia; Konotop, Yevheniia; Karaushu, Olena; Hrechishkina, Svitlana

    2016-11-01

    The ability of seven species of aquatic plants ( Elodea canadensis, Najas guadelupensis, Vallisneria spiralis L., Riccia fluitans L., Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia natans L.) to absorb metal nanoparticles from colloidal solutions was studied. It was established that investigated aquatic plants have a high capacity for removal of metal nanoparticles from aqueous solution (30-100%) which indicates their high phytoremediation potential. Analysis of the water samples content for elements including the mixture of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag + Ag2O) before and after exposure to plants showed no significant differences when using submerged or free-floating hydrophytes so-called pleuston. However, it was found that the presence of submerged hydrophytes in aqueous medium ( E. canadensis, N. guadelupensis, V. spiralis L., and R. fluitans L.) and significant changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, unlike free-floating hydrophytes ( L. laevigatum, P. stratiotes L., S. natans L.), had occur. Pleuston possesses higher potential for phytoremediation of contaminated water basins polluted by metal nanoparticles. In terms of removal of nanoparticles among studied free-floating hydrophytes, P. stratiotes L. and S. natans L. deserve on special attention.

  2. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for HEPA filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to assume trouble-free operation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing was performed with fly ash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 volume percent water vapor in the gas stream

  3. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  4. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  5. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA

    2011-12-13

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  7. Platinum-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-04-14

    Core-shell particles encapsulated by a thin film of a catalytically active metal are described. The particles are preferably nanoparticles comprising a non-noble core with a noble metal shell which preferably do not include Pt. The non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles are encapsulated by a catalytically active metal which is preferably Pt. The core-shell nanoparticles are preferably formed by prolonged elevated-temperature annealing of nanoparticle alloys in an inert environment. This causes the noble metal component to surface segregate and form an atomically thin shell. The Pt overlayer is formed by a process involving the underpotential deposition of a monolayer of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a Pt salt. A thin Pt layer forms via the galvanic displacement of non-noble surface atoms by more noble Pt atoms in the salt. The overall process is a robust and cost-efficient method for forming Pt-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles.

  8. A new cellulose acetate filter to remove leukocytes from buffy-coat-poor red cell concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Dekker, W. J.; Reesink, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Transfusion of leukocyte-free red cell concentrates (RCC) prevents or delays HLA immunization in multitransfused patients. We investigated a new cellulose acetate filter which was recently introduced to remove leukocytes from buffy-coat-poor RCC. It was found that the filtration time was only 10 min

  9. A study of the effect of coatings operation on radioiodine removing adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Enneking, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear air treatment systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants from air. If the contaminants are gaseous in form (iodine and its compounds), activated carbon is employed to remove them from the air stream by the process of adsorption. The ability of the carbon to perform its function is checked periodically by sending representative samples to a laboratory for testing. Test methods and conditions are included in the plant technical specification along with failure criteria. When a test sample fails to perform as specified, the carbon in the air cleaning unit must be replaced with new material. Solvents from coating operations can poison carbon by blocking or reducing the surface area available for subsequent reaction of radioiodine compounds. NUCON has developed mathematical models to predict the amount of solvent in the air and residual solvents remaining in the coating at any given time during a coating operation for both normal and accident ventilation modes

  10. Removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater by membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaya Srisuwan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the treatment of heavy metals in electroplating wastewater using membranes. Two selected membrane types, cellulose acetate microfiltration membrane with pore size 0.2 μm and polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with MWCO of 30 kDa were used in this study. Synthetic and factory electroplating wastewater were used as the samples. The experiments were performed by chemical precipitating both synthetic and factory wastewater in the first step and membrane filtrating of supernatant at the pressure of 50, 100 and 200 kPa in the second step. The concentration of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc of treated water were compared with standard values given by the Ministry of Industry (MOI, Thailand. The experimental results showed that flux was highest at the pressure of 200 kPa and decreased as the pressure decreased. The rejection was highest at the pressure of 50 kPa and decreased as pressure increased. The results from synthetic wastewater were better than those from factory wastewater. Thecapability of heavy metal removal of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane was the same, but microfiltration gave more flux. The heavy metal removal efficiency of microfiltration of synthetic electroplating wastewater of four processes of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc electroplating , each was higher than that from factory wastewater but slightly lower than the removal efficiency obtained from composite synthetic wastewater. The removal efficiency of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc from composite synthetic wastewater was higher than those from composite factory wastewater for both microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. The results from the study of membrane surface washing showed little flux increase after washing the membrane by stirring with a propeller at a distance of 2 mm above membrane surface at 400 rpm for 30 minutes.

  11. On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mei@df.uba.ar; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu; Depine, Ricardo A. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rdep@df.uba.ar

    2008-03-31

    Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction.

  12. Simultaneous electrodialytic removal of PAH, PCB, TBT and heavy metals from sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    was found to be important for the removal of heavy metals and TBT, while photolysis was significant for removal of PAH, PCB and TBT. In addition, dechlorination was found to be important for the removal of PCB. The highest removal efficiencies were found for heavy metals, TBT and PCB (>40%) and lower...

  13. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention

  14. Carbon film coating of abutment surfaces: effect on the abutment screw removal torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Pedro Henrique; de Moura Silva, Alecsandro; Cavalcanti Queiroz, José Renato; Salazar Marocho, Susana María; Bottino, Marco Antonia; Massi, Marcos; de Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating of prefabricated implant abutment on screw removal torque (RT) before and after mechanical cycling (MC). Fifty-four abutments for external-hex implants were divided among 6 groups (n = 9): S, straight abutment (control); SC, straight coated abutment; SCy, straight abutment and MC; SCCy, straight coated abutment and MC; ACy, angled abutment and MC; and ACCy, angled coated abutment and MC. The abutments were attached to the implants by a titanium screw. RT values were measured and registered. Data (in Newton centimeter) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). RT values were significantly affected by MC (P = 0.001) and the interaction between DLC coating and MC (P = 0.038). SCy and ACy showed the lowest RT values, statistically different from the control. The abutment coated groups had no statistical difference compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed DLC film with a thickness of 3 μm uniformly coating the hexagonal abutment. DLC film deposited on the abutment can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce abutment screw loosening.

  15. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Hutchings, I.M.; Clyne, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. It is shown that the proportion of metal and ceramic at the free surface can be specified so as to optimise the erosion resistance. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of the coatings to debonding during four-point bending of the coated substrate. Progress is being made towards the tailoring of composition profiles in graded coatings so as to optimise the combination of erosion resistance and adhesion. (orig.)

  16. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-04-15

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic Zr-MOFs nanocomposites for rapid removal of heavy metal ions and dyes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lijin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Amino-decorated Zr-based magnetic Metal-Organic Frameworks composites (Zr-MFCs) were prepared by a facile and efficient strategy. The nano-sized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core (about 15 nm) was coated with a shell of Zr-MOFs (about 5 nm) by means of in-situ growth. And, Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @UiO-66 and its amino derivatives (Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @UiO-66-NH 2 and Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @UiO-66-Urea) were successfully prepared by using different precursors. The obtained Zr-MFCs were demonstrated to be efficient adsorbents for metal ions/organic dyes removal from aqueous solution, with high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption kinetics. It was found that the amine-decorated MFCs were highly efficient for metal ions/dyes removal compared to raw MFC-O. Among them, MFC-N exhibited the highest capacity for Pb 2+ (102 mg g -1 ) and methylene blue (128 mg g -1 ), while MFC-O exhibited the highest capacity for methyl orange (219 mg g -1 ). Moreover, anionic and cationic dyes could be selectively separated and removed from the mixed solution just by adjusting the solution pH with Zr-MFCs as the adsorbents. And these Zr-MFCs materials can be easily regenerated by desorbing metal ions/organic dyes from the sorbents with appropriate eluents, and the adsorption capacity can be remained unchanged after 6 recycles. The obtained results demonstrated the great application potential of the prepared MFCs as fascinating adsorbents for water treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  19. Ultrarobust Biochips with Metal-Organic Framework Coating for Point-of-Care Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Wang, Lu; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Kharasch, Evan D; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2018-02-23

    Most biosensors relying on antibodies as recognition elements fail in harsh environment conditions such as elevated temperatures, organic solvents, or proteases because of antibody denaturation, and require strict storage conditions with defined shelf life, thus limiting their applications in point-of-care and resource-limited settings. Here, a metal-organic framework (MOF) encapsulation is utilized to preserve the biofunctionality of antibodies conjugated to nanotransducers. This study investigates several parameters of MOF coating (including growth time, surface morphology, thickness, and precursor concentrations) that determine the preservation efficacy against different protein denaturing conditions in both dry and wet environments. A plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanorods as the nanotransducers is employed as a model biodiagnostic platform. The preservation efficacy attained through MOF encapsulation is compared to two other commonly employed materials (sucrose and silk fibroin). The results show that MOF coating outperforms sucrose and silk fibroin coatings under several harsh conditions including high temperature (80 °C), dimethylformamide, and protease solution, owing to complete encapsulation, stability in wet environment and ease of removal at point-of-use by the MOF. We believe this study will broaden the applicability of this universal approach for preserving different types of on-chip biodiagnostic reagents and biosensors/bioassays, thus extending the benefits of advanced diagnostic technologies in resource-limited settings.

  20. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W; Ellis, Amanda V

    2014-05-30

    Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2-5.5), PDA treatment time (3-24h), contact time (0 to 24h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500mgdm(-3)) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93mgg(-1) for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58mgg(-1) for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01M or 0.1M) of either acid or base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Examination of the surface coatings removed from K-East Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; Jenson, E.D.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides the results of studies conducted on coatings discovered on the surfaces of some N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements stored at the Hanford K-East Basin. These elements had been removed from the canisters and visually examined in-basin during FY 1996 as part of a series of characterization tests. The characterization tests are being performed to support the Integrated Process Strategy developed to package, dry, transport, and store the SNF in an interim storage facility on the Hanford site. Samples of coating materials were removed from K-East canister elements 2350E and 2540E, which had been sent, along with nine other elements, to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (327 Building) for further characterization following the in-basin examinations. These coating samples were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory using various analytical methods. This report is part of the overall studies to determine the drying behavior of corrosion products associated with the K-Basin fuel elements. Altogether, five samples of coating materials were analyzed. These analyses suggest that hydration of the coating materials could be an additional source of moisture in the Multi-Canister Overpacks being used to contain the fuel for storage

  2. Development of Composite Adsorbent Coating Based Acrylic Polymer/Bentonite for Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Farhan Azha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of composite adsorbent coating based acrylic polymer solution (APS mixed with bentonite (ben was investigated. The composite adsorbent coating was prepared and coated to a high surface area substrate, cotton cellulosic fiber (CCF. The APS/ben-CCF was used for a single cationic methylene blue (MB dye adsorption system. Characterization of composition and structure of materials and coating was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and UV-spectroscopy (UV-VIS. The adsorption properties of the APS/ben-CCF were investigated as a function of solution pH, initial dye concentration and contact time as well as solution temperature of MB dye. The result revealed that the APS/ben-CCF functioned well in solutions of various pH (acidic to alkaline, achieving 100% removal of MB within 2 hours of adsorption for 50 ppm. Kinetic studies showed that APS/ben-CCF is endothermic in nature since the adsorption capacity increased with increasing solution temperature. These results demonstrate that APS/ben-CCF composite adsorbent coating is an advanced adsorbent with advantages such as easy phase separation and capability to remove cationic dyes in a short time period.

  3. Examination of the surface coating removed from K-East Basin fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; Jenson, E.D.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides the results of studies conducted on coatings discovered on the surfaces of some N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements stored at the Hanford K-East Basin. These elements had been removed from the canisters and visually examined in-basin during FY 1996 as part of a series of characterization tests. The characterization tests are being performed to support the Integrated Process Strategy developed to package, dry, transport, and store the SNF in an interim storage facility on the Hanford site. Samples of coating materials were removed from K-East canister elements 2350E and 2540E, which had been sent, along with nine other elements, to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (327 Building) for further characterization following the in-basin examinations. These coating samples were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory using various analytical methods. This report is part of the overall studies to determine the drying behavior of corrosion products associated with the K-Basin fuel elements. Altogether, five samples of coating materials were analyzed. These analyses suggest that hydration of the coating materials could be an additional source of moisture in the Multi-Canister Overpacks being used to contain the fuel for storage.

  4. Mineral Adsorbents for Removal of Metals in Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Karin; Li, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the capacity of four different soil minerals to adsorb metals frequently detected in urban runoff. These are low-cost, natural and commercially available soil minerals. Contaminated surface runoff from urban areas is a major cause of concern for water quality and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollution in urban areas is generated by a wide array of non-point sources, including vehicular transportation and building materials. Some of the most frequently detected pollutants in urban runoff are metals. Exhaust gases, tire wear and brake linings are major sources of such metals as Pb, Zn and Cu, while impregnated wood, plastics and galvanized surfaces may release As, Cd, Cr and Zn. Many metals have toxic effects on aquatic plants and animals, depending on metal speciation and bioavailability. The removal efficiency of pollutants in stormwater depends on treatment practices and on the properties the pollutant. The distribution of metals in urban runoff has shown, for example, that Pb is predominantly particle-associated, whereas Zn and Cd are present mainly in dissolved form. Many metals are also attached to colloids, which may act as carriers for contaminants, thereby facilitating their transport through conventional water treatment processes. Filtration of stormwater is one of the most promising techniques for removal of particulates, colloidal and truly dissolved pollutants, provided that effective filtration and adsorption media are used. Filtration and infiltration are used in a wide array of stormwater treatment methods e.g. porous paving, infiltration drains and rain gardens. Several soil minerals were investigated for their potential as stormwater filter materials. Laboratory batch tests were conducted to determine the adsorption capacity of these minerals. A synthetic stormwater was tested, with spiked concentrations corresponding to levels reported in urban runoff, ranging from 50-1,500 µg/L for Zn; 5-250 µg/L for Cu

  5. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  6. The removal of alkali metals from hot gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orjala, M.; Haukka, P. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Polttoaine- ja Polttotekniikan Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    In investigations in progress at the Fuel and Combustion Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland, we have been studying in co-operation with A. Ahlstrom Boiler Works, the removal of alkali metals from flue gases of ash-rich fuel with a dense suspension particle cooler. The applications of the particle cooler can be found in combined cycles and in industrial gas cleaning and heat recovery. We have also developed a general mathematical model of heat and mass transfer as well as chemical and physical reactions in multiphase systems.

  7. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  8. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G.; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural zeolites were modified with bio-inspired polydopamine. • A 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity was observed. • Atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis gave corroborative results. • Neutron activation analysis was used to provide accurate information on 30+ elements. • Approximately 90% of the adsorbed copper could be recovered by 0.1 M HCl treatment. - Abstract: Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2–5.5), PDA treatment time (3–24 h), contact time (0 to 24 h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500 mg dm −3 ) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93 mg g −1 for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58 mg g −1 for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01 M or 0.1 M) of either acid or base

  9. Metal coatings prepared by organometallic chemical vapour deposition (OMCVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wochnowski, Joern; Heck, Juergen [Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Goellnitz, Thimo [Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In microtechnology, the coating of temperature-sensitive substrates with high melting-point materials is challenging. The use of volatile organometallic compounds can be an answer to solve this ambitious task. We developed an experimental set-up for the deposition of elements, oxides, and functional composites in glass hollowware by means of OMCVD. With the first experimental set-up, the thermally induced decomposition of numerous elementorganic and metallorganic precursors has been tested for the deposition of catalytic or optic materials. Here, we present experimental data of the thermal deposition of different metals as tungsten on a glass surface. We used Atomic Force Microscopy as one standard analytical surface method to obtain structural and morphological information of the deposited metal layers. We discuss the preparation and the analytics of the prepared surfaces. With the objective to bring the deposition temperature of W(CO){sub 6} further down to room temperature, we developed a new photolytic OMCVD set-up. We demonstrate and discuss the realization of our experimental setup.

  10. Effect of Zinc Phosphate on the Corrosion Behavior of Waterborne Acrylic Coating/Metal Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne coating has recently been paid much attention. However, it cannot be used widely due to its performance limitations. Under the specified conditions of the selected resin, selecting the function pigment is key to improving the anticorrosive properties of the coating. Zinc phosphate is an environmentally protective and efficient anticorrosion pigment. In this work, zinc phosphate was used in modifying waterborne acrylic coatings. Moreover, the disbonding resistance of the coating was studied. Results showed that adding zinc phosphate can effectively inhibit the anode process of metal corrosion and enhance the wet adhesion of the coating, and consequently prevent the horizontal diffusion of the corrosive medium into the coating/metal interface and slow down the disbonding of the coating.

  11. Effect of Zinc Phosphate on the Corrosion Behavior of Waterborne Acrylic Coating/Metal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-06-14

    Waterborne coating has recently been paid much attention. However, it cannot be used widely due to its performance limitations. Under the specified conditions of the selected resin, selecting the function pigment is key to improving the anticorrosive properties of the coating. Zinc phosphate is an environmentally protective and efficient anticorrosion pigment. In this work, zinc phosphate was used in modifying waterborne acrylic coatings. Moreover, the disbonding resistance of the coating was studied. Results showed that adding zinc phosphate can effectively inhibit the anode process of metal corrosion and enhance the wet adhesion of the coating, and consequently prevent the horizontal diffusion of the corrosive medium into the coating/metal interface and slow down the disbonding of the coating.

  12. FeS-coated sand for removal of arsenic(III) under anaerobic conditions in permeable reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.-S.; Gallegos, T.J.; Demond, A.H.; Hayes, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron sulfide (as mackinawite, FeS) has shown considerable promise as a material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions. However, as a nanoparticulate material, synthetic FeS is not suitable for use in conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). This study developed a methodology for coating a natural silica sand to produce a material of an appropriate diameter for a PRB. Aging time, pH, rinse time, and volume ratios were varied, with a maximum coating of 4.0 mg FeS/g sand achieved using a pH 5.5 solution at a 1:4 volume ratio (sand: 2 g/L FeS suspension), three days of aging and no rinsing. Comparing the mass deposited on the sand, which had a natural iron-oxide coating, with and without chemical washing showed that the iron-oxide coating was essential to the formation of a stable FeS coating. Scanning electron microscopy images of the FeS-coated sand showed a patchwise FeS surface coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a partial oxidation of the Fe(II) to Fe(III) during the coating process, and some oxidation of S to polysulfides. Removal of As(III) by FeS-coated sand was 30% of that by nanoparticulate FeS at pH 5 and 7. At pH 9, the relative removal was 400%, perhaps due to the natural oxide coating of the sand or a secondary mineral phase from mackinawite oxidation. Although many studies have investigated the coating of sands with iron oxides, little prior work reports coating with iron sulfides. The results suggest that a suitable PRB material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions can be produced through the deposition of a coating of FeS onto natural silica sand with an iron-oxide coating. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Stabilization of metal nanoparticle films on glass surfaces using ultrathin silica coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikin, Yulia; Kedem, Ofer; Raz, Jennifer; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2013-11-05

    Metal nanoparticle (NP) films, prepared by adsorption of NPs from a colloidal solution onto a preconditioned solid substrate, usually form well-dispersed random NP monolayers on the surface. For certain metals (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu), the NP films display a characteristic localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction band, conveniently measured using transmission or reflection ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The surface plasmon band wavelength, intensity, and shape are affected by (among other parameters) the NP spatial distribution on the surface and the effective refractive index (RI) of the surrounding medium. A major concern in the formation of such NP assemblies on surfaces is a commonly observed instability, i.e., a strong tendency of the NPs to undergo aggregation upon removal from the solution and drying, expressed as a drastic change in the LSPR band. Since various imaging modes and applications require dried NP films, preservation of the film initial (wet) morphology and optical properties upon drying are highly desirable. The latter is achieved in the present work by introducing a convenient and generally applicable method for preventing NP aggregation upon drying while preserving the original film morphology and optical response. Stabilization of Au and Ag NP monolayers toward drying is accomplished by coating the immobilized NPs with an ultrathin (3.0-3.5 nm) silica layer, deposited using a sol-gel reaction performed on an intermediate self-assembled aminosilane layer. The thin silica coating prevents NP aggregation and maintains the initial NP film morphology and LSPR response during several cycles of drying and immersion in water. It is shown that the silica-coated NP films retain their properties as effective LSPR transducers.

  14. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  15. Ion exchangers as adsorbents for removing metals from aquatic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A; Bushra, Rani; Ahmad, Anees; Nabi, Syed A; Khan, Dilwar A; Akhtar, Arshia

    2014-02-01

    A polyaniline-based composite cation-exchange material was synthesized by way of sol-gel method and studied to explore its analytical and environmental applications. It was characterized by using instrumental analyses [Fourier transform infrared (spectrometer), X-ray, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, standard electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy]. Physicochemical studies, such as ion-exchange capacity, pH titrations, and chemical stability, along with effect of eluent concentration and elution, were also performed to exploit the ion-exchange capabilities. pH titration studies showed that the material presents monofunctional strong cation-exchange behavior. This nanocomposite material is semicrystalline in nature and exhibits improved thermal and chemical stability. The partition coefficient studies of different metal ions in the material were performed in demineralised water and different surfactant media, and it was found to be selective for Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions. To exploit the usefulness of the material as an adsorbent, some important quantitative binary separations of metal ions were performed on polyaniline Zr(IV) molybdophosphate columns. This composite cation exchanger can be applied for the treatment of polluted water to remove heavy metals.

  16. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  17. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  18. High efficiency metal removal from hexane-extracted algae oil using super and subcritical propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Hiroshi; Horizoe, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal removal from algae oil was achieved by supercritical propane solvent extraction. • Continuous metal removing process was developed. • Required energy for metal removing was calculated. - Abstract: As a renewable energy source, oil-producing algae have received much attention in recent years. Raw oil, which is normally extracted from algae using solvents such as hexane or ethyl acetate, includes trace metal compounds that rapidly deactivate the hydrogenation catalyst. In this study, metal removal from hexane-extracted algae oil with supercritical and subcritical propane extraction was examined at temperatures from 40 °C to 130 °C and at 6 MPa pressure. The results showed that the metal concentration became decreasing with temperature increasing and metals were not detectable at 114 °C. Using these results, an energy saving process was proposed. Simulation results showed that the metal removal required a mere 3–4% energy consumption compared to a lower heating value of raw oil

  19. New oxide-composite coatings for difficult metal-cutting tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, H.; Berg, H. van den; Sottke, V.; Tabersky, R.

    2001-01-01

    The changes in today's metal working technology are driven by increasing cutting speeds, heavy/hard machining and an enormous amount by changes in work piece materials. These applications are asking for more tailor made cutting tool solutions. Together with the well established multi component coating technology a new approach of composite coatings is giving solutions for the tough demands of the cutting tool market. In this paper is presented composite coatings of AI 2 O 3 /ZrO-2/TiO x made by CVD. The coating is like high performance oxide ceramics for cutting applications. The coating is used in combination with MT CVD coatings and different carbide substrates. The CVD coating has optimum stress for cutting applications, low friction and very high thermal isolation. The outstanding performance of this coating is demonstrated in different applications. (author)

  20. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Jinn P.; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ?66% and retraction forces by ?72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings ...

  1. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  2. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  3. Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Gaur, J P

    2005-01-01

    Many algae have immense capability to sorb metals, and there is considerable potential for using them to treat wastewaters. Metal sorption involves binding on the cell surface and to intracellular ligands. The adsorbed metal is several times greater than intracellular metal. Carboxyl group is most important for metal binding. Concentration of metal and biomass in solution, pH, temperature, cations, anions and metabolic stage of the organism affect metal sorption. Algae can effectively remove metals from multi-metal solutions. Dead cells sorb more metal than live cells. Various pretreatments enhance metal sorption capacity of algae. CaCl2 pretreatment is the most suitable and economic method for activation of algal biomass. Algal periphyton has great potential for removing metals from wastewaters. An immobilized or granulated biomass-filled column can be used for several sorption/desorption cycles with unaltered or slightly decreased metal removal. Langmuir and Freundlich models, commonly used for fitting sorption data, cannot precisely describe metal sorption since they ignore the effect of pH, biomass concentration, etc. For commercial application of algal technology for metal removal from wastewaters, emphasis should be given to: (i) selection of strains with high metal sorption capacity, (ii) adequate understanding of sorption mechanisms, (iii) development of low-cost methods for cell immobilization, (iv) development of better models for predicting metal sorption, (v) genetic manipulation of algae for increased number of surface groups or over expression of metal binding proteins, and (vi) economic feasibility.

  4. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  5. High Transparent Metal Oxide / Polyimide Antistatic Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires clear antistatic coatings that can withstand exposure to the rigors of the space environment. Agiltron proposes a coating consisting of inorganic...

  6. Removal of heavy metals and pollutants by membrane adsorption techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulbe, K. C.; Matsuura, T.

    2018-03-01

    Application of polymeric membranes for the adsorption of hazardous pollutants may lead to the development of next-generation reusable and portable water purification appliances. Membranes for membrane adsorption (MA) have the dual function of membrane filtration and adsorption to be very effective to remove trace amounts of pollutants such as cationic heavy metals, anionic phosphates and nitrates. In this review article, recent progresses in the development of MA membranes are surveyed. In addition, recent progresses in the development of advanced adsorbents such as nanoparticles are summarized, since they are potentially useful as fillers in the host membrane to enhance its performance. The future directions of R&D in this field are also shown in the conclusion section.

  7. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log.

  8. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  9. Coatings of metal substrates assisted by laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudevilla, H.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, a new way of obtaining ceramic coatings is presented. This method uses precursor suspensions, settled on substrates and in-situ pyrolised with a laser. Different deposition techniques of the ceramic precursors have been tested in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution on the metal substrate before the laser treatment.

    La combinación de recubrimientos utilizando disoluciones de precursores metálicos con la pirólisis asistida por láser, permite obtener una gran diversidad de recubrimientos sobre sustratos de muy distinta naturaleza. Se han realizado estudios, tanto con disoluciones poliméricas, como con disoluciones de tipo sol-gel y pastas obtenidas con técnicas similares, depositadas utilizando métodos convencionales de inmersión y atomización previa a la pirólisis asistida por láser, así como simultánea. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen de los resultados más significativos obtenidos en la realización de recubrimientos sobre sustratos metálicos y cerámicos.

  10. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Urquiza, Esmeralda; Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan; Wu, Bing; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2017-09-01

    Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide. Using mussel haemocytes, a well-known model system to assess nanomaterial toxicity, we simultaneously assessed zinc accumulation and multiple cellular response endpoints. We found that intracellular zinc uptake was strongly enhanced by inulin coating, in comparison to the uncoated nanoparticles, while no significant effects on cell death, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane integrity, production of reactive oxygen species or lysosome abundance were observed at concentrations up to 20 ppm. Since no significant increments in toxicity were observed, the coated nanomaterials may be useful to increase in vivo zinc uptake for nutritional applications.

  11. Removal of Technetium, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Metals from DOE Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Darab, John G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to prepare, characterize, and evaluate new materials for the removal of technetium (Tc) compounds, halogenated organics, and other troublesome metals from DOE waste streams and contaminated areas. This work follows the discovery that a nanoscale form of zero-valent iron, dispersed on high surface area supports, reduces metal ions (Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd) and Re (as a surrogate for Tc) to insoluble forms much faster than does unsupported iron. The scientific goals of the project are to better understand the mechanism of the reduction process, to develop supports that are compatible with a variety of mixed waste compositions, and to develop surface modifiers for supported iron that will optimize selectivity for the contaminants of interest. The support composition is of particular interest in the case of Tc separation and stabilization in the Hanford tank wastes. While tests with tank waste simulants have shown that pertechnetate is reduced insoluble TcO2, the support material must be compatible with the vitrification process used in the final waste disposition. The surface modifications are also a focal point for Hanford applications because of the complex and variable makeup of the tank wastes

  12. Failure of aluminium metal spray/organic duplex coating systems on structural steel

    OpenAIRE

    Sumon, T. A.; Scantlebury, J. D.; Lyon, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Individually, aluminium metal spray (AMS) and organic paints are well established as effective protective coatings for steel substrates. These coatings are also frequently used together as duplex systems where their combination should produce a synergistic effect. However in certain, mainly marine, environments premature failure of such coatings, involving early blistering of the paint, has been observed in service after 3-5 years. This work aims to understand the mechanisms associated with t...

  13. Effect of a dielectric coating on terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present measurements and calculations on the effect of thin dielectric coatings on the propagation of terahertz pulses along the surface of metal wires. Our measurements show that propagation over only a few centimeters of wire having a thin dielectric coating, strongly distorts the

  14. Durable hydrophobic coating composition for metallic surfaces and method for the preparation of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiong

    2017-02-14

    A durable hydrophobic coating composition containing fluorinated silanes for metallic surfaces, such as stainless steel surfaces. The composition includes at least one fluorine-containing silane compound, at least one phosphorus-containing silane compound, and at least one hydrolysable compound. This coating is suitable for condenser tubes, among other applications, to promote dropwise condensation.

  15. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  16. Titanium dioxide coated cementitious materials for air purifying purposes: Preparation, characterization and toluene removal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Anibal Maury; De Belie, Nele [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof [Research Group EnVOC, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653. B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Maentylae, Tapio; Levaenen, Erkki [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FIN-33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents promising results for air purification by heterogeneous photocatalysis on new titanium dioxide loaded cementitious materials. A set of eight concretes and plasters is enriched with TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by dip-coating and/or sol-gel methods. First, the macro-structural features of the cementitious materials have been studied in terms of porosity and roughness. The first parameter has been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry or by vacuum saturation, and ranged between 9 and 75%, with the highest values obtained for autoclaved aerated white concrete. Surface roughness, determined by laser profilometry, has been characterized by the R{sub a} factor. This expresses the mean deviation of the profile from the centre line and ranged between 0.7 and 252 {mu}m, with the highest value obtained for conventional grey concrete finished with surface brush. Secondly, the weathering resistance of the TiO{sub 2} coatings has been determined by exposing them to different abrasive conditions and by performing SEM-Edax analyses to measure quantitatively the coating's titanium content. Hereby, it is shown that high porosity and roughness are favourable for TiO{sub 2} particles retention. Finally, the preliminary air purification potential of both dip-coated and sol-gel coated TiO{sub 2} enriched concrete samples has been investigated on lab-scale using toluene as a model pollutant. High removal efficiencies (up to 86%) were obtained with the dip-coated samples, indicating their attractive photocatalytic properties for future application as air purifying building materials. (author)

  17. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  18. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jinn P; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy.

  19. Supported liquid membranes technologies in metals removal from liquid effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Agreda, D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of liquid effluents containing organic and inorganic residues from industries present a potential hazardousness for environment and human health, being mandatory the elimination of these pollutants from the respective solutions containing them. In order to achieve this goal, several techniques are being used and among them, supported liquid membranes technologies are showing their potential for their application in the removal of metals contained in liquid effluents. Supported liquid membranes are a combination between conventional polymeric membranes and solvent extraction. Several configurations are used: flat-sheet supported liquid membranes, spiral wounds and hollow fiber modules. In order to improve their effectiveness, smart operations have been developed: non-dispersive solvent extraction, non-dispersive solvent extraction with strip phase dispersion and hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane. This paper overviewed some of these supported liquid membranes technologies and their applications to the treatment of metal-bearing liquid effluents.

    La generación, por parte de las industrias, de efluentes líquidos conteniendo sustancias orgánicas e inorgánicas, es un peligro potencial tanto para los humanos como para el medio ambiente, siendo necesaria la eliminación de estos elementos tóxicos de las disoluciones que los contienen. Para conseguir este fin, se están aplicando diversas técnicas y entre ellas las tecnologías de membranas líquidas soportadas, están demostrando sus aptitudes para la eliminación de metales contenidos en efluentes líquidos. Las membranas líquidas soportadas, resultan de la unión de las membranas poliméricas y de la tecnología de extracción líquido-líquido. Este tipo de membranas se pueden utilizar en diversas configuraciones: plana, módulo en fibra hueca y módulo en espiral y para aumentar su efectividad se están desarrollando las llamadas operaciones avanzadas: extracción no

  20. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products

  1. Electrically Conductive, Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Through Defect Chemistry for Metallic Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of this work was to develop oxidation protective coatings for metallic interconnect based on a defect chemistry approach. It was reasoned that the effectiveness of a coating is dictated by oxygen permeation kinetics; the slower the permeation kinetics, the better the protection. All protective coating materials investigated to date are either perovskites or spinels containing metals exhibiting multiple valence states (Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, etc.). As a result, all of these oxides exhibit a reasonable level of electronic conductivity; typically at least about ∼0.05 S/cm at 800 C. For a 5 micron coating, this equates to a maximum ∼0.025 (Omega)cm 2 area specific resistance due to the coating. This suggests that the coating should be based on oxygen ion conductivity (the lower the better) and not on electronic conductivity. Measurements of ionic conductivity of prospective coating materials were conducted using Hebb-Wagner method. It was demonstrated that special precautions need to be taken to measure oxygen ion conductivity in these materials with very low oxygen vacancy concentration. A model for oxidation under a protective coating is presented. Defect chemistry based approach was developed such that by suitably doping, oxygen vacancy concentration was suppressed, thus suppressing oxygen ion transport and increasing effectiveness of the coating. For the cathode side, the best coating material identified was LaMnO 3 with Ti dopant on the Mn site (LTM). It was observed that LTM is more than 20 times as effective as Mn-containing spinels. On the anode side, LaCrO3 doped with Nb on the Cr site (LNC) was the material identified. Extensive oxidation kinetics studies were conducted on metallic alloy foils with coating ∼1 micron in thickness. From these studies, it was projected that a 5 micron coating would be sufficient to ensure 40,000 h life

  2. Low Temperature Metal Coating Method Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1155-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang-Wook [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gabel, Howard [Innovative Technology, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    A new metal coating method, cidled KEM (kinetic energy metal.lization), demonstrated in the laboratory by lnovati, utilized fast-moving solid particIes entrained in a gas that are caused to fiow through a nozzIe to effect particle deposition on metal surfaces at room temperature conditions. This method (US Patent 5,795,626) was an attractive and viabIe alternative to the currentIy available high-temperature coating methods avaiIabIe. Since it differs significantly from existing metal coating technologies, a brief description of the method is incIuded here. The proposed method, KEM, achieves cohesive and adhesive metallurgical bonding through the high-speed coUision of powder with a substrate and the subsequent discharge of electrical charge at the substrate. Such coating is effected by entraining metal powder in a gas and accelerating this mixture through a supersonic nozzle. The gas/powder is directed towards the substrate to be coated. Collisions occur, initiaIly between the powder and the substrate, and, as the first Iayer of the coating forms, between the powder and the coating. During these collisions the powder is rapidly deformed, causing the exposure of fresh (oxide free) active metal surface. When these’active surfaces contact one another, they agglomerate and form true metaIIurgicaI bonds. The resultant coating has Iow porosity and high adhesive and cohesive strength. The formation of metaIIurgicaI bonds is potentiated by the discharge of electrical energy. This electrical energy is the result of triboeIectric charging of the particIes during acceleration and transit to the nozzIe. An advantage of the method is that it does not raise the temperature of the powder being appLiedor that of the substrate. Consequently, materials sensitive to high temperature may be applied without changing Me properties of the materkd or substrate.

  3. Forming of protective nanostructure coatings on metals and glasses and their properties investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshkovskaya, A.; Lynkov, L.; Nagibarov, A.; Glybin, V.; Richter, E.; Pham, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transparent heat-resistant coatings of 10-30 nm thickness described by (ZrO 2 ) x •(Y 2 O 3 ) y composition are formed on the surface of metals and glasses by thermolysis technique. Produced coatings possess high adhesive strength, high corrosive and abrasive resistance. Nanocrystalline formations are revealed on samples surface, with quantity of these formations depending on basic solution concentration, formed layers number and thermal treatment mode. Ion-beam modification of obtained coatings under mixing mode enables said properties enhancing owing to zirconium oxiboride formation at substrate-coating interface as a result of ion-beam synthesis. (authors)

  4. Survey the Efficiency of Iron- Coated pumice in Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortage of fluoride in water sources leads to numerous health problems. Also excess fluoride concentration is a more serious threat for health of community. Thus investigating of various physical, chemical, and biological processes for excess fluoride reduction from water supplies is considerable. This study aimed to reduce fluoride ion concentration from aqueous solutions by adsorption process by iron-coated pumice. Methods: Firstly, the pumice pieces were grinded and sized. After several preparation stages pumice particles were covered by 0.5 N iron nitrates (III solution. Then the effect of parameters including pH (2-10, reaction time (5-120 min, initial fluoride concentration (3– 20 mg/L, and the adsorbent dose (0.1-1.5 g/L on removal efficiency of fluoride were investigated in a batch system. Finally adsorption isotherms and kinetics models were determined. Results: The results showed that the removal of fluoride increased by increasing of reaction time and adsorbent dose, and reduced by increasing of initial fluoride concentration. The Iron coated pumice exhibited the best performance for fluoride removal (84.3% at fluoride concentration 3 mg/L, adsorbent dose 0.5 g/L, pH= 6, and contact time 30 min. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model (R2= 0.9989, and kinetic adsorption study showed that pseudo-second order kinetic is more favorable. Conclusion: According to results, the iron-coated pumice is an efficient, low cost and available adsorbent that can be considered for eliminating of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions.

  5. Hard Chrome-Coated and Fullerene-Doped Metal Surfaces in Orthopedic Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Robert; Feige, Katja; Dos Santos, Claudia Beatriz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2017-12-20

    Metal-on-metal bearings for total hip replacements have been introduced as an alternative to polyethylene in young and more active patients. These have, however, been shown to be prone to implant malpositioning and have been limited by some specific design features. In that context, coatings present an option to increase wear resistance by keeping the high fracture strength of the metal substrate. A custom-made electroplating setup was designed for the coating of CoCr substrates using (a) an industrial standard chromium electrolyte; (b) a custom-made hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) electrolyte with a reduced chromium trioxide (CrO₃) content, both without solid additives and (c) with the addition of fullerene (C 60 ) nanoparticles; and (d) a trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) electrolyte with C 60 addition. All coatings showed an increase in microhardness compared with the metal substrate. Trivalent coatings were thinner (10 µm) than the hexavalent coatings (23-40 µm) and resulted in increased roughness and crack density. Wear was found to be reduced for the hexavalent chromium coatings by 70-84% compared with the CoCr-CoCr reference bearing while the trivalent chromium coating even increased wear by more than 300%. The addition of fullerenes to the electrolyte did not show any further tribological effect.

  6. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paperwork covers the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and a computing algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  7. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and an algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  8. Refractory metal carbide coatings for LMFBR applications: a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotschall, H.L.; Ople, F.S.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, testing and improvement of high density, tightly bonded plasma and detonation gun coatings designed to meet LMFBR core component criteria are described. The process descriptions include a review of the important developments in substrate surface preparation which were required to ensure strong bonding and to minimize interface contamination. Coating finishing techniques which were developed to optimize friction behavior are also described

  9. Development of a low-cost alternative for metal removal from textile wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekomo Birame, C.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) found in textile wastewater are removed by a combination of adsorption using volcanic rock as adsorbent, sulfide precipitation and phytoremediation techniques. The integrated system for metal removal combining anaerobic bioreactor as main treatment step and a

  10. Study on the efficiency of the different units for removing metallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the efficiency of the different units for removing metallic ions in Isfahan water treatment plant. ... Concentration of heavy metals in each sample was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that removal efficiency of iron, manganese, copper and nickel were 71, 60, 79 and 40 percent, ...

  11. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Precious Metals and Removal of Hazardous Metals Using Persimmon Tannin and Persimmon Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Inoue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel and environmentally benign adsorbents were prepared via a simple sulfuric acid treatment process using the wastes of astringent persimmon, a type of biomass waste, along with persimmon tannin extract which is currently employed for the tanning of leather and as natural dyes and paints. The effectiveness of these new biosorbents was exemplified with regards to hydrometallurgical and environmental engineering applications for the adsorptive removal of uranium and thorium from rare earths, cesium from other alkaline metals such as sodium, hexa-valent chromium from zinc as well as adsorptive recovery of gold from chloride media. Furthermore, reductive coagulation of gold from chloride media for the direct recovery of metallic gold and adsorptive recovery of palladium and platinum using chemically modified persimmon tannin extract were studied. OPEN

  12. An optimised method for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-compartment electrodialytic cell set-up for treatment of solid materials has in many respects proven superior to other types of cells in removing heavy metals from sediments. Most notably, remediation times were shorter, energy consumption was lower and higher removal efficiencies were observed....... By employing m1ultivariate modelling and investigating additional experimental variables, the relative importance of variables effecting remediation was determined and response surfaces for heavy metal removal were calculated. Employing optimal conditions it was possible to remove targeted metals (Pb, Cu, Zn...

  13. Acidification of Harbour sediment and removal of heavy metals induced by water splitting in electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Harbor sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, which can be removed by electrodialytic remediation. Water splitting at the anion exchange membrane in contact with the contaminated material in electrodialytic remediation is highly important for the removal of heavy metals. Here...... it was investigated how acidification caused by water splitting at the anion exchange membrane during electrodialytic remediation of contaminated harbor sediment and hence the metal removal, was influenced by different experimental conditions. Two different experimental cells were tested, where the number...... the sediment was acidified, the voltage decreased and electrical conductivity increased. After 5 days of remediation the sediment was acidified at the chosen current density (1 mA/cm(2)) and the main metal removal was observed shortly after. Thus it was crucial for the metal removal that the sediment was fully...

  14. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  15. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Hui Gon; Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Lee, Gun Hwan

    2015-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C) thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. ...

  16. Controlling the plasmon resonance wavelength in metal-coated probe using refractive index modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Atsushi; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Saito, Yuika; Ishitobi, Hidekazu; Tarun, Alvarado; Kawata, Satoshi

    2009-04-13

    We present a novel technique to tune the plasmon resonance of metal-coated silicon tips in the whole visible region without altering the tips original sharpness. The technique involves modification of the refractive index of silicon probe by thermal oxidization. Lowering the refractive index of silicon tip coated with metal shift the PRW of the metallic layer to shorter wavelength. Numerical simulation using FDTD agrees well with the empirical results. This novel technique is very useful in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of various materials because plasmon resonance can tuned to a specific Raman excitation wavelength.

  17. One-Step Carbon Coating and Polyacrylamide Functionalization of Fe₃O₄ Nanoparticles for Enhancing Magnetic Adsorptive-Remediation of Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habila, Mohamed A; ALOthman, Zeid A; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Labis, Joselito Puzon; Khan, Aslam; Al-Marghany, Adel; Elafifi, Hussein Elsayed

    2017-11-27

    Magnetic nanoparticles are used in adsorptive removal of heavy metals from polluted wastewater. However, their poor stability in an acidic medium necessitates their protection with a coating layer. Coating magnetic nanoparticles with carbon showed proper protection but the heavy metal removal efficiency was slightly weak. However, to boost the removal efficiencies of surface functionalization, polyacrylamide was applied to carbon-coated Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. In this paper, to facilitate the synthesis process, one-step carbon coating and polyacrylamide functionalization were conducted using the hydrothermal technique with the aim of enhancing the adsorptive removal capacity of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles towards some heavy metals such as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Cd(II). The results showed that the one-step process succeeded in developing a carbon coating layer and polyacrylamide functionality on Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. The stability of the magnetic Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles as an adsorbent in an acidic medium was improved due to its resistance to the dissolution that was gained during carbon coating and surface functionalization with polyacrylamide. The adsorptive removal process was investigated in relation to various parameters such as pH, time of contact, metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The polyacrylamide functionalized Fe₃O₄ showed an improvement in the adsorption capacity as compared with the unfunctionalized one. The conditions for superior adsorption were obtained at pH 6; time of contact, 90 min; metal solution concentration, 200 mg/L; adsorbent dose, 0.3 g/L. The modeling of the adsorption data was found to be consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which suggests a fast adsorption process. However, the equilibrium data modeling was consistent with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorptive removal process, including Δ G °, Δ H °, and Δ S

  18. One-Step Carbon Coating and Polyacrylamide Functionalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancing Magnetic Adsorptive-Remediation of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Habila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are used in adsorptive removal of heavy metals from polluted wastewater. However, their poor stability in an acidic medium necessitates their protection with a coating layer. Coating magnetic nanoparticles with carbon showed proper protection but the heavy metal removal efficiency was slightly weak. However, to boost the removal efficiencies of surface functionalization, polyacrylamide was applied to carbon-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In this paper, to facilitate the synthesis process, one-step carbon coating and polyacrylamide functionalization were conducted using the hydrothermal technique with the aim of enhancing the adsorptive removal capacity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles towards some heavy metals such as Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Cd(II. The results showed that the one-step process succeeded in developing a carbon coating layer and polyacrylamide functionality on Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The stability of the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an adsorbent in an acidic medium was improved due to its resistance to the dissolution that was gained during carbon coating and surface functionalization with polyacrylamide. The adsorptive removal process was investigated in relation to various parameters such as pH, time of contact, metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The polyacrylamide functionalized Fe3O4 showed an improvement in the adsorption capacity as compared with the unfunctionalized one. The conditions for superior adsorption were obtained at pH 6; time of contact, 90 min; metal solution concentration, 200 mg/L; adsorbent dose, 0.3 g/L. The modeling of the adsorption data was found to be consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which suggests a fast adsorption process. However, the equilibrium data modeling was consistent with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorptive removal process, including ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°, indicated a

  19. Photo-Curable Metal-Chelating Coatings Offer a Scalable Approach to Production of Antioxidant Active Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Goddard, Julie

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic metal chelators (for example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) are widely used as additives to control trace transition metal induced oxidation in consumer products. To enable removal of synthetic chelators in response to increasing consumer demand for clean label products, metal-chelating active food packaging technologies have been developed with demonstrated antioxidant efficacy in simulated food systems. However, prior work in fabrication of metal-chelating materials leveraged batch chemical reactions to tether metal-chelating ligands, a process with limited industrial translatability for large-scale fabrication. To improve the industrial translatability, we have designed a 2-step laminated photo-grafting process to introduce metal chelating functionality onto common polymeric packaging materials. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functionalized materials were fabricated by photo-grafting poly(acrylic acid) onto polypropylene (PP) films, followed by a second photo-grafting process to graft-polymerize an IDA functionalized vinyl monomer (GMA-IDA). The photo-grafting was conducted under atmospheric conditions and was completed in 2 min. The resulting IDA functionalized metal-chelating material was able to chelate iron and copper, and showed antioxidant efficacy against ascorbic acid degradation, supporting its potential to be used synergistically with natural antioxidants for preservation of food and beverage products. The 2-step photo-grafting process improves the throughput of active packaging coatings, enabling potential roll-to-roll fabrication of metal-chelating active packaging materials for antioxidant food packaging applications. To address consumer and retail demands for "clean label" foods and beverages without a corresponding loss in product quality and shelf life, producers are seeking next generation technologies such as active packaging. In this work, we will report the synthesis of metal-chelating active packaging films, which enable removal

  20. Metal resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria and their potential to remove Hg in the presence of other metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Costa, Alexandre Pereira; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Gianello, Clesio; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of the environment by heavy metals has been increasing in recent years due to industrial activities. Thus research involving microorganisms capable of surviving in multi-contaminated environments is extremely important. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the removal of mercury alone and in the presence of cadmium, nickel and lead by four mercury-resistant microorganisms; estimate the removal of Cd, Ni and Pb; understand the mechanisms involved (reduction, siderophores, biofilms, biosorption and bioaccumulation) in the metal resistance of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D; and determine the capacity of Pseudomonas sp. B50D in removing Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb from an industrial effluent. It was shown that the four isolates evaluated were capable of removing from 62% to 95% of mercury from a culture medium with no addition of other metals. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D showed the best performance in the removal of mercury when evaluated concomitantly with other metals. This isolate was capable of removing 75% of Hg in the presence of Cd and 91% in the presence of Ni and Pb. With respect to the other metals it removed 60%, 15% and 85% of Cd, Ni and Pb, respectively. In tests with effluent, the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D removed 85% of Hg but did not remove the other metals. This isolate presented reduction, biosorption, biofilm production and siderophore production as its metal resistance mechanisms. Pseudomonas sp. B50D was thus a candidate with potential for application in the bioremediation of effluents with complex metal contaminations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. To study the recovery of L-Cysteine using halloysite nanotubes after heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Juhi

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wastes are a major source of soil and water pollution that originate from mining industries, chemical industries, metal processing industries, etc. These wastes consist of a variety of chemicals including phenolics, heavy metals, etc. Use of industrial effluent and sewage sludge on agricultural land has become a common practice in the world which results in these toxic metals being transferred and ultimately concentrate in plant tissues from water and the soil. The metals that get accumulated, prove detrimental to plants themselves and may also cause damage to the healths of animals as well as man. This is because the heavy metals become toxins above certain concentrations, over a narrow range. As a further matter, these metals negatively affect the natural microbial populations as well, that leads to the disruption of fundamental ecological processes. However, many techniques and methods have been advanced to clear the heavy metal polluted soils and waters. One important method is by removing heavy metals with the help of amino acids like L-Cysteine and L-Penicillamine. But also, economy of removal of pollutant heavy metals from soils and waters is a major concern. Present study helps in decreasing the cost for large-scale removal of heavy metals from polluted water by recovering the amino acid (L-Cysteine) after removal of nickel (Ni+2) at a fixed pH, by binding the Ni+2 with halloysite nanotubes(HNT), so that L-Cysteine can be reused again for removal of heavy metals.

  2. Slurry erosion and abrasion of metal-ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagues, A.A.; Spencer, D.K.; Sethi, V.K.; Sargent, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four coatings, including tungsten carbide wear-resistant and cobalt-base corrosion-resistant materials, were tested for abrasion and erosion performance in silica sand and in Alundum slurries. A 1018 carbon steel sample was also tested for comparison. The abrasion tests were conducted with a wet sand rubber wheel device, whereas a slurry jet impingement apparatus was used in the erosion tests. The results revealed that the abrasive wear performance improves dramatically as the coating hardness increases. By contrast, the erosion performance was not clearly related to the hardness of the materials tested. The wear mechanisms and the suitability of the test methods to evaluate coatings are discussed

  3. Water-Based Assembly of Polymer-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Functional Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Souvik [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; McGrail, Benard Peter [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA

    2016-12-27

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained tremendous attention for their porosity, size selectivity, and structural diversity. There is a need for MOF-based coatings, particularly in applications such as separations, electronics and energy; yet forming thin, functional, conformal coatings is prohibitive because MOFs exist as a powder. Layer-by- layer assembly, a versatile thin film coating approach, offers a unique solution to this problem, but this approach requires MOFs that are water-dispersible and bear a surface charge. Here, we address these issues by examining water-based dispersions of MIL-101(Cr) that facilitate the formation of robust polymer-MOF hybrid coatings. Specifically, the substrate to be coated is alternately exposed to an aqueous solution of poly(styrene sulfonate) and dispersion MIL-101(Cr), yielding linear film growth and coatings with a MOF content as high as 77 wt%.This approach is surface-agnostic, in which the coating is successfully applied to silicon, glass, flexible plastic, and even cotton fabric, conformally coating individual fibers. In contrast, prior attempts at forming MOF-coatings were severely limited to a handful of surfaces, required harsh chemical treatment, and were not conformal. The approach presented here unambiguously confirms that MOFs can be conformally coated onto complex and unusual surfaces, opening the door for a wide variety of applications.

  4. Physical removal of metallic carbon nanotubes from nanotube network devices using a thermal and fluidic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Alexandra C; Shaughnessy, Michael; Wong, Bryan M; Kane, Alexander A; Krafcik, Karen L; Léonard, François; Kuznetsov, Oleksandr V; Billups, W Edward; Hauge, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices based on thin films of carbon nanotubes are currently limited by the presence of metallic nanotubes. Here we present a novel approach based on nanotube alkyl functionalization to physically remove the metallic nanotubes from such network devices. The process relies on preferential thermal desorption of the alkyls from the semiconducting nanotubes and the subsequent dissolution and selective removal of the metallic nanotubes in chloroform. The approach is versatile and is applied to devices post-fabrication. (paper)

  5. Transfer of Wire Arc-Sprayed Metal Coatings onto Plastic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Hopmann, Ch.; Ochotta, P.

    2018-01-01

    By means of In-Mold-Metal-Spraying (IMMS), metal coatings deposited by means of arc spraying process (ASP) can be transferred onto plastic parts during injection molding, thus realizing an efficient production of metallized plastic parts. Parts produced by means of IMMS can be used in electrical applications. In the current study, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied with different feedstock materials was determined. As a starting point, pressurized air is used as atomizing gas for ASP. In contrast to Zn coatings, Cu coatings applied with pressurized air exhibit a significantly higher electrical resistivity in comparison with massive material. One possible reason is the more pronounced oxidation of Cu particles during ASP. Therefore, N2 and a mixture of N2 and H2 were used as atomizing gas. As a result, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied by means of IMMS could be significantly reduced. Furthermore, standoff distance, current and pressure of the atomizing gas were varied to investigate the influence of these process parameters on the electrical resistivity of Zn coatings using a full factorial experiment design with center point. It can be observed that the electrical resistivity of the Zn coatings increases with decreasing current and increasing standoff distance and pressure.

  6. Facile preparation of polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 hybrid materials for Cu2+ removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Zhao, Jiao; Chen, Junyu; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Tian, Jianwen; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-01-01

    Polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 (SiO2@PEI-TA) hybrid materials have been prepared via a single-step multifunctional coating with polyethylenimine (PEI) and tannins (TA), and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared SiO2@PEI-TA composites were examined as adsorbents to remove the Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial Cu2+ concentration, solution pH and temperature, on Cu2+ adsorption have been investigated. The results show that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is dependent on the contact time, Cu2+ concentration, pH and temperature. The SiO2@PEI-TA composites show a 2.4-fold increase in adsorption capacity, implying that the introduction of PEI-TA coating is in favor of the Cu2+ adsorption. Based on the analysis of kinetic data, the kinetics of Cu2+ adsorption is more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data are analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results of isotherms show that the better agreement is Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient of 0.9914, which suggests that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is mainly a heterogeneous adsorption process. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption interaction is actually a spontaneous and endothermic chemical process, which might involve the chemical chelation between Cu2+ and functional groups (amine and carboxyl groups) on the surface of SiO2@PEI-TA. In addition, the Cu2+ ions could desorb from SiO2@PEI-TA by using acid solution and the adsorption efficiency remains at high level after five adsorption-desorption recycles. These results provide potential applications of these novel adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal Cu2+ from aqueous solution and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed in the study.

  7. Metal coatings on long-period fiber gratings and the implementation of an associated sensing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Jiang, Jianfeng; Wang, Feifan; Fu, Yanshu; Zhang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model for analyzing the temperature sensing properties of a metal-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) was presented. The influences of metal coatings on the temperature sensing properties of LPFGs were simulated and experimentally investigated. The effects of various material parameters were estimated using the single variable method of the Matlab 7.0 software. The simulation results showed that temperature sensitivity increased with an increasing elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and thermal expansion coefficient of the coating metal. Both the experimental and simulated results showed that the thickness of the metal coating had a significant impact on the associated temperature sensing properties. The calculated temperature sensitivities of the LPFGs with Ni-coating thicknesses of 6.5, 5.2, and 7.2 μm were 57.27, 60.91, and 66.55 pm/°C, respectively; and with Cu-coating thicknesses of 3.8, 4.9, and 5.4 μm, the calculated temperature sensitivities were 58.17, 59.58, and 61.18 pm/°C, respectively. Compared to the experimental results, the relative errors in the simulation were less than 9.75%, indicating the feasibility of the new temperature sensing model.

  8. A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.E.M.; Reuter, M.A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential

  9. Copper Metallic Substrates for High Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yust, Nicholas A; Nekkanti, Rama; Brunke, Lyle B; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Barnes, Paul N

    2006-01-01

    ...) coated conductor applications. A comparison is made between Cu substrates fabricated by reverse cold rolling followed by recrystallization, from stock materials that were obtained in the form of extruded rod and rolled plate...

  10. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions.

  11. Theoretical analysis and coating thickness determination of a dual layer metal coated FBG sensor for sensitivity enhancement at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Rajinikumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Use of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor is very appealing for sensing low temperature and strain in superconducting magnets because of their miniature size and the possibility of accommodating many sensors in a single fiber. The main drawback is their low intrinsic thermal sensitivity at low temperatures below 120 K. Approaching cryogenic temperatures, temperature changes lower than a few degrees Kelvin cannot be resolved, since they do not cause an appreciable shift of the wavelength diffracted by a bare FBG sensor. To improve the thermal sensitivity and thermal inertia below 77 K, the Bare FBG (BFBG) sensor can be coated with high thermal expansion coefficient materials. In this work, different metal were considered for coating the FBG sensor. For theoretical investigation, a double layered circular thick wall tube model has been considered to study the effect on sensitivity due to the mechanical properties like Young’s modulus, Thermal expansion coefficient, Poisson’s ratio of selected materials at a various cryogenic temperatures. The primary and the secondary coating thickness for a dual layer metal coated FBG sensor have been determined from the above study. The sensor was then fabricated and tested at cryogenic temperature range from 4-300 K. The cryogenic temperature characteristics of the tested sensors are reported.

  12. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    pH and chloride ion concentration levels over time. As the corrosion protection of the coating decreases, chloride ion concentration will increase...Hitorff cell, the nine independent formulations from the orthogonal matrix were tested for pH and chloride ion concentration levels over time. As the...corrosion protection of the coating decreases, chloride ion concentration will increase. Preliminary tests indicate that the effects of MPV percent

  13. Coated metal hydrides for stationary energy storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Priyen C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores suitable materials for energy stores for stationary applications, specifically a prototype hydrogen store, domestic thermal store operating between 25-100 C and a moderate thermal store for a concentrated solar power (CSP) plant operating at 400 C. The approach incorporated a unique coating technique to deliver prototype hydrogen and thermal storage media, where the coating could offer commercial advantages, for example, in the form of hydride activation and enhanced kine...

  14. Removal, recovery and enrichment of metals from aqueous solutions using carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Gang Yu; Central South University, Changsha, Hunan; Ministry of Education; Xiu-Hui Zhao; Lin-Yan Yu; Fei-Peng Jiao; Xiao-Qing Chen; Ministry of Education; Jian-Hui Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution caused by toxic metals (heavy metals, radioactive metals, etc.) is one of the major global issues, thus removal of toxic metals from contaminated water seems to be particularly important. On the other hand, the recovery and enrichment of metals, especially noble metals, from waste water is also crucial. To address these issues, nanotechnology plays an essential role in environmental monitoring and pollution control. To remove metals from contaminated water, or enrich metals from waste water, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites have attracted great attention due to their excellent adsorption performance. The removal efficiency for metal ions by CNTs was observed around 10-80 %, which could be improved to approach 100 % by selectively functionalizing CNTs with organic ligands. Herein, we review the applications of CNTs in treatment of toxic metal-containing wastewater for environmental monitoring and metals recovery. Due to their higher sensitivity and selectivity towards the enrichment of metals or detection of toxic metal pollution of the environment, and the latest research progress of using CNT composites for metal treatment is also discussed. (author)

  15. Metal Ions Removal Using Nano Oxide Pyrolox™ Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysz-Płaska, A.; Skwarek, E.; Budnyak, T. M.; Kołodyńska, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the use of Pyrolox™ containing manganese nano oxides used for the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions. Their concentrations were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometer SpectrAA 240 FS (Varian) as well as UV-vis method. For this purpose the static kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using the batch technique. The effect of solution pH, shaking time, initial metal ion concentrations, sorbent dosage, and temperature was investigated. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the sorption isotherm models proposed by Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetic results showed that the pseudo second order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well. The results indicate that adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions is strongly dependent on pH. The value of pH 4-7 was optimal adsorption. The time to reach the equilibrium was found to be 24 h, and after this time, the sorption percentage reached about 70%. Kinetics of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and U(VI) adsorption on the adsorbent can be described by the pseudo second order rate equation. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements for adsorbent characterization were performed. Characteristic points of the double layer determined for the studied Pyrolox™ sample in 0.001 mol/dm3 NaCl solution are pHPZC = 4 and pHIEP < 2.

  16. Osseoconductive and Corrosion-Inhibiting Plasma-Sprayed Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Metallic Medical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Heimann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last several decades, research into bioceramic coatings for medical implants has emerged as a hot topic among materials scientists and clinical practitioners alike. In particular, today, calcium phosphate-based bioceramic materials are ubiquitously used in clinical applications to coat the stems of metallic endoprosthetic hips as well as the surfaces of dental root implants. Such implants frequently consist of titanium alloys, CoCrMo alloy, or austenitic surgical stainless steels, and aim at replacing lost body parts or restoring functions to diseased or damaged tissues of the human body. In addition, besides such inherently corrosion-resistant metals, increasingly, biodegradable metals such as magnesium alloys are being researched for osseosynthetic devices and coronary stents both of which are intended to remain in the human body for only a short time. Biocompatible coatings provide not only vital biological functions by supporting osseoconductivity but may serve also to protect the metallic parts of implants from corrosion in the aggressive metabolic environment. Moreover, the essential properties of hydroxylapatite-based bioceramic coatings including their in vitro alteration in contact with simulated body fluids will be addressed in this current review paper. In addition, a paradigmatic shift is suggested towards the development of transition metal-substituted calcium hexa-orthophosphates with the NaSiCON (Na superionic conductor structure to be used for implant coatings with superior degradation resistance in the corrosive body environment and with pronounced ionic conductivity that might be utilized in novel devices for electrical bone growth stimulation.

  17. Determination of negative permeability and permittivity of metal strip coated ferrite disks using the transmission and reflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N.; Obol, M.; Sharma, A.; Afsar, M. N.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a full band microwave isolator constructed from an array of metal wire-coated ferrite samples is presented. Here, the magnetic permeability of the metamaterialized structure is controlled by a relatively weak external magnetic field. The tunable permeability of the ferrites in this experiment allows us to create unidirectional wave propagation through the structure over the entire X-band frequency spectrum. The analysis presented here takes into account potential surface plasmon modes generated between the gaps of metal wires when the external magnetic field is applied. Here, we present a modification of the traditional transmission-reflection measurement method by normalizing the transmission and reflection coefficients. This modification removes the occurrence of atypical phenomena for negative imaginary components of permeability and permittivity that arises in the measurement of metamaterials. Our modified method precisely determines the refractive index, impedance, permittivity, and permeability of both traditional reciprocal networks as well as nonreciprocal networks, such as the one presented here.

  18. Effective removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using humic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun; Price, Nathaniel T; Gracia Pinilla, Miguel Ángel; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2017-10-15

    Effective removal of excess phosphate from water is critical to counteract eutrophication and restore water quality. In this study, low cost, environmentally friendly humic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles (HA-MNP) were synthesized and applied for the remediation of phosphate from aqueous media. The HA-MNPs, characterized by FTIR, TEM and HAADF-STEM showed the extensive coating of humic acid on the magnetite surface. The magnetic nanoparticles with diameters of 7-12 nm could be easily separated from the reaction mixture by using a simple hand held magnet. Adsorption studies demonstrate the fast and effective separation of phosphate with maximum adsorption capacity of 28.9 mg/g at pH 6.6. The adsorption behavior follows the Freundlich isotherm suggesting the formation of non-uniform multilayers of phosphate on the heterogeneous surface of HA-MNP. The adsorption kinetic fits the pseudo-second order model well with rate constants of 0.206 ± 0.003, 0.073 ± 0.002 and 0.061 ± 0.003 g mg -1 min -1 for phosphate (P) concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 mg/L respectively. The removal of phosphate was found higher at acidic and neutral pH compared to basic conditions. The nanoparticles exhibit good selectivity and adsorption efficiency for phosphate in presence of co-existing ions such as Cl - , SO 4 2- and NO 3 - with some inhibition effect by CO 3 2- . The effect of temperature on the adsorption reveals that the process is endothermic and spontaneous. HA-MNPs are promising, simple, environmentally friendly materials for the removal of phosphate from aqueous media. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most dominant A. candidus on the isolation plates exhibited the highest activity for biosorption of heavy metals. The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. Keywords: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  20. Sulfate and metal removal in bioreactors treating acid mine drainage dominated with iron and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Craig A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D; Milke, Mark W; Weber, Paul A; Trumm, Dave A

    2009-03-01

    Bioreactors represent an emerging technology for removing metals and sulfate commonly found in acid mine drainage (AMD). Six continuously fed anaerobic bioreactors employing organic and alkaline waste materials were operated to investigate relationships between metal and sulfate removal from AMD. Median AMD influent chemistry was 65.8mg/L Fe (49.7-113mg/L), 46.5mg/L Al (33.5-72.4mg/L) and 608mg/L sulfate (493-1007mg/L). Bioreactors containing mussel shells as an alkaline substrate amendment were more effective at removing metals and sulfate than those containing limestone. Experimental results indicated bioreactor design and operation should be dependent on treatment goals. These include 0.3mol sulfate loading/m(3)/day for sulfate removal (mean of 94.1% (87.6-98.0%), 0.4mol metals/m(3)/day for metal (mean of 99.0% (98.5-99.9%)) and partial sulfate (mean of 46.0% (39.6-57.8%)) removal and 0.8mol metals/m(3)/day for metal (mean of 98.4% (98.2-98.6%) and minimal sulfate (mean of 16.6% (11.9-19.2%)) removal. Aluminum removal efficiency was on average 1.72% (0.04-3.42%) greater than Fe during stable operating conditions.

  1. New biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somaia B.

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is an extensive technology applied for the removal of heavy metal ions and other pollutants from aqueous solutions. In the present study, the biosorption of cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury ions from polluted surface seawater in El-Max Bay was determined using hybrid active carbon sorbents. These sorbents were treated chemically by acid, base and redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast biomass for increasing their biosorption capacity and the highest metal uptake values. The surface function and morphology of the hybrid immobilized sorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Metal removal values proved that the vital role of baker's yeast as a significant high removable due to functional groups at baker's yeast cell wall surface that have the ability to forming various coordination complexes with metal ions. A noticeable increase in the removal of all studied metals was observed and reached to 100 %.

  2. Nondestructive inspection of plasma-sprayed metallic coatings for coal conversion equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.W.; Snyder, S.D.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a project to develop nondestructive inspection techniques for metallic wear- and process-resistant coatings used in coal system components. Physical properties, especially porosity, and the nominal 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thickness complicate the inspection of these coatings. The class of coatings selected for laboratory evaluation were CoCrAlY (cobalt-chromium-aluminum-yttrium) types; the specific material used was a Union Carbide spray powder, UCAR LCO-7, which is Co-22.8% Cr-12.9% Al-0.6% Y, sprayed onto alloy 800 substrates. The desired inspection techniques were to: (1) detect cracks or holes in the coating; (2) measure the coating thickness from the coated side; and (3) detect lamellar flaws or separations within the coating layer or between the coating and the substrate. Surface methods (such as liquid penetrant), eddy currents, and radiography were investigated for crack and hole detection; eddy currents, x-ray fluorescence, and ultrasonics were investigated for thickness measurement; and ultrasonics and infrared thermography were investigated for lamellar flaw detection. In general, we determined that significant development effort was required to adapt even the more common and highly developed techniques to the coating inspection problems. Significant progress was made in a number of the investigations undertaken, but financial restraints prevented completion of the planned work.

  3. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  4. High level waste containing granules coated and embedded in metal as an alternative to HLW glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.

    1980-01-01

    Simulated high level waste containing granules were overcoated with pyrocarbon or nickel respectively. The coatings were performed by the use of chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed. The coated granules were embedded in an aluminium-silicon-alloy to improve the dissipation of radiation induced heat. The metal-granules-composites obtained were of improved product stability related to the high level waste containing glasses. (orig.) [de

  5. Investigation of antimicrobial activity and morphological properties of metal coated textile surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Senturk, Kenan; Corukhlu, Turgay; Varturk, Ipek; Seker, S.; Shahidi, S.; Korachi, May; Dobrovolskiy, A.M.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Matsevich, S.V.; Keskin, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    The results of investigation antimicrobial and surface properties of the textiles metal coated by means of magnetron or the cleaning-deposition system, which is based on sequentially arranged DC anode layer accelerator and hollow cathode, are presented. The antimicrobial properties against bacteria E. coli and S. aureus of cotton and polyester/cotton textiles coated by Cu, Ti and Ag with the use of two different systems were examined and compared.

  6. Cube-textured metal substrates for reel-to-reel processing of coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian

    This thesis presents the results of a study aimed at investigating important fabrication aspects of reel-to-reel processing of metal substrates for coated conductors and identifying a new substrate candidate material with improved magnetic properties. The eect of mechanical polishing on surface r...... texture and the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. Finally, a Ni-5Cu-5W substrate may be a good candidate material as a substrate in future coated conductors....

  7. Metal coated functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    This study is considered as a method for producing multifunctional composite materials by using metals coated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this research, various metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) were successfully deposited onto the surface of SWCNTs. It has been found that homogenous dispersion and dense nucleation sites are the necessary conditions to form uniform coatings on SWCNTs. Functionalization has been applied to achieve considerable improvement in the dispersion of purified SWCNTs and creates more nucleation sites for subsequent metal deposition. A three-step electroless plating approach was used and the coating mechanism is described in the paper. The samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Bulk copper/aluminum-SWNT composites were processed by powder metallurgy with wet mixing techniques. Coated SWCNTs were well dispersed in the metal matrix. Cold pressing followed by sintering was applied to control porosity. The relationships between hardness and SWCNTs addition were discussed. Ni-SWCNTs composite coatings were prepared by electro-composite deposition. SWCNTs were suspended in a Ni deposition electrolyte and deposited together with nickel during electrodeposition. SWCNTs concentrations in the coatings were found to be related to the SWCNTs concentration in the solution, current density and agitation rate. The microstructure of the coatings has been examined by electron microscopy. Ni coated SWCNTs were also incorporated into the high temperature Bismaleimide (BMI)/graphite composite to improve Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and surface conductivity. The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was used to process these composites. Surface and volume resistivity and EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites

  8. Cold spray of metal-polymer composite coatings onto carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, Vincent; Borit, François; Chesnaud, Anthony; Jeandin, Michel; Faessel, Matthieu; Figliuzzi, Bruno; Willot, François; Roche, K.; Surdon, G.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The growing use of Polymer-Matrix Composite (PMC) materials within transport industry raises new security concerns, especially those due to lightning. To protect these electrically insulating materials, conductive coatings can be applied. Due to the high level of required properties, cold spray is believed to be an effective way to achieve these coatings. Recent studies showed that obstacles remained to be overcome when cold spraying metallic particles onto Carbon Fibe...

  9. The efficient removal of endotoxins from insulin using quaternized polyethyleneimine-coated porous zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeff, C; Zhao, Q; Almlöf, E; Flickinger, M; Carr, P W

    1999-10-15

    The synthesis and use of a zirconia-based, alkali-stable strong anion-exchange stationary phase are described for the removal of pyrogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from insulin. The strong anion-exchange material is produced by deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto porous zirconia particles, followed by cross-linking with a novel reagent, 1,2-bis-(2-iodoethoxy) ethane, and quaternization with iodomethane. Physical characterization of the chromatographic support shows that it has an ion-exchange capacity of 0.6 mmol/g, and 82% of the amine sites on the surface are in quaternized form. Isocratic elution of small benzoic acid derivatives shows good column efficiency. The two primary virtues of this material are its chemical stability under alkali conditions (up to pH 13) and its lower hydrophobicity compared to previously described alkali-stable PEI-coated zirconia supports cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane. Using this new zirconia-based phase, a purification protocol is developed for the efficient removal of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS from bovine insulin samples. An endotoxin clearance rate of up to 1.3 x 10(8) was attained. Endotoxin levels were reduced to less than 5 endotoxin units/ml even at initial contamination levels as high as 5.0 x 10(6) endotoxin units/ml. Furthermore, endotoxin adsorbed to the porous zirconia column may be easily removed (depyrogenated) using alkali for repeated purification cycles. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. A shape-recovery polymer coating for the corrosion protection of metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Van Damme, Jonas; Verheyen, Karen; Bauters, Erwin; De Graeve, Iris; Du Prez, Filip E; Terryn, Herman

    2015-01-14

    Self-healing polymer coatings are a type of smart material aimed for advanced corrosion protection of metals. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of two new UV-cure self-healing coatings based on acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethanes. On a macroscopic scale, the cured films all show outstanding mechanical properties, combining relatively high Young's modulus of up to 270 MPa with a strain at break above 350%. After thermal activation the strained films recover up to 97% of their original length. Optical and electron microscopy reveals the self-healing properties of these coatings on hot dip galvanized steel with scratches and microindentations. The temperature-induced closing of such defects restores the corrosion protection and barrier properties of the coating as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Therefore, such coatings are a complementary option for encapsulation-based autonomous corrosion protection systems.

  11. Friction Modifier Using Adherent Metallic Multilayered or Mixed Element Layer Conversion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Starks, Lloyd L., Sr. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process for creating conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes for surfaces, wherein the conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The process comprises forming an aqueous solution of water, phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The aqueous solution forms an anti-friction multilayer conversion and/or mixed element coating or a spin, drawing, and extrusion finish on a surface when applied to the surface, either directly without the use of applied external electromotive force, or as an additive in lubricating fluids.

  12. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S.; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-01

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Zinc-Coated Structured Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc brazing has, in comparison to arc welding, the advantage of less heat input while joining galvanized sheet metals. The evaporation of zinc is reduced in the areas adjacent to the joint and improved corrosion protection is achieved. In the automotive industry, lightweight design is a key technology against the background of the weight and environment protection. Structured sheet metals have higher stiffness compared to typical automobile sheet metals and therefore they can play an important role in lightweight structures. In the present paper, three arc brazing variants of galvanized structured sheet metals were validated in terms of the corrosion behavior. The standard gas metal arc brazing, the pulsed arc brazing, and the cold metal transfer (CMT® in combination with a pulsed cycle were investigated. In experimental climate change tests, the influence of the brazing processes on the corrosion behavior of galvanized structured sheet metals was investigated. After that, the corrosion behavior of brazed structured and flat sheet metals was compared. Because of the selected lap joint, the valuation of damage between sheet metals was conducted. The pulsed CMT brazing has been derived from the results as the best brazing method for the joining process of galvanized structured sheet metals.

  14. Thin Glass Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix

    This dissertation presents the research work aimed at developing functional submicrometer thick SiOx barrier coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steel substrates in chloride containing media, which may enable the use of stainless steels as plate material for marine heat exchangers......, and thus lower the component cost with respect to incumbent materials such as titanium alloys. The technology is of particular interest for the application on heat exchanger plates and components, since the thin coating films are expected to serve as efficient ionic barrier coatings, which prevent issues...... with localized corrosion and do not impact the heat transfer or the component performance. The herein presented approach focuses primarily on the formation of SiOx-like thin films from Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) –based “spin-on-glass” (SOG) precursor. The technology is well known for the deposition...

  15. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Polluted Waters by Using of Low Cost Adsorbents: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physicochemical treatment of wastewaters which industries employ to reduce hazardous organic and inorganic wastes in effluents. In recent years the use of low-cost adsorbents has been widely investigated as a replacement for the currently costly methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well-known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In this study, the use of some of low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been reviewed.

  16. Ultrasound-promoted coating of MOF-5 on silk fiber and study of adsorptive removal and recovery of hazardous anionic dye "congo red".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Somayeh; Morsali, Ali

    2014-07-01

    A metal-organic framework MOF-5 has been synthesized on silk fiber through electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly. The silk surface coating was formed via sequential dipping in an alternating bath of metal and ligand solutions at room temperature by direct mixing. SEM was used to investigate the growth of MOF-5 coating as materials for separation membrane due to their desirable properties in adsorptive removal of congo red (CR) from contaminated water. The adsorption capacity of MOF-5 is remarkable high in the liquid phase. The adsorption of CR at various concentration and contact time in spontaneous process were studied. The silk fibers containing MOF-5 open a wide field of possible applications, such as protection layers or membranes in pollution remediation wastewater and any effluent. Desorption of the dye can be carried out by using NaOH solution with more than about 50% recovery of congo red from MOF-5 coated on silk membrane filtration. In order to investigate the role of sonicating on the morphology of products, one of the reactions was performed with ultrasound irradiation and the crystal growth is completed more than other methods. The samples and adsorption of CR were characterized with SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface Functionalization of Metal-Organic Framework Crystals with Catechol Coatings for Enhanced Moisture Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells-Gil, Javier; Novio, Fernando; Padial, Natalia M; Tatay, Sergio; Ruíz-Molina, Daniel; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos

    2017-12-27

    Robust catechol coatings for enhanced moisture tolerance were produced in one step by direct reaction of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) with synthetic catechols. We ascribe the rapid formation of homogeneous coatings around the metal-organic framework particles to the biomimetic catalytic activity of Cu(II) dimers in the external surface of the crystals. Use of fluorinated catechols results in hydrophobic, permeable coatings that protect HKUST from water degradation while retaining close to 100% of its original sorption capacity.

  18. Coating compositions and method for the treatment of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.; Stastny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    An aqeuous acidic composition provides improved coating for aluminum. The composition comprises from about 10 to about 150 ppm zirconium, from about 20 to about 250 ppm fluoride, from 30 to about 125 ppm tannin, from about about 15 to about 100 ppm phosphate and from about 5 to about 50 ppm zinc, said coating solution having a tannin to phosphate ratio in the range of at least about 1:1 to about 2:1 and a pH in the range of about 2.3 to about 2.95

  19. Phosphate chemical conversion coatings on metallic substrates for biomedical application: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xian; Xiao, Gui-yong; Lu, Yu-peng

    2015-02-01

    Phosphate chemical conversion (PCC) technology has been investigated for improving the surface performance of metallic implants in the biomedical field over the last decade. The metallic materials, such as magnesium and its alloys, titanium, pure iron and stainless steel are widely used as orthopedic devices for immobilization of bone fractures in clinic. They were previously studied as metal substrates for PCC coating aiming to modify their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium PCC coatings are frequently utilized considering their nature and the end-use. Although PCC coating has been confirmed to potentially improve the bio-performance of metallic implants in vitro and in vivo by many researchers, there are no unified standards or regulations to give quantitative appraisal of its quality and property. As such, an overview of several main phosphate phases together with their properties and behaviors in vitro and in vivo was conducted. The mechanism of phosphating was also briefly discussed. Critical qualities of PCC coating used for biomedical application including corrosion resistance, wettability and bonding strength were analyzed separately. Biological response including in vitro cell investigations and in vivo tissue response were discussed in terms of the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of PCC coating. Further investigations are proposed to develop appropriate performance evaluation measurements by combining conventional technologies and biomedical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tribological study of novel metal-doped carbon-based coatings with enhanced thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Paranjayee

    Low friction and high temperature wear resistant PVD coatings are in high demand for use on engine components, which operate in extreme environment. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings are extensively used for this purpose due to their excellent tribological properties. However, DLC degrades at high temperature and pressure conditions leading to significant increase in friction and wear rate even in the presence of lubricant. To withstand high working temperature and simultaneously maintain improved tribological properties in lubricated condition at ambient and at high temperature, both the transitional metals Mo and W are simultaneously introduced in a carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) for the first time utilising the benefits of smart material combination and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS).This research includes development of Mo-W-C coating and investigation of thermal stability and tribological properties at ambient and high temperatures. The as-deposited Mo-W-C coating contains nanocrystalline almost X-ray amorphous structure and show dense microstructure, good adhesion with substrate (Lc -80 N) and high hardness (-17 GPa). During boundary lubricated sliding (commercially available engine oil without friction modifier used as lubricant) at ambient temperature, Mo-W-C coating outperforms commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings by providing significantly low friction (u- 0.03 - 0.05) and excellent wear resistance (no measurable wear). When lubricated sliding tests are carried out at 200°C, Mo-W-C coating provides low friction similar to ambient temperature, whereas degradation of DLC coating properties fails to maintain low friction coefficient.A range of surface analyses techniques reveal "in-situ" formation of solid lubricants (WS2 and M0S2) at the tribo-contacts due to tribochemically reactive wear mechanism at ambient and high temperature. Mo-W-C coating reacts with EP additives present in the engine oil during sliding to form WS2

  1. From Coating to Dopant: How the Transition Metal Composition Affects Alumina Coatings on Ni-Rich Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Binghong [Chemical; Key, Baris [Chemical; Lapidus, Saul H. [Chemical; Garcia, Juan C. [Chemical; Iddir, Hakim [Chemical; Vaughey, John T. [Chemical; Dogan, Fulya [Chemical

    2017-11-14

    Surface alumina coatings have been shown to be an effective way to improve the stability and cyclability of cathode materials. However, a detailed understanding of the relationship between the surface coatings and the bulk layered oxides is needed to better define the critical cathode–electrolyte interface. In this paper, we systematically studied the effect of the composition of Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1–x–yO2 (NMC) on the surface alumina coatings. Changing cathode composition from LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) to LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) and LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) was found to facilitate the diffusion of surface alumina into the bulk after high-temperature annealing. By use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques, Al was seen to have a high bulk compatibility with higher Ni/Co content, and low bulk compatibility was associated with Mn in the transition metal layer. It was also noted that the cathode composition affected the observed morphology and surface chemistry of the coated material, which has an effect on electrochemical cycling. The presence of a high surface Li concentration and strong alumina diffusion into the bulk led to a smoother surface coating on NMC811 with no excess alumina aggregated on the surface. Structural characterization of pristine NMC particles also suggests surface Co segregation, which may act to mediate the diffusion of the Al from the surface to the bulk. The diffusion of Al into the bulk was found to be detrimental to the protection function of surface coatings leading to poor overall cyclability, indicating the importance of compatibility between surface coatings and bulk oxides on the electrochemical performance of coated cathode materials. These results are important in developing a better coating method for synthesis of next-generation cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  3. The removal of trace metals at the wastewater treatment plant of Psyttalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FIRFILIONIS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the levels of trace metals in the input and output of the Psyttalia wastewater treatment plant, as well as the removal of the various trace metal forms (dissolved, particulate during primary sedimentation. The trace metals determined were: Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni. The experimental procedure included the collection and analysis of inflow and outflow samples. Dissolved and particulate forms were separated by filtration through 0.45 and 8 Μm Millipore filters and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that particulate matter consists mainly of large particles (> 8 µ m and the sedimentation process is more effective in their removal in contrast to smaller particles. The removal of trace metals during primary sedimentation follows the decreasing sequence: Particulate metal in large particles > Particulate metal in small particles > Dissolved metal. Concerning the various metals the removal follows the sequence: Pb ~= Cu>Zn ~= Cr>Cd>Ni. The quantities of trace metals that are discharged to the sea through the outflow pipes of the Psyttalia treatment plant follow the decreasing sequence: Zn >> Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd.

  4. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described

  5. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    decrease in the P removal efficiency with time on each day for all filters: from 90% removal to 80% removal for the 75/25 and 65/35 filters, while for the 0/100 filter the P removal almost reduced to 0%. Based on these results the 75/25 (iron coated sand/glauconite) filter will be tested at field level, and additional research will be directed towards prediction of the evolution of hydraulic conductivity of the filter materials.

  6. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head dam at the mouth of the river, was removed in August 2011. The removal of the dam was part of an effort to restore the riverine ecosystem after centuries of anthropogenic impact. Sediment traps were deployed below the dam to assess changes in metal concentrations and fluxes (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from the river system into Pawtuxet Cove. Sediment traps were deployed for an average duration of 24 days each, and deployments continued for 15 months after the dam was removed. Metal concentrations in the trapped suspended particulate matter dropped after dam removal (e.g., 460 to 276 mg/kg for Zn) and remained below preremoval levels for most of the study. However, particle-bound metal fluxes increased immediately after dam removal (e.g., 1206 to 4248 g/day for Zn). Changes in flux rates during the study period indicated that river volumetric flow rates acted as the primary mechanism controlling the flux of metals into Pawtuxet Cove and ultimately upper Narragansett Bay. Even though suspended particulate matter metal concentrations initially dropped after removal of the dam, no discernable effect on the concentration or flux of the study metals exiting the river could be associa

  7. Zr-based conversion coatings for multi-metal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo Palacios, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD work, a new surface treatment based on the application of Zr-based conversion coatings by immersion in a Cu containing Zr-based conversion solution was investigated as a replacement of the traditional phosphating process for the automotive industry. Nowadays most of the cars are made of

  8. Metal-coated magnetic nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the optimization and usage of surfactantless, water dispersible Ag and Au-coated γ–Fe2O3 nanoparticles for applications in surface-enhanced .... After the solvent evaporated, 2 μL of analyte of ∼1 μM concentration was ..... dry soil, and comprised of smooth, distinct, rectangular and square shaped islands, whose ...

  9. Metal nanoparticle doped coloured coatings on glasses and plastics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pt) nanoparticles in SiO2, Au in mixed SiO2–TiO2 and SiO2–ZrO2, Au and Ag nanoparticles in inorganic–organic hybrid film matrices etc. This investigation leads to the development of tailor-made coloured coatings by tuning the surface ...

  10. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides formed by metal coating of dielectric ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Choudhury, Sajid; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    Bound hybrid plasmon-polariton modes supported by waveguides, which are formed by gold coating of ridges etched into a silica substrate, are analyzed using numerical simulations and investigated experimentally using near-field microscopy at telecom wavelengths (1425-1625 nm). Drastic modifications...

  11. Recycling light metals : Optimal thermal de-coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvithyld, A.; Meskers, C.E.M.; Gaal, S.; Reuter, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to

  12. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  13. Carbon nanostructures and graphite-coated metal nanostructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under certain conditions, pyrolysis of ruthenocene gives rise to graphite coated ruthenium nanoparticles as well as worm-like carbon structures. Pyrolysis of mixtures of ruthenocene and ferrocene gives rise to nanoparticles or nanorods of FeRu alloys, the composition depending upon the composition of the original mixture.

  14. Adsorptive removal of nickel from aqueous solutions by activated carbons from doum seed (Hyphaenethebaica coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal El-Sadaawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using low cost agriculture waste as doum-palm seed coat for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Two activated carbons had been prepared from raw doum-palm seed coat (DACI and DACII; as well, the raw material was used as an adsorbent (RD. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH of solution, initial nickel ions concentration, dose of adsorbent and contact time. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D–R Models. Different error analysis conforms that the isotherm data followed Freundlich models for all adsorbents. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich model. Adsorption mechanism was investigated using the intra-particle diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients were calculated using the film and intraparticle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of Ni2+ ions onto RD, DACI and DACII followed pseudo-second order kinetic model, and indicates that the intra-particle diffusion controls the rate of adsorption but it is not the rate limiting step.

  15. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Lumholdt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  16. Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Facultad de Odontología, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra, E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calzada México-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Galicia, Rey; Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the influence of surface properties (surface energy, composition and topography) of biocompatible materials on the adhesion of cells/bacteria on solid substrates; however, few have provided information about the effect of the atomic arrangement or crystallinity. Using magnetron sputtering deposition, we produced amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings with controlled micro and nanoscale morphology. The effect of the structure on the physical–chemical surface properties was carefully analyzed. Then, we studied how these parameters affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings demonstrated that the nano-topography and the surface energy were significantly influenced by the coating structure. Bacterial adhesion at micro-rough (2.6 μm) surfaces was independent of the surface composition and structure, contrary to the observation in sub-micron (0.5 μm) rough surfaces, where the crystalline oxides (TiO{sub 2} > ZrO{sub 2}) surfaces exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria. Particularly, crystalline TiO{sub 2}, which presented a predominant acidic nature, was more attractive for the adhesion of the negatively charged bacteria. The information provided by this study, where surface modifications are introduced by means of the deposition of amorphous or crystalline oxide coatings, offers a route for the rational design of implant surfaces to control or inhibit bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • Amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings were deposited. • The atomic ordering influences the coatings surface charge and nano-topography. • The atomic ordering modifies the bacterial adhesion for the same surface chemistry. • S. aureus adhesion was lower on a-TiO{sub 2} and a-ZrO{sub 2} than on their c-oxide counterpart. • E. coli adhesion on a-TiO{sub 2} was lower than on the c-TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Fundamental mechanical and microstructural observations in metallic glass coating production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D.T.A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The production of a wide range of metallic Glass Forming Alloys (GFA) has been investigated by several processing routes including simple arc-casting and melt-spinning to form Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG). The concepts surrounding such alloys have been directed towards the production of thick (> 300

  18. A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of cell structure, cell wall, micropores and macropores is evaluated in terms of the potential of these biosorbents for metal sequestration. Binding mechanisms are discussed, including the key functional groups involved and the ion-exchange process. Quantification of metal-biomass interactions is fundamental to the ...

  19. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    @JASEM. Since the early 1970s, there has been growing concern over the diverse effects of heavy metals on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Many heavy metals and their compound have been found that are toxic, while some are also subjected to biomagnifications. (Viessman and Hammer, 1993; Gardea – Torresday.

  20. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy ... Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION. The current ..... Uranium uptake by immobilized cells of. Pseudomonas sp. strains ...

  1. Biosorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals occur in immobilized form in sediments and as ores in nature. However due to various human activities like ore mining and industrial processes the natural biogeochemical cycles are disrupted causing increased deposition of heavy metals in terrestrial and aquatic environment. Release of these pollutants ...

  2. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  3. Thermal Shock Resistance of Stabilized Zirconia/Metal Coat on Polymer Matrix Composites by Thermal Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Huang, Wenzhi; Cheng, Haifeng; Cao, Xueqiang

    2014-12-01

    Stabilized zirconia/metal coating systems were deposited on the polymer matrix composites by a combined thermal spray process. Effects of the thicknesses of metal layers and ceramic layer on thermal shock resistance of the coating systems were investigated. According to the results of thermal shock lifetime, the coating system consisting of 20 μm Zn and 125 μm 8YSZ exhibited the best thermal shock resistance. Based on microstructure evolution, failure modes and failure mechanism of the coating systems were proposed. The main failure modes were the formation of vertical cracks and delamination in the outlayer of substrate, and the appearance of coating spallation. The residual stress, thermal stress and oxidation of substrate near the substrate/metal layer interface were responsible for coating failure, while the oxidation of substrate near the substrate/coating interface was the dominant one.

  4. removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution using rice husks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    chemical methods have been deployed to remove toxic heavy metals from waste water. Such methods include ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical precipitation, electro-dialysis, evaporation and solvent extraction (Rohaizer et al. 2013).

  5. Decay heat removal for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanick, P.P.; Brown, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. A statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments is presented. (U.S.)

  6. Morphology Analysis and Process Research on Novel Metal Fused-coating Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Zheng ying; Du, Jun; Ren, Chuan qi; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Zhitong; Bai, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Existing metal additive manufacturing equipment has high capital costs and slow throughput printing. In this paper, a new metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM) was proposed. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility. The low melting alloy was selected as the forming material. Then, the effect of process parameters such as the flow rate, deposition velocity and initial distance on the forming morphology. There is a strong coupling effect between the single track forming morphology. Through the analysis of influencing factors to improve the forming quality of specimens. The experimental results show that the twice as forming efficiency as the metal droplet deposition. Additionally, the forming morphology and quality were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray. The results show that the metal fused-coating process can achieve good surface morphology and without internal tissue defect.

  7. Metal oxide regenerable carbon dioxide removal system for an advanced portable life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacheff, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a CO2 removal system for an astronaut portable life support system to meet the EVA requirements for the Space Station is discussed, focusing on the factors important in the selection of the metal oxide absorbent for CO2 removal. Results from laboratory tests on metal oxide absorbent materials are given, including characterization studies and dynamic CO2 uptake and regeneration measurements. The preliminary design of the breadboard system to perform both the absorption and regeneration functions is presented.

  8. REMOVAL OF HEAVY-METALS FROM WASTEWATER USING A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the ... The industries are, as a consequence, required to implement more formidable effluent treatment .... The percentage removal of Pb(II) from solution increased with increasing batch adsorbent mass.

  9. In-situ Lead Removal by Iron Nano Particles Coated with Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Fadaei-tehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of nano-zero-valent iron particles coated with nickel in the removal of lead (Pb2+ from porous media. For this purpose, the nano-particles were initially synthesized and later stablilized using the strach biopolymer prior to conducting batch and continuous experiments. The results of the batch experiments revealed that the reaction kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-first-order adsorption model and that the reaction rate ranged from 0.001 to 0.035 g/mg/min depending on solution pH and the molar ratio of Fe/Pb. Continuous experiments showed that lead remediation was mostly influenced not only by seepage velocity but also by the quantity and freshness of nZVI as well as the grain type of the porous media. Maximum Pb2+ removal rates obtained in the batch and lab models were 95% and 80%, respectively. Based on the present study, S-nZVI may be suggested as an efficient agent for in-situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with lead.

  10. The phospholipid vesicles coating on metal chelated inorganic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeong Ho; Cho, Min Ae; Son, Hong Ha; Lee, Cheon Koo; Kim, Kyung Ja

    2007-01-01

    This work showed the formation of phospholipid vesicle coating on inorganic sericite surface with characterization by combining electron microscopy of FE-SEM, TEM, AFM, and qualitatively evaluated the coated phospholipid vesicle by XPS as a function of etching time. The possibility of phospholipid vesicle mobility on the surface was restrained by the chelation effect of magnesium cation. The stabilization properties of phospholipid vesicles on sericite surface were demonstrated by the various concentration of magnesium cation. The presence of magnesium was found to have a much more pronounced influence on the lipid deposition process. The Mg cation plays an important role for attaching the phospholipids with optimum concentration of 7 mM. Totally, the phospholipid vesicles coating on inorganic powder could be useful for bio-related fields such as cosmetics and drug delivery system as the key functional compounds. We hope this basic result lead to a general and simple approach to prepare a wide a range of controlled releasing materials including an encapsulation with cosmetics or drugs

  11. Removing metal debris from thermosetting EMC powders by Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw Yowching

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of thermosetting encapsulation molding compounds (EMCs for semiconductor packaging, metal debris are always present in the EMC powders due to the hard silica fillers in the compound. These metal debris in the EMC powders will cause circuit shortage and therefore have to be removed before molding. In this study, Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are used to remove these debris. The results show that the metal debris can be removed effectively as the rate of accumulation of the metal debris increases as time proceeds in the removing operation. The removal effectiveness of the debris is affected by both the magnetic flux density and the flow around the magnet. The wake flow behind the magnet is a relatively low speed recirculation region which facilities the attraction of metal debris in the powders. Thus, the largest amount of the accumulated EMC powders occurs downstream of the magnet. Hence, this low speed recirculation region should be better utilized to enhance the removal efficiency of the metal debris.

  12. Synthesis of surfactant-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for adsorptive removal of acid blue 45 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed Mushtaq, Muhammad; Kanwal, Farah; Imran, Muhammad; Ameen, Naila; Batool, Madeeha; Batool, Aisha; Bashir, Shahid; Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Rehman, Ata ur; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Ullah, Zaka

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by wet chemical coprecipitation method using metal chlorides as precursors and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a precipitant. The tergitol-1x (T-1x) and didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) are used as capping agents and their effect is investigated on particle size, size distribution and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFNPs). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the synthesis of CFNPs and formation of metal-oxygen (M-O) bond. The spinel phase structure, morphology, polydispersity and magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometry analyses, respectively. The addition of capping agents effects the secondary growth of CFNPs and reduces their particle size, as is investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The results evidence that the DDAB is more promising surfactant to control the particle size (∼13 nm), polydispersity and aggregation of CFNPs. The synthesized CFNPs, CFNPs/T-1x and CFNPs/DDAB are used to study their adsorption potential for removal of acid blue 45 dye, and a maximum adsorptive removal of 92.25% is recorded by 0.1 g of CFNPs/DDAB at pH 2.5 and temperature 20 ± 1 °C. The results show that the dye is physically adsorbed by magnetic NPs and follows the Langmuir isotherm model.

  13. The removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... delightful ice cream or iced drink. The seeds are then removed from the fruit and dried at room temperature. These are then opened with the inner dried part used for the adsorption process. The sour sop fruit grows as far as the month of March. The aim of this work is to study the removal of toxic heavy metal ...

  14. Removal of chlorine gas by an amine functionalized metal-organic framework via electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoste, Jared B; Browe, Matthew A; Wagner, George W; Rossin, Joseph A; Peterson, Gregory W

    2015-08-11

    Here we report the removal of chlorine gas from air via a reaction with an amine functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF). It is found that UiO-66-NH2 has the ability to remove 1.24 g of Cl2 per g of MOF via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction producing HCl, which is subsequently neutralized by the MOF.

  15. Adhesive Strength of dry Adhesive Structures Depending on the Thickness of Metal Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Hye; Kwon, Da Som; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, engineering applications have started to adopt solutions inspired by nature. The peculiar adhesive properties of gecko skin are an example, as they allow the animal to move freely on vertical walls and even on ceilings. The high adhesive forces between gecko feet and walls are due to the hierarchical microscopical structure of the skin. In this study, the effect of metal coatings on the adhesive strength of synthetic, hierarchically structured, dry adhesives was investigated. Synthetic dry adhesives were fabricated using PDMS micro-molds prepared by photolithography. Metal coatings on synthetic dry adhesives were formed by plasma sputtering. Adhesive strength was measured by pure shear tests. The highest adhesion strengths were found with coatings composed of 4 nm thick layers of Indium, 8 nm thick layers of Zinc and 6 nm thick layers of Gold, respectively

  16. In situ ceramic layer growth on coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Silva, C. M.; Kiggans, J. O.; Cai, Z.; Shin, D.; Snead, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    The extent and nature of the chemical interaction between the outermost coating layer of coated fuel particles embedded in zirconium metal during fabrication of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels were examined. Various particles with outermost coating layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, and ZrC have been investigated in this study. ZrC-Zr interaction was the least substantial, while the PyC-Zr reaction can be exploited to produce a ZrC layer at the interface in an in situ manner. The thickness of the ZrC layer in the latter case can be controlled by adjusting the time and temperature during processing. The kinetics of ZrC layer growth is significantly faster from what is predicted using literature carbon diffusivity data in ZrC. SiC-Zr interaction is more complex and results in formation of various chemical phases in a layered aggregate morphology at the interface.

  17. Novel ceramic coatings for containment of uranium and reactive molten metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Satpute, R.U.; Ramanathan, S.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.; Kutty, T.R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma sprayed aluminium oxide coatings, which are currently used for casting uranium metal are, however, not suitable for long duration handling of molten uranium and is also unstable under reducing conditions. Yttrium oxide and rare earth phosphates are suggested as promising materials for prevention of high temperature corrosion by molten metals. The present paper reports research efforts directed towards development of plasma sprayed coatings of yttria and lanthanum phosphate. Thermal spray grade powders of yttrium oxide and lanthanum phosphate, synthesized using locally available raw materials have been used as feedstock powders for plasma spray deposition. The coatings have been deposited using the indigenously developed 40 kW atmospheric plasma spray system and have been characterized. Results of preliminary experiments on compatibility of yttria and lanthanum phosphate with molten uranium are quite encouraging. (author)

  18. Preparation of Al-based metal matrix composites reinforced by Cu coated SiC particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hailong; Zhang Rui; Xu Hongliang; Lu Hongxia; Guan Shaokang [Coll. of Materials Engineering, Zhengzhou Univ., HEN (China)

    2005-07-01

    In order to improve the interfacial behavior between SiC and Al, a surface layer of Cu was coated on SiC particles. The influence of pH value on the coating process was analyzed. A powder metallurgy method was used to prepare the Al-based metal matrix composites (MMCs). SEM, XRD techniques were used to characterize the sintered compacts. It was found that the optimized pH value during the coating process was 1{proportional_to}2. The specimen showed the maximum density when sintered at 750 C. Inter-metallic compound of Al{sub 3.21}Si{sub 0.47} was detected which contributed to the enhancement at the interface between SiC and Al. The hardness of the composites is improved to 90 MPa. (orig.)

  19. Short-Pulse Laser Sintering of Multilayer Hard Metal Coatings: Structure and Wear Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Ipatov, Alexey; Nikolaeva, Irina; Zakirova, Raushaniya

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the phase composition and properties of multilayer hard metal coatings deposited on steel by a process variant of Selective laser melting (SLM). The process is based on layer-wise short-pulse laser sintering of high-dispersive WC-Co powder on a steel substrate. High temperature in the molten zone and chemical interaction with the substrate explain high level of adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate. The technique allows obtaining both high quality hard-metal multilayer gradient coatings with thickness up to 200 μm, density near to the theoretical density (TD), hardness up to 21 GPa and complex 3D objects by layer-wise powder based process such as SLM.

  20. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects...

  1. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the metal coating, which acts as electrode, increases the stiffness and the effective mass of the composite structure, the residual stress increases or decreases the net stiffness if it is a tensile or compressive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the ...

  2. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Greenfield, M.J.; Mehta, Y.U.; Merchan-Merchan, W.; Salkar, G.; Saveliev, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  3. The role of nanocrystalline binder metallic coating into WC after additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, A. J.; Fernandes, C. M.; Farinha, A. R.; Gestel, C. V.; Jhabvala, J.; Boillat, E.; Senos, A. M. R.; Vieira, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten carbide with microsized particle powders are commonly used embedded in a tough binder metal. The application of these composites is not limited to cutting tools, WC based material has been increasingly used in gaskets and other mechanical parts with complex geometries. Consequently, additive manufacturing processes as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) might be the solution to overcome some of the manufacturing problems. However, the use of SLS leads to resolve the problems resulting from difference of physical properties between tungsten carbide and the metallic binder, such as laser absorbance and thermal conductivity. In this work, an original approach of powder surface modification was considered to prepare WC-metal composite powders and overcome these constraints, consisting on the sputter-coating of the WC particle surfaces with a nanocrystalline thin film of metallic binder material (stainless steel). The coating improves the thermal behavior and rheology of the WC particles and, at the same time, ensures a binder homogenous distribution. The feasibility of the SLS technology as manufacturing process for WC powder sputter-coated with 13 wt% stainless steel AISI 304L was explored with different laser power and scanning speed parameters. The SLS layers were characterized regarding elemental distribution, phase composition and morphology, and the results are discussed emphasizing the role of the coating on the consolidation process.

  4. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency of MEMS resonators. ASHOK KUMAR PANDEY, K P VENKATESH and RUDRA. PRATAP. ∗. CranesSci MEMS Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian. Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: pratap@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in.

  5. The removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals from waste waters are often cost prohibitive. These constraints have caused the search for alternative technologies for metal sequestering to cost-effective environmentally acceptable levels. One of the exploitations is the use of biomaterials. The results obtained after ...

  6. artocarpus altilis proving its worth in toxic metal removal from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... breadfruit nuts have been applied in its natural form for the biosorption removal of some toxic (heavy) metal ions (Cd2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+) from aqueous systems. Since it is suspected that polar functional groups could be a strong factor in the biosorption of toxic metal ions (Ricordel et al, 2011), the infared (IR).

  7. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general abundance distribution pattern for metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > As > Co > Cd > Hg. The removal efficiency ranged from 1.5% for Hg at Zandvliet WWTP plant during winter to 98.27% for Cu at Athlone WWTP treatment plant during summer. The final effluent concentration for most of the metals were within ...

  8. Fly ash based geopolymer thin coatings on metal substrates and its thermal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, Jadambaa; Minjigmaa, Amgalan; Rickard, William; Lee, Melissa; Williams, Iestyn; van Riessen, Arie

    2010-08-15

    Class F fly ash based Na-geopolymer formulations have been applied as fire resistant coatings on steel. The main variables for the coating formulations were Si: Al molar and water: cement weight ratios. We have determined that the adhesive strength of the coatings strongly depend on geopolymer composition. The ease with which geopolymer can be applied onto metal surfaces and the resultant thickness depend on the water content of the formulation. Adhesive strengths of greater than 3.5 MPa have been achieved on mild steel surfaces for compositions with Si:Al of 3.5. Microstructure evolution and thermal properties of the optimised coating formulations show that they have very promising fire resistant characteristics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The enhancement of heavy metal removal from polluted river water treatment by integrated carbon-aluminium electrodes using electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussuf, N. M.; Embong, Z.; Abdullah, S.; Masirin, M. I. M.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Ahmad, S.; Sahari, S. K.; Anuar, A. A.; Maxwell, O.

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metal removal enhancement from polluted river water was investigated using two types of electrodes consist of integrated carbon-aluminium and a conventional aluminium plate electrode at laboratory-scale experiments. In the integrated electrode systems, the aluminium electrode surface was coated with carbon using mixed slurry containing carbon black, polyvinyl acetate and methanol. The electrochemical treatment was conducted on the parameter condition of 90V applied voltage, 3cm of electrode distance and 60 minutes of electrolysis operational time. Surface of both electrodes was investigated for pre and post electrolysis treatment by using SEM-EDX analytical technique. Comparison between both of the electrode configuration exhibits that more metals were accumulated on carbon integrated electrode surfaces for both anode and cathode, and more heavy metals were detected on the cathode. The atomic percentage of metals distributed on the cathode conventional electrode surface consist of Al (94.62%), Zn (1.19%), Mn (0.73%), Fe (2.81%) and Cu (0.64%), while on the anode contained O (12.08%), Al (87.63%) and Zn (0.29%). Meanwhile, cathode surface of integrated electrode was accumulated with more metals; O (75.40%), Al (21.06%), Zn (0.45%), Mn (0.22), Fe (0.29%), Cu (0.84%), Pb (0.47%), Na (0.94%), Cr (0.08%), Ni (0.02%) and Ag (0.22%), while on anode contain Al (3.48%), Fe (0.49 %), C (95.77%), and Pb (0.26%). According to this experiment, it was found that integrated carbon-aluminium electrodes have a great potential to accumulate more heavy metal species from polluted water compare to the conventional aluminium electrode. Here, heavy metal accumulation process obviously very significant on the cathode surface.

  10. Plasma coatings of nitrogen polymers on metal prostheses of the circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez J, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work has a study about the synthesis of poly aniline, poly allylamine and poly pyrrole doped with iodine onto metallic surfaces similar to stents for the circulatory system. Ar, water and hydrogen peroxide plasmas were used for eroding, conditioning and synthesizing polymers that potentially reduce some rejection reactions when stents are implanted in the human body. Stents are small metallic meshes that applied inside collapsed arteries or veins enlarge the diameter and restore the blood flow, however the metallic surfaces usually cause rejection reactions that obstruct the veins again. To give solutions to this problem, in this work is studied the synthesis of biocompatible polymer coatings on the stents that resist the blood flow forming a biocompatible interface between metal and blood. The metallic substrates were eroded and chemically prepared with Ar, H 2 O and/or H 2 O 2 glow discharges on which the polymers were synthesized by plasma. The coatings were morphologically characterized by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the chemical structure was studied by infrared and photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity was studied measuring the advance static contact angle and the adhesion was evaluated indirectly with scanning electron microscopy after two months submerged in buffered phosphate solutions. The results indicate that the polymers grew following the superficial morphology; that the conditioning with Ar ions erode the substrates and that the conditioning with H 2 O or H 2 O 2 erodes and activates the surface generating oxygen bridges which help in the polymer-metal adhesion. The chemical structure of the polymeric coatings contain crosslinked structures that correspond to links between monomers with the participation of all atoms, states that suggest monomer fragmentation and oxidation and states that indicate oxygen bridges in the polymers. The coatings had contact angles close to 90 degrees where is located the

  11. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Jiang, F.; Fu, B.J.; Sun, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  12. ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS TO IMPROVE THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF COATING DEPOSITED ON THE METAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Shalapko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established that existing methods show low accuracy when assessing the durability of coatings. Furthermore, they don’t allow assessment of the contribution into durability of structural components and fillers for thermodiffusion and polymer-composite coatings, respectively. A method to evaluate durability of thermal diffusion chrome coatings on carbon steel and gray cast irons has been developed - the speed υp of destruction of the structural components of the coating. In addition, the destruction of each structural component is characterized by a constant value of destruction speed υp and potential φ, and their sharp vibrations are in complete destruction of the coating and the beginning of the destruction of the base metal. From the start of the test until the abrupt change in the rate of destruction υp, which is found on the curve υp - τ is the assessment of durability coating t¶ hat is specified with the curve φ - τ. Accuracy of the durability decreases from ± 30 min to ± 2 min. Developed as a way to assess the durability fillers polymer composite coatings, along with the finding that the rate of destruction υp of the time includes total disability coverage t3aƧ and time breakdown cover τn which are fixed on the curve φ - τ.

  13. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide - cobalt chromium, chromium carbide - nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the MMC aligns with the improved dispersion of reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix.

  14. Bump Bonding Using Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bump bonding hybridization techniques use arrays of indium bumps to electrically and mechanically join two chips together. Surface-tension issues limit bump sizes to roughly as wide as they are high. Pitches are limited to 50 microns with bumps only 8-14 microns high on each wafer. A new process uses oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a metal (indium) in a wicking process using capillary actions to increase the aspect ratio and pitch density of the connections for bump bonding hybridizations. It merges the properties of the CNTs and the metal bumps, providing enhanced material performance parameters. By merging the bumps with narrow and long CNTs oriented in the vertical direction, higher aspect ratios can be obtained if the metal can be made to wick. Possible aspect ratios increase from 1:1 to 20:1 for most applications, and to 100:1 for some applications. Possible pitch density increases of a factor of 10 are possible. Standard capillary theory would not normally allow indium or most other metals to be drawn into the oriented CNTs, because they are non-wetting. However, capillary action can be induced through the ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. This hybridization of two technologies (indium bumps and CNTs) may also provide for some additional benefits such as improved thermal management and possible current density increases.

  15. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States)); Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- bioremoval'' -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  16. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States); Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- `` bioremoval`` -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R&D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  17. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benemann, J.R.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- '' bioremoval'' -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R ampersand D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes

  18. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.; Escue, L.S.

    1995-01-01

    A decontamination system was tested on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive ( 238 U and 99 Tc) and hazardous (PCBs and lead) waste in Oak Ridge, TN. The principal objectives of this on-site soda blasting demonstration project were to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination by blasting with sodium bicarbonate and to minimize waste volume by dissolving and treating blasting residuals through a wastewater treatment system. Areas of concrete floors and columns and steel and aluminum surfaces were selected to evaluate the soda blasting process. Testing evaluated six operating variables: air pressure, water pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, nozzle orifice design, media type, and media flow rate. Spent blasting media was mixed with water for treatment. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, chemical precipitation, solids removal, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. Removal rates from blasting averaged between 95 and 100% beta/gamma and non-quantifiable to 100% alpha for surfaces tested using selected blasing parameters. The non-quantifiable percent removals for alpha resulted from initial readings which approached background levels. In each test, the post blast alpha readings were below the release limit of 5000 dpm. The waste volume reduction system effectively removed more than 97% of uranium and more than 99 percent of lead and PCBs. Ion exchange column testing results demonstrated technetium removal to below the 100 pCi/l treatment objective for both resins. Testing results demonstrated that this soda blasting/waste residuals treatment system provided a 70% reduction in waste volume as compared to blasting without treatment. The system removed fixed radioactive and hazardous surface contamination, while leaving the surface intact, and produced water meeting stringent water quality criteria and residual solid waste requiring off-site management

  19. Reduction Expansion Synthesis of Chromium and Nickel Metal Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    electrochemical behavior and morphology of trivalent solution- derived chromium coatings,” Revista Mexicana de Ingenieria Quimica, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 129–141...rays that were diffracted by the loaded sample. This spectrum of peaks was loaded into the PDXL2 software and further processed to characterize the...peak is thought to have been miss identified by the EDS software , as the Fe-L1 peak should be lower than the Fe-Kα peak. If the peak identified as Fe

  20. Removal of 222Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzel, G.; Pelczar, K.; Wójcik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Removal of 210Po from copper, stainless steel and germanium was studied by using a standard, semiconductor-based- and a large-surface, low-background alpha spectrometer. Electropolishing and etching were applied as the surface cleaning techniques. Application of a "dynamical" process resulted for the first time in an effective 210Po removal from copper surface by etching. According to the performed measurements weak (natural) specific activities of polonium were also reduced after electropolishing of copper and stainless steel samples. An example of a bulk 210Po measurement in Titanium and deconvolution of the bulk and surface contributions to the registered spectrum is also discussed.

  1. Application of Sargassum biomass to remove heavy metal ions from synthetic multi-metal solutions and urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Teo, Ting Ting; Balasubramanian, R; Joshi, Umid Man

    2009-05-30

    The ability of Sargassum sp. to biosorb four metal ions, namely lead, copper, zinc, and manganese from a synthetic multi-solute system and real storm water runoff has been investigated for the first time. Experiments on synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that Sargassum performed well in the biosorption of all four metal ions, with preference towards Pb, followed by Cu, Zn, and Mn. The solution pH strongly affected the metal biosorption, with pH 6 being identified as the optimal condition for achieving maximum biosorption. Experiments at different biosorbent dosages revealed that good biosorption capacity as well as high metal removal efficiency was observed at 3g/L. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast with equilibrium being attained within 50 min. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, Sargassum exhibited maximum uptakes of 214, 67.5, 24.2 and 20.2mg/g for lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, respectively in single-solute systems. In multi-metal systems, strong competition between four metal ions in terms of occupancy binding sites was observed, and Sargassum showed preference in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn. The application of Sargassum to remove four heavy metal ions in real storm water runoff revealed that the biomass was capable of removing the heavy metal ions. However, the biosorption performance was slightly lower compared to that of synthetic metal solutions. Several factors were responsible for this difference, and the most important factor is the presence of other contaminants such as anions, organics, and other trace metals in the runoff.

  2. Soil amendments for heavy metals removal from stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of dissolved metals in stormwater runoff from urbanized watersheds are much higher than established guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Five potential soil amendment materials derived from affordable, abundant sources have been tested as filter media using shaker tests and were found to remove dissolved metals in stormwater runoff. Blast furnace (BF) slag and basic oxygenated furnace (BOF) slag from a steel mill, a drinking water treatment residual (DWTR) from a surface water treatment plant, goethite-rich overburden (IRON) from a coal mine, and woodchips (WC) were tested. The IRON and BOF amendments were shown to remove 46-98% of dissolved metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in repacked soil columns. Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants for six metals across five materials were calculated. Breakthrough curves of dissolved metals and total metal accumulation within the filter media were measured in column tests using synthetic runoff. A reduction in system performance over time occurred due to progressive saturation of the treatment media. Despite this, the top 7 cm of each filter media removed up to 72% of the dissolved metals. A calibrated HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate long-term metal accumulation in the filter media, and model results suggest that for these metals a BOF filter media thickness as low as 15 cm can be used to improve stormwater quality to meet standards for up to twenty years. The treatment media evaluated in this research can be used to improve urban stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs).

  3. Recent advances in nanoscale-metal assisted biochar derived from waste biomass used for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Zhu, Shishu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-12-01

    Pollution of heavy metals (HMs) is a detrimental treat to human health and need to be cleaned up in a proper way. Biochar (BC), a low-cost and "green" adsorbent, has attracted significant attention due to its considerable HMs removal capacity. In particular, nano-metals have recently been used to assist BC in improving its reactivity, surface texture and magnetism. Synthesis methods and metal precursors greatly influence the properties and structures of the nanocomposites, thereby affecting their HMs removal performance. This review presents advances in synthesis methods, formation mechanisms and surface characteristics of BC nanocomposites, along with the discussions on HMs removal mechanisms and the effects of environmental factors on HMs removal efficiency. Performance of using BC nanocomposites to remediate real HMs-containing wastewater and issues associated with its process scale-up are also discussed. This review aims to provide useful information to facilitate the development of HMs removal by nanoscale-metal assisted BC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metal removal capacity of individual components of permeable reactive concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan R.; Hart, Megan L.; Kevern, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are a well-known technique for groundwater remediation using industrialized reactive media such as zero-valent iron and activated carbon. Permeable reactive concrete (PRC) is an alternative reactive medium composed of relatively inexpensive materials such as cement and aggregate. A variety of multimodal, simultaneous processes drive remediation of metals from contaminated groundwater within PRC systems due to the complex heterogeneous matrix formed during cement hydration. This research investigated the influence coarse aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and various combinations had on the removal of lead, cadmium, and zinc in solution. Absorption, adsorption, precipitation, co-precipitation, and internal diffusion of the metals are common mechanisms of removal in the hydrated cement matrix and independent of the aggregate. Local aggregates can be used as the permeable structure also possessing high metal removal capabilities, however calcareous sources of aggregate are preferred due to improved removal with low leachability. Individual adsorption isotherms were linear or curvilinear up, indicating a preferred removal process. For PRC samples, metal saturation was not reached over the range of concentrations tested. Results were then used to compare removal against activated carbon and aggregate-based PRBs by estimating material costs for the remediation of an example heavy metal contaminated Superfund site located in the Midwestern United States, Joplin, Missouri.

  5. A study of metallic coatings obtained by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, Michel.

    1978-06-01

    An appropriate technique has been developed for obtaining compact metallic coatings from electrolysis of molten salts. Through the use of this method, it has been possible to produce pure metal deposits which, until now, has been extremely difficult to do. The apparatus used and the main steps of the process such as dehydration of the solvant, degassing of the equipment, and starting of the electrolytic process, are first described. This is followed by a discussion of the deposits of the metals beryllium, uranium, tantalum and tungsten obtained from electrolysis of molten fluorides at temperatures between 600 and 800 0 C. The metal coatings so obtained are homogeneous and show continuity, their thicknesses varying from a few microns to a millimeter or more. They have been studied by measurements. As potential applications of this new technique, one can mention the growth of diffusion barriers and the production of cathodes for thermoionic emission. The method can also be used for electroforming. An intermetallic diffusion between the deposit and the substrate has been observed in some cases. The advantage of the technique of melt electrolysis in obtaining metal coatings of enhanced thicknesses is illustrated by taking the beryllium-nickel system as an example. It is shown that the thickness obtained is proportional to the square root of growth time and is about 6 to 8 times larger than that obtained by conventional techniques [fr

  6. Removal of some metal ions from aqueous solution using orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of orange mesocarp residue biomass (modified and unmodified) as a costeffective and environmentally safe technique to remove Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that unmodified orange mesocarp residue bound 56% of Mg2+, 81% of Zn2+, 71% of ...

  7. Removal of metal ions from contaminated water using agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    As the world population grows, there is a growing awareness that our environment is getting more polluted. Clean water is becoming a critical issue for many parts of the world for human, animal and agricultural use. Filtration systems to clean our air and water are a growing industry. There are many approaches to removing contaminates from our water supply ranging from...

  8. Method of removing bulk sodium from metallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, H.P.; Borisch, R.R.

    1975-11-11

    A process of removing sodium from an article, particularly one made of stainless steel, by treating it with a mixture of water vapor and a gas which is inert to sodium is described. By selecting combinations of temperature and water vapor-to-gas ratio, the reaction temperature is controlled to prevent damage to the articles.

  9. Role of live autochthonous fungi in removing toxic metals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... Biosorption is considered to be the removal of sub- stances from solution by inactive, dead biological materials, while bioaccumulation is described as intra- cellular pollutant accumulation (Gadd, 2009; Wang and. Chen, 2009). Both living and dead fungal cells possess a remarkable ability for taking up ...

  10. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnesh N. Dave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nanaparticles based nanomaterials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  12. Metal nanoparticle doped coloured coatings on glasses and plastics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    applicable to glass and plastic substrates (Medda et al. 2005a, b; Pal and De 2005; De and De 2006a; Pal and De. 2007a). The manufacturing process involves preparation of sols using suitable metal organic precursors (e.g. alkoxides or functionalized alkoxides also known as in- organic–organic hybrid precursors) and ...

  13. Silver-modified clinoptilolite for the removal of Escherichia coli and heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhigbe, Lulu; Ouki, Sabeha; Saroj, Devendra; Lim, Xiang Min

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential of using the silver antibacterial properties combined with the metal ion exchange characteristics of silver-modified clinoptilolite to produce a treatment system capable of removing both contaminants from aqueous streams. The results have shown that silver-modified clinoptilolite is capable of completely eliminating Escherichia coli after 30-min contact time demonstrating its effectiveness as a disinfectant. Systems containing both E. coli and metals exhibited 100 % E. coli reduction after 15-min contact time and maximum metal adsorption removal efficiencies of 97, 98, and 99 % for Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) respectively after 60 min; 0.182-0.266 mg/g of metal ions were adsorbed by the zeolites in the single- and mixed-metal-containing solutions. Nonmodified clinoptilolite showed no antibacterial properties. This study demonstrated that silver-modified clinoptilolite exhibited high disinfection and heavy metal removal efficiencies and consequently could provide an effective combined treatment system for the removal of E. coli and metals from contaminated water streams.

  14. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  15. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosorbent and unfertilizable flowering buds of mango plant, a local agrowaste in Multan, Pakistan known as battoor is used in this study. Efficacy of the biosorbent is tested in batch for Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ in single metal solution under control experimental conditions. The concentration of the biomass was 0.5 g.

  16. Near-field microwave detection of corrosion precursor pitting under thin dielectric coatings in metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.; Zoughi, R.; Austin, R.; Wood, N.; Engelbart, R.

    2003-01-01

    Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the preliminary results of using microwave techniques to detect corrosion precursor pitting under paint and primer, applique and on bare metal. Machined pits of 500 μm diameter were detected using open-ended rectangular waveguides at V-Band under paint and primer and applique, and on bare metal. Using coaxial probes, machined pits with diameters down to 150 μm on bare metal were also detected. Relative pit size and density were shown on a corrosion-pitted sample using open-ended rectangular waveguides at frequencies of 35 GHz to 70 GHz. The use of Boeing's MAUS TM scanning systems provided improved results by alleviating standoff variation and scanning artifact. Typical results of this investigation are also presented

  17. Synthesis of Nanostructured/Macroscopic Low-Density Copper Foams Based on Metal-Coated Polymer Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Bazin, Nick; Shaw, Jessica I; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Worsley, Marcus A; Satcher, Joe H; Sain, John D; Kuntz, Joshua D; Kucheyev, Sergei O; Baumann, Theodore F; Hamza, Alex V

    2016-12-21

    A robust, millimeter-sized low-density Cu foam with ∼90% (v/v) porosity, ∼30 nm thick walls, and ∼1 μm diameter spherical pores is prepared by the slip-casting of metal-coated polymer core-shell particles followed by a thermal removal of the polymer. In this paper, we report our key findings that enable the development of the low-density Cu foams. First, we need to synthesize polystyrene (PS) particles coated with a very thin Cu layer (in the range of tens of nanometers). A simple reduction in the amount of Cu deposited onto the PS was not sufficient to form such a low-density Cu foams due to issues related to foam collapse and densification upon the subsequent polymer removal step. Precise control over the morphology of the Cu coating on the particles is essential for the synthesis of a lower density of foams. Second, improving the dispersion of PS-Cu particles in a suspension used for the casting as well as careful optimization of a baking condition minimize the formation of irregular large voids, leading to Cu foams with a more uniform packing and a better connectivity of neighboring Cu hollow shells. Finally, we analyzed mechanical properties of the Cu foams with a depth-sensing indentation test. The uniform Cu foams show a significant improvement in mechanical properties (∼1.5× modulus and ∼3× hardness) compared to those of uncontrolled foam samples with a similar foam density but irregular large voids. Higher surface areas and a good electric conductivity of the Cu foams present a great potential to future applications.

  18. Identification of Bacillus megaterium and Microbacterium liquefaciens genes involved in metal resistance and metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros-Romero, Grisel; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Arenas-Isaac, Ginesa E; Pless, Reynaldo C; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus megaterium MNSH1-9K-1 and Microbacterium liquefaciens MNSH2-PHGII-2, 2 nickel- and vanadium-resistant bacteria from mine tailings located in Guanajuato, Mexico, are shown to have the ability to remove 33.1% and 17.8% of Ni, respectively, and 50.8% and 14.0% of V, respectively, from spent petrochemical catalysts containing 428 ± 30 mg·kg(-1) Ni and 2165 ± 77 mg·kg(-1) V. In these strains, several Ni resistance determinants were detected by conventional PCR. The nccA (nickel-cobalt-cadmium resistance) was found for the first time in B. megaterium. In M. liquefaciens, the above gene as well as the czcD gene (cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance) and a high-affinity nickel transporter were detected for the first time. This study characterizes the resistance of M. liquefaciens and B. megaterium to Ni through the expression of genes conferring metal resistance.

  19. Characteristics of strain transfer and the reflected spectrum of a metal-coated fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Previous researchers have simulated strain transfer and spectrum of normal fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors with a polymer coating bonded on the structure. They only considered the shear stress in a polymer coating for the simulation. However, for metal-coated FBG sensors, not only shear stress but also axial stress in the metal coating should be reflected into the calculation because its axial stiffness is no longer negligible. Thus, the author investigated the strain transfer and reflected spectra of metal-coated FBG sensors by considering both shear stress and axial stress. The strain transfer analysis involved evaluating the strain profiles along the sensor by plotting an analytical solution, and validating the evaluated profiles with the results obtained by a finite element analysis (FEA). The solution was also verified by the experiments that used aluminum-coated FBG sensors bonded on a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite specimen. A transfer-matrix (T-matrix) formulation and coupled mode theory were used to simulate the reflected spectra of metal-coated FBG sensors for the evaluated strain profile. In addition, the effect of mechanical and geometric parameters of the sensor was examined. The findings revealed that the strain transfer characteristics and reflected spectra deteriorated with increases in the thickness and Young's modulus of the metal coating due to the consideration of axial stress. It is the opposite results for the normal FBG sensor with a polymer coating. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the decrease in bonding thickness resulted in improved strain transfer and signal characteristics. Moreover, a bonding length of 14 mm was suitable in suppressing an asymmetric shape of the reflected spectrum and in achieving an accurate measurement. The results of the parametric study are expected to contribute to improve the measurement accuracy of metal-coated FBG sensors in actual applications. The analytical methodology can be

  20. Microstructural characterisation of electrodeposited coatings of metal matrix composite with alumina nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indyka, P; Beltowska-Lehman, E; Bigos, A

    2012-01-01

    In the present work a nanocrystalline Ni-W metallic matrix was used to fabricate Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 composite coatings. The MMC (metal matrix composite) coatings with inert α-Al 2 O 3 particles (30 - 90 nm) were electrodeposited from aqueous electrolytes under direct current (DC) and controlled hydrodynamic conditions in a system with a rotating disk electrode (RDE). The chemical composition and microstructure of electrodeposited composites mainly control their functional properties; however, the particles must be uniformly dispersed to exhibit the dispersion-hardening effect. In order to increase the alumina particles incorporation as well as to promote the uniform distribution of the ceramic phase in a matrix, outer ultrasonic field was applied during electrodeposition. The influence of embedded alumina nanoparticles on structural characteristics (morphology, phase composition, residual stresses) of the resulting Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 coatings was investigated in order to obtain a nanocomposite with high hardness and relatively low residual stresses. Surface and cross-section morphology and the chemical composition of deposits was examined in the scanning electron microscope, the EDS technique was used. Microstructure and phase composition were determined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Based on microstructural and micromechanical properties of the coatings, the optimum conditions for obtaining crack-free homogeneous Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 composite coatings have been determined.

  1. Study on modernization processes in the coating metal surfaces (plain bearings by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIMIE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated within the metal coating through thermal spraying allows the understanding of aspects related to the coat structure phenomena, in this case of the routs that need to be followed in order to create strong and stabile connections between the coats subsided through thermal spraying, between the particles that compose those coats, respectively. However, all this knowledge does not ensure the understanding of some practical situations that are apparently paradoxes, as for instance the absence of tin bronze adherence to ignobly steel holders, the perfect adherence of bronze to the aluminum on the same types of holders, in the context in which both elements, tin and aluminum, respectively are found in equal quantity in the two type of bonze that maintain them in solid solutions (below 10%.The parallel study in the sinter antifriction domain has offered information regarding the optimal correlation between the composition of antifriction material and the required type of application, the optimal pinches level and the way that this morphological characteristic may be influenced. By experimental research it is necessary to determine the conditions under which such coverage can be obtained by thermal spraying of the metal coatings.

  2. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 kWh/m 3 of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm 2 (19.1 kWh/m 3 of kaolin)

  3. Metal-organic aerogel as a coating for solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraji, Mohammad, E-mail: saraji@cc.iut.ac.ir; Shahvar, Ali

    2017-06-22

    An iron-based metal-organic aerogel was synthesized using metal-organic framework nanoparticles and applied as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Chemical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the material were investigated. Headspace SPME followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was used for the determination of chlorobenzenes in the environmental samples. The key experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as ionic strength, extraction and desorption temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the coating for the extraction of chlorobenzenes from the environmental samples including river and tap water, sludge, and coastal soil was evaluated. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1–60 ng L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 5.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was in the range of 88–100%. Compared to the commercial PDMS fiber, the present fiber showed better extraction efficiency. - Highlights: • Metal-organic aerogel was synthesized and used as a novel fiber coating for SPME. • The new coating material showed high surface area and good thermal stability. • GC-ECD was used for determination of chlorobenzenes in environmental samples. • The method showed fast extraction and better efficiency than PDMS commercial fiber.

  4. Laboratory and field studies of photocatalytic NOx and O3 removal by coatings on concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This project involved thorough testing of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-containing commercial photocatalytic coatings : applied to portland cement concrete for highway applications, focusing on the use of these coatings as an : abatement method for atmosph...

  5. Resizing metal-coated nanopores using a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansin, Guillaume A T; Hong, Jongin; Dusting, Jonathan; deMello, Andrew J; Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B

    2011-10-04

    Electron beam-induced shrinkage provides a convenient way of resizing solid-state nanopores in Si(3) N(4) membranes. Here, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to resize a range of different focussed ion beam-milled nanopores in Al-coated Si(3) N(4) membranes. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra and SEM images acquired during resizing highlight that a time-variant carbon deposition process is the dominant mechanism of pore shrinkage, although granular structures on the membrane surface in the vicinity of the pores suggest that competing processes may occur. Shrinkage is observed on the Al side of the pore as well as on the Si(3) N(4) side, while the shrinkage rate is observed to be dependent on a variety of factors. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bioactive and Porous Metal Coatings for Improved Tissue Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Our first objective was to develop the SIM process for the deposition of calcium phosphate films. This process is based on the observation that, in nature, living organisms use macromolecules to control the nucleation and growth of mineral phases. These macromolecules act as templates where various charged functional groups, contained within the molecule, can interact with the ions in the surrounding media, thus stimulating crystal nucleation and growth. Rather than using complex proteins or biopolymers, surface modification schemes were developed to place simple functional groups on the underlying substrate using self-assembling monolayers. Once the substrate was chemically modified, it was then placed into an aqueous solution containing soluble precursors of the desired mineral coating. Solution pH, ionic concentration and temperature is maintained in a regime where the solution is supersaturated with respect to the desired mineral phase, thereby creating the driving force for nucleation and growth.

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  8. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by sorption using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acid-base properties of two raw and purified mixed clays from Burkina Faso were studied, as well as their potential to remove copper(II), lead(II) and ... The point of zero charge (pHpzc) values of the clays, as determined by potentiometric titrations, were 6.79 and 9.52 for the raw clays, while after purification they were ...

  9. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dongah; Lee, Joo Sung; Patel, Hasmukh A; Jakobsen, Mogens H; Hwang, Yuhoon; Yavuz, Cafer T; Hansen, Hans Chr Bruun; Andersen, Henrik R

    2017-06-15

    Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions-copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Dongah; Sung Lee, Joo; Patel, Hasmukh A.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has...... a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal...... sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions―copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water....

  11. Investigation of heavy metal removal from motorway stormwater using inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Stormwater runoff from motorway surfaces contains toxic heavy metals that are not sufficiently removed by current treatment systems. This research has investigated the potential use of inorganic ion exchange materials to further reduce the levels of dissolved heavy metals. Candidate materials (synthetic/natural zeolites, clay/modified clay, hydrotalcite, lignite) were tested by a shaking procedure (mixed 5 mg dm -3 of each heavy metals, shaken for 10 min) and analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The synthetic zeolites MAP and Y showed 100% heavy metal removal and were investigated further by a series of batch experiments. The zeolites exhibited a selectivity sequence Pb > Cu > Cd ∼ Zn. Zeolite MAP has a high capacity for heavy metal uptake (4.5 meq g -1 ), but is not practical for use in a treatment facility owing to its low particle size (3 μm). However, large zeolite pellets (∼ 2 mm) were found to have a low heavy metal uptake (∼ 44 %) due to diffusion limitations. Selected materials (zeolites MAP, Y, mordenite, and carbon-based lignite) were tested in actual and spiked motorway stormwater. The synthetic zeolites effectively remove heavy metals (∼ 100 %) but change the environmental chemistry of the stormwater by releasing high concentrations of sodium, removing calcium ions and increasing the solution pH. The presence of other dissolved contaminants in motorway stormwater inhibited the uptake of heavy metals by the natural zeolite mordenite (34 % less removal). Alkali/alkaline-earth metals (Na, Ca) in solution compete for exchange sites in lignite and mordenite, reducing the heavy metal uptake. Chloride in solution forms complexes with cadmium, severely reducing its uptake by zeolite Y. The presence of dissolved road salt is a potentially serious concern as it causes previously exchanged heavy metals to be re-eluted, especially zinc and cadmium. Zeolite MAP as an exchanger is relatively unaffected by road salt. There is potential for the use of

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metal ion removal by adsorption on to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson-Charrier, M.; Guibal, E.; Le Cloirec, P.; Surjous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of regulations constraints in the industrial waste-waters management leads to the study of new treatment processes, using raw or functionalized biological materials. These processes show competitive performances in metal ion sorption efficiency for the low metal content effluents. Uptake capacities of Uranium as high as 400 mg.g -1 chitosan, equivalent to the double of the uptake capacity of fungal origin biomass, can be reached. The application of these processes to real mine wastewaters gives efficiency coefficient upper to 90%, the residual concentrations are compatible to a direct injection into the environment. The grafting of functional groups onto the chitosan scales up the sorption performances to uptake capacity upper than 600 mg.g -1 polymer. pH, metal concentration are cited as major parameters, particle size influences both uptake kinetics and sorption equilibrium, in the case of the uranium accumulation by chitosan. The desorption of uranium from the sorbent allows the valorization of uranium and the re-use of the sorbent. (authors). 21 refs., 10 figs

  14. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  15. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  16. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. A.; Labbe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable. (author)

  17. Zirconia based ceramic coating on a metal with plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akatsu, T; Shinoda, Y; Wakai, F [Secure Materials Center, Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R3-24, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama (Japan); Kato, T, E-mail: akatsu.t.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R3-24, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We challenge to fabricate a thermal barrier coating (TBC) made of ZrO{sub 2} based ceramics on a Ni based single crystal superalloy with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) by incorporating metal species from electrolyte into the coating. The PEO process is carried out on the superalloy galvanized with aluminium for 15min in Na{sub 4}O{sub 7}P{sub 4} solution for an oxygen barrier coating (OBC) and is followed by PEO in K{sub 2}[Zr(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}] solution for TBC. We obtained the following results; (1) Monoclinic-, tetragonal-, cubic-ZrO{sub 2} crystals were detected in TBC. (2) High porosity with large pores was observed near the interface between OBC and TBC. The fine grain structure with a grain size of about 300nm was typically observed. (3) The adhesion strength between PEO coatings and substrate was evaluated to be 26.8{+-}6.6MPa. At the adhesion strength test, PEO coatings fractured around the interface between OBC and TBC. The effect of coating structure on adhesion strength is explained through the change in spark discharge during PEO process.

  18. Anaerobic Biochemical Reactor (BCR) Treatment Of Mining-Influenced Water (MIW) - Investigation Of Metal Removal Efficiency and Ecotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCR have been successful at removing a high percentage of metals from MIW, while BCR effluent toxicity has not been examined previously in the field. This study examined 4 active pilot BCR systems for removal of metals and toxicity. Removal efficiency for Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb...

  19. Spontaneous Phase Transfer-Mediated Selective Removal of Heavy Metal Ions Using Biocompatible Oleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeehan; Yoo, Sooyeon; Lee, Wooju; Kim, Dongchoul; Kang, Taewook

    2017-12-01

    Here, we propose an environmentally benign removal technique for heavy metal ions based on selective and spontaneous transfer to oleic acid. The ions can be removed via (1) the selective and rapid complexation with the carboxylic end of oleic acid at an oleic acid/water interface, and (2) the diffusion of such complex into the oleic acid layer. A wide variety of heavy metal ions such as Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Ni 2+ can be selectively removed over K + and Na + . For example, the concentration of Cu 2+ is reduced to below 1.3 ppm within 24 h, which corresponds to the level of Cu 2+ permitted by the Environmental Protection Agency. The addition of ethylenediamine ligand to the metal ion solutions is also shown to enhance the phase transfer. The removal efficiency is increased by up to 6 times when compared with that in the absence of the ligand and follows the order, Cu 2+ (99%) > Pb 2+ (96%) > Zn 2+ (95%) > Ni 2+ (65%). Moreover, the removal time can be shortened from 24 h to 1 h. The effect of an emulsion induced by a mechanical agitation on the removal of heavy metal ion is also studied.

  20. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied ...

  1. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kametani, Takuji; Maruyama, Toshiroh

    2005-05-01

    The growth of dense green seaweed mats of Ulva spp. is an increasing problem in estuaries and coasts worldwide. The enormous amount of Ulva biomass thus becomes a troublesome waste disposal problem. On the other hand, it has been revealed that nonliving seaweed biomass, particularly brown seaweeds, has a high capacity for assimilating heavy metals. In this study, the possibility of using Ulva seaweed biomass as a biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals was examined. After processing, the biomass material was very easy to separate from the aqueous solution using a mesh. The sorption capacity of Cd on Ulva biomass increased upon pretreatment with alkali solution. The outstanding function of the biosorbent was demonstrated at around pH 8. On the basis of the Langmuir isotherms of Cd, Zn and Cu using the alkali-pretreated biomass, the parameters q(m) and b were determined to be within the narrow range of 60-90 mg/g and 0.03-0.04 L/mg, respectively, for each metal. Given the q(m) and b values, Ulva seaweed is a good biosorbent material for removing heavy metals. In an experiment using artificial wastewater containing Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni, it was possible to remove each metal simultaneously using Ulva biomass. Adsorption by Ulva biomass is effective for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

  2. Performance improvement of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator by parylene thin film coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jun; Lee, In Taek; Lee, Ho-Young; Hyup Kim, Yong

    2006-12-01

    IPMC (ionic polymer-metal composite) is a kind of ionic EAP (electroactive polymer) which is actuated by the movement of cations combined with water molecules in the polymer. The cations and water molecules move due to the applied voltage on the metal electrodes which are located on both sides of the polymer. However, water contained in the polymer gradually evaporates during the actuation and this reduces the performance of the IPMC actuator. To suppress the water evaporation from the IPMC, waterproof material such as parylene, silicone rubber and other polymers were coated on the surface of the IPMC. The displacement, the force and the lifetime of the actuator were observed by using a laser displacement measurement system and a load cell. The water impermeability of the polymer coating with respect to time was measured on a hot plate. Results showed that the parylene coating effectively suppressed the water loss from the IPMC and enlarged the lifetime of the actuator dramatically. However, it was found that parylene has poor adhesion properties to the metal electrode. To improve the adhesion, plasma treatments of argon (Ar), oxygen (O2) and trifluoromethane (CHF3) were performed on the electrode surface before parylene coating. We evaluated the surface morphology change of the electrode after plasma treatment by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy). In addition, a tape adhesion test and a peel test were performed for quantitative analysis of adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene. It was found that the argon plasma treatment was the most effective to improve the adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene.

  3. Multidisciplinary emergent removal of a metal penoscrotal constriction device

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nason, GJ

    2017-03-01

    Strangulation of the genital organs is a rare presentation to the emergency department which requires urgent intervention to avoid long term complications. Penoscrotal constriction devices are either used for autoerotic stimulus or to increase sexual performance by maintaining an erection for a longer period. We report a case of a man who presented with penile strangulation following the application of a titanium penoscrotal constriction ring during sexual intercourse seven hours previously. The Fire Brigade department attended with an electric operated angle grinder to facilitate removal of the ring as standard medical equipment (orthopaedic saws, bolt and bone cutters) were insufficient. Fully functional recovery was achieved.

  4. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m 2 /g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2+ , respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way

  5. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Zhihui [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jin, Jian, E-mail: jjin2009@sinano.ac.cn [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-04-15

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m{sup 2}/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way.

  6. Structure, properties and wear behaviour of multilayer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schier, V.

    1995-12-01

    Novel multilayer coatings with metallic and covalent layer materials were prepared by magnetron sputtering and characterised concerning structure, properties and application behaviour. At first single layer coatings were deposited for the determination of the material properties. To evaluate relations between structure and properties of the multilayer coatings, different multilayer concepts were realised: - coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials, - 100-layer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, - TiN-TiC multilayer coatings with different numbers of layers (between 10 and 1000), - 150-layer coatings, based on TiN-TiC multilayers, with thin ( 4 C, AlN, SiC, a:C, Si 3 N 4 , SiAlON). X-rays and electron microscopic analysis indicate in spite of nonstoichiometric compositions single phase crystalline structures for nonreactively and reactively sputtered metastable single layer Ti(B,C)-, Ti(B,N)- and Ti(B,C,N)-coatings. These single layer coatings show excellent mechanical properties (e.g. hardness values up to 6000 HV0,05), caused by lattice stresses as well as by atomic bonding conditions similar to those in c:BN and B 4 C. The good tribological properties shown in pin-on-disk-tests can be attributed to the very high hardness of the coatings. The coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials show good results mainly for the cutting of steel Ck45, due to the improved mechanical properties (e.g. hardness, toughness) of the multilayers compared to the single layer coatings. This improvement is caused by inserting the hard layer materials and the coherent reinforcement of the coatings. (orig.)

  7. Biodegradable polymer brush as nanocoupled interface for improving the durability of polymer coating on metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Tarek M; Cho, Youngjin; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2014-10-01

    Metal-based drug-eluting stents (DESs) have severe drawbacks such as peeling-off and cracking of the coated polymer. To prevent the fracture of polymer-coated layer and improve the durability of DES, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) brushes were synthesized onto cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr or CC) surface through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) followed by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) of l-lactide. The polymer brushes were then characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the unmodified and modified Co-Cr surfaces were coated with a matrix of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL). The in vitro drug release profile was measured for 70 days. The PLLA-modified Co-Cr showed a biphasic release pattern in the initial burst followed by a slow release. On the other hand, the unmodified Co-Cr showed fast drug release and detachment of the coated polymer layer due to the instability of the polymer layer on Co-Cr surface. In comparison, the PLLA-modified Co-Cr preserved a uniform coating without detachment even after 6 weeks of degradation test. The platelet morphology and low density of platelet adhered on the modified layer and the SRL-in-PDLLA coated Co-Cr surfaces demonstrated that these samples would be blood compatible. Therefore, the introduction of PLLA brush onto Co-Cr surface is proved to dramatically improve the durability of the coating layer, and it is a promising strategy to prevent the coating defects found in DESs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous electrodialytic removal of PAH, PCB, TBT and heavy metals from sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kristine B; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille E; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2017-08-01

    Contaminated sediments are remediated in order to protect human health and the environment, with the additional benefit of using the treated sediments for other activities. Common for many polluted sediments is the contamination with several different pollutants, making remediation challenging with the need of different remedial actions for each pollutant. In this study, electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of sediments was found effective for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants for sediments from Arctic regions - Sisimiut in Greenland and Hammerfest in Norway. The influence of sediment properties and experimental settings on the remediation process was studied by employing multivariate analysis. The importance of the variables studied varied with the pollutant and based on these results it was possible to assess removal processes for the different pollutants. Desorption was found to be important for the removal of heavy metals and TBT, while photolysis was significant for removal of PAH, PCB and TBT. In addition, dechlorination was found to be important for the removal of PCB. The highest removal efficiencies were found for heavy metals, TBT and PCB (>40%) and lower removal efficiencies for PAH (<35%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Persimmon leaf bio-waste for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yun; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal removal using waste biomass adsorbent, persimmon leaves, in an aqueous solution. Persimmon leaves, which are biomaterials, have a large number of hydroxyl groups and are highly suitable for removal of heavy metals. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of removal of Cu, Pb, and Cd in aqueous solution by using raw persimmon leaves (RPL) and dried persimmon leaves (DPL). Removal of heavy metals by RPL and DPL showed that DPL had a 10%-15% higher removal than RPL, and the order of removal efficiency was found to be Pb > Cu > Cd. The pseudo-second order model was a better fit to the heavy metal adsorption experiments using RPL and DPL than the pseudo-first order model. The adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Cd by DPL was more suitable with the Freundlich isothermal adsorption and showed an ion exchange reaction which occurred in the uneven adsorption surface layer. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined to be 19.42 mg/g, 22.59 mg/g, and 18.26 mg/g, respectively. The result of the adsorption experiments showed that the n value was higher than 2 regardless of the dose, indicating that the heavy metal adsorption on DPL was easy. In the thermodynamic experiment, ΔG° was a negative value, and ΔH° and ΔS° were positive values. It can be seen that the heavy metal adsorption process using DPL was spontaneous in nature and was an endothermic process. Moreover, as the temperature increased, the adsorption increased, and the affinity of heavy metal adsorption to DPL was very good. This experiment, in which heavy metals are removed using the waste biomass of persimmon leaves is an eco-friendly new bioadsorbent method because it can remove heavy metals without using chemicals while utilizing waste recycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. USEBILITY OF HYDROGELS IN ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGHY FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL AND DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and Dyes are very toxic and nonbiodegradable in waste waters to cause adverse health effects in human body and to induce irreversible pollution. Adsorption offers many potential advantages for removal of toxic heavy metals being flexibility in design and operation, high-quality treated effluent, reversible nature for multiple uses, and many commercially available adsorbent materials, such as activated carbon, zeolite, clay, sawdust, bark, biomass, lignin, chitosan and other polymer adsorbents. Compared to conventional adsorbent materials above, hydrogelbased adsorbents recently have attracted special attention to their highly potential for effective removal of heavy metals and dyes. Hydrogels are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of care for water. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balance volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape [9]. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. In adsorption applications, hydrogels are used in water purification, heavy metal/dying removing, controlled fertilizer released, ion exchange applications, chromatographic applications, dilute extractions, waste water treatments. This article general inform about usage of hydrogels in Dye and Heavy Metal adsorption.

  12. A combination of bioleaching and bioprecipitation for deep removal of contaminating metals from dredged sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Di; Zhang Ruichang; Zhou Lixiang; Li Jie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bioleaching-bioprecipitation can deeply cleanup sediment-borne metal contaminants. → Bioleaching results in a sufficient solubilisation of sediment-borne metals. → Bioprecipitation removes most of solubilised metals from sediment leachate at pH 3.7. → Bioremoval of soluble Zn, Cu and Cr is due to the formation of ZnS, Cu 2 S and CrOOH. → Alkalization of bioleached sediment by Ca(OH) 2 excludes the risk of re-acidification. - Abstract: A linked microbial process comprising bioleaching with sulfate-oxidizing bacteria and bioprecipitation with sulfate-reducing bacteria operating sequentially was investigated to deeply remove contaminating metals from dredged sediment. The results showed that sediment bioleaching resulted in a sharp decrease in sediment pH from an initial pH ∼7.6 to pH ∼2.5 within 10-20 days, approximately 65% of the main heavy metals present (Zn + Cu + Cr) were solubilized, and most of the unsolubilized metals existed in residual form of sediment. The acidic leachate that resulted from sediment bioleaching was efficiently stripped of metal sulfates using a bioprecipitation reactor when challenged with influent as low as pH ∼3.7. More than 99% of Zn 2+ , 99% of Cu 2+ and 90% of Cr 3+ were removed from the leachate, respectively, due to the formation of ZnS, Cu 2 S and CrOOH precipitates, as confirmed by SEM-EDS and XRD detection. It was also found that alkalization of bioleached sediment using Ca(OH) 2 excluded the risk of sediment re-acidification. The ability of the combined process developed in this study to deeply remove heavy metals in insoluble sulfides or hydroxides forms makes it particularly attractive for the treatment of different types of metal contaminants.

  13. Application of aragonite shells for the removal of aqueous metals in polluted soils and wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucca, M.; Köhler, S. J.; Dietzel, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the present study the use of coupled precipitation/dissolution processes for metal (Me) removal from polluted soils and waters by biogenic carbonate (CaCO3) shell surfaces is proposed, according to the following overall reaction: CaCO3 + Me2+ = MeCO3 + Ca2+ This reaction has been investigated at fixed experimental conditions using synthetic model systems consisting in columns, batch, and reactors (e.g. lead, zinc, and cadmium artificial solutions mixed with aragonite shells) that allowed quantifying the kinetics of the process of metal carbonate formation. The above mentioned process has the potential of being used in three different areas of water treatment: a) use of shells as a cheap and effective geologic barrier for contaminated ground or surface waters, b) use as a material in filter beds or fluidized bed for selective cleaning of waste water with the potential of partial metal recovery and c) use as seed crystals during the elimination of metals through precipitation with soda (Na2CO3). Acidic wastewaters containing several pollutants, including heavy and trace metals, are created during production of pesticides, paper, lubricating oil, batteries, acid/alkali, or in ship repair manufacturing, mines drainage systems, metalworking and metal plating industries. Biogenic shells are a waste product in many coastal countries and may thus be more favorable than other solid phases such as clays or zeolithes from an economic viewpoint. Our metal elimination study aims at setting up a low-cost effective elimination system for various types of metal rich waste waters. A number of experimental techniques such as batch, column and flow through reactors were used to optimize the metal removal efficiency in both synthetic and waste waters from the metal finishing industry. Solid liquid ratio, initial and final pH, metal concentration and combination of metals have been varied. Measurements of pH, metal concentration, conductivity and alkalinity were recorded over the

  14. Wear and corrosion behaviour of tungsten carbide based coatings with different metallic binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdi, Z.; Apandi, M. N. M.; Ibrahim, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten carbide based coating has been well known as wear and corrosion resistance materials. However, less study is done on comparing the coating with different binder. Thus, in this work the wear and corrosion behaviour of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings, namely (i) tungsten carbide cobalt and (ii) tungsten carbide nickel will be evaluated. Both coatings were characterised using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The wear behaviour has been examined using the modified grinder machine by weight loss measurement. Two types of abrasive have been used that include 3 g by weight alumina and silica. While for the corrosion behaviour, it is monitored by three electrodes of electrochemical test and immersion test for 30 days in an acidic environment. The electrolyte used was 0.5 M sulphuric acids (H2SO4). It was found that the cobalt binder shows higher wear resistance compares to the nickel binder for both slurry types. The harder alumina compared to silica results in higher wear rate with removal of carbide and binder is about the same rate. For silica abrasive, due to slightly lower hardness compared to the carbide, the wear is dominated by binder removal followed by carbide detachment. For corrosion, the nickel binder shows four times higher wear resistance compared to the cobalt binder as expected due to its natural behaviour. These finding demonstrate that the selection of coating to be used in different application in this case, wear and corrosion shall be chosen carefully to maximize the usage of the coating.

  15. Removal of heavy metals using a microbial active, continuously operated sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, C.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metals play an important role within the spectrum of the various pollutants, emitted into the environment via human activities. In contrast to most organic pollutants, heavy metal can not be degraded. Many soils, lakes and rivers show a high contamination with heavy metals due to the enrichment of these pollutants. In addition to existing chemical-physical and biological technologies for the treatment of heavy metal containing waste waters a demand for new, efficient and low-cost cleaning technologies exists, particularly for high volumes of weakly contaminated waters. Such a technology was developed within the framework of a scientific project of the European Union. The approach makes use of a continuously operated, moving-bed Astrasand filter, which has been operated as a continuous biofilm reactor. By inoculation of the reactor with bacteria providing different, defined mechanisms of metal immobilization, and by continuous supply of suitable nutrients, a metal-immobilizing biofilm is built up and regenerated continuously. Metal-enriched biomass is removed continuously from the system, and the contained metals can be recycled by pyrometallurgical treatment of the biomass. The subjects of the present work were the optimization of the nutrient supply for the process of metal removal, the investigation of the toxicity of different waste waters, the optimization of inoculation and biofilm formation, set-up and operation of a lab scale sand filter and the operation of a pilot scale sand filter treating rinsing water of a chemical nickel plating plant. First, basic parameters like toxicity of heavy metal-containing waste waters and the influence of the nutrition of bacteria on biosorption and total metal removal were examined, using freely suspended bacteria in batch culture. Concerning toxicity great differences could be found within the spectrum of heavy metal-containing waste waters tested. Some waters completely inhibited growth, while others did not

  16. Design dopamine-modified polypropylene fibers towards removal of heavy metal ions from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple approach to preparing dopamine-modified polypropylene fibers with a controllable polydopamine amount is supplied. By the dopamine modification, the hydrophobic polypropylene fibers have been changed into hydrophilic. The hydrophilicity can be improved by increasing the amount of polydopamine, as revealed by the contact angle evolutions. The hydrophilic dopamine-modified polypropylene fibers can rapidly and effectively remove copper and lead ions in water. Moreover, the performance of removing heavy metals is prominently improved as the polydopamine amount increases. This is because the polydopamine introduction can supply many available sites for adsorbing heavy metal ions, as revealed by theoretical simulation results. These results are crucial in future engineering fiber filters towards efficiently removing heavy metal ions using dopamine-modified polypropylene fibers.

  17. Chrome nitride coating reduces wear of small, spherical CrCoMo metal-on-metal articulations in a joint simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, R; Reigstad, O; Røkkum, M

    2017-03-01

    Metal-on-metal articulations have fallen out of favour in larger joint replacements, but are still used in smaller joints. Coating the articulation has been suggested as one way of reducing wear. We compared a standard 6 mm CrCoMo articulation designed for the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb with a chromium nitride-coated version after 512,000 cycles in a joint simulator. A total of 6 articulations in each group were tested with a unidirectional load of 5 kg in Ringer's solution. We found a statistically significant reduction in weight loss, amount of metallic wear produced and volumetric wear for the chromium nitride-coated articulation. Our findings support the use of chromium nitride coating in order to minimize the amount of metallic wear produced.

  18. Metal separators coated with carbon/resin composite layers for PEFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitta, Shigehiro [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4 Takeda, Kofu 400-8510 (Japan); Asktechnica Corp., 1488 Ichikawadaimon, Nishi-yatsushiro 409-3601 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4 Takeda, Kofu 400-8510 (Japan); Watanabe, Masahiro [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 4 Takeda, Kofu 400-8510 (Japan)

    2007-12-31

    A new type of metal separator coated with corrosion-resistant and electronically conductive carbon/resin composite layers has been developed. A flat, stainless steel plate was coated with a thin composite layer, and then ribs were formed of a similar composite over the thin layer as gas flow channels. The composite consisted of graphite, epoxy resin and a phenol hardener. By optimizing the combination and composition of materials, target values for the bulk electric conductivity and the chemical stability in hot water were cleared. The separator pieces exhibited a good corrosion resistance during soaking tests in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 90 C over 2000 h or even at 120 C over 1200 h. The area-specific resistance of the separator coated with the thin protecting layer and the rib layer was less than 13.8 m{omega} cm{sup 2}. (author)

  19. Novel composite cBN-TiN coating deposition method: structure and performance in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.C.; Malshe, A.P.; Yedave, S.N.; Brown, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride coatings are under development for a variety of applications but stabilization of the pure cBN form and adhesion of films deposited by PVD and ion-based methods has been difficult. An alternative method for depositing a composite cBN-TiN film has been developed for wear related applications. The coating is deposited in a two-stage process utilizing ESC (electrostatic spray coating) and CVI (chemical vapor infiltration). Fully dense films of cBN particles evenly dispersed in a continuous TiN matrix have been developed. Testing in metal cutting has shown an increase in tool life (turning - 4340 steel) of three to seven times, depending of machining parameters, in comparison with CVD deposited TiN films. (author)

  20. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  1. Studies of toxic metals removal in industrial wastewater after electron-beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Oxidation Process, using electron-beam, have been studied by scientific community due to its capacity to mineralize the toxic organic compound from highly reactive radical's formation. The electron-beam treatment process has been adopted by several countries for organic compounds removal and to effluents and sewers biological degradation. In this work, studies of metals removal in the simulated aqueous solutions and in the actual industrial effluents were carried out, using electron-beam treatment. The effluents samples were collected at ETE/SABESP (Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant) in Suzano, SP city. The sampling was outlined at three distinctive sites: Industrial Receiver Unit, Medium Bar, and Final Effluent. The effluents samples were irradiated using different irradiation doses (20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy). The removal behavior of metals Ca, CI, S, P, K, Al, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, Zn, Si, Co, Mn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb was verified. The elements determination was accomplished with the x-ray fluorescence (WD-XRFS) technique using Fundamental Parameters method and thin film samples. The elements Fe, Zn, Cr and Co presented a removal > 99% to 200 kGy of irradiation dose in industrial effluent. At the same dose, P, Al and Si presented a removal of 81.8%, 97.6% and 98.7%, respectively. Ca and S were removed more than 80% at 20 kGy and Na, CI and K did not presented any degree of removal. As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb removal was studied in the simulated aqueous solutions and industrial effluents with scavengers addition (EDTA and HCOONa). The elements As and Hg presented a removal of 92% and 99%, respectively, with HCOONa, at 500 kGy irradiation dose. The Se presented a 96.5% removal at same irradiation dose without scavengers addition. The removal of Cd and Pb did not give a significant removal, once all of the assay were carried out in the oxidant medium. (author)

  2. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  3. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, Tom, E-mail: tompeat12@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); McNutt, Philip [TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Iqbal, Naveed [TWI Technology Centre, Wallis Way, Catcliff, Rotherham, S60 5TZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • WC-CoCr, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings were cold spray deposited on AA5083 and friction stir processed. • The SprayStirred WC-CoCr demonstrated a hardness increase of 100% over the cold sprayed coating. • As-deposited and SprayStirred coatings were examined under slurry erosion test conditions. • Mass and volume loss was measured following 20-min exposure to the slurry. • The WC-CoCr and Al2O3 demonstrated a reduction in volume loss of approx. 40% over the cold sprayed coating. - Abstract: This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide – cobalt chromium, chromium carbide – nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the

  4. Removal of maxillary sinus metallic foreign body like a hand sewing needle by magnetic iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Linqin; Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app-roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech-niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route- carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64.

  5. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  6. Corrosion resistance and characterization of metallic coatings deposited by thermal spray on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá Brito, V.R.S.; Bastos, I.N.; Costa, H.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five combinations of metallic coatings and intermediate bonds were deposited on carbon steels. ► High strength was reached in adhesion tests. ► Epoxy sealing of coatings improves corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Carbon steels are not resistant to corrosion and several methods are used in surface engineering to protect them from aggressive environments such as marine. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of mechanical and metallurgical properties of five metallic coatings produced by thermal spray on carbon steel. Five chemical compositions were tested in order to give a large panel of possibility. Coatings were characterized by several methods to result in a screening of their performance. At first, the assessment of microstructural morphology by optical microscopy (OM) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was made. OM and SEM results showed uniformity of deposited layer, low amount of oxides and porosity. The physical properties of coatings were also evaluated by microhardness measurement, adhesion and porosity quantification. The corrosion resistance was analyzed in salt spray and electrochemical polarization tests. In the polarization test, as well as in the salt spray, all sealed conditions presented low corrosion. A new intermediate 78.3Ni20Cr1.4Si0.3Fe alloy was studied in order to reduce pores and microcracks that are frequently found in ordinary 95Ni5Al alloy. Based on the performed characterizations, the findings suggested that the FeCrCo deposition, with an epoxy sealing, is suitable to be used as an efficient coating of carbon steel in aggressive marine environments.

  7. One-step surface selective modification of UV-curable hard coatings with photochemical metal organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhpark@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: This study demonstrates suitable for exceptional hybrid film under UV exposure. A small quantity of the dispersive photochemical precursor Sr 2-ethylhexanoate was mixed and the composition altered from the surface to the bottom, forming an organic layer and a densely concentrated SrO surface layer. The surface-selective SrO strongly enhanced the surface flatness and hardness of the UV-curable organic coating film. - Highlights: • Hybrid bi-layer coating was synthesized through one-pot UV exposure chemical route. • The influence of additive and different reactivity formed densely concentrated SrO surface layer. • Chemical composition and continuous interface between organic and inorganic were analyzed. • Surface flatness and mechanical property were improved by inorganic material. - Abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid bi-layer film with a selective distribution of inorganic components was synthesized from a one-pot process of UV irradiation. A photochemical metal oxide precursor (Sr 2-ethylhexanoate) varying from 0 to 4 wt% was dispersed in UV-curable coating materials. Under UV exposure, the bi-layer started reacting simultaneously but at different rates due to differences in the two UV-condensable components’ reactivity. The effects of the dispersed inorganic component on the surface morphology and mechanical properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. The reaction process and rates were studied from linkage change using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various UV exposure times (0–30 min). The elemental distribution and the interface on the coating layer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ar etching, revealing continuous and gradual composition changes in depth. The results showed that a flattened and surface-selectively hardened SrO containing the coating film could be obtained by this simple process. Consequently, a small ratio of photochemical

  8. Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844

  9. Comparison of heavy metals and uranium removal using adsorbent in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Yun, Hunsik

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates heavy metals (As, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb) and uranium removal onto geomaterials (limestone, black shale, and concrete) and biosorbents (Pseudomonas putida and starfish) from waste in soil. Geomaterials or biosorbents with a high capacity for heavy metals and uranium can be obtained and employed of with little cost. For investigating the neutralization capacity, the change in pH, Eh, and EC as a function of time was quantified. The adsorption of heavy metals and uranium by the samples was influenced by pH, and increased with increasing heavy metals and uranium concentrations. Dead cells adsorbed the largest quantity of all heavy metals than lother sorbents. The adsorption capacity followed the order: U(VI) > Pb > Cd > Ni. The results also suggest that bacterial membrane cells can be used successfully in the treatment of high strength metal-contaminated soil.

  10. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  11. Influence of interface on the formation process of polymer coatings on metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Maksimova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is in development of the model that allows to investigate the conformations of macromolecules near the interface “dielectric-metal” depending on the conditions of formation of the polymer coating. In the modified model of “sticky tape”, one part of macromolecule is anchored to the metal surface while the other can be elongated due to effective mean (molecular field of dipolar type formed by free ends of other chains. The dynamic Monte-Carlo method for Langmuir’s model is used for calculation of adhesion force taking into account the interaction energy of monomers with the metal surface. It is shown that conformation of polymer chain is defined by temperature conditions of its formation. The obtained results are confirmed by the data of production tests on polymer coatings in JSC “Severstal”.

  12. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine functionalized sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated magnetite nanoparticles for effective removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Zandipak, Raziyeh

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine immobilized on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetite and was used for removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The prepared product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size of the nanoparticles according to SEM was obtained around 20-35 nm. In batch tests, the effects of pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied. The kinetic and equilibrium data were modeled with recently developed models. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by the fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir-Freundlich model, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity by this adsorbent is 255.1 mg g(-1) for Cd(II) ion and 319.6 mg g(-1) for Ni(II) ion at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. The method was successfully applied to the removal of metal cations in real samples (tap water, river water, and petrochemical wastewater).

  13. Bone response to a titanium aluminium nitride coating on metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C O; Brook, I M

    2006-05-01

    The design, surface characteristics and strength of metallic implants are dependant on their intended use and clinical application. Surface modifications of materials may enable reduction of the time taken for osseointegration and improve the biological response of bio-mechanically favourable metals and alloys. The influence of a titanium aluminium nitride (TAN) coating on the response of bone to commercially pure titanium and austenitic 18/8 stainless steel wire is reported. TAN coated and plain rods of stainless steel and commercially pure titanium were implanted into the mid-shaft of the femur of Wistar rats. The femurs were harvested at four weeks and processed for scanning electron and light microscopy. All implants exhibited a favourable response in bone with no evidence of fibrous encapsulation. There was no significant difference in the amount of new bone formed around the different rods (osseoconduction), however, there was a greater degree of shrinkage separation of bone from the coated rods than from the plain rods (p = 0.017 stainless steel and p = 0.0085 titanium). TAN coating may result in reduced osseointegration between bone and implant.

  14. High Efficient Nanocomposite for Removal of Heavy Metals (Hg2+ and Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In current work, CdS/black carbon nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with the aid of chestnut and cadmium nitrate as the starting reagents. Besides, the effects of preparation parameters such as reaction time, and precursor concentration on the morphology of products and removal of heavy metals (Hg+2, Pb+2 were studied by scanning electron microscopy images and batch adsorption mode. CdS/black carbon nanocomposite introduced as new and high efficient system for removal of heavy metal ions. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and spectra energy dispersive analysis of X-ray.

  15. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water

  16. Chitosan-coated Silica Nanoparticles - A Potential Support for Metal Particles used as Heterogeneous Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighizadeh, A.; Abu Bakar, M.; Ghani, S.A.; Abu Bakar, N.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work a strategy to immobilize noble metal nanoparticles on silica microspheres is proposed. In order to achieve this, monodispersed silica nanoparticles of an average size of 63.5±6.7 nm were synthesized via sol-gel method. Then chitosan was coated onto the silica to create a core/ shell composite with the size range of 66.56±9.78 nm to 79.18±11.87 nm. The noble metal nanoparticles were then synthesized on the shell of the composite through coordination of the respective metal ions to the polymer followed by the subsequent reduction. In this way, the silver particles of average size 6.17±1.83 nm, 9.85±2.60 nm, and 11.80±4.26 nm have been synthesized on the shell successfully. The optimized supported metal particles can be used as a potential heterogeneous catalyst. (author)

  17. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  18. Application of Electrochemical Process in Removal of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Municipal landfill leachate contains high concentrations of heavy metals, organics, ammonia. The efficeincy of electrochemically removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate was studied. Materials & Methods The leachate was obtained from Kahrizak landfill in south of Tehran. The experiments were carried out by batch process. The 2liter batch reactor was made of glass. There were eight anodes and cathodes electrodes. The electrodes were placed vertically parallel to each other and they were connected to a digital DC power supply. The pH and conductivity were adjusted to a desirable value using NaOH or H2SO4, and NaCl. All the runs were performed at constant temperature of 25°C. In each run, 1.5liter of the leachate was placed into the electrolytic cell. Samples were extracted every 10min and then filtered through a mixed cellulose acetate membrane (0.42μm. The amount of Lead, Zinc and Nickel removal was measured at pH=7 and in current density of 0.5, 0.75, and 1A. Findings When current density and time reaction increased, removal efficiency of heavy metals such as Lead, Zinc and Nickel increased. At initial pH=7, density 1A and reaction time= 60min, Lead, Nickel and Zinc were removed up to 86, 93 and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Electrochemical process can be proposed as a suitable technique to remove heavy metal from landfill leachate.

  19. Removal of platinum group metals contained in molten glass using copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruga, Kazuyoshi; Sawada, Kayo; Arita, Yuji; Enokida, Youichi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Removal of platinum group metals (PGMs) such as Pd, Ru, and RuO 2 from molten glass by using various amounts of liquid Cu was done as a basic study on a new vitrification process for a high-level radio-active waste. We prepared two types of borosilicate glasses containing PGMs and Cu, respectively. These glasses were mixed together and heated at 1,473 K for 4h in Ar atmosphere. More than 95% of Pd were removed as a spherical metal button composed of Pd-Cu alloy when Cu was added in an amount 0.5 times the weight of Pd. Nearly 95% of Ru was also removed as a spherical button with 2.5-5 times as much Cu addition as Ru in weight. Ruthenium oxide was reduced to metallic Ru by a reaction with Cu in the molten glass. The removal fraction was increased by increasing the amount of Cu and reached 63% when Cu addition was 7.5 times as much as RuO 2 in weight. By addition of Si as a reducing agent, nearly 90% of Pd and Ru were removed with Cu and Si metal composites even under O 2 :Ar=20:80 (v/v) condition. (author)

  20. Removal Of Phenol From Wastewater By Using Low-Cost Catalyst From Metal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbičková Blanka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.

  1. Removal Of Phenol From Wastewater By Using Low-Cost Catalyst From Metal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbičková, Blanka; Soldán, Maroš; Belčík, Michal; Balog, Karol

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes) as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.

  2. Metal Removal and Antimicrobial Properties of Watermelon rind modified with clove

    OpenAIRE

    Othman N.; Azhar N.; Megat Abdul Rani P. S.; Mohamed Zaini H.

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid development of industrial activity indirectly discharged pollutant into the local water stream. One of the harmful industrial wastes that enter public drainage is heavy metal owing to its toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. Improper treatment of domestic waste also will discharged high amount of microbial. Various types of technology were developed for removing pollutant in wastewater, but most of the technology employed to address on removing organic content ...

  3. Use of constructed wetland for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar; Ahmad, Irshad; Shah, M Tahir; Rehman, Shafiqur; Khaliq, Abdul

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a continuous free surface flow wetland for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater, in Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate (GAIE), Swabi, Pakistan. Industrial wastewater samples were collected from the in-let, out-let and all cells of the constructed wetland (CW) and analyzed for heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) using standard methods. Similarly, samples of aquatic macrophytes and sediments were also analyzed for selected heavy metals. Results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the CW for Pb, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cu were 50%, 91.9%, 74.1%, 40.9%, 89%, and 48.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of the CW was efficient enough to remove the heavy metals, particularly Cd, Fe, and Cu, from the industrial wastewater fed to it. However, it is suggested that the metal removal efficiency of the CW can be further enhanced by using proper management of vegetation and area expansion of the present CW.

  4. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J; Ji, Xiaoyan; Day, Sumner D; Blue, Craig A; Rivard, John D.K.; Aprigliano, Louis F; Kohler, Leslie K; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J

    2013-09-03

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  5. Wakefield radiation from the open end of an internally coated metallic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivanyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of radiation from the open end of a semi-infinite circular metallic waveguide with perfectly conducting walls and a thin internal low-conducting metal coating is considered. Electromagnetic fields are generated by the ultrarelativistic point charge moving along the axis of the waveguide. The far fields of radiation are obtained using the near-field to far-field recovery technique. The technique is extended for the nonmonochromatic waves. It is shown that the radiation has a narrow-band and narrow-directional character.

  6. Synthesis of high T.sub.C superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Vander Sande, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method.

  7. Isothermal oxidation of metallic coatings deposited by a water-stabilized plasma gun

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Nop, P.; Kopřiva, P.; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Dubský, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2006), s. 41-48 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * metallic coatings * oxidation tests * oxidation kinetics * oxide structure * element distribution Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2006

  8. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Balasubramanian Subramanian,1 Sundaram Maruthamuthu,2 Senthilperumal Thanka Rajan1 1Electrochemical Material Science Division, 2Corrosion and Materials Protection Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, India Abstract: Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.% of approximately 1.5 µm and 3 µm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. Keywords: thin film metallic glasses, sputtering, biocompatibility, corrosion, antimicrobial activity

  9. High-Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating by Plasma Spraying Using Metal-Metal Clad Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Lan, Hao; Yu, Shouquan; Huang, Chuanbing; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2017-08-01

    NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating was fabricated by atmospheric plasma spray technology using clad powders as the feedstock. Its tribological properties at variable temperature were evaluated using a ball-on-disk high-temperature tribometer in air. The results showed that compared with NiCr, the NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating exhibited better lubrication effect and higher wear resistance at all test temperatures, especially above 600 °C. At 800 °C, NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating showed the lowest friction coefficient of about 0.2 and its corresponding wear rate reached 2.5 × 10-5 mm3/Nm. Characterizations of NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating revealed that at temperatures below 400 °C, Ag was smeared and spread onto the wear surface, reducing the friction and wear. At temperature above 500 °C, the Ag2MoO4 lubrication film formed by tribo-oxidation significantly improved the coating's lubrication effect and wear resistance.

  10. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  11. Heavy Metal Removal From The Wastewater By Using Low Cost Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Inamdar Ejaj; Bhagat Sanjay; Joshi Swapnali; Pund Sharad; Satwadhar Ajinkya

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity because of industrial waste has been a threat to the environment for the past several decades, particularly within the developing countries like India, China and Kingdom of Thailand wherever price effectiveness of the removal method may be a major factor. This industrialization has not only brought development and prosperity however eventually disturbed the system. One of the impacts is visible; in kind of pollution. Within the gift study heavy metal contamination of wate...

  12. Fracture resistance of dental nickel–titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure.

  13. Kinetics of heavy metal removal in a suspended and immobilized bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, S. R. M.; Ezechi, E. H.; Khaw, S. G.; Lai, C. L.; Isa, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The capacity of microorganisms to remove heavy metal from wastewater has been a subject of diverse interest. Whereas some heavy metals are essential for effective microbial activity, some heavy metals could be toxic to the microorganisms at concentrations higher than their minimal inhibitory limit. The kinetics of Zn2+ removal from aqueous solution was evaluated in terms of substrate removal rate for two identical suspended and immobilized bioreactors. The suspended growth bioreactor was used as a control system (CS) and contains only biomass. The immobilized bioreactor (IB) contains both biomass and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA). The bioreactors were operated at a fixed HRT of 29.1 hours, whereas Zn2+ influent concentration was varied in the range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L. At steady state conditions, the results show that Zn2+ removal was in the range of 72, 75, 72.5, 68.2, 70.3 and 58.7% for CS, whereas it was in the range of 88, 90, 83, 88.6, 86.2 and 83.7% for IB. The substrate removal rate was found as 1.1856 g/L.d for CS and 4.2693 g/L.d for IB. The results clearly show that Zn2+ removal was more favorable in IB, indicating that the performance of the bioreactor was enhanced by the addition of MIRHA.

  14. Coating carbon nanotubes with humic acid using an eco-friendly mechanochemical method: Application for Cu(II) ions removal from water and aquatic ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côa, Francine; Strauss, Mathias; Clemente, Zaira; Rodrigues Neto, Laís L; Lopes, Josias R; Alencar, Rafael S; Souza Filho, Antônio G; Alves, Oswaldo L; Castro, Vera Lúcia S S; Barbieri, Edison; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2017-12-31

    In this work, industrial grade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were coated with humic acid (HA) for the first time by means of a milling process, which can be considered an eco-friendly mechanochemical method to prepare materials and composites. The HA-MWCNT hybrid material was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopies (SEM and STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. STEM and AFM images demonstrated that the MWCNTs were efficiently coated by the humic acid, thus leading to an increase of 20% in the oxygen content at the nanotube surface as observed by the XPS data. After the milling process, the carbon nanotubes were shortened as unveiled by SEM images and the values of ID/IG intensity ratio increased due to shortening of the nanotubes and increasing in the number defects at the graphitic structure of carbon nanotubes walls. The analysis of TGA data showed that the quantity of the organic matter of HA on the nanotube surface was 25%. The HA coating was responsible to favor the dispersion of MWCNTs in ultrapure water (i.e. -42mV, zeta-potential value) and to improve their capacity for copper removal. HA-MWCNTs hybrid material adsorbed 2.5 times more Cu(II) ions than oxidized MWCNTs with HNO 3 , thus evidencing that it is a very efficient adsorbent material for removing copper ions from reconstituted water. The HA-MWCNTs hybrid material did not show acute ecotoxicity to the tested aquatic model organisms (Hydra attenuata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio embryos) up to the highest concentration evaluated (10mgL -1 ). The results allowed concluding that the mechanochemical method is effective to coat carbon nanotubes with humic acid, thus generating a functional hybrid material with low aquatic toxicity and great potential to be applied in environmental nanotechnologies such as the removal of heavy metal ions from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(l-lactic acid-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3–2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium.

  16. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. 888.3535 Section 888.3535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace part of a knee joint. The device limits...

  17. A study of TiN-coated metal-on-polymer bearing materials for hip prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Bai; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Won Woong; Jeon, Jun Hong; Won, Sung Ok; Byun, Ji Young; Lim, Sang Ho; Han, Seung Hee

    2010-08-01

    The TiN-coated metal-on-polymer hip prosthetic pair has the potential to reduce wear debris of UHMWPE (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) and to prevent metallic-ion-induced cytotoxicity. However, high quality and adherent film is a key to the clinical success of hip prostheses. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation & deposition (PIII&D) technique to create high-quality film and an adherent interface. The chemical state and composition were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The mechanical properties of the films were characterized using a micro-hardness tester and a pin-on-disk wear tester, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used for a crystallographic analysis. The PIII&D-treated TiN films showed a stoichiometric and (200) preferred orientation and micro-hardness up to 150 % higher than untreated film. A TiN-coated specimen using the PIII&D process also showed less UHMWPE wear compared to untreated specimens. The volumetric wear rate of UHMWPE could be reduced by as much as 42 % compared to when Co-Cr alloy was used. The results of this study show that advanced TiN-coating via the PIII&D process is a viable means of reducing UHMWPE wear in the metal-on-polymer bearing couple.

  18. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-15

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    -moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases......Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected...

  20. Use of silica-immobilized humin for heavy metal removal from aqueous solution under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, G; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Peralta-Videa, J R; Herrera, I; Contreras, C

    2003-10-01

    Humin extracted from Sphagnum peat moss was immobilized in a silica matrix and column experiments were performed in order to evaluate the removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solution under flow conditions. These experiments also allowed testing the recycling capacity of the column. Single-element solutions of Cu(II) and Pb(II), and a multi-metal solution containing Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), and Cr(III) were passed through the columns at a flow rate of 2 ml/min. A 0.5 M sodium citrate solution was used as the stripping agent in the metal-ion recovery process. Humin immobilized in the silica matrix exhibited a similar, and in some cases, even a higher capacity than other biosorbents for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions under flow conditions. The sodium citrate was effective in removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) from the metal saturated column. The selectivity of the immobilized biomass was as follows: Cr(III)>Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). This investigation provides a new, environmentally friendly and cost-effective possibility to clean up heavy-metal contaminated wastewaters by using the new silica-immobilized humin material.

  1. Chemical and microstructural analyses for heavy metals removal from water media by ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asmaa; Ahmed, Abdelkader; Gad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of low cost ceramic membrane filtration in removing three common heavy metals namely; Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ from water media. The work includes manufacturing ceramic membranes with dimensions of 15 by 15 cm and 2 cm thickness. The membranes were made from low cost materials of local clay mixed with different sawdust percentages of 0.5%, 2.0%, and 5.0%. The used clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Aqueous solutions of heavy metals were prepared in the laboratory and filtered through the ceramic membranes. The influence of the main parameters such as pH, initial driving pressure head, and concentration of heavy metals on their removal efficiency by ceramic membranes was investigated. Water samples were collected before and after the filtration process and their heavy metal concentrations were determined by chemical analysis. Moreover, a microstructural analysis using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) was performed on ceramic membranes before and after the filtration process. The chemical analysis results showed high removal efficiency up to 99% for the concerned heavy metals. SEM images approved these results by showing adsorbed metal ions on sides of the internal pores of the ceramic membranes.

  2. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  4. Removal of metal ions by Phormidium bigranulatum (cyanobacteria)-dominated mat in batch and continuous flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Rai, Jyoti; Gaur, J P

    2012-01-01

    Live Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat successfully removed Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Percent metal removal approached equilibrium within 4h, independent of mat thickness (0.2-1.6 mm), in batch system. But % metal removal increased with increase in mat thickness due to enhancement of biomass, which provided more metal binding sites. Metal accumulation decreased with increase in mat thickness due to lessened metal availability vis-à-vis biomass. Metal removal (%) increased with increasing mat area, but decreased with increasing metal concentration in the solution. In continuous flow system, metal accumulation increased with increasing volume of single or multi-metal solution passed over the mat. The mat removed all the tested metals from the multi-metal solution with almost the same efficiency. The maximum removal of the test metals occurred at the lowest tested flow rate. Raceway type ponds can be employed for large-scale use of Phormidium mat in bioremediation of metalliferous wastewaters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Adsorbents from Ti(OPrn)4 by the Sol-Gel Process: Synthesis, Characterization and Application for Removing Some Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    SAYILKAN, Funda; SAYILKAN, Hikmet

    2004-01-01

    New adsorbents were synthesized by the sol-gel process from the product of a hydrolysis reaction and its coated form of titanium(IV)-n-propoxide for removing some heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Titanium(IV)-n-propoxide was uncatalyst hydrolyzed with different amounts of water at room temperature and was found to react in a 1:1.6 ratio (mole of Ti:mole of H2O). It was found that the condensation following the hydrolysis reaction was alcohol condensation. The hydrolysis-conde...

  6. Natural Jordanian zeolite: removal of heavy metal ions from water samples using column and batch methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hutaf M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Younes, Hammad A

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption behavior of natural Jordanian zeolites with respect to Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) was studied in order to consider its application to purity metal finishing drinking and waste water samples under different conditions such as zeolite particle size, ionic strength and initial metal ion concentration. In the present work, a new method was developed to remove the heavy metal by using a glass column as the one that used in column chromatography and to make a comparative between the batch experiment and column experiment by using natural Jordanian zeolite as adsorbent and some heavy metals as adsorbate. The column method was used using different metal ions concentrations ranged from 5 to 20 mg/L with average particle size of zeolite ranged between 90 and 350 mum, and ionic strength ranged from 0.01 to 0.05. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for analysis of these heavy metal ions, the results obtained in this study indicated that zeolitic tuff is an efficient ion exchanger for removing heavy metals, in particular the fine particle sizes of zeolite at pH 6, whereas, no clear effect of low ionic strength values is noticed on the removal process. Equilibrium modeling of the removal showed that the adsorption of Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR). The sorption energy E determined in the DKR equation (9.129, 10.000, 10.541, and 11.180 kJ/mol for Zn(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Cd(2 + ) and Pb(2 + ) respectively) which revealed the nature of the ion-exchange mechanism.

  7. Hot-Pressing Method To Prepare Imidazole-Based Zn(II) Metal-Organic Complexes Coatings for Highly Efficient Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ani; Fan, Ruiqing; Zhou, Xuesong; Hao, Sue; Zheng, Xubin; Yang, Yulin

    2018-03-21

    Particulate matters (PMs) air pollution has become a serious environmental issue due to its great threat to human health. Herein, metal-organic complexes PBM-Zn1 and PBM-Zn2 coatings (noted as PBM-Zn-Filter) have been produced by the hot-pressing method on various substrates for the first time. Layer-by-layer PBM-Zn-Filters were also obtained through varying hot-pressing cycles. The obtained PBM-Zn-Filters with high robustness show excellent performance in PMs removal. In particular, benefiting from thelarger conjugation system, micropore structure, lower pressure drop, higher electrostatic potential ζ, and electron cloud exposed metal center of PBM-Zn2 (DFT calculations), PBM-Zn2@melamine foam-4 gives the highest removal rates, PM2.5:99.5% ± 1.2% and PM10:99.3% ± 1.1%, and the removal efficiency for capture PM2.5 and PM10 particles in cigarette smoke were both retained at high levels (>95.5%) after 24 h tests. More importantly, a homemade mask is made up by imbedding the PBM-Zn2@melamine foam-4 into a commercial breathing mask, which shows higher removal efficiency, lower pressure drop, smaller thickness, and higher quality factor than two commercial breathing masks, the PMs removal efficiencies for both PM2.5 and PM10 are 99.6% ± 0.5% and 99.4% ± 0.8%, and acceptable air resistance are demonstrated.

  8. Impression Procedures for Metal Frame Removable Partial Dentures as Applied by General Dental Practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, W.A.; Uchelen, J. van; Witter, D.J.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study analyzed impression procedures for conventional metal frame removable partial dentures (RPDs). Heads of RPD departments of three dental laboratories were asked to record features of all incoming impressions for RPDs during a 2-month period. Records included: (1) impression

  9. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  10. New Approach to Remove Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Hui Pan

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated using binary acid solutions consisting of acetic, oxalic, and phosphoric acids in a microwave reactor. Formation of an insoluble copper oxalate complex in the binary solution containing oxalic acid was the major factor for low copper removal. Furthermore, the...

  11. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2012-02-29

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Coal and Zea mays cob waste as adsorbents for removal of metallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of coal (CO) and Zea mays (ZM) cob adsorbents for the removal of metallic ions from wastewater is reported. The adsorbents were used in both their granular (GCO and GZM) and powdered (PCO and PZM) forms respectively. Chromium, nickel, iron and cadmium were used as model ions. Efficiency of the ...

  13. Preparation and characterization of gum karaya hydrogel nanocomposite flocculant for metal ions removal from mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper reports the removal of heavy metal ions from mine effluents using the gum karaya (GK)-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) incorporated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) hydrogel nanocomposite [i.e., GK...

  14. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water Steve Larson, W. Andy Martin - ERDC-EL JJ. Romano - Alion Science and...13 5.3 TREATABILITY STUDY RESULTS ........................................................................ 13 5.4 FIELD TESTING...Arms Firing Ranges, Site of the Field Demonstration. ............................................................................................. 9

  15. Regenerable metallic oxide systems for removal of carbon dioxide: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Design concepts for portable canisters for removal of carbon dioxide are described. One is screen pack configuration consisting of brazed rectangular canister with four metal oxide packs inserted. Other is radial flow canister with perforated central tube. Methods of production and operating principles are presented.

  16. Effect of metallic coating on the properties of copper-silicon carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Pietrzak, K.; Teodorczyk, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Jarząbek, D.; Zybała, R.; Bazarnik, P.; Lewandowska, M.; Strojny-Nędza, A.

    2017-11-01

    In the presented paper a coating of SiC particles with a metallic layer was used to prepare copper matrix composite materials. The role of the layer was to protect the silicon carbide from decomposition and dissolution of silicon in the copper matrix during the sintering process. The SiC particles were covered by chromium, tungsten and titanium using Plasma Vapour Deposition method. After powder mixing of components, the final densification process via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method at temperature 950 °C was provided. The almost fully dense materials were obtained (>97.5%). The microstructure of obtained composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural analysis of composites confirmed that regardless of the type of deposited material, there is no evidence for decomposition process of silicon carbide in copper. In order to measure the strength of the interface between ceramic particles and the metal matrix, the micro tensile tests have been performed. Furthermore, thermal diffusivity was measured with the use of the laser pulse technique. In the context of performed studies, the tungsten coating seems to be the most promising solution for heat sink application. Compared to pure composites without metallic layer, Cu-SiC with W coating indicate the higher tensile strength and thermal diffusitivy, irrespective of an amount of SiC reinforcement. The improvement of the composite properties is related to advantageous condition of Cu-SiC interface characterized by well homogenity and low porosity, as well as individual properties of the tungsten coating material.

  17. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature.

  18. Heavy metal removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI): Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolin; Wang, Wei; Liang, Feipeng; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2017-01-15

    Treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals requires considerations on simultaneous removal of different ions, system reliability and quick separation of reaction products. In this work, we demonstrate that nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an ideal reagent for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Batch experiments show that nZVI is able to perform simultaneous removal of different heavy metals and arsenic; reactive nZVI in uniform dispersion brings rapid changes in solution E h , enabling a facile way for reaction regulation. Microscope characterizations and settling experiments suggest that nZVI serves as solid seeds that facilitate products separation. A treatment process consisting of E h -controlled nZVI reaction, gravitational separation and nZVI recirculation is then demonstrated. Long-term (>12 months) operation shows that the process achieves >99.5% removal of As, Cu and a number of other toxic elements. The E h -controlled reaction system sustains a highly-reducing condition in reactor and reduces nZVI dosage. The process produces effluent of stable quality that meets local discharge guidelines. The gravitational separator shows high efficacy of nZVI recovery and the recirculation improves nZVI material efficiency, resulting in extraordinarily high removal capacities ((245mg As+226 mg-Cu)/g-nZVI). The work provides proof that nanomaterials can offer truly green and cost-effective solutions for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The removal of heavy metals by iron mine drainage sludge and Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi; Anh, Bui Thi Kim

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the removal of heavy metals from solutions by the combination of modified iron mine drainage sludge (sorbent column) and surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands using the common reed (Phragmites australis) during 30 days of experiment. The results of this study demonstrated that the average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column were 59.0, 55.1, 38.7, and 42.4%, respectively. The decreasing trend of removal rates of metals by sorbent column was obtained during the experiment. The average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column-surface constructed wetland were 78.9, 73.5, 91.2, and 80.5%, respectively; those by sorbent column-subsurface flow constructed wetland were 81.7, 81.1, 94.1, and 83.1% which reflected that subsurface flow constructed wetland showed higher removal rate than the surface system. Concentrations of heavy metals in the outlet water were lower than the Vietnamese standard limits regulated for industrial wastewater. The results indicate the feasibility of integration of iron mine drainage sludge and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  20. Characterization and fabrication of fully metal-coated scanning near-field optical microscopy SiO2 tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschimann, L; Akiyama, T; Staufer, U; De Rooij, N F; Thiery, L; Eckert, R; Heinzelmann, H

    2003-03-01

    The fabrication of silicon cantilever-based scanning near-field optical microscope probes with fully aluminium-coated quartz tips was optimized to increase production yield. Different cantilever designs for dynamic- and contact-mode force feedback were implemented. Light transmission through the tips was investigated experimentally in terms of the metal coating and the tip cone-angle. We found that transmittance varies with the skin depth of the metal coating and is inverse to the cone angle, meaning that slender tips showed higher transmission. Near-field optical images of individual fluorescing molecules showed a resolution thermocouple showed no evidence of mechanical defect or orifice formation by thermal effects.

  1. Polyrhodanine modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane for heavy metal ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jooyoung; Oh, Hyuntaek; Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-03-15

    Polyrhodanine was immobilized onto the inner surface of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane via vapor deposition polymerization method. The polyrhodanine modified membrane was applied to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution because polyrhodanine could be coordinated with specific metal ions. Several parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time and metal species were evaluated systematically for uptake efficiencies of the fabricated membrane under continuous flow condition. Adsorption isotherms of Hg(II) ion on the AAO-polyrhodanine membrane were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) ion on the membrane was obeyed by a pseudo-second order equation, indicating the chemical adsorption. The maximum removal capacity of Hg(II) ion onto the fabricated membrane was measured to be 4.2 mmol/g polymer. The AAO-polyrhodanine membrane had also remarkable uptake performance toward Ag(I) and Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the polyrhodanine modified membrane could be recycled after recovery process. These results demonstrated that the polyrhodanine modified AAO membrane provided potential applications for removing the hazardous heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticorrosive coating of SixOyCz on metallic substrates applied with the plasma CVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P; Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of anticorrosive coatings of Si x O y C z on metallic substrates by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) in a two layer coating, with a gaseous mixture using methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070) with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. The process involves two steps, the first with the substrate thermalized to 500 o C and the second step with the substrate at room temperature. In the first step the process is carried out with the mixture of O 2 and Z6070, in the second step methane is added to the mixture of the plasma forming gases. The coatings were carried out on AISI 410 stainless steel, AISI M2 steel, titanium and AA6061 aluminum substrates. This work presents the preliminary results of the electrochemical evaluation and the mechanical properties of the coating. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA ), and scanning electron microscopy were used for this study. Electrochemical techniques were used to study the reaction to the corrosion of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were prepared in a solution of 5% H 2 SO 4 and in NaCl 0,1M. The tests were undertaken at room temperature. This process is presented as an alternative to the conventional immersion processes by the sol-gel method, which produces the polymerization of the reagent as a result of the effect of the oxygen from the environment, while the plasma process produces very different chemical reactions in the center of the plasma itself with coatings also different (CW)

  3. Polymer functionalized nanocomposites for metals removal from water and wastewater: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Libralato, Giovanni; Domingos, Rute F; Markus, Arjen; Dini, Luciana; Gautam, Ravindra Kumar; Baldantoni, Daniela; Rossi, Marco; Sharma, Sanjay K; Chattopadhyaya, Mahesh Chandra; Giugni, Maurizio; Meric, Sureyya

    2016-04-01

    Pollution by metal and metalloid ions is one of the most widespread environmental concerns. They are non-biodegradable, and, generally, present high water solubility facilitating their environmental mobilisation interacting with abiotic and biotic components such as adsorption onto natural colloids or even accumulation by living organisms, thus, threatening human health and ecosystems. Therefore, there is a high demand for effective removal treatments of heavy metals, making the application of adsorption materials such as polymer-functionalized nanocomposites (PFNCs), increasingly attractive. PFNCs retain the inherent remarkable surface properties of nanoparticles, while the polymeric support materials provide high stability and processability. These nanoparticle-matrix materials are of great interest for metals and metalloids removal thanks to the functional groups of the polymeric matrixes that provide specific bindings to target pollutants. This review discusses PFNCs synthesis, characterization and performance in adsorption processes as well as the potential environmental risks and perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran

    : transport of water (electroosmosis) and ions (electromigration), with electromigration being the most important transport process when treating heavy metal contaminated soils. Electrodialytic remediation (EDR), one of the enhanced electrochemical remediation techniques, is developed at the Technical...... University of Denmark in the early 1990s and aims at removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. The electrodialytic remediation method differs from the electrokinetic remediation methods in the use of ion exchange membranes for separation of the soil and the processing solutions in the electrode...... the applicability for remediation beyond bench and pilot scale. The overall aim of the present PhD study is to clarify and understand the underlying mechanisms of the effect of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation. Series of experiments...

  5. The use of biosorbents for heavy metals removal from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Amin, Y.

    2010-04-01

    Biomaterials, which could be adsorbed heavy metals, such bacteria, algae, yeasts, fungi and agricultural waste, is called Biomass. Recently, they are widely used for heavy metal removal from aqueous media, due to their large available quantities, low cost and good performance. The biosorbent, unlike mono functional ion exchange resins, contains variety of functional sites including carboxyl, imidazole, sulphydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide and hydroxyl moieties. In this paper, the biosorbents word widely and nationally used for heavy metal removal were reviewed. Their biosorption performance, their pretreatment and modification, aiming to improve their sorption capacity, and regeneration/reuse was introduced and evaluated. The potential application of biosorption and biosorbents was discussed. (author)

  6. Influence of substrate metal alloy type on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited using a novel ambient temperature deposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J N; Cowley, A; McNally, P J; Dowling, D P

    2014-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are applied widely to enhance the level of osteointegration onto orthopedic implants. Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is typically used for the deposition of these coatings; however, HA crystalline changes regularly occur during this high-thermal process. This article reports on the evaluation of a novel low-temperature (alloy substrates. This study addresses the suitability of the CoBlast technique for the deposition of HA coatings on a number of alternative metal alloys utilized in the fabrication of orthopedic devices. In addition to titanium grade 5, both cobalt chromium and stainless steel 316 were investigated. In this study, HA coatings were deposited using both the CoBlast and the plasma sprayed techniques, and the resultant HA coating and substrate properties were evaluated and compared. The CoBlast-deposited HA coatings were found to present similar surface morphologies, interfacial properties, and composition irrespective of the substrate alloy type. Coating thickness however displayed some variation with the substrate alloy, ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 μm. This perhaps is associated with the electronegativity of the metal alloys. The APS-treated samples exhibited evidence of both coating, and significantly, substrate phase alterations for two metal alloys; titanium grade 5 and cobalt chrome. Conversely, the CoBlast-processed samples exhibited no phase changes in the substrates after depositions. The APS alterations were attributed to the brief, but high-intensity temperatures experienced during processing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Soluble salts: their incidence on the protection of metallic structures by paint coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of soluble salts at the metal/paint interface is known to have a detrimental effect on the integrity of most paint systems. Though this is a long-standing problem, it has recently come to receive greater attention from the protective coatings industry. In the paper the following points are reviewed: degradation mechanisms of the metal/paint system, the role of the metallic substrate, the nature, origin and detection os soluble salts, expected levels of soluble salts in practice, critical thresholds of soluble salts and risk levels for premature failures, role of the type and thickness of paint systems and exposure conditions, and prevention measures. The author presents an overview of the subject, making reference to the related research that has been carried out by him and his co-workers over the last 16 years. (Author) 58 refs

  8. Influence of voltage input to heavy metal removal from electroplating wastewater using electrocoagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, D. R.; Cahyaningsih, S.; Djaenudin

    2017-03-01

    In medium capacity, electroplating industry usually treats wastewater until 5 m3 per day. Heavy metal content becomes concern that should be reduced. Previous studies performed electrocoagulation method on laboratory scale, either batch or continuous. This study was aimed to compare the influence of voltage input variation into heavy metal removal in electroplating wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation process on laboratory-scale in order to determine the optimum condition for scaling up the reactor into pilot-scale. The laboratory study was performed in 1.5 L glass reactor in batch system using wastewater from electroplating industry, the voltage input varied at 20, 30 and 40 volt. The electrode consisted of aluminium 32 cm2 as sacrifice anode and copper 32 cm2 as cathode. During 120 min electrocoagulation process, the pH value was measured using pH meter, whereas the heavy metal of chromium, copper, iron, and zinc concentration were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result showed that removal of heavy metals from wastewater increased due to the increasing of voltage input. Different initial concentration of heavy metals on wastewater, resulted the different detention time. At pilot-scale reactor with 30 V voltage input, chromium, iron, and zinc reached removal efficiency until 89-98%, when copper reached 79% efficiency. At 40V, removal efficiencies increased on same detention time, i.e. chromium, iron, and zinc reached 89-99%, whereas copper reached 85%. These removal efficiencies have complied the government standard except for copper that had higher initial concentration in wastewater. Kinetic rate also calculated in this study as the basic factor for scaling up the process.

  9. Heavy metal removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI): Theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shaolin, E-mail: lishaolin@tongji.edu.cn; Wang, Wei; Liang, Feipeng; Zhang, Wei-xian, E-mail: zhangwx@tongji.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • nZVI is able to perform fast and simultaneous removal of different heavy metal ions. • Fast separation and seeding effect of nZVI facilities its application in wastewater. • A novel process of E{sub h}-controlled reactor, nZVI separator and reuse is proposed. • E{sub h}-controlled system and nZVI recirculation increase material efficiency of nZVI. • The process produces stable effluent and is effective in wastewater treatment. - Abstract: Treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals requires considerations on simultaneous removal of different ions, system reliability and quick separation of reaction products. In this work, we demonstrate that nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an ideal reagent for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Batch experiments show that nZVI is able to perform simultaneous removal of different heavy metals and arsenic; reactive nZVI in uniform dispersion brings rapid changes in solution E{sub h}, enabling a facile way for reaction regulation. Microscope characterizations and settling experiments suggest that nZVI serves as solid seeds that facilitate products separation. A treatment process consisting of E{sub h}-controlled nZVI reaction, gravitational separation and nZVI recirculation is then demonstrated. Long-term (>12 months) operation shows that the process achieves >99.5% removal of As, Cu and a number of other toxic elements. The E{sub h}-controlled reaction system sustains a highly-reducing condition in reactor and reduces nZVI dosage. The process produces effluent of stable quality that meets local discharge guidelines. The gravitational separator shows high efficacy of nZVI recovery and the recirculation improves nZVI material efficiency, resulting in extraordinarily high removal capacities ((245 mg As + 226 mg-Cu)/g-nZVI). The work provides proof that nanomaterials can offer truly green and cost-effective solutions for wastewater treatment.

  10. Improved Plasticity of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room Temperature by Electroless Thin Nickel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By restricting the dilated deformation, surface modification can stimulate multiple shear banding and improve the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. Aimed at modifying the surface of BMGs by thin layers, a crystalline Ni coating with ultrafine grains was coated on the surface of a Ti-based BMG by electroless plating. With a thickness of about 10 μm, the prepared thin coating could effectively limit the fast propagation of primary shear bands and stimulate the nucleation of multiple shear bands. As a result, the compression plasticity of the coated Ti-based BMG was improved to about 3.7% from near 0% of the non-coated BMG. Except for a small amount of Ni coating was adhered to the BMG substrate after fracture, most of the coatings were peeled off from the surface. It can be attributed to the abnormal growth of some coarse grains/particles in local region of the coating, which induces a large tensile stress at the interface between the coating and the BMG substrate. It is suggested that, for electroless nickel plating, improving the adhesive bonding strength between the coating and the substrate has a better geometric restriction effect than simply increasing the thickness of the coating.

  11. Heavy metal removal in an UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Varga, D; Díaz, M A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the long-term removal of heavy metals (HMs) in a combined UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. The research was carried out in a field pilot plant constituted for an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester as a pretreatment, followed by a surface flow constructed wetland (CW) and finally by a subsurface flow CW. While the UASB showed (pseudo) steady state operational conditions and generated a periodical purge of sludge, CWs were characterised by the progressive accumulation and mineralisation of retained solids. This paper analyses the evolution of HM removal from the water stream over time (over a period of 4.7 year of operation) and the accumulation of HMs in UASB sludge and CW sediments at two horizons of 2.7 and 4.0 year of operation. High removal efficiencies were found for some metals in the following order: Sn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe (63-94%). Medium removal efficiencies were registered for Ni (49%), Hg (42%), and Ag (40%), and finally Mn and As showed negative percentage removals. Removal efficiencies of total HMs were higher in UASB and SF units and lower in the last SSF unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Cerium-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite coatings on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Qiuhua, E-mail: yuanqiuh@szu.edu.cn; Qin, Caoping; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Anping; Zhang, Ziqiang; Liao, Junquan; Lin, Songxin; Ren, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Peixin

    2016-10-01

    Ce-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid (HA/PLA) composites serving as implant coatings have rarely been studied by other researchers in recent years. This paper was focused to study the existence of Ce ions in structure, chemical composition and surface morphology of HA and its composite coatings. Ce-doped HA powders were synthesized by chemical precipitation method with different Ce molar fractions (0(pure HA), 0.5 mol%, 1 mol% and 2 mol%). And Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings were fabricated for the first time on stainless steel substrates by spin coating technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that Ce ions were doped into the crystal lattice of apatite successfully. The (Ce + Ca)/P atomic ratios in the doped HA/PLA samples ranged from 1.614 to 1.673, which were very close to the theoretical value of 1.67 for the stoichiometric HA. The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. TG-DTA analysis indicated that Ce-doped HA powder had high thermal stability, and the SEM micrographs revealed that the surface topography of Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings was uniform and dense when the Ce molar fraction was 2 mol%. XPS results indicated that the Ce ions doped in HA showed mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}. - Highlights: • Ce-doped HA composite coatings were synthesized by spin-coating technique for the first time. • Ce ions were demonstrated to dope into HA crystal lattice successfully. • The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. • XPS results showed that Ce ions doped in HA have mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}.

  14. Metal-dusting resistance of uncoated and coated iron and nickel base materials against metal-dusting in heat treatment furnaces with carbonaceous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingries, Mirko; Ackermann, Helen; Lucka, Klaus; Hoja, Timo; Mehner, Andeas; Zoch, Hans-Werner; Altena, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Metal-Dusting is a well-known corrosion problem that occurs in carburizing atmospheres in industrial thermal processing plants. In literature almost no quantitative data on the metal dusting resistance of typical alloys employed in industrial furnaces are available. Therefore, a series of experiments with uncoated and sol gel ZrO 2 coated high temperature materials was conducted in order to quantify their metal dusting behaviour under conditions close to those in case hardening furnaces. The experimental results show a strong influence of the surface conditions on the alloys resistance and a noticeable enhancement of the resistance by sol gel coatings. (orig.)

  15. Ultraviolet-Diode Pump Solid State Laser Removal of Titanium Aluminium Nitride Coating from Tungsten Carbide Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coating removal from tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using a diode pump solid state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser with maximum average power of 90 W, wavelength of 355 nm and pulse width of 50 ns. The TiAlN coating of 1.5 μm thickness is removed from the WC-Co substrate with laser fluence of 2.71 J/cm2 at 285.6 number of pulses (NOP) and with NOP of 117.6 at 3.38 J/cm2 fluence. Titanium oxide formation was observed on the ablated surface due to the re-deposition of ablated titanium residue and also attributed to the high temperature observed during the laser ablation process. Crack width of around 0.2 μm was observed over both TiAlN coating and WC-Co substrate. The crack depth ranging from 1 to 10 μm was observed and is related to the thickness of the melted carbide. The crack formation is a result of the thermal induced stresses caused by the laser beam interaction with the material as well as the higher thermal conductivity of cobalt compared to WC. Two cleaning regions are observed and is a consequence of the Gaussian distribution of the laser beam energy. The surface roughness of the ablated WC-Co increased with increasing laser fluence and NOP.

  16. Investigation of Surfactant Type, Dosage and Ultrasonication Temperature Control on Dispersity of Metal-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoning; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We studied the dispersity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) combined with different metal- lic particles (Ni and Fe). An ultrasonic-assisted water-bath dispersion process was used to dis- perse the metal-coated MWNTs in different solutions and the dispersity was measured using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The dispersity and morphology of the MWNTs were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) together with digital image processing technology. Effects of dispersant type (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), oleic acid, and polymer (TNEDIS)) and surfactant dosage on the dispersity of the metal-coated MWNTs were investigated under controlled and uncontrolled temperatures and results were compared with those from the untreated MWNTs. The results showed that the negative effects of temperature on the ultrasonic dispersion process could be eliminated through a temperature-controlled system. Moreover, the TNEDIS, SDBS, and oleic acid were arranged in the descending order of the dispersion effect degree. The untreated MWNTs, Ni-coated MWNTs, and Fe-coated MWNTs were arranged in the descending degree of dispersity order. Since the metal coating makes the MWNTs harder and more fragile, the metal-coated MWNTs are more likely to fracture during the ultrasonic dispersion process.

  17. Metal removal and associated binding fraction transformation in contaminated river sediment washed by different types of agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2 on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transformation of metal fractions during chemical washing treatment. Additionally, bioavailability of these metals left in the washed sediment was assessed. Results showed that HCl obtained the highest Cu and Zn removal through destroying the reducible, oxidizable and residual sediment components. Meanwhile, it transformed metal fractions to acid extractable one, resulting in an increase in metal bioavailability. Thus, the feasibility of washing with HCl for sediment remediation shall be reconsidered due to the caused high metal bioavailability. EDTA was capable of removing metals via direct complexation of labile metal species and indirect dissolution of reducible and oxidizable sediment components, where the transformation of corresponding metal binding fraction may occur. H2O2 obtained the lowest total Cu and Zn removal, but it preferentially removed the oxidizable metal species by oxidizing sulfides in the sediment. The bioavailable levels of Cu and Zn in the sediment washed by EDTA or H2O2 seemed not increase. To maintain a good balance between labile metal species removal and avoiding increase of metal bioavailability, EDTA and H2O2 are promising additives for metal removal by sediment washing.

  18. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, Masami, E-mail: ikeyama3@aist.go.jp; Sonoda, Tsutomu, E-mail: tsutomu.sonoda@aist.go.jp

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  19. Determination of the coefficient of dynamic friction between coatings of alumina and metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Córdoba, E.; Ramírez, Z.; Sierra, C.; Ortega, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This project aims to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between micrometric size coatings of alumina and metallic materials (Steel and aluminium); the methodology used to achieve the proposed objective consisted of 4 phases, in the first one was developed a procedure that allowed, from a Pin on Disk machine built based on the specifications given by the ASTM G99-05 standard (Standard test method for wear tests with a Pin on Disk machine), to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between two materials in contact; subsequently the methodology was verified through tests between steel-steel and steel-aluminium, due to these values are widely reported in the literature; as a third step, deposits of alumina particles of micrometric size were made on a steel substrate through thermal spraying by flame; finally, the tests were carried out between pins of steel of aluminium and alumina coating to determine the coefficients of dynamic friction between these two surfaces. The results of the project allowed to verify that the developed methodology is valid to obtain coefficients of dynamic friction between surfaces in contact since the percentages of error were of 3.5% and 2.1% for steel-steel and aluminium-steel, respectively; additionally, it was found that the coefficient of friction between steel-alumina coatings is 0.36 and aluminium-alumina coating is 0.25.

  20. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Dongah [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Lee, Joo Sung [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Hasmukh A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jakobsen, Mogens H. [Department of Micro and Nano technology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, 345B, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hwang, Yuhoon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongreung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Yavuz, Cafer T. [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R., E-mail: henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Disulfide/thiol polymer networks are promising as sorbent for heavy metals. • Rapid sorption and high Langmuir affinity constant (a{sub L}) for stormwater treatment. • Selective sorption for copper, cadmium, and zinc in the presence of calcium. • Reusability likely due to structure stability of disulfide linked polymer networks. - Abstract: Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions–copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water.

  1. Self cleaning coatings for graffiti prevention removal and de-pollution (demo project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to demonstrate the suitability of an inorganic polymer composite : coating for transportation related structures. This report presents the results of three field : applications and evaluation of graffiti resistance...

  2. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal

  3. Water soluble/dispersible and easy removable cationic adhesives and coating for paper recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yulin; Yan, Zegui

    2005-11-29

    The present invention is an adhesive or coating composition that is dispersible or dissolvable in water, making it useful in as a coating or adhesive in paper intended for recycling. The composition of the present invention is cationically charged thereby binding with the fibers of the paper slurry and thus, resulting in reduced deposition of adhesives on equipment during the recycling process. The presence of the composition of the present invention results in stronger interfiber bonding in products produced from the recycled fibers.

  4. Study and development of refractory coatings for metallic uranium fusion and evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Getulio de

    2004-01-01

    In melting process or evaporation of metallic uranium, the reaction with the crucible and the possible contamination of the molten metal should be avoided. This effect can be reduced using an inert and protective coating on the crucible walls. The selection of the coating should be based on the chemical inertia and the kinetic of the reaction products. By avoiding chemical reactions, the amount of impurities in the molten metal can be reduced, leading to an increased crucible lifetime. This work presents a comparative study among different crucible coatings used in the melting process of metallic uranium, at temperatures above its melting point. Samples of metallic uranium are melted in contact with different materials in a vacuum furnace. The reactions occur at a given temperature during a certain time interval; samples are then cooled down to room temperature. Finally, samples are characterized by optical and electronic microscopy, dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, surface roughness and X-ray diffraction. Samples preparation consists of polishing selected areas, and milling the reaction products originated from the corroded interfaces. The extent of the reactions is determined as a function of the temperature by optical microscopy and roughness analyses. The compositions of the reacted products are determined by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, and the phase changes by X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that alumina presented higher activation energy (39 kcal.mol -1 ) than magnesia (12 kcal.mol -1 ), otherwise, it is corroded faster. On the other hand, the alumina could be protected by a thick coating of titanium nitride, because no rection between titanium nitride and uranium was observed at temperatures near to 1700 K. After cooling to the room temperature, there is stress concentration between the graphite and the TiN layer, generating a compressive stress of 0,5 GPa. When uranium is deposited on the TiN, a tensile stress is generated in this new layer, which

  5. Removal Process of Heavy Metal Ions from Squid Gut Wastes with Dilute Suluric Acid Leaching and Electrowinning Methods

    OpenAIRE

    嶋影, 和宜; 平井, 伸治; 戸田, 茂雄; 山本, 浩

    2003-01-01

    In order to remove heavy metal ions contained in organic squid gut waste, a novel process has been developed with both dilute suluric acid leaching and electrowinning methods. This process was consisted of three procedures, which are the elimination of greasy component in squid gut wastes, the dissolution of heavy metal ions and the electro-deposition of heavy metal ions. Heavy metal ions contained in organic squid gut wastes are zinc, cadmium and copper ions. Heavy metal ions are leached eas...

  6. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  7. Yttria coating on quartz mould inner surface for fabrication of metal fuel slug using injection casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, A.V.; Hemanth Kumar, S.; Manivannan, A.; Muralidaran, P.; Anthonysamy, S.; Sudha, R.

    2016-01-01

    Quartz moulds are used for casting metal alloy of U-Zr slugs by injection casting process. Ceramic (Y 2 O 3 ) coating on inner surface of the quartz mould is provided to avoid silica contamination in the fuel slugs during casting. Experiments were carried out to standardise the coating process and optimising various parameters such as particle size of Y 2 O 3 , choice of suitable binder, method for application of coating, drying and sintering at high temperature to ensure uniformity and strength of coating. Required Coating thickness of ∼40 μm was achieved on a quartz mould of inner diameter of 4.98±0.01mm. Experimental procedure for coating on inner surface of the quartz tubes using yttrium oxide is described in this work. (author)

  8. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  9. Functionalized paper--A readily accessible adsorbent for removal of dissolved heavy metal salts and nanoparticles from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyono, Daisy; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2016-01-25

    Paper, a readily available renewable resource, comprises of interwoven cellulosic fibers, which can be functionalized to develop interesting low-cost adsorbent material for water purification. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized paper was used for the removal of hazardous pollutants such as Au and Ag nanoparticles, Cr(VI) anions, Ni(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) cations from spiked water samples. Compared to untreated paper, the PEI-coated paper showed significant improvement in adsorption capacities toward the pollutants investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherm models, pH, and desorption studies were carried out to study the adsorption mechanism of pollutants on the adsorbent surface. Adsorption of pollutants was better described by pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption of anionic pollutants was achieved at pH 5 while that of cations was at pH>6. Overall, the PEI-functionalized paper showed interesting Langmuir adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions such as Cr(VI) (68 mg/g), Ni(2+) (208 mg/g), Cd(2+) (370 mg/g), and Cu(2+) (435 mg/g) ions at neutral pH. In addition, the modified paper was also used to remove Ag-citrate (79 mg/g), Ag-PVP (46 mg/g), Au-citrate (30 mg/g), Au-PVP (17 mg/g) nanoparticles from water. Desorption of NPs from the adsorbent was done by washing with 2 M HCl or thiourea solution, while heavy metal ions were desorbed using 1 M NaOH or HNO3 solution. The modified paper retained its extraction efficiencies upon desorption of pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  11. Elliptical metallic hollow fiber inner-coated with non-uniform dielectric layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhuzheng; Tu, Xuecou; Chen, Jian; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Shi, Yiwei

    2015-08-24

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an elliptical hollow fiber inner coated with a silver layer and a dielectric layer for polarization maintaining and low loss transmission of terahertz (THz) radiation. The primary purpose of adding the dielectric layer is to prevent the silver layer from oxidation. The thickness of the dielectric layer is non-uniform owing to the surface tension of the coating, which was initially applied as a liquid. Transmission loss and polarization maintenance are experimentally characterized. Effects of the dielectric layer on transmission properties are analyzed by comparing the fiber to Ag-only fiber. Results show that a dielectric layer with thickness less than λ/10 can effectively decreases the power distributed on the metal surface and thus can practically reduce loss resulting from roughness of the silver layer. Bending effects on transmission loss and polarization maintenance are also investigated.

  12. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R., E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kristiansen, Helge [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway); Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V. [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5814 (United States); Redford, Keith [Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway)

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  13. Pervious concrete reactive barrier for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage - column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalala, Ayanda N; Ekolu, Stephen O; Diop, Souleymane; Solomon, Fitsum

    2017-02-05

    This paper presents a column study conducted to investigate the potential use of pervious concrete as a reactive barrier for treatment of water impacted by mine waste. The study was done using acid mine drainage (AMD) collected from a gold mine (WZ) and a coalfield (TDB). Pervious concrete mixtures consisting of Portland cement CEM I 52.5R with or without 30% fly ash (FA) were prepared at a water-cementitious ratio of 0.27 then used to make cubes which were employed in the reactor columns. It was found that the removal efficiency levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni were 75%, 98%, 99%, 94% and 95% for WZ; 87%, 96%, 99%, 98% and 90% for TDB, respectively. The high rate of acid reduction and metal removal by pervious concrete is attributed to dissolution of portlandite which is a typical constituent of concrete. The dominant reaction product in all four columns was gypsum, which also contributed to some removal of sulphate from AMD. Formation of gypsum, goethite, and Glauber's salt were identified. Precipitation of metal hydroxides seems to be the dominant metal removal mechanism. Use of pervious concrete offers a promising alternative treatment method for polluted or acidic mine water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of biodegradable pollen-chitosan microcapsules and its application in heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargın, İdris; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Gulsin; Baran, Talat; Ceter, Talip

    2015-02-01

    Biosorbents have been widely used in heavy metal removal. New resources should be exploited to develop more efficient biosorbents. This study reports the preparation of three novel chitosan microcapsules from pollens of three common, wind-pollinated plants (Acer negundo, Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra). The microcapsules were characterized (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis) and used in removal of heavy metal ions: Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Their sorption capacities were compared to those of cross-linked chitosan beads without pollen grains. C. sempervirens-chitosan microcapsules exhibited better performance (Cd(II): 65.98; Cu(II): 67.10 and Zn(II): 49.55 mg g(-1)) than the other microcapsules and the cross-linked beads. A. negundo-chitosan microcapsules were more efficient in Cr(III) (70.40 mg g(-1)) removal. P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules were found to be less efficient. Chitosan-pollen microcapsules (except P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules) can be used in heavy metal removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective removal of dissolved toxic metals from groundwater by ultrafiltration in combination with chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Le, V.T.; McConeghy, G.J.; Martin, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    An alternative in-place process for the removal of toxic heavy metals based on aqueous solution chemistry and treatment is being evaluated under the auspices of the Emerging Technologies Program funded through the USEPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. The technique involves the contacting of aqueous solutions containing the heavy metal contaminants with low concentrations of polyelectrolytes, and then removing the polyelectrolytes from solution with ultrafiltration membranes. The first phase of the program is considered complete. Success has been achieved for the separation of soluble, heavy metal ions: cadmium, lead, and mercury even in the presence of an organic compound, toluene. Removal was successful at alkaline conditions, using any combination of membrane material or polyelectrolyte. Arsenic was removed, but not effectively, using the current polyelectrolytes, simply because arsenic is present as an anionic species rather than as a cationic species. Optimization of the process variables is nearing completion and pilot and field testing will take place in the second year of the program to verify the process under realistic conditions and to establish process economics

  16. A novel approach of utilization of the fungal conidia biomass to remove heavy metals from the aqueous solution through immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun-Xiang; Xu, Jian; Deng, Nian-Fang; Dong, Xue-Wei; Tang, Hao; Liang, Yu; Fan, Xian-Wei; Li, You-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The biomass of filamentous fungi is an important cost-effective biomass for heavy metal biosorption. However, use of free fungal cells can cause difficulties in the separation of biomass from the effluent. In this study, we immobilized the living conidia of the heavy metal-resistant Penicillium janthinillum strain GXCR by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) beads to remove heavy metals from an aqueous solution containing a low concentration (70 mg/L) of Cu, Pb, and Cd. The PVA-SA-conidia beads showed perfect characters of appropriate mechanical strength suitable for metal removal from the dynamic wastewater environment, an ideal settleability, easy separation from the solution, and a high metal biosorption and removal rate even after four cycles of successive sorption-desorption of the beads, overcoming disadvantages when fungal biomasses alone are used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. We also discuss the major biosorption-affecting factors, biosorption models, and biosorption mechanisms.

  17. Removing coordinated metal ions from proteins: a fast and mild method in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Charlotte; Stolz, Michael; Lewitzki, Erwin; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Kolbesen, Bernd O; Grell, Ernst

    2006-08-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of metal binding to proteins require the investigation of metal-free proteins, which are often difficult to obtain. We have developed a very fast and mild method to eliminate metal ions from proteins by column chromatography using a commercially available Ni-NTA-type stationary phase. This material, initially designed for protein purification purposes in biotechnology, acts as a strong cation chelator when Ni2+ ions are removed. We have tested this new method with Ca-ATPase, an integral membrane protein exhibiting a strong affinity for Ca2+. By eluting the protein over the Ni2+-free NTA gel, we could remove 95% of the total Ca2+ and obtain an essentially Ca2+-free protein. This method is efficient with only a small amount of NTA gel, and we suggest that it can be applied in general for removal of metal ions from proteins. Moreover, as this procedure can be carried out under mild conditions, the chosen protein kept its enzymatic activity.

  18. Removal of heavy metals from fly ash leachate using combined bioelectrochemical systems and electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu-Chun; Lei, Tao; Shi, Gang; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Wei, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Wei-Min

    2014-01-15

    Based on environmental and energetic analysis, a novel combined approach using bioelectrochemical systems (BES) followed by electrolysis reactors (ER) was tested for heavy metals removal from fly ash leachate, which contained high detectable levels of Zn, Pb and Cu according to X-ray diffraction analysis. Acetic acid was used as the fly ash leaching agent and tested under various leaching conditions. A favorable condition for the leaching process was identified to be liquid/solid ratio of 14:1 (w/w) and leaching duration 10h at initial pH 1.0. It was confirmed that the removal of heavy metals from fly ash leachate with the combination of BESs and ER is feasible. The metal removal efficiency was achieved at 98.5%, 95.4% and 98.1% for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that Cu(II) was reduced and recovered mainly as metal Cu on cathodes related to power production, while Zn(II) and Pb(II) were not spontaneously reduced in BESs without applied voltage and basically electrolyzed in the electrolysis reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of Some Heavy Metals from Wastewater using Radiation- Adsorption Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Hegazy, E.A.; El-Kelesh, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Wastewater containing toxic materials poses a serious environmental problem. Many of the pollutants are not readily biodegradable and complete removal in many cases is a relatively expensive process. On the other hand, incomplete removal is a serious health hazard. In the present study, a try was made to explain the degradation kinetics due to gamma-irradiation and adsorption of some heavy metals: Uranium, Molybdenum, Zirconium, and Vanadium. Factors affecting the process such as concentration, irradiation dose and ph of the solution was studied. Gamma-radiation doses up to 50 kGy did not result in the degradation of the heavy metals. However, as expected gamma radiation resulted in a change in the valency of these heavy metal ions to other oxidation states which may have resulted in less toxicity. Adsorption and ion-exchange purification of the heavy metals onto GAC,Merck Ion Exchangers I, and IV and polymeric membranes showed that GAC has the highest adsorption capacity for all pollutants compared with the ion-exchangers and polymeric membranes which may be due to its very high surface area and high porous nature which causes internal and external distribution within the carbon particle more than it dose in the case of polymeric membranes and ion-exchangers. GAC was followed by the cation exchanger with different percent adsorption according to the type of pollutant and the least removal percent was shown by the polymeric membranes. Also, a study of the affinity of the pollutants towards the different adsorbents was carried out

  20. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.