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Sample records for metal cluster core

  1. Electronic structure of metal clusters

    Wertheim, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission spectra of valence electrons in metal clusters, together with threshold ionization potential measurements, provide a coherent picture of the development of the electronic structure from the isolated atom to the large metallic cluster. An insulator-metal transition occurs at an intermediate cluster size, which serves to define the boundary between small and large clusters. Although the outer electrons may be delocalized over the entire cluster, a small cluster remains insulating until the density of states near the Fermi level exceeds 1/kT. In large clusters, with increasing cluster size, the band structure approaches that of the bulk metal. However, the bands remain significantly narrowed even in a 1000-atom cluster, giving an indication of the importance of long-range order. The core-electron binding-energy shifts of supported metal clusters depend on changes in the band structure in the initial state, as well as on various final-state effects, including changes in core hole screening and the coulomb energy of the final-state charge. For cluster supported on amorphous carbon, this macroscopic coulomb shift is often dominant, as evidenced by the parallel shifts of the core-electron binding energy and the Fermi edge. Auger data confirm that final-state effects dominate in cluster of Sn and some other metals. Surface atom core-level shifts provide a valuable guide to the contributions of initial-state changes in band structure to cluster core-electron binding energy shifts, especially for Au and Pt. The available data indicate that the shift observed in supported, metallic clusters arise largely from the charge left on the cluster by photoemission. As the metal-insulator transition is approached from above, metallic screening is suppressed and the shift is determined by the local environment. (orig.)

  2. Metal cluster compounds - chemistry and importance; clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, large metal cluster compounds, cluster fluxionality

    Walther, B.

    1988-01-01

    This part of the review on metal cluster compounds deals with clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, with high nuclearity clusters and metal cluster fluxionality. It will be obvious that main group element atoms strongly influence the geometry, stability and reactivity of the clusters. High nuclearity clusters are of interest in there own due to the diversity of the structures adopted, but their intermediate position between molecules and the metallic state makes them a fascinating research object too. These both sites of the metal cluster chemistry as well as the frequently observed ligand and core fluxionality are related to the cluster metal and surface analogy. (author)

  3. Mixed-metal cluster chemistry. 28. Core enlargement of tungsten-iridium clusters with alkynyl, ethyndiyl, and butadiyndiyl reagents.

    Dalton, Gulliver T; Viau, Lydie; Waterman, Susan M; Humphrey, Mark G; Bruce, Michael I; Low, Paul J; Roberts, Rachel L; Willis, Anthony C; Koutsantonis, George A; Skelton, Brian W; White, Allan H

    2005-05-02

    Reaction of [WIr3(mu-CO)3(CO)8(eta-C5Me5)] (1c) with [W(C[triple bond]CPh)(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] afforded the edge-bridged tetrahedral cluster [W2Ir3(mu4-eta2-C2Ph)(mu-CO)(CO)9(eta-C5H5)(eta-C5Me5)] (3) and the edge-bridged trigonal-bipyramidal cluster [W3Ir3(mu4-eta2-C2Ph)(mu-eta2-C=CHPh)(Cl)(CO)8(eta-C5Me5)(eta-C5H5)2] (4) in poor to fair yield. Cluster 3 forms by insertion of [W(C[triple bond]CPh)(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] into Ir-Ir and W-Ir bonds, accompanied by a change in coordination mode from a terminally bonded alkynyl to a mu4-eta2 alkynyl ligand. Cluster 4 contains an alkynyl ligand interacting with two iridium atoms and two tungsten atoms in a mu4-eta2 fashion, as well as a vinylidene ligand bridging a W-W bond. Reaction of [WIr3(CO)11(eta-C5H5)] (1a) or 1c with [(eta-C5H5)(CO)2 Ru(C[triple bond]C)Ru(CO)2(eta-C5H5)] afforded [Ru2WIr3(mu5-eta2-C2)(mu-CO)3(CO)7(eta-C5H5)2(eta-C5R5)] [R = H (5a), Me (5c)] in low yield, a structural study of 5a revealing a WIr3 butterfly core capped and spiked by Ru atoms; the diruthenium ethyndiyl precursor has undergone Ru-C scission, with insertion of the C2 unit into a W-Ir bond of the cluster precursor. Reaction of [W2Ir2(CO)10(eta-C5H5)2] with the diruthenium ethyndiyl reagent gave [RuW2Ir2{mu4-eta2-(C2C[triple bond]C)Ru(CO)2(eta-C5H5)}(mu-CO)2(CO)6(eta-C5H5)3] (6) in low yield, a structural study of 6 revealing a butterfly W2Ir2 unit capped by a Ru(eta-C5H5) group resulting from Ru-C scission; the terminal C2 of a new ruthenium-bound butadiyndiyl ligand has been inserted into the W-Ir bond. Reaction between 1a, [WIr3(CO)11(eta-C5H4Me)] (1b), or 1c and [(eta-C5H5)(CO)3W(C[triple bond]CC[triple bond]C)W(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] afforded [W2Ir3{mu4-eta2-(C2C[triple bond]C)W(CO)3(eta-C5H5)}(mu-CO)2(CO)2(eta-C5H5)(eta-C5R5)] [R = H (7a), Me (7c); R5 = H4Me (7b)] in good yield, a structural study of 7c revealing it to be a metallaethynyl analogue of 3.

  4. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  5. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  6. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  7. Size selected metal clusters

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Optical Absorption Spectra of Small Silver Clusters (5-11) ... Soft Landing and Fragmentation of Small Clusters Deposited in Noble-Gas Films. Harbich, W.; Fedrigo, S.; Buttet, J. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7428. CO combustion on supported gold clusters. Arenz M ...

  8. Ionic core effects on the Mie resonance in lithium clusters

    Yabana, K.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate effects of atomic cores on the Mie resonance in lithium metal clusters, perturbing a helium Hamiltonian with zero-range pseudopotentials. The resonance is red-shifted with respect to the classical formula by core effects, most important of which is the increased effective mass due to the core potentials. Much of the large shift seen in lithium clusters is thereby explained if the strength of the Pseudopotentials is taken from band structure calculations. However, such pseudopotentials cause the resonance to be greatly broadened, contrary to observation

  9. Supersonic bare metal cluster beams

    Smalley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress continued this past year on two principal fronts in the study of bare metal clusters: photoelectron spectroscopy of mass selected negative ions, and surface chemisorption of cluster ions levitated in a superconducting magnet as monitored by fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  10. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND CORE GAS DENSITY IN REXCESS CLUSTERS

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, Luke; Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Voit, G. Mark; Boehringer, Hans; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Pierini, Daniele; Croston, Judith H.; Arnaud, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey. The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12 h -1 kpc, we found that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L BCG ∝ M 0.18±0.07 cl , consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 r 500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool-core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of n e ∝ L 2.7±0.4 BCG (where n e is measured at 0.008 r 500 ). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (which is not correlated with core gas density). The trend persists even when the BCG is not located near the peak of the X-ray emission, so proximity is not necessary. We suggest that, for non-CC clusters, this correlation implies that the same process that sets the central entropy of the cluster gas also determines the central stellar density of the BCG, and that this underlying physical process is likely to be mergers.

  11. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Cluster science

    Melin, J.-B.; Bonaldi, A.; Remazeilles, M.; Hagstotz, S.; Diego, J. M.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Luzzi, G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Grandis, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ferraro, S.; Tramonte, D.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Macìas-Pérez, J. F.; Achúcarro, A.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Basu, K.; Battye, R. A.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, M. G.; Challinor, A.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Petris, M.; De Zotti, G.; Di Valentino, E.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S. M.; Fernández-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Greenslade, J.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Roman, M.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Trappe, N.; Triqueneaux, S.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Väliviita, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Weller, J.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the cosmological constraints that can be achieved with a galaxy cluster survey with the future CORE space mission. Using realistic simulations of the millimeter sky, produced with the latest version of the Planck Sky Model, we characterize the CORE cluster catalogues as a function of the main mission performance parameters. We pay particular attention to telescope size, key to improved angular resolution, and discuss the comparison and the complementarity of CORE with ambitious future ground-based CMB experiments that could be deployed in the next decade. A possible CORE mission concept with a 150 cm diameter primary mirror can detect of the order of 50,000 clusters through the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE). The total yield increases (decreases) by 25% when increasing (decreasing) the mirror diameter by 30 cm. The 150 cm telescope configuration will detect the most massive clusters (>1014 Msolar) at redshift z>1.5 over the whole sky, although the exact number above this redshift is tied to the uncertain evolution of the cluster SZE flux-mass relation; assuming self-similar evolution, CORE will detect 0~ 50 clusters at redshift z>1.5. This changes to 800 (200) when increasing (decreasing) the mirror size by 30 cm. CORE will be able to measure individual cluster halo masses through lensing of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies with a 1-σ sensitivity of 4×1014 Msolar, for a 120 cm aperture telescope, and 1014 Msolar for a 180 cm one. From the ground, we estimate that, for example, a survey with about 150,000 detectors at the focus of 350 cm telescopes observing 65% of the sky would be shallower than CORE and detect about 11,000 clusters, while a survey with the same number of detectors observing 25% of sky with a 10 m telescope is expected to be deeper and to detect about 70,000 clusters. When combined with the latter, CORE would reach a limiting mass of M500 ~ 2‑3 × 1013 Msolar and detect 220,000 clusters (5 sigma detection limit

  12. Fission of Polyanionic Metal Clusters

    König, S.; Jankowski, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Wolfram, M.

    2018-04-01

    Size-selected dianionic lead clusters Pbn2 -, n =34 - 56 , are stored in a Penning trap and studied with respect to their decay products upon photoexcitation. Contrary to the decay of other dianionic metal clusters, these lead clusters show a variety of decay channels. The mass spectra of the fragments are compared to the corresponding spectra of the monoanionic precursors. This comparison leads to the conclusion that, in the cluster size region below about n =48 , the fission reaction Pbn2 -→Pbn-10 -+Pb10- is the major decay process. Its disappearance at larger cluster sizes may be an indication of a nonmetal to metal transition. Recently, the pair of Pb10- and Pbn-10 - were observed as pronounced fragments in electron-attachment studies [S. König et al., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 421, 129 (2017), 10.1016/j.ijms.2017.06.009]. The present findings suggest that this combination is the fingerprint of the decay of doubly charged lead clusters. With this assumption, the dianion clusters have been traced down to Pb212 -, whereas the smallest size for the direct observation was as high as n =28 .

  13. Mass Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Cores

    Hogan, M. T.; McNamara, B. R.; Pulido, F.; Vantyghem, A. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Russell, H. R. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Edge, A. C. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Main, R. A., E-mail: m4hogan@uwaterloo.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2017-03-01

    Many processes within galaxy clusters, such as those believed to govern the onset of thermally unstable cooling and active galactic nucleus feedback, are dependent upon local dynamical timescales. However, accurate mapping of the mass distribution within individual clusters is challenging, particularly toward cluster centers where the total mass budget has substantial radially dependent contributions from the stellar ( M {sub *}), gas ( M {sub gas}), and dark matter ( M {sub DM}) components. In this paper we use a small sample of galaxy clusters with deep Chandra observations and good ancillary tracers of their gravitating mass at both large and small radii to develop a method for determining mass profiles that span a wide radial range and extend down into the central galaxy. We also consider potential observational pitfalls in understanding cooling in hot cluster atmospheres, and find tentative evidence for a relationship between the radial extent of cooling X-ray gas and nebular H α emission in cool-core clusters. At large radii the entropy profiles of our clusters agree with the baseline power law of K ∝ r {sup 1.1} expected from gravity alone. At smaller radii our entropy profiles become shallower but continue with a power law of the form K ∝ r {sup 0.67} down to our resolution limit. Among this small sample of cool-core clusters we therefore find no support for the existence of a central flat “entropy floor.”.

  14. Warming rays in cluster cool cores

    Colafrancesco, S.; Marchegiani, P.

    2008-06-01

    Context: Cosmic rays are confined in the atmospheres of galaxy clusters and, therefore, they can play a crucial role in the heating of their cool cores. Aims: We discuss here the thermal and non-thermal features of a model of cosmic ray heating of cluster cores that can provide a solution to the cooling-flow problems. To this aim, we generalize a model originally proposed by Colafrancesco, Dar & DeRujula (2004) and we show that our model predicts specific correlations between the thermal and non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters and enables various observational tests. Methods: The model reproduces the observed temperature distribution in clusters by using an energy balance condition in which the X-ray energy emitted by clusters is supplied, in a quasi-steady state, by the hadronic cosmic rays, which act as “warming rays” (WRs). The temperature profile of the intracluster (IC) gas is strictly correlated with the pressure distribution of the WRs and, consequently, with the non-thermal emission (radio, hard X-ray and gamma-ray) induced by the interaction of the WRs with the IC gas and the IC magnetic field. Results: The temperature distribution of the IC gas in both cool-core and non cool-core clusters is successfully predicted from the measured IC plasma density distribution. Under this contraint, the WR model is also able to reproduce the thermal and non-thermal pressure distribution in clusters, as well as their radial entropy distribution, as shown by the analysis of three clusters studied in detail: Perseus, A2199 and Hydra. The WR model provides other observable features of galaxy clusters: a correlation of the pressure ratio (WRs to thermal IC gas) with the inner cluster temperature (P_WR/P_th) ˜ (kT_inner)-2/3, a correlation of the gamma-ray luminosity with the inner cluster temperature Lγ ˜ (kT_inner)4/3, a substantial number of cool-core clusters observable with the GLAST-LAT experiment, a surface brightness of radio halos in cool-core clusters

  15. Production of metal particles and clusters

    Mcmanus, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing novel metals or metal clusters in a low gravity environment was studied. The production of coordinately unsaturated metal carbonyls by thermolysis or photolysis of stable metal carbonyls has the potential to generate novel catalysts by this technique. Laser irradiation of available metal carbonyls was investigated. It is found that laser induced decomposition of metal carbonyls is feasible for producing a variety of coordinately unsaturated species. Formation of clustered species does occur but is hampered by weak metal-metal bonds.

  16. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  17. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  18. Gas phase reactivity of thermal metal clusters

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Harms, A.C.; Leuchtner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction kinetics of metal cluster ions under well defined thermal conditions were studied using a flow tube reactor in combination with laser vaporization. Aluminum anions and cations were reacted with oxygen, and several species which are predicted jellium shell closings, were found to have special stability. Metal alloy cluster anions comprised of Al, V and Nb were also seen to react with oxygen. Alloy clusters with an even number of electrons reacted more slowly than odd electron species, and certain clusters appeared to be exceptionally unreactive. Copper cation clusters were observed to associate with carbon monoxide with reactivities that approach bulk behavior at surprisingly small cluster size. These reactions demonstrate how the rate of reaction changes with cluster size. (orig.)

  19. Gas phase reactivity of thermal metal clusters

    Castleman, A. W., Jr.; Harms, A. C.; Leuchtner, R. E.

    1991-03-01

    Reaction kinetics of metal cluster ions under well defined thermal conditions were studied using a flow tube reactor in combination with laser vaporization. Aluminum anions and cations were reacted with oxygen, and several species which are predicted jellium shell closings, were found to have special stability. Metal alloy cluster anions comprised of Al, V and Nb were also seen to react with oxygen. Alloy clusters with an even number of electrons reacted more slowly than odd electron species, and certain clusters appeared to be exceptionally unreactive. Copper cation clusters were observed to associate with carbon monoxide with reactivities that approach bulk behavior at surprisingly small cluster size. These reactions demonstrate how the rate of reaction changes with cluster size.

  20. Photometric metal abundances for twenty clusters

    Jennens, P.A.; Helfer, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Metal abundances, colour excesses and distance moduli have been determined for individual giant stars, using UBViyz photometry, in NGC 188, 559, 752, 1245, 1342, 1907, 1912, 2099, 5139 (ω cen), 5316, 5617, 5822, 5823, 6067, IC 4651, 6819, 6940, 7142, 7261 and 7789. All six clusters with ages 3 to 8x10 9 yr have metal abundances agreeing with one another; their average value of [Fe/H]=-0.24+-0.05, agrees with the average found for the bright K-giants near the Sun. All six clusters are at least 140pc from the galactic plane. For the younger clusters less than approximately 10 9 yr old, one-third are metal deficient. The very young cluster, NGC 559, is probably very metal weak. (author)

  1. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.)

  2. Text Clustering Algorithm Based on Random Cluster Core

    Huang Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays clustering has become a popular text mining algorithm, but the huge data can put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and performance of text mining. In view of the performance bottleneck of traditional text clustering algorithm, this paper proposes a text clustering algorithm with random features. This is a kind of clustering algorithm based on text density, at the same time using the neighboring heuristic rules, the concept of random cluster is introduced, which effectively reduces the complexity of the distance calculation.

  3. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  4. Extragalactic globular clusters. I. The metallicity calibration

    Brodie, J.P.; Huchra, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of absorption-line strength indices, measured from integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean cluster metallicity is explored. Statistical criteria, are used to identify the six best indices out of about 20 measured in a large sample of Galactic and M31 cluster spectra. Linear relations between index and metallicity have been derived along with new calibrations of infrared colors (V - K, J - K, and CO) versus Fe/H. Estimates of metallicity from the six spectroscopic index-metallicity relations have been combined in three different ways to identify the most efficient estimator and the minimum bias estimator of Fe/H - the weighted mean. This provides an estimate of Fe/H accurate to about 15 percent. 37 refs

  5. Design study on metal fuel FBR cores

    Yokoo, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for metal fuel FBR core to maintain fuel integrity during transient events by limiting eutectic/liquid phase formation is proposed based on the current status of metallic fuel development. Its impact as the limitation on the core outlet temperature is assessed through its application to two of CRIEPI's core concepts, high linear power 1000 MWe homogeneous design and medium linear power 300 MWe radially heterogeneous design. SESAME/SALT code is used in this study to analyze steady state and transient fuel behavior. SE2-FA code is developed based on SUPERENERGY-2 and used to analyze core thermal-hydraulics with uncertainties. As the result, the core outlet temperatures of both designs are found to be limited to ≤500degC if it is required to prevent eutectic/liquid phase formation during operational transients in order to guarantee the fuel integrity. Additional assessment is made assuming an advanced limiting condition that allows small liquid phase formation based on the liquid phase penetration rate derived from existing experimental results. The result indicates possibility of raising core outlet temperature to ∼ 530degC. Also, it is found that core design technology improvements such as hot spot factors reduction can contribute to the core outlet temperature extension by 10 ∼ 20degC. (author)

  6. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; Del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000 -5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-S N dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μ V ∼ 27 mag arcsec -2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 10 12 M sun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of

  7. Core Business Selection Based on Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm

    Yu Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Core business is the most important business to the enterprise in diversified business. In this paper, we first introduce the definition and characteristics of the core business and then descript the ant colony clustering algorithm. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Tianjin Port Logistics Development Co., Ltd. is selected as the research object. Based on the current situation of the development of the company, the core business of the company can be acquired by ant colony clustering algorithm. Thus, the results indicate that the proposed method is an effective way to determine the core business for company.

  8. Liquid metal reactor core material HT9

    Kim, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1998-03-01

    A state-of-the art is surveyed on the liquid metal reactor core materials HT9. The purpose of this report is to give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is planned for the year of 2010. In-core stability of cladding materials is important to the extension of fuel burnup. Austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) has been used as core material in the early LMR due to the good mechanical properties at high temperatures, but it has been found to show a poor swelling resistance. So many efforts have been made to solve this problem that HT9 have been developed. HT9 is 12Cr-1MoVW steel. The microstructure of HT9 consisted of tempered martensite with dispersed carbide. HT9 has superior irradiation swelling resistance as other BCC metals, and good sodium compatibility. HT9 has also a good irradiation creep properties below 500 dg C, but irradiation creep properties are degraded above 500 dg C. Researches are currently in progress to modify the HT9 in order to improve the irradiation creep properties above 500 dg C. New design studies for decreasing the core temperature below 500 dg C are needed to use HT9 as a core material. On the contrary, decrease of the thermal efficiency may occur due to lower-down of the operation temperature. (author). 51 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs

  9. Effect of radiation pressure in the cores of globular clusters

    Angeletti, L; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R; Giannone

    1981-10-01

    The possible effects of a presence of a dust cloud in the cores of globular clusters was investigated. Two cluster models were considered together with various models of clouds. The problem of radiation transfer was solved under some simplifying assumptions. Owing to a differential absorption of the star light in the cloud, radiation pressure turned out be inward-directed in some cloud models. This fact may lead to a confinement of some dust in the central regions of globular clusters.

  10. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Coupon, Jean, E-mail: elinorm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. dEcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2017-02-10

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  11. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.; Coupon, Jean

    2017-01-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  12. The atomic structure of transition metal clusters

    Riley, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical reactions are used to probe the atomic (geometrical) structure of isolated clusters of transition metal atoms. The number of adsorbate molecules that saturate a cluster, and/or the binding energy of molecules to cluster surfaces, are determined as a function of cluster size. Systematics in these properties often make it possible to propose geometrical structures consistent with the experimental observations. We will describe how studies of the reactions of cobalt and nickel clusters with ammonia, water, and nitrogen provide important and otherwise unavailable structural information. Specifically, small (less than 20 atoms) clusters of cobalt and nickel atoms adopt entirely different structures, the former having packing characteristic of the bulk and the latter having pentagonal symmetry. These observations provide important input for model potentials that attempt to describe the local properties of transition metals. In particular, they point out the importance of a proper treatment of d-orbital binding in these systems, since cobalt and nickel differ so little in their d-orbital occupancy

  13. Energetics of charged metal clusters containing vacancies

    Pogosov, Valentin V.; Reva, Vitalii I.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically large metal clusters containing vacancies. We propose an approach, which combines the Kohn-Sham results for monovacancy in a bulk of metal and analytical expansions in small parameters cv (relative concentration of vacancies) and RN,v -1, RN ,v being cluster radii. We obtain expressions of the ionization potential and electron affinity in the form of corrections to electron work function, which require only the characteristics of 3D defect-free metal. The Kohn-Sham method is used to calculate the electron profiles, ionization potential, electron affinity, electrical capacitance; dissociation, cohesion, and monovacancy-formation energies of the small perfect clusters NaN, MgN, AlN (N ≤ 270) and the clusters containing a monovacancy (N ≥ 12) in the stabilized-jellium model. The quantum-sized dependences for monovacancy-formation energies are calculated for the Schottky scenario and the "bubble blowing" scenario, and their asymptotic behavior is also determined. It is shown that the asymptotical behaviors of size dependences for these two mechanisms differ from each other and weakly depend on the number of atoms in the cluster. The contribution of monovacancy to energetics of charged clusters and the size dependences of their characteristics and asymptotics are discussed. It is shown that the difference between the characteristics for the neutral and charged clusters is entirely determined by size dependences of ionization potential and electron affinity. Obtained analytical dependences may be useful for the analysis of the results of photoionization experiments and for the estimation of the size dependences of the vacancy concentration including the vicinity of the melting point.

  14. New projectiles: multicharged metal clusters and biopolymers

    Della-Negra, S.; Gardes, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Waast, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal clusters and molecules are the one mean to realize simultaneous impacts of several atoms on a reduced surface(∼100A). The interaction characteristics is the non-linearity of energy deposition; the perturbation that the cluster produces, is above than the sum of the perturbation induced by its components, taken separately. The purpose of ORION project is to accelerate these new projectiles at ORSAY Tandem. The considered mass range is from 100 Daltons to 100 000 Daltons and energy range from MeV to GeV

  15. Testing Numerical Models of Cool Core Galaxy Cluster Formation with X-Ray Observations

    Henning, Jason W.; Gantner, Brennan; Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, Eric J.

    2009-12-01

    Using archival Chandra and ROSAT data along with numerical simulations, we compare the properties of cool core and non-cool core galaxy clusters, paying particular attention to the region beyond the cluster cores. With the use of single and double β-models, we demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the slopes of observed cluster surface brightness profiles while the cluster cores remain indistinguishable between the two cluster types. Additionally, through the use of hardness ratio profiles, we find evidence suggesting cool core clusters are cooler beyond their cores than non-cool core clusters of comparable mass and temperature, both in observed and simulated clusters. The similarities between real and simulated clusters supports a model presented in earlier work by the authors describing differing merger histories between cool core and non-cool core clusters. Discrepancies between real and simulated clusters will inform upcoming numerical models and simulations as to new ways to incorporate feedback in these systems.

  16. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters

    Pokapanich, Wandared; Björneholm, Olle; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Tchaplyguine, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Binary rare gas clusters; xenon and neon which have a significant contrariety between sizes, produced by a co-expansion set up and have been studied using synchrotron radiation based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concentration ratios of the heterogeneous clusters; 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% were controlled. The core level spectra were used to determine structure of the mixed cluster and analyzed by considering screening mechanisms. Furthermore, electron binding energy shift calculations demonstrated cluster aggregation models which may occur in such process. The results showed that in the case of low mixing ratios of 3% and 5% of xenon in neon, the geometric structures exhibit xenon in the center and xenon/neon interfaced in the outer shells. However, neon cluster vanished when the concentration of xenon was increased to 10%. - Highlights: • Co-expansion setup is suitable for producing binary Xe/Ne clusters. • Appropriate temperature, pressure, and mixing ratios should be strictly controlled. • Low mixing ratio, Xe formed in the core and Xe/Ne interfacing in the outer shell. • High mixing ratio, only pure Xe clusters were detected.

  17. Metallicity Spreads in M31 Globular Clusters

    Bridges, Terry

    2003-07-01

    Our recent deep HST photometry of the M31 halo globular cluster {GC} Mayall II, also called G1, has revealed a red-giant branch with a clear spread that we attribute to an intrinsic metallicity dispersion of at least 0.4 dex in [Fe/H]. The only other GC exhibiting such a metallicity dispersion is Omega Centauri, the brightest and most massive Galactic GC, whose range in [Fe/H] is about 0.5 dex. These observations are obviously linked to the fact that both G1 and Omega Cen are bright and massive GC, with potential wells deep enough to keep part of their gas, which might have been recycled, producing a metallicity scatter among cluster stars. These observations dramatically challenge the notion of chemical homogeneity as a defining characteristic of GCs. It is critically important to find out how common this phenomenon is and how it can constrain scenarios/models of GC formation. The obvious targets are other bright and massive GCs, which exist in M31 but not in our Galaxy where Omega Cen is an isolated giant. We propose to acquire, with ACS/HRC, deep imaging of 3 of the brightest M31 GCs for which we have observed velocity dispersion values similar to those observed in G1 and Omega Cen. A sample of GCs with chemical abundance dispersions will provide essential information about their formation mechanism. This would represent a major step for the studies of the origin and evolution of stellar populations.

  18. AGN Heating in Simulated Cool-core Clusters

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bryan, Greg L., E-mail: yuanlium@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We analyze heating and cooling processes in an idealized simulation of a cool-core cluster, where momentum-driven AGN feedback balances radiative cooling in a time-averaged sense. We find that, on average, energy dissipation via shock waves is almost an order of magnitude higher than via turbulence. Most of the shock waves in the simulation are very weak shocks with Mach numbers smaller than 1.5, but the stronger shocks, although rare, dissipate energy more effectively. We find that shock dissipation is a steep function of radius, with most of the energy dissipated within 30 kpc, more spatially concentrated than radiative cooling loss. However, adiabatic processes and mixing (of post-shock materials and the surrounding gas) are able to redistribute the heat throughout the core. A considerable fraction of the AGN energy also escapes the core region. The cluster goes through cycles of AGN outbursts accompanied by periods of enhanced precipitation and star formation, over gigayear timescales. The cluster core is under-heated at the end of each cycle, but over-heated at the peak of the AGN outburst. During the heating-dominant phase, turbulent dissipation alone is often able to balance radiative cooling at every radius but, when this is occurs, shock waves inevitably dissipate even more energy. Our simulation explains why some clusters, such as Abell 2029, are cooling dominated, while in some other clusters, such as Perseus, various heating mechanisms including shock heating, turbulent dissipation and bubble mixing can all individually balance cooling, and together, over-heat the core.

  19. A DOUBLE CLUSTER AT THE CORE OF 30 DORADUS

    Sabbi, E.; De Mink, S. E.; Walborn, N. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Panagia, N.; Van der Marel, R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gieles, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Apellaniz, J. Maiz, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    Based on an analysis of data obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope we report the identification of two distinct stellar populations in the core of the giant H II region 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The most compact and richest component coincides with the center of R136 and is {approx}1 Myr younger than a second more diffuse clump, located {approx}5.4 pc toward the northeast. We note that published spectral types of massive stars in these two clumps lend support to the proposed age difference. The morphology and age difference between the two sub-clusters suggests that an ongoing merger may be occurring within the core of 30 Doradus. This finding is consistent with the predictions of models of hierarchical fragmentation of turbulent giant molecular clouds, according to which star clusters would be the final products of merging smaller sub-structures.

  20. Globular cluster metallicity scale: evidence from stellar models

    Demarque, P.; King, C.R.; Diaz, A.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical giant branches have been constructed to determine their relative positions for metallicities in the range -2.3 0 )/sub 0,g/ based on these models is presented which yields good agreement over the observed range of metallicities for galactic globular clusters and old disk clusters. The metallicity of 47 Tuc and M71 given by this calibration is about -0.8 dex. Subject headings: clusters, globular: stars: abundances: stars: interiors

  1. A Global Model for Circumgalactic and Cluster-core Precipitation

    Voit, G. Mark; Meece, Greg; Li, Yuan; O'Shea, Brian W.; Bryan, Greg L.; Donahue, Megan

    2017-08-01

    We provide an analytic framework for interpreting observations of multiphase circumgalactic gas that is heavily informed by recent numerical simulations of thermal instability and precipitation in cool-core galaxy clusters. We start by considering the local conditions required for the formation of multiphase gas via two different modes: (1) uplift of ambient gas by galactic outflows, and (2) condensation in a stratified stationary medium in which thermal balance is explicitly maintained. Analytic exploration of these two modes provides insights into the relationships between the local ratio of the cooling and freefall timescales (I.e., {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}), the large-scale gradient of specific entropy, and the development of precipitation and multiphase media in circumgalactic gas. We then use these analytic findings to interpret recent simulations of circumgalactic gas in which global thermal balance is maintained. We show that long-lasting configurations of gas with 5≲ \\min ({t}{cool}/{t}{ff})≲ 20 and radial entropy profiles similar to observations of cool cores in galaxy clusters are a natural outcome of precipitation-regulated feedback. We conclude with some observational predictions that follow from these models. This work focuses primarily on precipitation and AGN feedback in galaxy-cluster cores, because that is where the observations of multiphase gas around galaxies are most complete. However, many of the physical principles that govern condensation in those environments apply to circumgalactic gas around galaxies of all masses.

  2. Deposition of metal Islands, metal clusters and metal containing single molecules on self-assembled monolayers

    Speets, Emiel Adrianus

    2005-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the deposition of metals on Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs). Metals are deposited in the form of submicron scale islands, nanometer scale clusters, and as supramolecular, organometallic coordination cages. Several SAMs on various substrates were prepared and

  3. An efficient laser vaporization source for chemically modified metal clusters characterized by thermodynamics and kinetics

    Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Eckhard, Jan F.; Lange, Kathrin; Visser, Bradley; Tschurl, Martin; Heiz, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    A laser vaporization cluster source that has a room for cluster aggregation and a reactor volume, each equipped with a pulsed valve, is presented for the efficient gas-phase production of chemically modified metal clusters. The performance of the cluster source is evaluated through the production of Ta and Ta oxide cluster cations, TaxOy+ (y ≥ 0). It is demonstrated that the cluster source produces TaxOy+ over a wide mass range, the metal-to-oxygen ratio of which can easily be controlled by changing the pulse duration that influences the amount of reactant O2 introduced into the cluster source. Reaction kinetic modeling shows that the generation of the oxides takes place under thermalized conditions at less than 300 K, whereas metal cluster cores are presumably created with excess heat. These characteristics are also advantageous to yield "reaction intermediates" of interest via reactions between clusters and reactive molecules in the cluster source, which may subsequently be mass selected for their reactivity measurements.

  4. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    Brajczewska, Marta; Vieira, Armando; Fiolhais, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn — Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging

  5. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    Brajczewska, M.; Vieira, A.; Fiolhais, C.; Perdew, J. P.

    1996-12-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn - Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging.

  6. Influence of reactive gas admixture on transition metal cluster nucleation in a gas aggregation cluster source

    Peter, Tilo; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Gojdka, Björn; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2012-12-01

    We quantitatively assessed the influence of reactive gases on the formation processes of transition metal clusters in a gas aggregation cluster source. A cluster source based on a 2 in. magnetron is used to study the production rate of titanium and cobalt clusters. Argon served as working gas for the DC magnetron discharge, and a small amount of reactive gas (oxygen and nitrogen) is added to promote reactive cluster formation. We found that the cluster production rate depends strongly on the reactive gas concentration for very small amounts of reactive gas (less than 0.1% of total working gas), and no cluster formation takes place in the absence of reactive species. The influence of discharge power, reactive gas concentration, and working gas pressure are investigated using a quartz micro balance in a time resolved manner. The strong influence of reactive gas is explained by a more efficient formation of nucleation seeds for metal-oxide or nitride than for pure metal.

  7. Ruprecht 106 - A young metal-poor Galactic globular cluster

    Buonanno, R.; Buscema, G.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The first CCD photometric survey in the Galactic globular cluster Ruprecht 106 has been performed. The results show that Ruprecht 106 is a metal-poor cluster with (Fe/H) about -2 located at about 25 kpc from the Galactic center. A sizable, high centrally concentrated population of blue stragglers was detected. Significant differences in the positions of the turnoffs in the color-magnitude diagram are found compared to those in metal-poor clusters. The cluster appears younger than other typical metal-poor Galactic globulars by about 4-5 Gyr; if true, this object would represent the first direct proof of the existence of a significant age spread among old, very metal-poor clusters. 51 refs

  8. Rotation of small clusters in sheared metallic glasses

    Delogu, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When a Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass is shear-deformed, the irreversible rearrangement of local structures allows the rigid body rotation of clusters. Highlights: → A shear-deformed Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass was studied by molecular dynamics. → Atomic displacements occur at irreversible rearrangements of local structures. → The dynamics of such events includes the rigid body rotation of clusters. → Relatively large clusters can undergo two or more complete rotations. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics methods were used to simulate the response of a Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass to shear deformation. Attention was focused on the atomic displacements taking place during the irreversible rearrangement of local atomic structures. It is shown that the apparently disordered dynamics of such events hides the rigid body rotation of small clusters. Cluster rotation was investigated by evaluating rotation angle, axis and lifetimes. This permitted to point out that relatively large clusters can undergo two or more complete rotations.

  9. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam

  10. The Difference Between Clusters and Groups: A Journey from Cluster Cores to Their Outskirts and Beyond

    Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    In this review, we take the reader on a journey. We start by looking at the properties of galaxies in the cores of rich clusters. We have focused on the overall picture: star formation in clusters is strongly suppressed relative to field galaxies at the same redshift. We will argue that the increasing activity and blue populations of clusters with redshift results from a greater level of activity in field galaxies rather than a change in the transformation imposed by the cluster environment. With this in mind, we travel out from the cluster, focusing first on the properties of galaxies in the outskirts of clusters and then on galaxies in isolated groups. At low redshift, we are able to efficiently probe these environments using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF redshift surveys. These allow an accurate comparison of galaxy star formation rates in different regions. The current results show a strong suppression of star formation above a critical threshold in local density. The threshold seems similar regardless of the overall mass of the system. At low redshift at least, only galaxies in close, isolated pairs have their star formation rate boosted above the global average. At higher redshift, work on constructing homogeneous catalogs of galaxies in groups and in the infall regions of clusters is still at an early stage. In the final section, we draw these strands together, summarizing what we can deduce about the mechanisms that transform star-forming field galaxies into their quiescent cluster counterparts. We discuss what we can learn about the impact of environment on the global star formation history of the Universe.

  11. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Rupke, David S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ∼ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ∼0.05 M sun yr -1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ∼5 M sun yr -1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14 +18 -8 %. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN COOL CLUSTER CORES AND HERSCHEL-DETECTED STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Fiedler, A.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Portouw, J.; Walth, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Smith, G. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) analysis of 68 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at 0.08 < z < 1.0. Deriving total infrared luminosities directly from Spitzer and Herschel photometry spanning the peak of the dust component (24-500 {mu}m), we calculate the obscured star formation rate (SFR). 22{sup +6.2}{sub -5.3}% of the BCGs are detected in the far-infrared, with SFR = 1-150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The infrared luminosity is highly correlated with cluster X-ray gas cooling times for cool-core clusters (gas cooling time <1 Gyr), strongly suggesting that the star formation in these BCGs is influenced by the cluster-scale cooling process. The occurrence of the molecular gas tracing H{alpha} emission is also correlated with obscured star formation. For all but the most luminous BCGs (L{sub TIR} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), only a small ({approx}<0.4 mag) reddening correction is required for SFR(H{alpha}) to agree with SFR{sub FIR}. The relatively low H{alpha} extinction (dust obscuration), compared to values reported for the general star-forming population, lends further weight to an alternate (external) origin for the cold gas. Finally, we use a stacking analysis of non-cool-core clusters to show that the majority of the fuel for star formation in the FIR-bright BCGs is unlikely to originate from normal stellar mass loss.

  13. METALS IN THE ICM: WITNESSES OF CLUSTER FORMATION AND EVOLUTION

    Lorenzo Lovisari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The baryonic composition of galaxy clusters and groups is dominated by a hot, X-ray emitting Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM. The mean metallicity of the ICM has been found to be roughly 0.3 ÷ 0.5 times the solar value, therefore a large fraction of this gas cannot be of purely primordial origin. Indeed, the distribution and amount of metals in the ICM is a direct consequence of the past history of star formation in the cluster galaxies and of the processes responsible for the injection of enriched material into the ICM. We here shortly summarize the current views on the chemical enrichment, focusing on the observational evidence in terms of metallicity measurements in clusters, spatial metallicity distribution and evolution, and expectations from future missions.

  14. Orbital magnetism and dynamics in alkali metal clusters

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.; Souza Cruz, FF. de; Marinelli, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Two remarkable orbital magnetic resonances, M1 scissor mode and M2 twist mode, are predicted in deformed and spherical metal clusters, respectively. We show that these resonances provide a valuable information about many cluster properties (quadrupole deformation, magnetic susceptibility, single-particle spectrum, etc.)

  15. Safety characteristics of the US advanced liquid metal reactor core

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design employs innovative, passive features to provide an unprecedented level of public safety and the ability to demonstrate this safety to the public. The key features employed in the core design to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters, and gas expansion modules. In addition, the reactor vessel and closure are designed to have the capability to withstand, with large margins, the maximum possible core disruptive accident without breach and radiological release. (author)

  16. Refractory metal component technology for in-core sensor design

    Cannon, C.P.

    1986-02-01

    Within recent years, an increasing concern over reactor safety has prompted tests that characterize reactor core environments during transient conditions. Such tests include the Loss-of-Fluid-Tests (Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL)), Severe Fuel Damage Tests (INEL), Core Debris Rubble Tests (Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)), and similar tests performed by foreign nations. The in-core sensors for these tests require refractory metal components to be compatible with electrical insulator materials as well as materials comprising highly corrosive service mediums. This paper presents the refractory metal technology utilized to provide basic sensor designs in the above mentioned reactor tests

  17. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy Of Metal Cluster-Adducts

    Cox, D. M.; Kaldor, A.; Zakin, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Recent development of the laser vaporization technique combined with mass-selective detection has made possible new studies of the fundamental chemical and physical properties of unsupported transition metal clusters as a function of the number of constituent atoms. A variety of experimental techniques have been developed in our laboratory to measure ionization threshold energies, magnetic moments, and gas phase reactivity of clusters. However, studies have so far been unable to determine the cluster structure or the chemical state of chemisorbed species on gas phase clusters. The application of infrared multiple photon dissociation IRMPD to obtain the IR absorption properties of metal cluster-adsorbate species in a molecular beam is described here. Specifically using a high power, pulsed CO2 laser as the infrared source, the IRMPD spectrum for methanol chemisorbed on small iron clusters is measured as a function of the number of both iron atoms and methanols in the complex for different methanol isotopes. Both the feasibility and potential utility of IRMPD for characterizing metal cluster-adsorbate interactions are demonstrated. The method is generally applicable to any cluster or cluster-adsorbate system dependent only upon the availability of appropriate high power infrared sources.

  18. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  19. Ioniclike energy structure of neutral core-excited states in free Kr clusters

    Peredkov, S.; Sorensen, S.L.; Kivimaeki, A.; Schulz, J.; Maartensson, N.; Oehrwall, G.; Lundwall, M.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of electronic states in krypton clusters is investigated by high-resolution core-level electron spectroscopy. The energy ordering of bulk versus surface 3d -1 np(n>5) core-excited states in neutral clusters is demonstrated to be reversed to the 3d -1 5p level situation. The cluster 3d -1 6p,7p states are proven to be at a lower energy than the corresponding atomic levels. These findings reveal the ioniclike energy structure of the neutral cluster core-excited levels. The phenomenon is explained by a spatial spread of the excited orbitals over the cluster lattice

  20. Adlayer Core-Level Shifts of Random Metal Overlayers on Transition-Metal Substrates

    Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. V.; Kudrnovský, J.; Scheffler, M.

    1997-01-01

    and the screening effects induced by the core hole, and study the influence of the alloy composition for a number of noble metal-transition metal systems. Our analysis clearly indicates the importance of final-state screening effects for the interpretation of measured core-level shifts. Calculated deviations from...

  1. Split and Compensated Hyperfine Fields in Magnetic Metal Clusters

    Nakamura, H.; Chudo, H.; Shiga, M.; Kohara, T.

    2004-01-01

    As prominent characteristics of magnetic metal cluster found in vanadium sulfides, we point out marked separation and compensation of the hyperfine field at the nuclear site; these are in somewhat discordance with the common sense for 3d transition-metal magnets, where the on-site isotropic field, scaling the ordered moment magnitude, is dominant.

  2. Thermodynamics of Pore Filling Metal Clusters in Metal Organic Frameworks: Pd in UiO-66

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have experimentally been demonstrated to be capable of supporting isolated transition-metal clusters, but the stability of these clusters with respect to aggregation is unclear. In this letter we use a genetic algorithm together with density functional theory...... calculations to predict the structure of Pd clusters in UiO-66. The cluster sizes examined are far larger than those in any previous modeling studies of metal clusters in MOFs and allow us to test the hypothesis that the physically separated cavities in UiO-66 could stabilize isolated Pd clusters. Our...... calculations show that Pd clusters in UiO-66 are, at best, metastable and will aggregate into connected pore filling structures at equilibrium....

  3. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography

    Zemp, J.; Gerstl, S.S.A.; Löffler, J.F.; Schönfeld, B.

    2016-01-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3 nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different – as yet unknown – physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses. - Highlights: • Field evaporation of metallic glasses is heterogeneous on a scale of up to 3 nm. • Amount of clustered evaporation depends on ion species and temperature. • Length scales of clustered evaporation and correlative evaporation are similar.

  4. Formation of metal clusters in halloysite clay nanotubes

    Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Stavitskaya, Anna V.; Chudakov, Yaroslav A.; Ivanov, Evgenii V.; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Darrat, Yusuf A.; Lvov, Yuri M.

    2017-12-01

    We developed ceramic core-shell materials based on abundant halloysite clay nanotubes with enhanced heavy metal ions loading through Schiff base binding. These clay tubes are formed by rolling alumosilicate sheets and have diameter of c.50 nm, a lumen of 15 nm and length 1 μm. This allowed for synthesis of metal nanoparticles at the selected position: (1) on the outer surface seeding 3-5 nm metal particles on the tubes; (2) inside the tube's central lumen resulting in 10-12 nm diameter metal cores shelled with ceramic wall; and (3) smaller metal nanoparticles intercalated in the tube's wall allowing up to 9 wt% of Ru, and Ag loading. These composite materials have high surface area providing a good support for catalytic nanoparticles, and can also be used for sorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  5. Metal nanostructures: from clusters to nanocatalysis and sensors

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them are reviewed. Various existing methods for the generation of intense beams of metal clusters and their subsequent conversion into nanostructures are compared. Processes of the flow of a buffer gas with active molecules through a nanostructure are analyzed as a basis of using nanostructures for catalytic applications. The propagation of an electric signal through a nanostructure is studied by analogy with a macroscopic metal. An analysis is given of how a nanostructure changes its resistance as active molecules attach to its surface and are converted into negative ions. These negative ions induce the formation of positively charged vacancies inside the metal conductor and attract the vacancies to together change the resistance of the metal nanostructure. The physical basis is considered for using metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them to create new materials in the form of a porous metal film on the surface of an object. The fundamentals of nanocatalysis are reviewed. Semiconductor conductometric sensors consisting of bound nanoscale grains or fibers acting as a conductor are compared with metal sensors conducting via a percolation cluster, a fractal fiber, or a bunch of interwoven nanofibers formed in superfluid helium. It is shown that sensors on the basis of metal nanostructures are characterized by a higher sensitivity than semiconductor ones, but are not selective. Measurements using metal sensors involve two stages, one of which measures to high precision the attachment rate of active molecules to the sensor conductor, and in the other one the surface of metal nanostructures is cleaned from the attached molecules using a gas discharge plasma (in particular, capillary discharge) with a subsequent chromatography analysis for products of cleaning.

  6. Experimental studies of the chemistry of metal clusters

    Parks, E.K.; Riley, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The procedures for studying chemical reactions of metal clusters in a continuous-flow reactor are described, and examples of such studies are given. Experiments to be discussed include kinetics and thermodynamics measurements, and determination of the composition of clusters saturated with various adsorbate reagents. Specific systems to be covered include the reaction of iron clusters with ammonia and with hydrogen, the reaction of nickel clusters with hydrogen and with ammonia, and the reaction of platinum clusters with ethylene. The last two reactions are characterized by complex, multi-step processes that lead to adsorbate decomposition and hydrogen desorption from the clusters. Methods for probing these processes will be discussed. 26 refs., 8 figs

  7. Self-assembled metal clusters on an alumina nanomesh

    Buchsbaum, A.

    2012-01-01

    Template mediated growth of metals has attracted much interest due to the remarkable magnetic and catalytic properties of clusters in the nanometer range and provides the opportunity to grow clusters with narrow size distributions. When the Ni3Al(111) surface is exposed to oxygen at elevated temperature a thin oxide film with a well-defined structure and uniform thickness grows and covers the alloy surface completely. The structure of the alumina film has been solved mainly by the help of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The structure of the approx. 0.5 nm thick oxide film has sixfold symmetry and exhibits holes with a diameter of approx. 400 pm reaching down to the metal substrate at the corners of the (Sqrt(67) x Sqrt(67))R12.2° unit cell. The side length of the unit cell is 4.1 nm. The driving force for the formation of the oxide nanomesh is the reduction of the metal/oxide interface energy by the formation of energetically favorable Al-Ni bonds at the interface. Due to better wetting of metal on metal surfaces than on oxide surfaces, metal atoms prefer to bind to the substrate in the hole, not to the oxide. Therefore the oxide forms a template with a hexagonal 4.1 nm lattice for the growth of well-ordered metal clusters. Nevertheless, the growth of most metal clusters on top of the corner holes is not straightforward. Fe and Co atoms cannot jump into the corner holes due to a barrier for diffusion and nucleate at their second favorable adsorption site. However, Pd atoms trapped in these corner holes reduce the barrier for diffusion and create metallic nucleation sites where Fe as well as Co clusters can nucleate and form a well-ordered hexagonal arrangement on the oxide nanomesh. We have studied these Fe and Co clusters and applied different methods like STM and surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) to determine the morphology and crystallography of the clusters. For Fe we found cluster growth with

  8. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXVI. The Issues of Photometric Age and Metallicity Estimates for Globular Clusters

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Roediger, Joel; Gwyn, S. D. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH (United States); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu,Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hudelot, Patrick, E-mail: mathieu.powalka@astro.unistra.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Large samples of globular clusters (GC) with precise multi-wavelength photometry are becoming increasingly available and can be used to constrain the formation history of galaxies. We present the results of an analysis of Milky Way (MW) and Virgo core GCs based on 5 optical-near-infrared colors and 10 synthetic stellar population models. For the MW GCs, the models tend to agree on photometric ages and metallicities, with values similar to those obtained with previous studies. When used with Virgo core GCs, for which photometry is provided by the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), the same models generically return younger ages. This is a consequence of the systematic differences observed between the locus occupied by Virgo core GCs and models in panchromatic color space. Only extreme fine-tuning of the adjustable parameters available to us can make the majority of the best-fit ages old. Although we cannot exclude that the formation history of the Virgo core may lead to more conspicuous populations of relatively young GCs than in other environments, we emphasize that the intrinsic properties of the Virgo GCs are likely to differ systematically from those assumed in the models. Thus, the large wavelength coverage and photometric quality of modern GC samples, such as those used here, is not by itself sufficient to better constrain the GC formation histories. Models matching the environment-dependent characteristics of GCs in multi-dimensional color space are needed to improve the situation.

  9. Reconstruction of a digital core containing clay minerals based on a clustering algorithm

    He, Yanlong; Pu, Chunsheng; Jing, Cheng; Gu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qingdong; Liu, Hongzhi; Khan, Nasir; Dong, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    It is difficult to obtain a core sample and information for digital core reconstruction of mature sandstone reservoirs around the world, especially for an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir. Meanwhile, reconstruction and division of clay minerals play a vital role in the reconstruction of the digital cores, although the two-dimensional data-based reconstruction methods are specifically applicable as the microstructure reservoir simulation methods for the sandstone reservoir. However, reconstruction of clay minerals is still challenging from a research viewpoint for the better reconstruction of various clay minerals in the digital cores. In the present work, the content of clay minerals was considered on the basis of two-dimensional information about the reservoir. After application of the hybrid method, and compared with the model reconstructed by the process-based method, the digital core containing clay clusters without the labels of the clusters' number, size, and texture were the output. The statistics and geometry of the reconstruction model were similar to the reference model. In addition, the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm was used to label various connected unclassified clay clusters in the initial model and then the number and size of clay clusters were recorded. At the same time, the K -means clustering algorithm was applied to divide the labeled, large connecting clusters into smaller clusters on the basis of difference in the clusters' characteristics. According to the clay minerals' characteristics, such as types, textures, and distributions, the digital core containing clay minerals was reconstructed by means of the clustering algorithm and the clay clusters' structure judgment. The distributions and textures of the clay minerals of the digital core were reasonable. The clustering algorithm improved the digital core reconstruction and provided an alternative method for the simulation of different clay minerals in the digital cores.

  10. Reconstruction of a digital core containing clay minerals based on a clustering algorithm.

    He, Yanlong; Pu, Chunsheng; Jing, Cheng; Gu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qingdong; Liu, Hongzhi; Khan, Nasir; Dong, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    It is difficult to obtain a core sample and information for digital core reconstruction of mature sandstone reservoirs around the world, especially for an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir. Meanwhile, reconstruction and division of clay minerals play a vital role in the reconstruction of the digital cores, although the two-dimensional data-based reconstruction methods are specifically applicable as the microstructure reservoir simulation methods for the sandstone reservoir. However, reconstruction of clay minerals is still challenging from a research viewpoint for the better reconstruction of various clay minerals in the digital cores. In the present work, the content of clay minerals was considered on the basis of two-dimensional information about the reservoir. After application of the hybrid method, and compared with the model reconstructed by the process-based method, the digital core containing clay clusters without the labels of the clusters' number, size, and texture were the output. The statistics and geometry of the reconstruction model were similar to the reference model. In addition, the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm was used to label various connected unclassified clay clusters in the initial model and then the number and size of clay clusters were recorded. At the same time, the K-means clustering algorithm was applied to divide the labeled, large connecting clusters into smaller clusters on the basis of difference in the clusters' characteristics. According to the clay minerals' characteristics, such as types, textures, and distributions, the digital core containing clay minerals was reconstructed by means of the clustering algorithm and the clay clusters' structure judgment. The distributions and textures of the clay minerals of the digital core were reasonable. The clustering algorithm improved the digital core reconstruction and provided an alternative method for the simulation of different clay minerals in the digital cores.

  11. NUCORE - A system for nuclear structure calculations with cluster-core models

    Heras, C.A.; Abecasis, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of nuclear energy levels and their electromagnetic properties, modelling the nucleus as a cluster of a few particles and/or holes interacting with a core which in turn is modelled as a quadrupole vibrator (cluster-phonon model). The members of the cluster interact via quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing forces. (orig.)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-C.S.I.C., Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    Petropoulou, V.; Vílchez, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10 8 -10 10 M ☉ , located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the properties of the ICM

  14. The effect of alkylating agents on model supported metal clusters

    Erdem-Senatalar, A.; Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering); Oukaci, R. (CERHYD, Algiers (Algeria))

    1988-01-01

    Interactions between model supported metal clusters and alkylating agents were studied in an effort to understand a novel chemical trapping technique developed for identifying species adsorbed on catalyst surfaces. It was found that these interactions are more complex than had previously been suggested. Studies were completed using deuterium-labeled dimethyl sulfate (DMS), (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as a trapping agent to interact with the supported metal cluster ethylidyne tricobalt enneacarbonyl. Results showed that oxygenated products formed during the trapping reaction contained {minus}OCD{sub 3} groups from the DMS, indicating that the interaction was not a simple alkylation. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Origin of metallic surface core-level shifts

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Abrikosov, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The unique property of the open 4f energy shell in the lanthanide metals is used to show that the initial-state energy shift gives an insufficient description of surface core-level shifts. Instead a treatment, which fully includes the final-state screening, account for the experimentally observed...

  16. Low-energy electron collisions with metal clusters: Electron capture and cluster fragmentation

    Kresin, V.V.; Scheidemann, A.; Knight, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have carried out the first measurement of absolute cross sections for the interaction between electrons and size-resolved free metal clusters. Integral inelastic scattering cross sections have been determined for electron-Na n cluster collisions in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 30 eV. At energies ≤1 eV, cross sections increase with decreasing impact energies, while at higher energies they remain essentially constant. The dominant processes are electron attachment in the low-energy range, and collision-induced fragmentation at higher energies. The magnitude of electron capture cross sections can be quantitatively explained by the effect of the strong polarization field induced in the cluster by the incident electron. The cross sections are very large, reaching values of hundreds of angstrom 2 ; this is due to the highly polarizable nature of metal clusters. The inelastic interaction range for fragmentation collisions is also found to considerably exceed the cluster radius, again reflecting the long-range character of electron-cluster interactions. The important role played by the polarization interaction represents a bridge between the study of collision processes and the extensive research on cluster response properties. Furthermore, insight into the mechanisms of electron scattering is important for understanding production and detection of cluster ions in mass spectrometry and related processes

  17. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  18. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  19. Sensitivity of reactivity feedback due to core bowing in a metallic-fueled core

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Endo, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro

    1991-01-01

    A sensitivity study has been carried out on negative reactivity feedback caused by core bowing to assess the potential effectiveness of FBR passive safety features in regard to withstanding an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). In the present study, an analysis has been carried to obtain the best material and geometrical conditions concerning the core restraint system out for several power to flow rates (P/F), up to 2.0 for a 300 MWe metallic-fueled core. From this study, it was clarified that the pad stiffness at an above core loading pads (ACLP) needs to be large enough to ensure negative reactivity feedback against ATWS. It was also clarified that there is an upper limit for the clearances between ducts at ACLP. A new concept, in regard to increasing the absolute value for negative reactivity feedback due to core bowing at ATWS, is proposed and discussed. (author)

  20. Core concepts for ''zero-sodium-void-worth core'' in metal fuelled fast reactor

    Chang, Y.I.; Hill, R.N.; Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.; Kumaoka, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    Core design options to reduce the sodium void worth in metal fueled LMRs are investigated. Two core designs which achieve a zero sodium void worth are analyzed in detail. The first design is a ''pancaked'' and annular core with enhanced transuranic burning capabilities; the high leakage in this design yields a low breeding ratio and small void worth. The second design is an axially multilayered annular core which is fissile self-sufficient; in this design, the upper and lower core regions are neutronically decoupled for reduced void worth while fissile self-sufficiency is achieved using internal axial blankets plus external radial and axial blanket zones. The neutronic performance characteristics of these low void worth designs are assessed here; their passive safety properties are discussed in a companion paper. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Core concepts for 'zero-sodium-void-worth core' in metal fuelled fast reactor

    Chang, Y.I.; Hill, R.N.; Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.; Kumaoka, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    Core design options to reduce the sodium void worth in metal fuelled LMRs are investigated. Two core designs which achieve a zero sodium void worth are analyzed in detail. The first design is a 'pancaked' and annular core with enhanced transuranic burning capabilities; the high leakage in this design yields a low breeding ratio and small void worth. The second design is an axially multilayered annular core which is fissile self-sufficient; in this design, the upper and lower core regions are neutronically decoupled for reduced void worth while fissile self-sufficiency is achieved using internal axial blankets plus external radial and axial blanket-zones. The neutronic performance characteristics of these low void worth designs are assessed here; their passive safety properties are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  2. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  3. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. II. OLD CLUSTER METALLICITIES AND AGES FROM HECTOSPEC DATA

    Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Rose, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data on the M31 globular cluster (GC) system, obtained with the Hectospec multifiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT. More than 300 clusters have been observed at a resolution of 5 A and with a median S/N of 75 per A, providing velocities with a median uncertainty of 6 km s -1 . The primary focus of this paper is the determination of mean cluster metallicities, ages, and reddenings. Metallicities were estimated using a calibration of Lick indices with [Fe/H] provided by Galactic GCs. These match well the metallicities of 24 M31 clusters determined from Hubble Space Telescope color-magnitude diagrams, the differences having an rms of 0.2 dex. The metallicity distribution is not generally bimodal, in strong distinction with the bimodal Galactic globular distribution. Rather, the M31 distribution shows a broad peak, centered at [Fe/H] = -1, possibly with minor peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.4, -0.7, and -0.2, suggesting that the cluster systems of M31 and the Milky Way had different formation histories. Ages for clusters with [Fe/H] > - 1 were determined using the automatic stellar population analysis program EZ A ges. We find no evidence for massive clusters in M31 with intermediate ages, those between 2 and 6 Gyr. Moreover, we find that the mean ages of the old GCs are remarkably constant over about a decade in metallicity (-0.95∼< [Fe/H] ∼<0.0).

  4. Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow

    Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.

    2013-12-01

    The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

  5. Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores

    Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis

  6. Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores

    Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J

    2003-01-20

    The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis.

  7. Surface core-level shifts for simple metals

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1994-01-01

    screening, whereby a SCLS becomes equivalent to the surface segregation energy of a core-ionized atom, a quantity we obtain by separate bulk and surface impurity calculations. The results are in good agreement with experiment in most of those cases where the data originates from single-crystal measurements....... We discuss the surface shifts of the electrostatic potentials and the band centers in order to trace the microscopic origin of the SCLS in the simple metals and find that the anomalous subsurface core-level shifts in beryllium are caused by charge dipoles, which persist several layers into the bulk...

  8. Detection of binaries in the core of the globular cluster M15 using calcium emission lines

    Murphy, B W [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. of Astronomy; Rutten, R G.M. [Astronomical Inst. ' Anton Pannekoek' , Amsterdam (Netherlands); Callanan, P J [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Seitzer, Patrick [Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (USA); Charles, P A [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics Observatorio del Roque do los Muchachos, Santa Cruz de La Palma, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Cohn, H N; Lugger, P M [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). Dept. of Astronomy

    1991-05-09

    M12 is the prototypical collapsed-core globular cluster. Having undergone collapse, its core is believed now to be expanding, with energy for the re-expansion provided by binary stars, which turn gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy. Because these binary stars are generally more massive than single stars, they will have settled to the centre of the cluster. We report here that several of the stars at the core of M15 show Ca II H- and K-line emission characteristic of young, rapidly rotating stars and close binaries. We argue that the emission from M15 comes from primordial binaries, in which a period of spin-up has led to magnetic field generation by enhanced dynamo action, which in turn causes heating of the stellar chromospheres. If this interpretation is correct, the Ca H and K emission may provide an important diagnostic tool of the binary population in cluster cores, and thus of the cluster dynamics. (author).

  9. Detection of binaries in the core of the globular cluster M15 using calcium emission lines

    Murphy, B.W.; Callanan, P.J.; Charles, P.A.; Cohn, H.N.; Lugger, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    M12 is the prototypical collapsed-core globular cluster. Having undergone collapse, its core is believed now to be expanding, with energy for the re-expansion provided by binary stars, which turn gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy. Because these binary stars are generally more massive than single stars, they will have settled to the centre of the cluster. We report here that several of the stars at the core of M15 show Ca II H- and K-line emission characteristic of young, rapidly rotating stars and close binaries. We argue that the emission from M15 comes from primordial binaries, in which a period of spin-up has led to magnetic field generation by enhanced dynamo action, which in turn causes heating of the stellar chromospheres. If this interpretation is correct, the Ca H and K emission may provide an important diagnostic tool of the binary population in cluster cores, and thus of the cluster dynamics. (author)

  10. Mass spectrometric production of heterogeneous metal clusters using Knudsen cell

    Veljković Filip M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry or high-temperature method of mass spectrometry for decades gives new information about saturated vapor of hardly volatile compounds and it is an important method in the discovery of many new molecules, radicals, ions and clusters present in the gas phase. Since pioneering works until now, this method has been successfully applied to a large number of systems (ores, oxides, ceramics, glass materials, borides, carbides, sulfides, nitrates, metals, fullerenes, etc which led to the establishment of various research branches such as chemistry of clusters. This paper describes the basic principles of Knudsen cell use for both identification of chemical species created in the process of evaporation and determination of their ionization energies. Depending on detected ions intensities and the partial pressure of each gaseous component, as well as on changes in partial pressure with temperature, Knudsen cell mass spectrometry enables the determination of thermodynamic parameters of the tested system. A special attention is paid to its application in the field of small heterogeneous and homogeneous clusters of alkali metals. Furthermore, experimental results for thermodynamic parameters of some clusters, as well as capabilities of non-standard ways of using Knudsen cells in the process of synthesis of new clusters are presented herein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  11. Even-Odd Differences and Shape Deformation of Metal Clusters

    Hidetoshi, Nishioka; Yoshio, Takahashi; Department of Physics, Konan University; Faculty of General Education, Yamagata University

    1994-01-01

    The relation between even-odd difference of metal cluster and the deformation of equilibrium shape is studied in terms of two different models; (i) tri-axially deformed harmonic oscillator model, (ii) rectangular box model. Having assumed the matter density ρ kept constant for different shapes of a cluster, we can determine the equilibrium shape both for the two models. The enhancement of HOMO-LUMO gap is obtained and it is ascribed to Jahn-Teller effect. Good agreement of the calculated resu...

  12. A highly efficient multi-core algorithm for clustering extremely large datasets

    Kraus Johann M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the demand for computational power in computational biology has increased due to rapidly growing data sets from microarray and other high-throughput technologies. This demand is likely to increase. Standard algorithms for analyzing data, such as cluster algorithms, need to be parallelized for fast processing. Unfortunately, most approaches for parallelizing algorithms largely rely on network communication protocols connecting and requiring multiple computers. One answer to this problem is to utilize the intrinsic capabilities in current multi-core hardware to distribute the tasks among the different cores of one computer. Results We introduce a multi-core parallelization of the k-means and k-modes cluster algorithms based on the design principles of transactional memory for clustering gene expression microarray type data and categorial SNP data. Our new shared memory parallel algorithms show to be highly efficient. We demonstrate their computational power and show their utility in cluster stability and sensitivity analysis employing repeated runs with slightly changed parameters. Computation speed of our Java based algorithm was increased by a factor of 10 for large data sets while preserving computational accuracy compared to single-core implementations and a recently published network based parallelization. Conclusions Most desktop computers and even notebooks provide at least dual-core processors. Our multi-core algorithms show that using modern algorithmic concepts, parallelization makes it possible to perform even such laborious tasks as cluster sensitivity and cluster number estimation on the laboratory computer.

  13. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B. [Shiraz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neri, G., E-mail: gneri@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  14. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    de Messières, G.E.; O'Connell, R.W.; McNamara, B.R.; Donahue, M.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Voit, G.M.; Wise, M.W.; Smith, B.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Bastian, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  15. Multi-site reactivity: reduction of six equivalents of nitrite to give an Fe6(NO)6 cluster with a dramatically expanded octahedral core.

    Harris, T David; Betley, Theodore A

    2011-09-07

    Reaction of NO(2)(-) with the octahedral cluster ((H)L)(2)Fe(6) in the presence of a proton source affords the hexanitrosyl cluster ((H)L)(2)Fe(6)(NO)(6). This species forms via a proton-induced reduction of six nitrite molecules per cluster, utilizing each site available on the polynuclear core. Formation of the hexanitrosyl cluster is accompanied by a near 2-fold expansion of the ((H)L)(2)Fe(6) core volume, where intracore Fe-Fe interactions are overcome by strong π-bonding between Fe centers and NO ligands. A core volume of this magnitude is rare in octahedral metal clusters not supported by interstitial atoms. Moreover, the structural flexibility afforded by the ((H)L)(2)Fe(6) platform highlights the potential for other reaction chemistry involving species with metal-ligand multiple bonds. Carrying out the reaction of the cluster [((H)L)(2)Fe(6)(NCMe)(6)](4+) with nitrite in the absence of a proton source serves to forestall the nitrite reduction and enables clean isolation of the intermediate hexanitro cluster [((H)L)(2)Fe(6)(NO(2))(6)](2-).

  16. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  17. Manipulating Light with Transition Metal Clusters, Organic Dyes, and Metal Organic Frameworks

    Ogut, Serdar [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    The primary goals of our research program is to develop and apply state-of-the-art first-principles methods to predict electronic and optical properties of three systems of significant scientific and technological interest: transition metal clusters, organic dyes, and metal-organic frameworks. These systems offer great opportunities to manipulate light for a wide ranging list of energy-related scientific problems and applications. During this grant period, we focused our investigations on the development, implementation, and benchmarking of many-body Green’s function methods (GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation) to examine excited-state properties of transition metal/transition-metal-oxide clusters and organic molecules that comprise the building blocks of dyes and metal-organic frameworks.

  18. Density functional theory studies of screw dislocation core structures in bcc metals

    Frederiksen, Søren Lund; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    The core structures of (I 11) screw dislocations in bee metals are studied using density functional theory in the local-density approximation. For Mo and Fe, direct calculations of the core structures show the cores to be symmetric with respect to 180degrees rotations around an axis perpendicular...... to symmetric core structures for all the studied metals....

  19. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    Astapenko, V. A.; Sakhno, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  20. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    Astapenko, V. A., E-mail: astval@mail.ru; Sakhno, S. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  1. Surviving a cluster collapse: risk aversion as a core value

    Schiele, Holger; Hospers, Gerrit J.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper analyses firms, which survived in a collapsed regional cluster. The target is to analyze whether the principles for enduring success identified researching success factors of very old firms also apply in such an environment. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a

  2. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 10 44–45 erg s –1 , typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  3. Evolution and Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disks in Clusters: The Role of Pre-stellar Core Properties

    Xiao, Lin; Chang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    We explore the effects of progenitor pre-stellar core properties on the evolution of disks with external photoevaporation in clusters. Since the strength of external photoevaporation is largely determined by the depth of the gravitational potential well of the disk, the external photoevaporation rate is the function of star mass and disk size. The properties of a core collapse set up the initial conditions of protoplanetary disks, so they influence the evolutions of star mass and disk size. Our calculations show that the core properties can dramatically influence the efficiency of external photoevaporation. For the core with low angular velocity, most core mass directly falls onto the central star or onto the disk near the star. External photoevaporation is suppressed even if external radiation from nearby massive stars are strong. In this case, the disk evolution in clusters is primarily driven by its own internal viscosity. However, if the core angular velocity is high, most core mass falls onto the disk far from the central star. External photoevaporation is so strong that the disk mass is severely evaporated. Finally, the star mass is very low and the disk lifetime is very short. Our calculations could interpret some observational features of disks in clusters, such as the diameter distribution of disks in the Trapezium cluster and the correlation between mass accretion rate and star mass. We suggest that the disk mass determined by (sub)millimeter wavelength observations may be underestimated.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-15

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  5. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-01

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10 15 W/cm 2 . For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  6. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  7. All Metal Iron Core For A Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    Gates, D.A.; Jun, C.; Zatz, I.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel concept for incorporating a iron core transformer within a axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device with a high neutron flux is described. This design enables conceptual design of low aspect ratio devices which employ standard transformer-driven plasma startup by using all-metal high resistance separators between the toroidal field windings. This design avoids the inherent problems of a multiturn air core transformer which will inevitably suffer from strong neutron bombardment and hence lose the integrity of its insulation, both through long term material degradation and short term neutron-induced conductivity. A full 3-dimensional model of the concept has been developed within the MAXWELL program and the resultant loop voltage calculated. The utility of the result is found to be dependent on the resistivity of the high resistance separators. Useful loop voltage time histories have been obtained using achievable resistivities.

  8. The first high resolution image of coronal gas in a starbursting cool core cluster

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Galaxy clusters represent a unique laboratory for directly observing gas cooling and feedback due to their high masses and correspondingly high gas densities and temperatures. Cooling of X-ray gas observed in 1/3 of clusters, known as cool-core clusters, should fuel star formation at prodigious rates, but such high levels of star formation are rarely observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a leading explanation for the lack of star formation in most cool clusters, and AGN power is sufficient to offset gas cooling on average. Nevertheless, some cool core clusters exhibit massive starbursts indicating that our understanding of cooling and feedback is incomplete. Observations of 10^5 K coronal gas in cool core clusters through OVI emission offers a sensitive means of testing our understanding of cooling and feedback because OVI emission is a dominant coolant and sensitive tracer of shocked gas. Recently, Hayes et al. 2016 demonstrated that synthetic narrow-band imaging of OVI emission is possible through subtraction of long-pass filters with the ACS+SBC for targets at z=0.23-0.29. Here, we propose to use this exciting new technique to directly image coronal OVI emitting gas at high resolution in Abell 1835, a prototypical starbursting cool-core cluster at z=0.252. Abell 1835 hosts a strong cooling core, massive starburst, radio AGN, and at z=0.252, it offers a unique opportunity to directly image OVI at hi-res in the UV with ACS+SBC. With just 15 orbits of ACS+SBC imaging, the proposed observations will complete the existing rich multi-wavelength dataset available for Abell 1835 to provide new insights into cooling and feedback in clusters.

  9. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXXII. A Search for Globular Cluster Substructures in the Virgo Galaxy Cluster Core

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Longobardi, Alessia; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Ferrarese, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Hudelot, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2018-03-01

    Substructure in globular cluster (GC) populations around large galaxies is expected in galaxy formation scenarios that involve accretion or merger events, and it has been searched for using direct associations between GCs and structure in the diffuse galaxy light, or with GC kinematics. Here, we present a search for candidate substructures in the GC population around the Virgo cD galaxy M87 through the analysis of the spatial distribution of the GC colors. The study is based on a sample of ∼1800 bright GCs with high-quality u, g, r, i, z, K s photometry, selected to ensure a low contamination by foreground stars or background galaxies. The spectral energy distributions of the GCs are associated with formal estimates of age and metallicity, which are representative of its position in a 4D color space relative to standard single stellar population models. Dividing the sample into broad bins based on the relative formal ages, we observe inhomogeneities that reveal signatures of GC substructures. The most significant of these is a spatial overdensity of GCs with relatively young age labels, of diameter ∼0.°1 (∼30 kpc), located to the south of M87. The significance of this detection is larger than about 5σ after accounting for estimates of random and systematic errors. Surprisingly, no large Virgo galaxy is present in this area that could potentially host these GCs. But candidate substructures in the M87 halo with equally elusive hosts have been described based on kinematic studies in the past. The number of GC spectra available around M87 is currently insufficient to clarify the nature of the new candidate substructure.

  10. Plasmonic modulator based on thin metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide with gain core

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We focus on plasmonic modulators with a gain core to be implemented as active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. In particular, we analyze metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore...

  11. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  12. A Starburst in the Core of a Galaxy Cluster: the Dwarf Irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

    Mora, Marcelo D.; Chanamé, Julio; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2015-09-01

    Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling toward the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster for the first time, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes at a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts, when galaxy-scale interactions were more common. Using the spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and auxiliary Very Large Telescope/FORS1 ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ˜ 4× {10}6 years and stellar masses from a few 1000 up to ˜ 3× {10}4{M}⊙ , slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and initial mass function. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Hα imaging data to determine the current star formation rate in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Γ, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Γ to be among the largest such values available in the literature, consistent with starburst galaxies. Thus a large fraction of the current star formation in NGC 1427A is occurring in star clusters, with the peculiar spatial arrangement of such complexes strongly hinting at the possibility that the starburst is being triggered by the passage of the galaxy through the cluster environment

  13. CAUSE AND EFFECT OF FEEDBACK: MULTIPHASE GAS IN CLUSTER CORES HEATED BY AGN JETS

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI /t ff ) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments 'rain' down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI /t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI /t ff ∼< 10. This occurs despite the fact that the energy from AGN jets is supplied to the core in a highly anisotropic fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.

  14. Electronic relaxation dynamics of a metal atom deposited on argon cluster

    Awali, Slim

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study on the interaction between electronically excited atomic states and a non-reactive environment. We have theoretically and experimentally studied situations where a metal atom (Ba or K) is placed in a finite size environment (argon cluster). The presence of the medium affects the electronic levels of the atom. On the other side, the excitation of the atom induces a relaxation dynamics of the electronic energy through the deformation of the cluster. The experimental part of this work focuses on two aspects: the spectroscopy and the dynamics. In both cases a first laser electronically excites the metal atom and the second ionizes the excited system. The observable is the photoelectron spectrum recorded after photoionization and possibly information on the photoion which are also produced. This pump/probe technique, with also two lasers, provide the ultrafast dynamic when the lasers pulses used are of ultrashort (60 fs). The use of nanosecond lasers leads to resonance spectroscopic measurement, unresolved temporally, which give information on the position of the energy levels of the studied system. From a theoretical point-of-view, the excited states of M-Ar n were calculated at the ab initio level, using large core pseudo-potential to limit the active electrons of the metal to valence electrons. The study of alkali metals (potassium) is especially well adapted to this method since only one electron is active. The ab-initio calculation and a Monte-Carlo simulation where coupled to optimize the geometry of the KAr n (n = 1-10) cluster when K is in the ground state of the neutral and the ion, or excited in the 4p or 5s state. Calculations were also conducted in collaboration with B. Gervais (CIMAP, Caen) on KAr n clusters having several tens of argon atoms. Absorption spectra were also calculated. From an experimental point-of-view, we were able to characterize the excited states of potassium and barium perturbed by the clusters. In both cases a

  15. NMR in metal cluster compounds compared to glasses

    Staveren, M.P.J. van; Brom, H.B.; Jongh, L.J. de; Schmid, G.

    1991-01-01

    The field and temperature dependence of the 31 P nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate in the metal cluster compound Ru 55 (P(t-Bu) 3 ) 12 Cl 20 follows a power law: 1/T 1 ∝ T n B -m , with n = 1.5 ± 0.1 at 3.25 T and n = 1.3 ± 0.1 at 6.45 T; m ≅ 1.4. Such dependences have so far only been observed in inorganic glasses and been attributed to two level systems. The correspondence suggests that the relaxation rate is due to interaction of the P-nuclear moment with electronic spins of stochastically moving charge carriers, which are thought to be responsible for the electrical conductivity through hopping between neigboring cluster molecules. (orig.)

  16. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.meyer@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-15

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX{sub 3}) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ((T{sub 3}R{sub 11})X{sub 15}-type, P6{sub 3}/m), tetramers ((T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 28}(R{sub 4}) (P-43m), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 20} (P4{sub 2}/nnm), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 24}(RX{sub 3}){sub 4} (I4{sub 1}/a) and (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 23} (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ((Ru{sub 5}La{sub 14}){sub 2}Br{sub 39}, Cc) of (TR{sub r}){sub n} (n=2–5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (X{sup i}) as well as outer (X{sup a}) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i–i, i–a and/or a–i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of (TR{sub 6}) octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the (TR{sub r}) clusters share common faces. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth-metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms (TR{sub 6}) may connect via common edges or faces to form dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers of which the tetramers are the most prolific. Packing effects and electron counts play an important role. - Highlights: • Rare-earth metal cluster complexes encapsulate transition metal atoms. • Oligomers are built via connection of octahedral clusters via common edges or faces. • Dimers through pentamers with closed structures are known. • Tetramers including a tetrahedron of endohedral atoms are the most prolific.

  17. Electron core ionization in compressed alkali metal cesium

    Degtyareva, V. F.

    2018-01-01

    Elements of groups I and II in the periodic table have valence electrons of s-type and are usually considered as simple metals. Crystal structures of these elements at ambient pressure are close-packed and high-symmetry of bcc and fcc-types, defined by electrostatic (Madelung) energy. Diverse structures were found under high pressure with decrease of the coordination number, packing fraction and symmetry. Formation of complex structures can be understood within the model of Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interactions and supported by Hume-Rothery arguments. With the volume decrease there is a gain of band structure energy accompanied by a formation of many-faced Brillouin zone polyhedra. Under compression to less than a half of the initial volume the interatomic distances become close to or smaller than the ionic radius which should lead to the electron core ionization. At strong compression it is necessary to assume that for alkali metals the valence electron band overlaps with the upper core electrons, which increases the valence electron count under compression.

  18. Electronic structure of vacancies and vacancy clusters in simple metals

    Manninen, M.; Nieminen, R.M.

    1978-05-01

    The self-consistent density functional approach has been applied in a study of electronic properties of vacancies and vacancy clusters in simple metals. The electron density profiles and potentials have been obtained for spherical voids of varying size. The formation energies and residual resistivities have been calculated for vacancies using both perturbational and variational inclusion of discrete lattice effects. The relation of the void properties to the plane surface ones is studied, and the inadequacy of the jellium-based methods to high-index faces is demonstrated. (author)

  19. Damage clustering in metals: Importance, advances and challenges

    Nordlund, K.; Sand, A.E.; Granberg, F.; Levo, E.; Djurabekova, F.

    2016-01-01

    The damage produced in metals has traditionally been primarily characterized in terms of the total damage production, which typically is first estimated with the dpa number. As discussed in previous meetings of this CRP, the dpa is not actually very well suited for typical dense metals, since the number it gives is typically about 3 times larger than the number of actual defects produced, and 30 times smaller than the actual number of defects produced. Hence we developed the improved arc-dpa and rpa standards, that give in a simple analytical form a defect number that does correspond well to MD and experimental data. Section 2 summarizes the development of the arc-dpa and rpa standards. In sections 3 and 4 we discuss the role of damage clustering in damage production

  20. Spectra of matrix isolated metal atoms and clusters

    Meyer, B.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix isolation spectra of all of the 40 presently known atomic metal species show strong matrix effects. The transition energies are increased, and the bands are broad and exhibit splitting of sublevels which are degenerate in the gas phase. Several models have been proposed for splitting of levels, but basic effects are not yet understood, and spectra cannot be predicted, yet it is possible to correlate gas phase and matrix in many of the systems. Selective production of diatomics and clusters via thermal and optical annealing of atomic species can be monitored by optical spectra, but yields spectroscopically complex systems which, however, especially in the case of transition metals, can be used as precursors in novel chemical reactions. A combination of absorption, emission, ir, Raman, ESR, and other methods is now quickly yielding data which will help correlate the increasing wealth of existing data. 55 references, 6 figures

  1. Clustering of Pan- and Core-genome of Lactobacillus provides Novel Evolutionary Insights for Differentiation.

    Inglin, Raffael C; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J A

    2018-04-24

    Bacterial taxonomy aims to classify bacteria based on true evolutionary events and relies on a polyphasic approach that includes phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Until now, complete genomes are largely ignored in taxonomy. The genus Lactobacillus consists of 173 species and many genomes are available to study taxonomy and evolutionary events. We analyzed and clustered 98 completely sequenced genomes of the genus Lactobacillus and 234 draft genomes of 5 different Lactobacillus species, i.e. L. reuteri, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. helveticus. The core-genome of the genus Lactobacillus contains 266 genes and the pan-genome 20'800 genes. Clustering of the Lactobacillus pan- and core-genome resulted in two highly similar trees. This shows that evolutionary history is traceable in the core-genome and that clustering of the core-genome is sufficient to explore relationships. Clustering of core- and pan-genomes at species' level resulted in similar trees as well. Detailed analyses of the core-genomes showed that the functional class "genetic information processing" is conserved in the core-genome but that "signaling and cellular processes" is not. The latter class encodes functions that are involved in environmental interactions. Evolution of lactobacilli seems therefore directed by the environment. The type species L. delbrueckii was analyzed in detail and its pan-genome based tree contained two major clades whose members contained different genes yet identical functions. In addition, evidence for horizontal gene transfer between strains of L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus, and between species of the genus Lactobacillus is presented. Our data provide evidence for evolution of some lactobacilli according to a parapatric-like model for species differentiation. Core-genome trees are useful to detect evolutionary relationships in lactobacilli and might be useful in taxonomic analyses. Lactobacillus' evolution is directed

  2. Cause and Effect of Feedback: Multiphase Gas in Cluster Cores Heated by AGN Jets

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.

    2012-02-01

    Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI/t ff) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments "rain" down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI/t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI/t ff fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A GALAXY CLUSTER WITH A VIOLENTLY STARBURSTING CORE AT z = 2.506

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Valentino, Francesco; Burg, Remco van der; Zanella, Anita; Ciesla, Laure; Brun, Amandine Le [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Finoguenov, Alexis [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Liu, Daizhong; Tan, Qinghua [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Schreiber, Corentin [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Martín, Sergio [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Strazzullo, Veronica; Pannella, Maurilio [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Gobat, Raphael [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Hoegiro 85, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Sargent, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Shu, Xinwen [Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, 241000 (China); Cappelluti, Nico [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Li, Yanxia, E-mail: tao.wang@cea.fr [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at z {sub spec} = 2.506, which contains 11 massive (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙}) galaxies in the central 80 kpc region (11.6 σ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from H α . The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content, and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass M {sub 200} {sub c} = 10{sup 13.9±0.2} M {sub ⊙}, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80 kpc core reaches ∼3400 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} with a gas depletion time of ∼200 Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction (∼25%, compared to 3%–5% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

  4. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 Vir = 7.84 x 10 14 M sun h -1 0.7 , which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  5. Tuning aromaticity in trigonal alkaline earth metal clusters and their alkali metal salts.

    Jiménez-Halla, J Oscar C; Matito, Eduard; Blancafort, Lluís; Robles, Juvencio; Solà, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we analyze the geometry and electronic structure of the [X(n)M(3)](n-2) species (M = Be, Mg, and Ca; X = Li, Na, and K; n = 0, 1, and 2), with special emphasis on the electron delocalization properties and aromaticity of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) unit. The cyclo-[M(3)](2-) ring is held together through a three-center two-electron bond of sigma-character. Interestingly, the interaction of these small clusters with alkali metals stabilizes the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) ring and leads to a change from sigma-aromaticity in the bound state of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) to pi-aromaticity in the XM(3) (-) and X(2)M(3) metallic clusters. Our results also show that the aromaticity of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) unit in the X(2)M(3) metallic clusters depends on the nature of X and M. Moreover, we explored the possibility for tuning the aromaticity by simply moving X perpendicularly to the center of the M(3) ring. The Na(2)Mg(3), Li(2)Mg(3), and X(2)Ca(3) clusters undergo drastic aromaticity alterations when changing the distance from X to the center of the M(3) ring, whereas X(2)Be(3) and K(2)Mg(3) keep its aromaticity relatively constant along this process. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  7. Order and chaos in nuclear and metal cluster deformation

    Radu, S.

    1995-08-01

    The vast amount of nuclear and metal cluster data indicates that shell structure and deformation are two simultaneous properties. A conflicting situation is therefore encountered as the shell structure, a firm expression of order, is apparently not compatible with the non-integrable nature of the models incorporating deformation. The main issue covered in this thesis is the intricate connection between deformation and chaotic behaviour in deformation models pertinent to nuclear structure and metal cluster physics. It is shown that, at least in some cases, it is possible to reconcile the occurrence of shell structure with non-integrability. The coupling of an axially deformed harmonic oscillator to an axially symmetric octupole term renders the problem non-integrable. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the type of deformation, in that a prolate shape shows virtually no chaos, while in an oblate case the motion exhibits fully developed chaos when the octupole term is switched on. Whereas the problem is non-integrable, the quantum mechanical spectrum nevertheless shows some shell structure in the prolate case for particular, yet fairly large octupole strengths; for spherical or oblate deformation the shell structure disappears. This result is explained in terms of classical periodic orbits which are found by employing the 'removal of resonances method'. Particular emphasis is put on the effect of the hexadecapole deformation which is important in fission processes. The combined effect of octupole and hexadecapole deformation leads to important conclusions for the experimental work as a high degree of ambiguity is signaled for the interpretation of data. The ambiguity results from the discovery of a mutual cancellation of the octupole and hexadecapole deformation in prolate superdeformed systems. The phenomenological Nilsson model is treated in a similar way. It is argued that while in nuclei it produces good results for the low-lying levels

  8. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Presentations

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Technical Meeting is to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials

  9. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  10. Structure and Mobility of Metal Clusters in MOFs: Au, Pd, and AuPd Clusters in MOF-74

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Walton, Krista S.; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    is just as important for nanocluster adsorption as open Zn or Mg metal sites. Using the large number of clusters generated by the GA, we developed a systematic method for predicting the mobility of adsorbed clusters. Through the investigation of diffusion paths a relationship between the cluster......Understanding the adsorption and mobility of metal–organic framework (MOF)-supported metal nanoclusters is critical to the development of these catalytic materials. We present the first theoretical investigation of Au-, Pd-, and AuPd-supported clusters in a MOF, namely MOF-74. We combine density...... functional theory (DFT) calculations with a genetic algorithm (GA) to reliably predict the structure of the adsorbed clusters. This approach allows comparison of hundreds of adsorbed configurations for each cluster. From the investigation of Au8, Pd8, and Au4Pd4 we find that the organic part of the MOF...

  11. The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

    Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Itoh, Masayuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kara, Erin; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; King, Ashley; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Shu; Koyama, Katsuji; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Moseley, Harvey; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Nomachi, Masaharu; O’Dell, Steve; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F. Scott; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin’ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Keisuke; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Uno, Shin’ichiro; Urry, Meg; Ursino, Eugenio; de Vries, Cor; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wik, Daniel; Wilkins, Dan; Williams, Brian; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2016-07-06

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes1 of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling—a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

  12. Atomically precise arrays of fluorescent silver clusters: a modular approach for metal cluster photonics on DNA nanostructures.

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle E; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-03-24

    The remarkable precision that DNA scaffolds provide for arraying nanoscale optical elements enables optical phenomena that arise from interactions of metal nanoparticles, dye molecules, and quantum dots placed at nanoscale separations. However, control of ensemble optical properties has been limited by the difficulty of achieving uniform particle sizes and shapes. Ligand-stabilized metal clusters offer a route to atomically precise arrays that combine desirable attributes of both metals and molecules. Exploiting the unique advantages of the cluster regime requires techniques to realize controlled nanoscale placement of select cluster structures. Here we show that atomically monodisperse arrays of fluorescent, DNA-stabilized silver clusters can be realized on a prototypical scaffold, a DNA nanotube, with attachment sites separated by <10 nm. Cluster attachment is mediated by designed DNA linkers that enable isolation of specific clusters prior to assembly on nanotubes and preserve cluster structure and spectral purity after assembly. The modularity of this approach generalizes to silver clusters of diverse sizes and DNA scaffolds of many types. Thus, these silver cluster nano-optical elements, which themselves have colors selected by their particular DNA templating oligomer, bring unique dimensions of control and flexibility to the rapidly expanding field of nano-optics.

  13. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  14. Contribution of radiation chemistry to the study of metal clusters.

    Belloni, J

    1998-11-01

    Radiation chemistry dates from the discovery of radioactivity one century ago by H. Becquerel and P. and M. Curie. The complex phenomena induced by ionizing radiation have been explained progressively. At present, the methodology of radiation chemistry, particularly in the pulsed mode, provides a powerful means to study not only the early processes after the energy absorption, but more generally a broad diversity of chemical and biochemical reaction mechanisms. Among them, the new area of metal cluster chemistry illustrates how radiation chemistry contributed to this field in suggesting fruitful original concepts, in guiding and controlling specific syntheses, and in the detailed elaboration of the mechanisms of complex and long-unsolved processes, such as the dynamics of nucleation, electron transfer catalysis and photographic development.

  15. EARLY STAGES OF CLUSTER FORMATION: FRAGMENTATION OF MASSIVE DENSE CORES DOWN TO {approx}< 1000 AU

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Cesaroni, Riccardo [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Commercon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, Ecole Normale Superieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2013-01-10

    In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO (2-1) emission of four massive cores with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration. We detected dust condensations down to {approx}0.3 M {sub Sun} and separate millimeter sources down to 0.''4 or {approx}< 1000 AU, comparable to the sensitivities and separations reached in optical/infrared studies of clusters. The CO (2-1) high angular resolution images reveal high-velocity knots usually aligned with previously known outflow directions. This, in combination with additional cores from the literature observed at similar mass sensitivity and spatial resolution, allowed us to build a sample of 18 protoclusters with luminosities spanning three orders of magnitude. Among the 18 regions, {approx}30% show no signs of fragmentation, while 50% split up into {approx}> 4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and found no correlation of any of these parameters with the fragmentation level. In order to investigate the combined effects of the magnetic field, radiative feedback, and turbulence in the fragmentation process, we compared our observations to radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations and found that the low-fragmented regions are reproduced well in the magnetized core case, while the highly fragmented regions are consistent with cores where turbulence dominates over the magnetic field. Overall, our study suggests that the fragmentation in massive dense cores could be determined by the initial magnetic field/turbulence balance in each particular core.

  16. Validity of the classical monte carlo method to model the magnetic properties of a large transition-metal cluster: Mn19.

    Lima, Nicola; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Kritikos, Mikael; Westin, L Gunnar

    2006-03-20

    The susceptibility of the large transition-metal cluster [Mn19O12(MOE)14(MOEH)10].MOEH (MOE = OC2H2O-CH3) has been fitted through classical Monte Carlo simulation, and an estimation of the exchange coupling constants has been done. With these results, it has been possible to perform a full-matrix diagonalization of the cluster core, which was used to provide information on the nature of the low-lying levels.

  17. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-04-03

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  18. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    Gentile, Francesco; Laura Coluccio, Maria; Candeloro, Patrizio; Barberio, Marianna; Perozziello, Gerardo; Francardi, Marco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  19. Multiplet splitting of x-ray photoemission spectra core levels in magnetic metals

    Kowalczyk, S.P.; McFeely, F.R.; Ley, L.; Shirley, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of high resolution x-ray photoemission studies of the multiplet splitting of the 3s core levels in the 3d transition metals and the 4s, 5s and 4d core levels in the lanthanide metals are reported

  20. EARLY STAGES OF CLUSTER FORMATION: FRAGMENTATION OF MASSIVE DENSE CORES DOWN TO ∼< 1000 AU

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Estalella, Robert; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Busquet, Gemma; Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick; Boissier, Jérémie; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO (2-1) emission of four massive cores with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration. We detected dust condensations down to ∼0.3 M ☉ and separate millimeter sources down to 0.''4 or ∼ 4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and found no correlation of any of these parameters with the fragmentation level. In order to investigate the combined effects of the magnetic field, radiative feedback, and turbulence in the fragmentation process, we compared our observations to radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations and found that the low-fragmented regions are reproduced well in the magnetized core case, while the highly fragmented regions are consistent with cores where turbulence dominates over the magnetic field. Overall, our study suggests that the fragmentation in massive dense cores could be determined by the initial magnetic field/turbulence balance in each particular core.

  1. Rates of proton transfer to Fe-S-based clusters: comparison of clusters containing {MFe(mu(2)-S)(2)}n+ and {MFe(3)(mu(3)-S)(4)}n+ (M = Fe, Mo, or W) cores.

    Bates, Katie; Garrett, Brendan; Henderson, Richard A

    2007-12-24

    The rates of proton transfer from [pyrH]+ (pyr = pyrrolidine) to the binuclear complexes [Fe2S2Cl4]2- and [S2MS2FeCl2]2- (M = Mo or W) are reported. The reactions were studied using stopped-flow spectrophotometry, and the rate constants for proton transfer were determined from analysis of the kinetics of the substitution reactions of these clusters with the nucleophiles Br- or PhS- in the presence of [pyrH]+. In general, Br- is a poor nucleophile for these clusters, and proton transfer occurs before Br- binds, allowing direct measure of the rate of proton transfer from [pyrH]+ to the cluster. In contrast, PhS- is a better nucleophile, and a pathway in which PhS- binds preferentially to the cluster prior to proton transfer from [pyrH]+ usually operates. For the reaction of [Fe2S2Cl4]2- with PhS- in the presence of [pyrH]+ both pathways are observed. Comparison of the results presented in this paper with analogous studies reported earlier on cuboidal Fe-S-based clusters allows discussion of the factors which affect the rates of proton transfer in synthetic clusters including the nuclearity of the cluster core, the metal composition, and the nature of the terminal ligands. The possible relevance of these findings to the protonation sites of natural Fe-S-based clusters, including FeMo-cofactor from nitrogenase, are presented.

  2. Metal-core pad-plane development for ACTAR TPC

    Giovinazzo, J.; Pibernat, J.; Goigoux, T.; de Oliveira, R.; Grinyer, G. F.; Huss, C.; Mauss, B.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J. L.; Rebii, A.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Saillant, F.; Wittwer, G.

    2018-06-01

    With the recent development of active targets and time projection chambers (ACTAR TPC) as detectors for fundamental nuclear physics experiments, the need arose for charge collection planes with a high density of readout channels. In order to fulfill the mechanical constraints for the ACTAR TPC device, we designed a pad-plane based on a metal-core circuit with an conceptually simple design and routing for signal readout, named FAKIR (in reference to a fakir bed of nails). A test circuit has been equipped with a micro mesh gaseous structure (micromegas) for signal amplification and a dedicated readout electronics. Test measurements have been performed with an 55Fe X-ray source giving an intrinsic energy resolution (FWHM) of 22 ± 1% at 5 . 9 keV, and with a 3-alpha source for which a resolution of about 130 ± 20 keV at 4 . 8 MeV has been estimated. The pad-plane has been mounted into a reduced size demonstrator version of the ACTAR TPC detector, in order to illustrate charged particle track reconstruction. The tests preformed with the X-ray and the 3-alpha sources shows that results obtained from pads signals are comparable to the intrinsic result from the micro-mesh signal. In addition, a simple alpha particle tracks analysis is performed to demonstrate that the pad plane allows a precise reconstruction of the direction and length of the trajectories.

  3. Design, synthesis and photochemical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on fluorescent cores

    Mathieu L. Lepage

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and photophysical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on a BODIPY or a pyrene core are reported. The tri- and tetravalent systems designed as molecular probes and synthesized by way of Cu(I-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloadditions are fluorescent analogues of potent pharmacological chaperones/correctors recently reported in the field of Gaucher disease and cystic fibrosis, two rare genetic diseases caused by protein misfolding.

  4. Entrapment of metal clusters in metal-organic framework channels by extended hooks anchored at open metal sites.

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Zhao, Xiang; Lau, Samuel; Fuhr, Addis; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2013-07-17

    Reported here are the new concept of utilizing open metal sites (OMSs) for architectural pore design and its practical implementation. Specifically, it is shown here that OMSs can be used to run extended hooks (isonicotinates in this work) from the framework walls to the channel centers to effect the capture of single metal ions or clusters, with the concurrent partitioning of the large channel spaces into multiple domains, alteration of the host-guest charge relationship and associated guest-exchange properties, and transfer of OMSs from the walls to the channel centers. The concept of the extended hook, demonstrated here in the multicomponent dual-metal and dual-ligand system, should be generally applicable to a range of framework types.

  5. Magnetic properties of free alkali and transition metal clusters

    Heer, W. de; Milani, P.; Chatelain, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach deflections of small alkali clusters (N<6) and iron clusters (10< N<500) show that the paramagnetic alkali clusters always have a nondeflecting component, while the iron clusters always deflect in the high field direction. Both of these effects appear to be related to spin relaxation however in the case of alkali clusters it is shown that they are in fact caused by avoided level crossing in the Zeeman diagram. For alkali clusters the relatively weak couplings cause reduced magnetic moments where levels cross. For iron clusters however the total spin is strongly coupled to the molecular framework. Consequently this coupling is responsible for avoided level crossing which ultimately cause the total energy of the cluster to decrease with increasing magnetic field so that the iron clusters will deflect in one direction when introduced in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Experiment and theory are discussed for both cases. (orig.)

  6. Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters

    Soennichsen, C; Franzl, T; Wilk, T; Plessen, G von; Feldmann, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of spherical gold and silver clusters with diameters of 20 nm and larger. The light scattering spectra of individual clusters are measured using dark-field microscopy, thus avoiding inhomogeneous broadening effects. The dipolar plasmon resonances of the clusters are found to have nearly Lorentzian line shapes. With increasing size we observe polaritonic red-shifts of the plasmon line and increased radiation damping for both gold and silver clusters. Apart from some cluster-to-cluster variations of the plasmon lines, agreement with Mie theory is reasonably good for the gold clusters. However, it is less satisfactory for the silver clusters, possibly due to cluster faceting or chemical effects

  7. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boissier, S.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Janz, J.; Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Paudel, S. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Peletier, R. F., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  8. A 3.55 keV line from DM →a→γ: predictions for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Powell, Andrew J. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-13

    We further study a scenario in which a 3.55 keV X-ray line arises from decay of dark matter to an axion-like particle (ALP), that subsequently converts to a photon in astrophysical magnetic fields. We perform numerical simulations of Gaussian random magnetic fields with radial scaling of the magnetic field magnitude with the electron density, for both cool-core 'Perseus' and non-cool-core 'Coma' electron density profiles. Using these, we quantitatively study the resulting signal strength and morphology for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Our study includes the effects of fields of view that cover only the central part of the cluster, the effects of offset pointings on the radial decline of signal strength and the effects of dividing clusters into annuli. We find good agreement with current data and make predictions for future analyses and observations.

  9. Shell structures and chaos in nuclei and large metallic clusters

    Heiss, W.D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Radu, S.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1995-01-01

    A reflection-asymmetric deformed oscillator potential is analyzed from the classical and quantum mechanical point of view. The connection between occurrence of shell structures and classical periodic orbits is studied using the ''removal of resonances method'' in a classical analysis. In this approximation, the effective single particle potential becomes separable and the frequencies of the classical trajectories are easily determined. It turns out that the winding numbers calculated in this way are in good agreement with the ones found from the corresponding quantum mechanical spectrum using the particle number dependence of the fluctuating part of the total energy. When the octupole term is switched on it is found that prolate shapes are stable against chaos and can exhibit shells where spherical and oblate cases become chaotic. An attempt is made to explain this difference in the quantum mechanical context by looking at the distribution of exceptional points which results from the matrix structure of the respective Hamiltonians. In a similar way we analyze the modified Nilsson model and discuss its consequences for metallic clusters. (orig.)

  10. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AND ENTROPY INJECTION IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    Chaudhuri, Anya; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B.

    2013-01-01

    We make the first estimate of non-gravitational energy profiles in galaxy cluster cores (and beyond) based on observational data. Comparing the observed entropy profiles within r 500 , from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey to simulated base entropy profiles without feedback from both adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) non-radiative simulations, we estimate the amount of additional non-gravitational energy, E ICM , contained in the intracluster medium (ICM), as well as the total energy feedback, E Feedback , from active galactic nuclei (AGNs; the central AGNs in most cases) into the clusters. The total feedback energy scales with the mean spectroscopic temperature as E Feedback ∝T sp 2.52±0.08 and E Feedback ∝T sp 2.17±0.11 for the SPH and AMR baseline profiles. The mean non-gravitational energy per particle within r 500 remaining in the ICM after energy lost during cooling is ε ICM = 2.8 ± 0.8 keV for the SPH theoretical relation and ε ICM = 1.7 ± 0.9 keV for the AMR theoretical relation. We use the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey source catalog to determine the radio luminosity, L R , at 1.4 GHz of the central source(s) of our sample. For T sp > 3 keV, the E Feedback correlates with L R , although with different normalization for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. We show that AGNs could provide a significant portion of the feedback

  11. Color-magnitude diagrams for six metal-rich, low-latitude globular clusters

    Armandroff, Taft E.

    1988-01-01

    Colors and magnitudes for stars on CCD frames for six metal-rich, low-latitude, previously unstudied globular clusters and one well-studied, metal-rich cluster (47 Tuc) have been derived and color-magnitude diagrams have been constructed. The photometry for stars in 47 Tuc are in good agreement with previous studies, while the V magnitudes of the horizontal-branch stars in the six program clusters do not agree with estimates based on secondary methods. The distances to these clusters are different from prior estimates. Redding values are derived for each program cluster. The horizontal branches of the program clusters all appear to lie entirely redwards of the red edge of the instability strip, as is normal for their metallicities.

  12. TURBULENCE AND RADIO MINI-HALOS IN THE SLOSHING CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of relaxed, cool-core galaxy clusters exhibit diffuse, steep-spectrum radio sources in their central regions, known as radio mini-halos. It has been proposed that the relativistic electrons responsible for the emission have been reaccelerated by turbulence generated by the sloshing of the cool core gas. We present a high-resolution MHD simulation of gas sloshing in a galaxy cluster coupled with subgrid simulations of relativistic electron acceleration to test this hypothesis. Our simulation shows that the sloshing motions generate turbulence on the order of δv ∼ 50-200 km s –1 on spatial scales of ∼50-100 kpc and below in the cool core region within the envelope of the sloshing cold fronts, whereas outside the cold fronts, there is negligible turbulence. This turbulence is potentially strong enough to reaccelerate relativistic electron seeds (with initial γ ∼ 100-500) to γ ∼ 10 4 via damping of magnetosonic waves and non-resonant compression. The seed electrons could remain in the cluster from, e.g., past active galactic nucleus activity. In combination with the magnetic field amplification in the core, these electrons then produce diffuse radio synchrotron emission that is coincident with the region bounded by the sloshing cold fronts, as indeed observed in X-rays and the radio. The result holds for different initial spatial distributions of pre-existing relativistic electrons. The power and the steep spectral index (α ≈ 1-2) of the resulting radio emission are consistent with observations of mini-halos, though the theoretical uncertainties of the acceleration mechanisms are high. We also produce simulated maps of inverse-Compton hard X-ray emission from the same population of relativistic electrons.

  13. The Role of Cerenkov Radiation in the Pressure Balance of Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Despite the substantial progress made recently in understanding the role of AGN feedback and associated non-thermal effects, the precise mechanism that prevents the core of some clusters of galaxies from collapsing catastrophically by radiative cooling remains unidentified. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the evolution of a cluster's cooling core, in terms of its density, temperature, and magnetic field strength, inevitably enables the plasma electrons there to quickly become Cerenkov loss dominated, with emission at the radio frequency of ≲350 Hz, and with a rate considerably exceeding free–free continuum and line emission. However, the same does not apply to the plasmas at the cluster's outskirts, which lacks such radiation. Owing to its low frequency, the radiation cannot escape, but because over the relevant scale size of a Cerenkov wavelength the energy of an electron in the gas cannot follow the Boltzmann distribution to the requisite precision to ensure reabsorption always occurs faster than stimulated emission, the emitting gas cools before it reheats. This leaves behind the radiation itself, trapped by the overlying reflective plasma, yet providing enough pressure to maintain quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium. The mass condensation then happens by Rayleigh–Taylor instability, at a rate determined by the outermost radius where Cerenkov radiation can occur. In this way, it is possible to estimate the rate at ≈2 M {sub ⊙} year{sup −1}, consistent with observational inference. Thus, the process appears to provide a natural solution to the longstanding problem of “cooling flow” in clusters; at least it offers another line of defense against cooling and collapse should gas heating by AGN feedback be inadequate in some clusters.

  14. Metallic nanoshells with semiconductor cores: optical characteristics modified by core medium properties.

    Bardhan, Rizia; Grady, Nathaniel K; Ali, Tamer; Halas, Naomi J

    2010-10-26

    It is well-known that the geometry of a nanoshell controls the resonance frequencies of its plasmon modes; however, the properties of the core material also strongly influence its optical properties. Here we report the synthesis of Au nanoshells with semiconductor cores of cuprous oxide and examine their optical characteristics. This material system allows us to systematically examine the role of core material on nanoshell optical properties, comparing Cu(2)O core nanoshells (ε(c) ∼ 7) to lower core dielectric constant SiO(2) core nanoshells (ε(c) = 2) and higher dielectric constant mixed valency iron oxide nanoshells (ε(c) = 12). Increasing the core dielectric constant increases nanoparticle absorption efficiency, reduces plasmon line width, and modifies plasmon energies. Modifying the core medium provides an additional means of tailoring both the near- and far-field optical properties in this unique nanoparticle system.

  15. Magnetic behavior of clusters of ferromagnetic transition metals

    Khanna, S. N.; Linderoth, Søren

    1991-01-01

    The effective magnetic moments of small iron and cobalt clusters have been calculated by assuming that the clusters undergo superparamagnetic relaxation. The effective moments per atom are found to be much below the bulk values, even at low temperatures (100 K). They increase with particle size a...... moments in small clusters compared to bulk as being due to melting of surface spins....

  16. Chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters: activation barriers and chemical reactions for deuterium and aluminum cluster ions

    Jarrold, M.F.; Bower, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a new approach to investigating chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters. This approach involves investigating the collision-energy dependence of chemisorption using low-energy ion beam techniques. The method provides a direct measure of the activation barrier for chemisorption and in some cases an estimate of the desorption energy as well. They describe the application of this technique to chemisorption of deuterium on size-selected aluminum clusters. The activation barriers increase with cluster size (from a little over 1 eV for Al 10 + to around 2 eV for Al 27 + ) and show significant odd-even oscillations. The activation barriers for the clusters with an odd number of atoms are larger than those for the even-numbered clusters. In addition to chemisorption of deuterium onto the clusters, chemical reactions were observed, often resulting in cluster fragmentation. The main products observed were Al/sub n-1/D + , Al/sub n-2/ + , and Al + for clusters with n + and Al/sub n-1/D + for the larger clusters

  17. Unprecedented reduction of the uranyl ion [UO2]2+ into a polyoxo uranium(IV) cluster: synthesis and crystal structure of the first f-element oxide with a M6(micro3-O)8 core.

    Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thuéry, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2005-07-21

    The smooth comproportionation reaction of the U(VI) and U(III) complexes UO2(OTf)2 and U(OTf)3, afforded the hexanuclear U(IV) oxide cluster [U6(micro3-O)8(micro2-OTf)8(py)8], a rare example of a metal oxide with a M6(micro3-O)8 core.

  18. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  19. First evidence of diffuse ultra-steep-spectrum radio emission surrounding the cool core of a cluster

    Savini, F.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; van Weeren, R.; Brunetti, G.; Intema, H.; Botteon, A.; Shimwell, T.; Wilber, A.; Rafferty, D.; Giacintucci, S.; Cassano, R.; Cuciti, V.; de Gasperin, F.; Röttgering, H.; Hoeft, M.; White, G.

    2018-05-01

    Diffuse synchrotron radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons is observed at the center of a number of galaxy clusters. These sources can be classified either as giant radio halos, which occur in merging clusters, or as mini halos, which are found only in cool-core clusters. In this paper, we present the first discovery of a cool-core cluster with an associated mini halo that also shows ultra-steep-spectrum emission extending well beyond the core that resembles radio halo emission. The large-scale component is discovered thanks to LOFAR observations at 144 MHz. We also analyse GMRT observations at 610 MHz to characterise the spectrum of the radio emission. An X-ray analysis reveals that the cluster is slightly disturbed, and we suggest that the steep-spectrum radio emission outside the core could be produced by a minor merger that powers electron re-acceleration without disrupting the cool core. This discovery suggests that, under particular circumstances, both a mini and giant halo could co-exist in a single cluster, opening new perspectives for particle acceleration mechanisms in galaxy clusters.

  20. Living Colloidal Metal Particles from Solvated Metal Atoms. Clustering of Metal Atoms in Organic Media 15.

    1986-09-23

    attributed to these solutions, especially toward heart disease. And in 1618 Antoni published Panacea Aurea : Auro Potabile 4 which centered on the...probably a slow process (discussed next under the electrophoresis section ). Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis, the movement of charged particles in...electrical properties. Experimental Section Preparation of a Typical Au-Acetone Colloid The metal atom reactor has been described previo sly. 3 9 ’ 5 9 ’ 6 0

  1. Cluster form factor calculation in the ab initio no-core shell model

    Navratil, Petr

    2004-01-01

    We derive expressions for cluster overlap integrals or channel cluster form factors for ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) wave functions. These are used to obtain the spectroscopic factors and can serve as a starting point for the description of low-energy nuclear reactions. We consider the composite system and the target nucleus to be described in the Slater determinant (SD) harmonic oscillator (HO) basis while the projectile eigenstate to be expanded in the Jacobi coordinate HO basis. This is the most practical case. The spurious center of mass components present in the SD bases are removed exactly. The calculated cluster overlap integrals are translationally invariant. As an illustration, we present results of cluster form factor calculations for 5 He vertical bar 4 He+n>, 5 He vertical bar 3 H+d>, 6 Li vertical bar 4 He+d>, 6 Be vertical bar 3 He+ 3 He>, 7 Li vertical bar 4 He+ 3 H>, 7 Li vertical bar 6 Li+n>, 8 Be vertical bar 6 Li+d>, 8 Be vertical bar 7 Li+p>, 9 Li vertical bar 8 Li+n>, and 13 C vertical bar 12 C+n>, with all the nuclei described by multi-(ℎ/2π)Ω NCSM wave functions

  2. Size dependent magnetism of mass selected deposited transition metal clusters

    Lau, T.

    2002-05-01

    The size dependent magnetic properties of small iron clusters deposited on ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) films have been studied with circularly polarised synchrotron radiation. For X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies, the magnetic moments of size selected clusters were aligned perpendicular to the sample surface. Exchange coupling of the clusters to the ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) film determines the orientation of their magnetic moments. All clusters are coupled ferromagnetically to the underlayer. With the use of sum rules, orbital and spin magnetic moments as well as their ratios have been extracted from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra. The ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moments varies considerably as a function of cluster size, reflecting the dependence of magnetic properties on cluster size and geometry. These variations can be explained in terms of a strongly size dependent orbital moment. Both orbital and spin magnetic moments are significantly enhanced in small clusters as compared to bulk iron, although this effect is more pronounced for the spin moment. Magnetic properties of deposited clusters are governed by the interplay of cluster specific properties on the one hand and cluster-substrate interactions on the other hand. Size dependent variations of magnetic moments are modified upon contact with the substrate. (orig.)

  3. Comparison between XAS, AWAXS and DAFS applied to nanometer scale supported metallic clusters. Pt.1; monometallic clusters

    Bazin, D.C.; Sayers, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural information found using three techniques related to synchrotron radiation are compared. XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy), AWAXS (Anomalous Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) and DAFS (Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure) are applied to nanometer scale metallic clusters. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the international conference on irradiation behaviour of metallic materials for fast reactor core components

    Poirier, J.; Dupouy, J.M.

    Radiation effects on metals or alloys used in fast reactor core components are examined in the papers presented at this conference, the accent being put on swelling and irradiation creep of steels and nickel alloys

  5. The influence of nanoscale morphology on the resistivity of cluster-assembled nanostructured metallic thin films

    Barborini, E; Bertolini, G; Repetto, P; Leccardi, M; Vinati, S; Corbelli, G; Milani, P

    2010-01-01

    We have studied in situ the evolution of the electrical resistivity of Fe, Pd, Nb, W and Mo cluster-assembled films during their growth by supersonic cluster beam deposition. We observed resistivity of cluster-assembled films several orders of magnitude larger than the bulk, as well as an increase in resistivity by increasing the film thickness in contrast to what was observed for atom-assembled metallic films. This suggests that the nanoscale morphological features typical of ballistic films growth, such as the minimal cluster-cluster interconnection and the evolution of surface roughness with thickness, are responsible for the observed behaviour.

  6. Mass spectrometric probes of metal cluster distributions and metastable ion decay

    Parks, E.K.; Liu, K.; Cole, S.K.; Riley, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The study of metal clusters has provided both an opportunity and a challenge to the application of mass spectrometry. These days the most often-used technique for cluster generation - laser vaporization - leads to extensive distributions of cluster sizes, from one to perhaps thousands of atoms, and most studies reported to date use excimer laser ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry for cluster detection. Our apparatus is a simple one-stage TOF design employing Wiley-McLauren spatial focusing and a one-meter drift tube. In a second apparatus employing a pulsed valve in the cluster source, we see asymmetric broadening of niobium cluster mass peaks under multiphoton ionization conditions, indicating metastable decay of parent cluster ions. Other studies of niobium clusters have shown no such asymmetric peaks. 2 figs

  7. Energy Characteristics of Small Metal Clusters Containing Vacancies

    Reva, V. I.; Pogosov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    Self-consistent calculations of spatial distributions of electrons, potentials, and energies of dissociation, cohesion, vacancy formation, and electron attachment, as well as the ionization potential of solid Al N , Na N clusters ( N ≥ 254), and clusters containing a vacancy ( N ≥ 12) have been performed using a model of stable jellium. The contribution of a monovacancy to the energy of the cluster, the size dependences of the characteristics, and their asymptotic forms have been considered. The calculations have been performed on the SKIT-3 cluster at the Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Rpeak = 7.4 Tflops).

  8. 25. Steenbock symposium -- Biosynthesis and function of metal clusters for enzymes: Proceedings

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This symposium was held June 10--14, 1997 in Madison, Wisconsin. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biochemistry of enzymes that have an affinity for metal clusters. Attention is focused on the following: metal clusters involved in energy conservation and remediation; tungsten, molybdenum, and cobalt-containing enzymes; Fe proteins, and Mo-binding proteins; nickel enzymes; and nitrogenase.

  9. Lunar core formation: New constraints from metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements

    Rai, N.; van Westrenen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of Apollo era seismograms, lunar laser ranging data and the lunar moment of inertia suggest the presence of a small, at least partially molten Fe-rich metallic core in the Moon, but the chemical composition and formation conditions of this core are not well constrained. Here, we assess

  10. Properties and origin of the old, metal rich, star cluster, NGC 6791

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I summarize the unique properties of the old, metal rich, star cluster NGC 6791, with particular emphasis on its population of extreme blue horizontal branch stars. I then conclude providing my personal view on the origin of this fascinating star cluster.

  11. Structure Determination of Anionic Metal Clusters via Infrared Resonance Enhanced Multiple Photon Electron Detachment Spectroscopy

    Haertelt, M.; Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Bakker, J. M.; Redlich, B.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report vibrational spectra of anionic metal clusters, measured via electron detachment following resonant absorption of multiple infrared photons. To facilitate the sequential absorption of the required large number of photons, the cluster beam interacts with the infrared radiation inside the

  12. Van der Waals coefficients for alkali metal clusters and their size

    In this paper we employ the hydrodynamic formulation of time-dependent density functional theory to obtain the van der Waals coefficients 6 and 8 of alkali metal clusters of various sizes including very large clusters. Such calculations become computationally very demanding in the orbital-based Kohn-Sham formalism, ...

  13. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability (β ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV-visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  14. Matrix multiplication with a hypercube algorithm on multi-core processor cluster

    José Crispín Zavala-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza, modifica e implementa el algoritmo de multiplicación de matrices de Dekel, Nassimi y Sahani o hipercubo en un cluster de procesadores multi-core, donde el número de procesadores utilizado es menor al requerido por el algoritmo de n3. Se utilizan 23, 43 y 83 unidades procesadoras para multiplicar matrices de orden de magnitud de 10X10, 102X102 y 103X103. Los resultados del modelo matemático del algoritmo modificado y los obtenidos de la experimentación computacional muestran que es posible alcanzar rapidez y eficiencias paralelas aceptables, en función del número de unidades procesadoras utilizadas. También se muestra que la influencia del enlace externo de comunicación entre los nodos disminuye si se utiliza una combinación de los canales de comunicación disponibles entre los núcleos en un cluster multi-core.

  15. Metallicity Variations in the Type II Globular Cluster NGC 6934

    Marino, A. F.; Yong, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Lundquist, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Chené, A.-N.; Da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has revealed a peculiar “chromosome map” for NGC 6934. In addition to a typical sequence, similar to that observed in Type I GCs, NGC 6934 displays additional stars on the red side, analogous to the anomalous Type II GCs, as defined in our previous work. We present a chemical abundance analysis of four red giants in this GC. Two stars are located on the chromosome map sequence common to all GCs, and another two lie on the additional sequence. We find (i) star-to-star Fe variations, with the two anomalous stars being enriched by ∼0.2 dex. Because of our small-size sample, this difference is at the ∼2.5σ level. (ii) There is no evidence for variations in the slow neutron-capture abundances over Fe, at odds with what is often observed in anomalous Type II GCs, e.g., M 22 and ω Centauri (iii) no large variations in light elements C, O, and Na, compatible with locations of the targets on the lower part of the chromosome map where such variations are not expected. Since the analyzed stars are homogeneous in light elements, the only way to reproduce the photometric splits on the sub-giant (SGB) and the red giant (RGB) branches is to assume that red RGB/faint SGB stars are enhanced in [Fe/H] by ∼0.2. This fact corroborates the spectroscopic evidence of a metallicity variation in NGC 6934. The observed chemical pattern resembles only partially the other Type II GCs, suggesting that NGC 6934 might belong either to a third class of GCs, or be a link between normal Type I and anomalous Type II GCs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and Gemini Telescope at Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope.

  16. Functional grading of metal foam cores for yield-limited lightweight sandwich beams

    Conde, Yves; Pollien, Arnaud; Mortensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We show that grading the porosity in a bent metal skin/metal foam core sandwich can generate significant weight savings in yield-limited design when, and only when, there is a gradient in the applied moment along the sandwich beam

  17. Metal Sulfide Cluster Complexes and their Biogeochemical Importance in the Environment

    Luther, George W.; Rickard, David T.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous clusters of FeS, ZnS and CuS constitute a major fraction of the dissolved metal load in anoxic oceanic, sedimentary, freshwater and deep ocean vent environments. Their ubiquity explains how metals are transported in anoxic environmental systems. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations show that they have high stability in oxic aqueous environments, and are also a significant fraction of the total metal load in oxic river waters. Molecular modeling indicates that the clusters are very similar to the basic structural elements of the first condensed phase forming from aqueous solutions in the Fe-S, Zn-S and Cu-S systems. The structure of the first condensed phase is determined by the structure of the cluster in solution. This provides an alternative explanation of Ostwald's Rule, where the most soluble, metastable phases form before the stable phases. For example, in the case of FeS, we showed that the first condensed phase is nanoparticulate, metastable mackinawite with a particle size of 2 nm consisting of about 150 FeS subunits, representing the end of a continuum between aqueous FeS clusters and condensed material. These metal sulfide clusters and nanoparticles are significant in biogeochemistry. Metal sulfide clusters reduce sulfide and metal toxicity and help drive ecology. FeS cluster formation drives vent ecology and AgS cluster formation detoxifies Ag in Daphnia magna neonates. We also note a new reaction between FeS and DNA and discuss the potential role of FeS clusters in denaturing DNA

  18. Formation of Core-Shell Ethane-Silver Clusters in He Droplets.

    Loginov, Evgeny; Gomez, Luis F; Sartakov, Boris G; Vilesov, Andrey F

    2017-08-17

    Ethane core-silver shell clusters consisting of several thousand particles have been assembled in helium droplets upon capture of ethane molecules followed by Ag atoms. The composite clusters were studied via infrared laser spectroscopy in the range of the C-H stretching vibrations of ethane. The spectra reveal a splitting of the vibrational bands, which is ascribed to interaction with Ag. A rigorous analysis of band intensities for a varying number of trapped ethane molecules and Ag atoms indicates that the composite clusters consist of a core of ethane that is covered by relatively small Ag clusters. This metastable structure is stabilized due to fast dissipation in superfluid helium droplets of the cohesion energy of the clusters.

  19. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  20. Core condensation in heavy halos: a two-stage theory for galaxy formation and clustering

    White, S D.M.; Rees, M J [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK)

    1978-05-01

    It is suggested that most of the material in the Universe condensed at an early epoch into small 'dark' objects. Irrespective of their nature, these objects must subsequently have undergone hierarchical clustering, whose present scale is inferred from the large-scale distribution of galaxies. As each stage of the hierarchy forms and collapses, relaxation effects wipe out its substructure, and to a self-similar distribution of bound masses. The entire luminous content of galaxies, however, results from the cooling and fragmentation of residual gas within the transient potential wells provided by the dark matter. Every galaxy thus forms as a concentrated luminous core embedded in an extensive dark halo. The observed sizes of galaxies and their survival through later stages of the hierarchy seem inexplicable without invoking substantial dissipation; this dissipation allows the galaxies to become sufficiently concentrated to survive the disruption of their halos in groups and clusters of galaxies. A specific model is proposed in which ..cap omega.. approximately equals 0.2, the dark matter makes up 80 per cent of the total mass, and half the residual gas has been converted into luminous galaxies by the present time. This model is consistent with the inferred proportions of dark matter and gas in rich clusters, with the observed luminosity density of the Universe and with the observed radii of galaxies; further, it predicts the characteristic luminosities of bright galaxies can give a luminosity function of the observed shape.

  1. Two optical bistability domains in composites of metal nanoparticles with nonlinear dielectric core

    Shewamare, Sisay, E-mail: sisayshewa20@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Mal' nev, V.N., E-mail: vadimnmalnev@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-12-15

    It is shown that the local field in metal spherical particles with a dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with an increment in the metal fraction. Due to the nonlinear dielectric function of the core, the composite of these inclusions may have two optically induced bistability domains at different frequencies. At rather high metal fraction, two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain. The parameters of these domains are studied numerically. The paper focuses on the second bistability domain, which has not been discussed in the literature so far. This domain exists in a comparatively narrow frequency range and its onset fields are lower than those of the first bistability domain. The lowest bistability onset fields are obtained in the entire domain. This peculiarity of the optical induced bistability in the metal composite with small dielectric cores can be attractive for possible applications.

  2. Two optical bistability domains in composites of metal nanoparticles with nonlinear dielectric core

    Shewamare, Sisay; Mal'nev, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the local field in metal spherical particles with a dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with an increment in the metal fraction. Due to the nonlinear dielectric function of the core, the composite of these inclusions may have two optically induced bistability domains at different frequencies. At rather high metal fraction, two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain. The parameters of these domains are studied numerically. The paper focuses on the second bistability domain, which has not been discussed in the literature so far. This domain exists in a comparatively narrow frequency range and its onset fields are lower than those of the first bistability domain. The lowest bistability onset fields are obtained in the entire domain. This peculiarity of the optical induced bistability in the metal composite with small dielectric cores can be attractive for possible applications.

  3. Hollow-core infrared fiber incorporating metal-wire metamaterial

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) light is considered important for short-range wireless communication, thermal sensing, spectroscopy, material processing, medical surgery, astronomy etc. However, IR light is in general much harder to transport than optical light or microwave radiation. Existing hollow-core IR...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of gammaCore (non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation) for acute treatment of episodic cluster headache.

    Mwamburi, Mkaya; Liebler, Eric J; Tenaglia, Andrew T

    2017-11-01

    Cluster headache is a debilitating disease characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks that affects 0.15% to 0.4% of the US population. Episodic cluster headache manifests as circadian and circannual seasonal bouts of attacks, each lasting 15 to 180 minutes, with periods of remission. In chronic cluster headache, the attacks occur throughout the year with no periods of remission. While existing treatments are effective for some patients, many patients continue to suffer. There are only 2 FDA-approved medications for episodic cluster headache in the United States, while others, such as high-flow oxygen, are used off-label. Episodic cluster headache is associated with comorbidities and affects work, productivity, and daily functioning. The economic burden of episodic cluster headache is considerable, costing more than twice that of nonheadache patients. gammaCore adjunct to standard of care (SoC) was found to have superior efficacy in treatment of acute episodic cluster headaches compared with sham-gammaCore used with SoC in ACT1 and ACT2 trials. However, the economic impact has not been characterized for this indication. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of gammaCore adjunct to SoC compared with SoC alone for the treatment of acute pain associated with episodic cluster headache attacks. The model structure was based on treatment of acute attacks with 3 outcomes: failures, nonresponders, and responders. The time horizon of the model is 1 year using a payer perspective with uncertainty incorporated. Parameter inputs were derived from primary data from the randomized controlled trials for gammaCore. The mean annual costs associated with the gammaCore-plus-SoC arm was $9510, and mean costs for the SoC-alone arm was $10,040. The mean quality-adjusted life years for gammaCore-plus-SoC arm were 0.83, and for the SoC-alone arm, they were 0.74. The gammaCore-plus-SoC arm was dominant over SoC alone. All 1-way and multiway sensitivity analyses were cost

  5. A design study of high breeding ratio sodium cooled metal fuel core without blanket fuels

    Kobayashi, Noboru; Ogawa, Takashi; Ohki, Shigeo; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ogata, Takanari

    2009-01-01

    The metal fuel core is superior to the mixed oxide fuel core because of its high breeding ratio and compact core size resulting from hard neutron spectrum and high heavy metal densities. Utilizing these characteristics, a conceptual design for a high breeding ratio was performed without blanket fuels. The design conditions were set so a sodium void worth of less than 8 $, a core height of less than 150 cm, the maximum cladding temperature of 650degC, and the maximum fuel pin bundle pressure drop of 0.4 MPa. The breeding ratio of the resultant core was 1.34 with 6wt% zirconium content fuel. Applying 3wt% zirconium content fuel enhanced the breeding ratio up to 1.40. (author)

  6. Pipeline welding with Flux Cored and Metal Cored Wire; Soldagem de dutos com processos Arame Tubular e de Alma Metalica

    Costa, Ubirajara Pereira da [ITW Soldagem Brasil Miller-Hobart, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Different welding process like SMAW, Semi-Automatic FCAW Gas-shielded and Self-shielded and Mechanized GMAW-MAG with Solid Wire are suggested to weld Transmission Pipelines. Presently, the largest extensions of Transmission Pipelines under construction, are in China like Lines West-East, Zong-Wu, Shan-Jing Fuxian and some others, totalizing about 8.000 km, and all using Semi-Automatic Self Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welding Process. Also, several papers and magazines that covers Transmission Pipelines Welding, not frequently mention Operational aspects of the process and some other variables like environment and site geography. This presentation intends to cover some of the Operational aspects of the Flux Cored Arc Welding and GMAW-Metal Cored in order to give sufficient information for Construction, Engineering, Projects e Contractors so they can evaluate these Process against the SMAW or even Mechanized Systems, considering the Operation Factor, Efficiency and Deposition Rate. We will not cover operational details of the GMAW Mechanized Systems but only suggest that be evaluated the possibility to replace the GMAW-Solid Wire by the GMAW-Metal Cored Wire. (author)

  7. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  8. Tracing the Chemical Evolution of Metal-rich Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    Munoz Gonzalez, Cesar; Saviane, Ivo; Geisler, Doug; Villanova, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    We present in this poster the metallicity characterization of the four metal rich Bulge Galactic Gobular Clusters, which have controversial metallicities. We analyzed our high-resolution spectra (using UVES-580nm and GIRAFFE-HR13 setups) for a large sample of RGB/AGB targets in each cluster in order to measure their metallicity and prove or discard the iron spread hypothesis. We have also characterized chemically stars with potentially different iron content by measuring light (O, Na, Mg, Al), alpha (Si, Ca, Ti), iron–peak (V, Cr, Ni, Mn) and s and r process (Y, Zr, Ba, Eu) elements. We have identified possible channels responsible for the chemical heterogeneity of the cluster populations, like AGB or massive fast-rotating stars contamination, or SN explosion. Also, we have analyzed the origin and evolution of these bulge GCs and their connection with the bulge itself.

  9. Dispersed metal cluster catalysts by design. Synthesis, characterization, structure, and performance

    Arslan, Ilke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gates, Bruce C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Katz, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    To understand the class of metal cluster catalysts better and to lay a foundation for the prediction of properties leading to improved catalysts, we have synthesized metal catalysts with well-defined structures and varied the cluster structures and compositions systematically—including the ligands bonded to the metals. These ligands include supports and bulky organics that are being tuned to control both the electron transfer to or from the metal and the accessibility of reactants to influence catalytic properties. We have developed novel syntheses to prepare these well-defined catalysts with atomic-scale control the environment by choice and placement of ligands and applied state-of-the art spectroscopic, microscopic, and computational methods to determine their structures, reactivities, and catalytic properties. The ligands range from nearly flat MgO surfaces to enveloping zeolites to bulky calixarenes to provide controlled coverages of the metal clusters, while also enforcing unprecedented degrees of coordinative unsaturation at the metal site—thereby facilitating bonding and catalysis events at exposed metal atoms. With this wide range of ligand properties and our arsenal of characterization tools, we worked to achieve a deep, fundamental understanding of how to synthesize robust supported and ligand-modified metal clusters with controlled catalytic properties, thereby bridging the gap between active site structure and function in unsupported and supported metal catalysts. We used methods of organometallic and inorganic chemistry combined with surface chemistry for the precise synthesis of metal clusters and nanoparticles, characterizing them at various stages of preparation and under various conditions (including catalytic reaction conditions) and determining their structures and reactivities and how their catalytic properties depend on their compositions and structures. Key characterization methods included IR, NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies to identify

  10. Insights into magnetic interactions in a monodisperse Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14} metal cluster

    Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Pengxin; Du, Ming-Hao; Han, Ying-Zi; Wei, Rong-Jia; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Lan-Sun [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, State Key Lab. of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface and Dept. of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen Univ. (China); Wang, Zhenxing; Ouyang, Zhong-Wen [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhuang, Gui-Lin [College of Chemcal Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-09-11

    The largest Ln-Fe metal cluster [Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 12}(μ{sub 4}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 4}-O){sub 12}(TEOA){sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 16}(H{sub 2} O){sub 8}].(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CN){sub 2}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 20} (1) and the core-shell monodisperse metal cluster of 1 a rate at SiO{sub 2} (1 a=[Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 12}(μ{sub 4}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 4}-O){sub 12}(TEOA){sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 16} (H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sup 2+}) were prepared. Experimental and theoretical studies on the magnetic properties of 1 and 1 a rate at SiO{sub 2} reveal that encapsulation of one cluster into one silica nanosphere not only effectively decreases intermolecular magnetic interactions but also significantly increases the zero-field splitting effect of the outer layer Fe{sup 3+} ions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Ab initio simulation of dislocation cores in metals

    Ventelon, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the multi scale simulation of metals and alloys plasticity, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology of ab initio dislocations study and to apply it to the [111] screw dislocation in the bc iron. (A.L.B.)

  12. Calculation of the thermal and hydraulic states in rod cluster cores of light-water reactors

    Teichel, H.

    1977-01-01

    For calculating the three-dimensional steady distribution of the thermal and hydraulic states in rod cluster cores of light-water reactors, the subchannel analysis programs COLA 1 and COLA 2 have been developed. Both programs contain a multitude of competing empirical correlations which may be used by choice. The programs COLA 1 and COLA 2 differ in the calculation method and in the treatment of the boundary condition 'equal pressure at the end of all cooling channels' governing the problem. All parts of the programs are identical. By means of recomputed experiments statements on the accuracy of the results to be expected can be made. In addition, the different suitability of both programs for different experimental conditions are shown. (orig.) [de

  13. A Metal Fuel Core Concept for 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor

    Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Grandy, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of a metal fuel core concept for a 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor. A ternary metal fuel form of U-TRU-Zr was assumed with weapons grade plutonium feed for the startup core and TRU recovered from LWR spent fuel for the recycled equilibrium core. A compact burner core was developed by trade-off between the burnup reactivity loss and TRU conversion ratio, with a fixed cycle length of one-year. In the startup core, the average TRU enrichment is 15.5%, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.81, and the burnup reactivity loss over a cycle is 3.6% Δk. The heavy metal and TRU inventories are 13.1 and 2.0 metric tons, respectively. The average discharge burnup is 93 MWd/kg, and the TRU consumption rate is 55.5 kg/year. For the recycled equilibrium core, the average TRU enrichment is 22.1 %, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.73, and the burnup reactivity loss is 2.2% Δk. The TRU inventory and consumption rate are 2.9 metric tons and 81.6 kg/year, respectively. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks. The control systems provide shutdown margins that are more than adequate. The integral reactivity parameters for quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate favorable passive safety features, although detailed safety analyses are required to verify passive safety behavior. (authors)

  14. First-principles studies on graphene-supported transition metal clusters

    Sahoo, Sanjubala; Khanna, Shiv N.; Gruner, Markus E.; Entel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the structure, stability, and magnetic properties of icosahedral TM 13 (TM = Fe, Co, Ni) clusters, deposited on pristine (defect free) and defective graphene sheet as well as graphene flakes, have been carried out within a gradient corrected density functional framework. The defects considered in our study include a carbon vacancy for the graphene sheet and a five-membered and a seven-membered ring structures for graphene flakes (finite graphene chunks). It is observed that the presence of defect in the substrate has a profound influence on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of graphene-transition metal complexes, thereby increasing the binding strength of the TM cluster on to the graphene substrate. Among TM 13 clusters, Co 13 is absorbed relatively more strongly on pristine and defective graphene as compared to Fe 13 and Ni 13 clusters. The adsorbed clusters show reduced magnetic moment compared to the free clusters

  15. Fuel and core design study of the sodium-cooled fast reactors. Studies on metallic fuel cores in the JFY2002

    Sugino, Kazuteru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2003-06-01

    Based on the results obtained in the former feasibility study, the metallic fueled core of ordinary-type, that is, 2-region homogeneous core, has been established aiming at the improvement in the core performance, and subsequent comparison has been performed with the mixed oxide fueled core. Further, the attractive concept of the metallic fueled core of high outlet temperature has been constructed which has good nuclear features as a metallic fueled core and has identical outlet temperature to mixed oxide fuelled core. Following items have been found as a result of the investigation on the ordinary-type core. The metallic fueled core whose maximum fast neutron fluence (En>0.1MeV) is set identical (5x10 23 n/cm 2 ) to the mixed oxide fueled cores with core discharge burnup 150GWd/t has sufficient core performances as a metallic fueled core, e.g. higher breeding ratio and longer operation period compared with mixed oxide fueled cores, but the core discharge burnup is limited up to 100GWd/t. However effective discharge burnup including the contribution of the blanket region is comparative to mixed oxide cores under the same breeding ratio condition. In order to enlarge the core discharge burnup to 150GWd/t keeping the core performance identical to above mentioned core's, the irradiation deformation of structural material should be reduced to that of mixed oxide fueled cores. Further the maximum fast neutron fluence reaches to 7-8x10 23 n/cm 2 (En>0.1MeV). The investigations on the core of high outlet temperature have clarified following items. Even in the change of core regions by pin-diameter form 3-region to 2-region and in the limited maximum fuel pin diameter 8.5 mm, realization of the identical outlet/inlet temperatures to the mixed oxide cores (550/395degC) is feasible under the criteria of the maximum temperature 650degC at the inner surface of the cladding. The constructed core accommodates the targets of breeding ratio from about 1.0 to 1.2 only by adjusting

  16. Computer simulations of small semiconductor and metal clusters

    Andreoni, W.

    1991-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of recent simulations of small clusters, made with both ab-initio and classical approaches, with particular emphasis on the application of the Car-Parrinello method. The discussion mainly focusses on the structural properties of a variety of materials and on the effects of temperature. (orig.)

  17. Metal cluster fission: jellium model and Molecular dynamics simulations

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2004-01-01

    Fission of doubly charged sodium clusters is studied using the open-shell two-center deformed jellium model approximation and it ab initio molecular dynamic approach accounting for all electrons in the system. Results of calculations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ + Na_3^+ and Na_18...

  18. Distribution, provenance and early diagenesis of major and trace metals in sediment cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V.P.; Chakraborty, P.

    Major elements and trace metals were analyzed in four sediment cores recovered along a transect in the Mandovi estuary for their distribution, provenance and early diagenesis. The sediments were clayey silts in cores from the upper/lower estuary...

  19. Experiences modeling ocean circulation problems on a 30 node commodity cluster with 3840 GPU processor cores.

    Hill, C.

    2008-12-01

    Low cost graphic cards today use many, relatively simple, compute cores to deliver support for memory bandwidth of more than 100GB/s and theoretical floating point performance of more than 500 GFlop/s. Right now this performance is, however, only accessible to highly parallel algorithm implementations that, (i) can use a hundred or more, 32-bit floating point, concurrently executing cores, (ii) can work with graphics memory that resides on the graphics card side of the graphics bus and (iii) can be partially expressed in a language that can be compiled by a graphics programming tool. In this talk we describe our experiences implementing a complete, but relatively simple, time dependent shallow-water equations simulation targeting a cluster of 30 computers each hosting one graphics card. The implementation takes into account the considerations (i), (ii) and (iii) listed previously. We code our algorithm as a series of numerical kernels. Each kernel is designed to be executed by multiple threads of a single process. Kernels are passed memory blocks to compute over which can be persistent blocks of memory on a graphics card. Each kernel is individually implemented using the NVidia CUDA language but driven from a higher level supervisory code that is almost identical to a standard model driver. The supervisory code controls the overall simulation timestepping, but is written to minimize data transfer between main memory and graphics memory (a massive performance bottle-neck on current systems). Using the recipe outlined we can boost the performance of our cluster by nearly an order of magnitude, relative to the same algorithm executing only on the cluster CPU's. Achieving this performance boost requires that many threads are available to each graphics processor for execution within each numerical kernel and that the simulations working set of data can fit into the graphics card memory. As we describe, this puts interesting upper and lower bounds on the problem sizes

  20. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Bolte, M.; Stetson, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  1. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  2. Metallicity in galactic clusters from high signal-to-noise spectroscopy

    Boesgaard, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-quality spectroscopic data on selected F dwarfs in six Galactic clusters are used to determine global (Fe/H) values for the clusters. For the two youngest clusters, Pleiades and Alpha Per, the (Fe/H) values are solar: 0.017 + or - 0.055. The Hyades and Praesepe are slightly metal-enhanced at (Fe/H) = + 0.125 + or - 0.032, even though they are an order of magnitude older than the Pleiades. Coma and the UMa Group at the age of the Hyades are slightly metal-deficient with (Fe/H) = - 0.082 + or - 0.039. The lack of an age-metallicity relationship indicates that the enrichment and mixing in the Galactic disk have not been uniform on time scales less than a billion years. 39 references

  3. Metal-silicate Partitioning and Its Role in Core Formation and Composition on Super-Earths

    Schaefer, Laura; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jacobsen, Stein B.; Remo, John L., E-mail: lschaefer@asu.edu [Harvard University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We use a thermodynamic framework for silicate-metal partitioning to determine the possible compositions of metallic cores on super-Earths. We compare results using literature values of the partition coefficients of Si and Ni, as well as new partition coefficients calculated using results from laser shock-induced melting of powdered metal-dunite targets at pressures up to 276 GPa, which approaches those found within the deep mantles of super-Earths. We find that larger planets may have little to no light elements in their cores because the Si partition coefficient decreases at high pressures. The planet mass at which this occurs will depend on the metal-silicate equilibration depth. We also extrapolate the equations of state (EOS) of FeO and FeSi alloys to high pressures, and present mass–radius diagrams using self-consistent planet compositions assuming equilibrated mantles and cores. We confirm the results of previous studies that the distribution of elements between mantle and core will not be detectable from mass and radius measurements alone. While observations may be insensitive to interior structure, further modeling is sensitive to compositionally dependent properties, such as mantle viscosity and core freeze-out properties. We therefore emphasize the need for additional high pressure measurements of partitioning as well as EOSs, and highlight the utility of the Sandia Z-facilities for this type of work.

  4. Dome style heavy wall steel casting manufactured by metallic core mould system

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Saeki, Keiji; Hirose, Yutaka; Takebayashi, Kazunari; Kawasaki, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    Semi-spherical thick walled steel castings are one of the main products of Nippon Chutanko K.K., but there have been the problems of internal defects peculiar to large thick walled steel castings, and the various improvements have been carried out so far for the manufacturing method, but still some of those remains. Based on the anxiety about the reliability of large steel castings, the conversion to forging has been studied. For the purpose of thoroughly improving the internal quality of thick walled steel castings to compete with forgings, on the basis of the operating experience of chills, the development of the casting techniques changing cores completely to metallic cores has been advanced. After the preliminary experiment using models, a semi-spherical thick walled steel casting mentioned before was manufactured by this metallic core casting method for trial, and the detailed investigation was carried out. As the result, the excellent internal quality was confirmed, accordingly at present, the production is made by this method. The form, dimensions and specification of the semi-spherical thick walled steel castings, the conventional casting plan, the metallic core casting plan, the design of metallic cores, molding and casting, and the examination of the castings made for trial are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. A model for osmium isotopic evolution of metallic solids at the core-mantle boundary

    Humayun, Munir

    2011-03-01

    Some plumes are thought to originate at the core-mantle boundary, but geochemical evidence of core-mantle interaction is limited to Os isotopes in samples from Hawaii, Gorgona (89 Ma), and Kostomuksha (2.7 Ga). The Os isotopes have been explained by physical entrainment of Earth's liquid outer core into mantle plumes. This model has come into conflict with geophysical estimates of the timing of core formation, high-pressure experimental determinations of the solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients (D), and the absence of expected 182W anomalies. A new model is proposed where metallic liquid from the outer core is partially trapped in a compacting cumulate pile of Fe-rich nonmetallic precipitates (FeO, FeS, Fe3Si, etc.) at the top of the core and undergoes fractional crystallization precipitating solid metal grains, followed by expulsion of the residual metallic liquid back to the outer core. The Os isotopic composition of the solids and liquids in the cumulate pile is modeled as a function of the residual liquid remaining and the emplacement age using 1 bar D values, with variable amounts of oxygen (0-10 wt %) as the light element. The precipitated solids evolve Os isotope compositions that match the trends for Hawaii (at an emplacement age of 3.5-4.5 Ga; 5%-10% oxygen) and Gorgona (emplacement age < 1.5 Ga; 0%-5% oxygen). The Fe-rich matrix of the cumulate pile dilutes the precipitated solid metal decoupling the Fe/Mn ratio from Os and W isotopes. The advantages to using precipitated solid metal as the Os host include a lower platinum group element and Ni content to the mantle source region relative to excess iron, miniscule anomalies in 182W (<0.1 ɛ), and no effects for Pb isotopes, etc. A gradual thermomechanical erosion of the cumulate pile results in incorporation of this material into the base of the mantle, where mantle plumes subsequently entrain it. Fractional crystallization of metallic liquids within the CMB provides a consistent explanation of

  6. Nonequilibrium electron energy-loss kinetics in metal clusters

    Guillon, C; Fatti, N D; Vallee, F

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast energy exchanges of a non-Fermi electron gas with the lattice are investigated in silver clusters with sizes ranging from 4 to 26 nm using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for a cluster-size-dependent slowing down of the short-time energy losses of the electron gas when it is strongly athermal. A constant rate is eventually reached after a few hundred femtoseconds, consistent with the electron gas internal thermalization kinetics, this behaviour reflecting evolution from an individual to a collective electron-lattice type of coupling. The timescale of this transient regime is reduced in small nanoparticles, in agreement with speeding up of the electron-electron interactions with size reduction. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations of the electron kinetics.

  7. AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths

    Kováč, J., E-mail: elekjkov@savba.sk; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • AC losses in single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths have been measured. • It has been shown that metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. • GlidCop and Stainless Steel have negligible effect to the overall loss. • Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. • Due to Monel sheath AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is not visible. - Abstract: AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} superconductors with different metallic sheaths (Cu, GlidCop, stainless steel and Monel) have been measured and analyzed. These wires were exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies 72 and 144 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.1 T at temperatures ranged from 18 to 40 K. The obtained results have shown that applied metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. In the case of GlidCop and Stainless Steel a negligible small effect of metallic sheath was observed. Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. In the case of Monel sheath, the hysteresis loss of magnetic sheath is dominated and AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is practically not visible.

  8. Electronic properties of large metal clusters in Jellium and pseudo-jellium models

    Catara, F.; Van Giai, N.; Chomaz, P.

    1994-08-01

    The energy-density functional approach and jellium-like models are used to examine two important electronic properties of metal (Li, Na, K) clusters: their shell and supershell structures, and the behaviour of plasmon energies with increasing cluster sizes. A comparative study is made between predictions of the usual jellium model and those of the pseudo-jellium model where pseudo-Hamiltonians are used. (authors) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  9. METAL DEFICIENCY IN CLUSTER STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT Z = 2

    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Bournaud, F.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N., E-mail: francesco.valentino@cea.fr [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the environmental effect on the metal enrichment of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the farthest spectroscopically confirmed and X-ray-detected cluster, CL J1449+0856 at z = 1.99. We combined Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 G141 slitless spectroscopic data, our thirteen-band photometry, and a recent Subaru/Multi-object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up to constrain the physical properties of SFGs in CL J1449+0856 and in a mass-matched field sample. After a conservative removal of active galactic nuclei, stacking individual MOIRCS spectra of 6 (31) sources in the cluster (field) in the mass range 10 ≤ log(M/M{sub ⊙}) ≤ 11, we find a ∼4σ lower [N ii]/Hα ratio in the cluster than in the field. Stacking a subsample of 16 field galaxies with Hβ and [O iii] in the observed range, we measure an [O iii]/Hβ ratio fully compatible with the cluster value. Converting these ratios into metallicities, we find that the cluster SFGs are up to 0.25 dex poorer in metals than their field counterparts, depending on the adopted calibration. The low metallicity in cluster sources is confirmed using alternative indicators. Furthermore, we observe a significantly higher Hα luminosity and equivalent width in the average cluster spectrum than in the field. This is likely due to the enhanced specific star formation rate; even if lower dust reddening and/or an uncertain environmental dependence on the continuum-to-nebular emission differential reddening may play a role. Our findings might be explained by the accretion of pristine gas around galaxies at z = 2 and from cluster-scale reservoirs, possibly connected with a phase of rapid halo mass assembly at z > 2 and of a high galaxy merging rate.

  10. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.

    1990-01-01

    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs

  11. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  12. Chemical probes of metal cluster structure--Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu

    Parks, E.K.; Zhu, L.; Ho, J.; Riley, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical reactivity is one of the few methods currently available for investigating the geometrical structure of isolated transition metal clusters. In this paper we summarize what is currently known about the structures of clusters of four transition metals, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, in the size range from 13 to 180 atoms. Chemical probes used to determine structural information include reactions with H 2 (D 2 ), H 2 0, NH 3 and N 2 . Measurements at both low coverage and at saturation are discussed

  13. THE METALLICITY BIMODALITY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: A TEST OF GALAXY ASSEMBLY AND OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-M star as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z ∼ 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-M star relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z ∼ 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z ∼ 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of ∼0.5 at redshift z ∼ 4 to a value of ∼0.1 at

  14. Proofs of cluster formation and transitions in liquid metals and alloys

    Filippov, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Calculational and experimental proofs are presented indicating to existence of clusters in liquid metals and alloys. Systems of liquid alloys both on the base of ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals (Fe-C, Ni-C, Co-C, Fe-Ni, Ni-Mo, Co-Cr, Co-V as well as In-Sn, Bi-Sn, Si-Ge and others) are studied experimentally. It is shown that the general feature of the systems studied is sensitivity of a volume to change in structure, to replacement fcc structure on bcc or to initiation-dissociation of intermetallic compounds AxBy. It is shown that both in pure liquid metals and in their.alloys there are clusters as ordered aggregate of atoms

  15. Atomic structures and covalent-to-metallic transition of lead clusters Pbn (n=2-22)

    Wang Baolin; Zhao Jijun; Chen Xiaoshuang; Shi Daning; Wang Guanghou

    2005-01-01

    The lowest-energy structures and electronic properties of the lead clusters are studied by density-functional-theory calculations with Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr gradient correction. The lowest-energy structures of Pb n (n=2-22) clusters are determined from a number of structural isomers, which are generated from empirical genetic algorithm simulations. The competition between atom-centered compact structures and layered stacking structures leads to the alternative appearance of the two types of structures as global minimum. The size evolution of geometric and electronic properties from covalent bonding towards bulk metallic behavior in Pb clusters is discussed

  16. Structure of s - p bonded metal clusters with 8, 20 and 40 valence electrons

    Kumar, V.

    1992-10-01

    From studies on some clusters of metals and semiconductors, there appear some similarities in the structure of clusters with a given number of atoms and having the number of valence electrons corresponding to a shell closing. Here we present results of the atomic and electronic structure of a few other clusters with 20 and 40 valence electrons, namely Sb 4 , Sn 5 and Sb 8 using the density functional molecular dynamics method. We suggest that the similarities in the structure and deviation from them may help to understand bonding characteristics in clusters and its evolution to bulk behaviour. Our results on Sb 8 cluster are preliminary but indicate that above room temperature its structure is two weakly interacting tetrahedra which is in general agreement with the observation of predominently antimony tetramers at T > 300 K. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  17. Planet traps and planetary cores: origins of the planet-metallicity correlation

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-10

    Massive exoplanets are observed preferentially around high metallicity ([Fe/H]) stars while low-mass exoplanets do not show such an effect. This so-called planet-metallicity correlation generally favors the idea that most observed gas giants at r < 10 AU are formed via a core accretion process. We investigate the origin of this phenomenon using a semi-analytical model, wherein the standard core accretion takes place at planet traps in protostellar disks where rapid type I migrators are halted. We focus on the three major exoplanetary populations—hot Jupiters, exo-Jupiters located at r ≅ 1 AU, and the low-mass planets. We show using a statistical approach that the planet-metallicity correlations are well reproduced in these models. We find that there are specific transition metallicities with values [Fe/H] = –0.2 to –0.4, below which the low-mass population dominates, and above which the Jovian populations take over. The exo-Jupiters significantly exceed the hot Jupiter population at all observed metallicities. The low-mass planets formed via the core accretion are insensitive to metallicity, which may account for a large fraction of the observed super-Earths and hot-Neptunes. Finally, a controlling factor in building massive planets is the critical mass of planetary cores (M {sub c,} {sub crit}) that regulates the onset of rapid gas accretion. Assuming the current data is roughly complete at [Fe/H] > –0.6, our models predict that the most likely value of the 'mean' critical core mass of Jovian planets is (M {sub c,} {sub crit}) ≅ 5 M {sub ⊕} rather than 10 M {sub ⊕}. This implies that grain opacities in accreting envelopes should be reduced in order to lower M {sub c,} {sub crit}.

  18. On the role of resonances in photoionization of metal clusters

    Wopperer, P; Dinh, P M; Suraud, E; Reinhard, P G

    2013-01-01

    We analyze electron emission from irradiated clusters by means of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in real time. We focus on photo-electron spectra (PES) which deliver an invaluable tool to explore static and dynamical properties of irradiated species. We discuss, in particular, the role of resonances in the PES once the laser frequency is below the emission threshold which implies multiphoton processes. We show that the resonances in the electronic spectrum lead to the occurrence of several peaks in the PES and also strongly affect the standard scaling relations between ionization and the number of required photons for electronic emission.

  19. Impurity cluster interaction in fcc metals studied by PAC

    Deicher, M.; Echt, O.; Recknagel, E.; Wichert, T.

    1981-01-01

    A defect configuration of high thermal stability has been observed by PAC in Au, showing the same properties as previously published configuration in Cu and Ni. We prove that these configurations cannot consist of any small defect complex with well-defined size; especially the observed influence of the damaging conditions on the thermal stability of the defects in Au and Cu would contradict such an assumption. It is shown that probe atoms trapped at large clusters of variable size can nevertheless experience a unique electric field gradient, and that in our case intrinsic stacking faults, formed by vacancies, can account for all the measured properties. (orig.)

  20. Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si

    Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P{sub 4}V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P{sub 1}V or metal-P{sub 2}V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P{sub 4}V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

  1. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  2. Pulse laser-induced generation of cluster codes from metal nanoparticles for immunoassay applications

    Chia-Yin Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have developed an assay for the detection of proteins by functionalized nanomaterials coupled with laser-induced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS by monitoring the generation of metal cluster ions. We achieved selective detection of three proteins [thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF-A165, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB] by modifying nanoparticles (NPs of three different metals (Au, Ag, and Pt with the corresponding aptamer or antibody in one assay. The Au, Ag, and Pt acted as metal bio-codes for the analysis of thrombin, VEGF-A165, and PDGF-BB, respectively, and a microporous cellulose acetate membrane (CAM served as a medium for an in situ separation of target protein-bound and -unbound NPs. The functionalized metal nanoparticles bound to their specific proteins were subjected to LDI-MS on the CAM. The functional nanoparticles/CAM system can function as a signal transducer and amplifier by transforming the protein concentration into an intense metal cluster ion signal during LDI-MS analysis. This system can selectively detect proteins at picomolar concentrations. Most importantly, the system has great potential for the detection of multiple proteins without any pre-concentration, separation, or purification process because LDI-MS coupled with CAM effectively removes all signals except for those from the metal cluster ions.

  3. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  4. Core-hole effects in the x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides

    WEIJS, PJW; CZYZYK, MT; VANACKER, JF; SPEIER, W; GOEDKOOP, JB; VANLEUKEN, H; HENDRIX, HJM; DEGROOT, RA; VANDERLAAN, G; BUSCHOW, KHJ; WIECH, G; FUGGLE, JC

    1990-01-01

    We report systematic differences between the shape of the Si K x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides and broadened partial densities of Si p states. We use a variety of calculations to show that the origin of these discrepancies is the core-hole potential appropriate to the final

  5. High-pressure metallization of FeO and implications for the earth's core

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    The phase diagram of FeO has been experimentally determined to pressures of 155 GPa and temperatures of 4000 K using shock-wave and diamond-cell techniques. A metallic phase of FeO is observed at pressures greater than 70 GPa and temperatures exceeding 1000 K. The metallization of FeO at high pressures implies that oxygen can be present as the light alloying element of the earth's outer core, in accord with the geochemical predictions of Ringwood (1977 and 1979). The high pressures necessary for this metallization suggest that the core has acquired its composition well after the initial stages of the earth's accretion. Direct experimental observations at elevated pressures and temperatures indicate that core-forming alloy can react chemically with oxides such as those forming the mantle. The core and mantle may never have reached complete chemical equilibrium, however. If this is the case, the core-mantle boundary is likely to be a zone of active chemical reactions.

  6. The evoluation of the galactic globular clusters; I Metal abundance calibrations

    Lee, S.W.; Park, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    Five different calibrations of metal abundances of globular clusters are examined and these are compared with metallicity ranking parameters such as (Sp)sub(c), , Q39 and IR-indices. Except for the calibration *(Fe/H*)sub(H) by the high dispersion echelle analysis, the other calibration scales are correlated with the morphological parameters of red giant branch. In the *(Fe/H*)sub(Hsup(-))scale, the clusters later than approx.F8 have nearly a constant metal abundance, *(Fe/H*)sub(H)approx.-1.05, regardless of morphological characteristics of horizontal branch and red giant branch. By the two fundamental calibration scales of *(Fe/H*)sub(L) (derived by the low dispersion analysis), and *(Fe/H*)sub(delta S) (derived by the spectral analysis of RR Lyrae stars), the globular clusters are divided into the halo clusters with *(Fe/H*)<-1.0 and the disk clusters confined within the galactocentric distance rsub(G)=10 kpc and galactic plane distance absolute z=3 kpc. In this case the abundance gradient is given by d*(Fe/H*)/drsub(G)approx.-0.05kpcsup(-1) and d*(Fe/H*)/d absolute z approx. -0.08 kpcsup(-1) within rsub(G)=20 kpc and absolute z=10 kpc, respectively. According to these characteristics of the spatial distribution of globular clusters, the chemical evolution of the galactic globular clusters can be accounted for by the two-zone (disk-halo) slow collapse model when the *(Fe/H*)sub(Lsup(-)) or *(Fe/H*)sub(DELTA Ssup(-))scale is applied. In the case of *(Fe/H*)sub(Hsup(-))scale, the one-zone fast collapse model is preferred for the evolution of globular clusters. (Author)

  7. Rhapsody-G simulations I: the cool cores, hot gas and stellar content of massive galaxy clusters

    Hahn, Oliver; Martizzi, Davide; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    We present the rhapsody-g suite of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom simulations of 10 massive galaxy clusters at the M vir ~10 15 M ⊙ scale. These simulations include cooling and subresolution models for star formation and stellar and supermassive black hole feedback. The sample is selected to capture the whole gamut of assembly histories that produce clusters of similar final mass. We present an overview of the successes and shortcomings of such simulations in reproducing both the stellar properties of galaxies as well as properties of the hot plasma in clusters. In our simulations, a long-lived cool-core/non-cool-core dichotomy arises naturally, and the emergence of non-cool cores is related to low angular momentum major mergers. Nevertheless, the cool-core clusters exhibit a low central entropy compared to observations, which cannot be alleviated by thermal active galactic nuclei feedback. For cluster scaling relations, we find that the simulations match well the M 500 –Y 500 scaling of Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich clusters but deviate somewhat from the observed X-ray luminosity and temperature scaling relations in the sense of being slightly too bright and too cool at fixed mass, respectively. Stars are produced at an efficiency consistent with abundance-matching constraints and central galaxies have star formation rates consistent with recent observations. In conclusion, while our simulations thus match various key properties remarkably well, we conclude that the shortcomings strongly suggest an important role for non-thermal processes (through feedback or otherwise) or thermal conduction in shaping the intracluster medium.

  8. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  9. Optical trapping of metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters near photonic crystal microcavities.

    Mejia, Camilo A; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    We predict the formation of optically trapped, metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters above photonic crystal microcavities. We determine the conditions on particle size and position for a gold particle to be trapped above the microcavity. We then show that strong field redistribution and enhancement near the trapped gold nanoparticle results in secondary trapping sites for a pair of dielectric nanoparticles.

  10. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  11. THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10 5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10 10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s –1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  12. The center of the core-cusp globular cluster M15: CFHT and HST Observations, ALLFRAME reductions

    Stetson, Peter B.

    1994-03-01

    The central brightness cusps seen in some globular clusters are thought to be the relics of a gravothermal core collapse that occurred sometime in the clusters' past. Recent observations show that the centers of such clusters are bluer than their outskirts, indicating that the stellar populations there are somehow different than those farther out, presumably as a result of unusual physical processes that took place in these extremely dense regions. Here I analyze a large body of digital imagery from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain color-magnitude and color-color diagrams for stars in the central two arcminutes of the prototypical core-cusp globular cluster M15 = NGC 7078 = C 2127 + 119. These data were reduced with a new computer program, named ALLFRAME, that is described in detail here for the first time. ALLFRAME makes simultaneous use of the geometric and photometric information from all images of a given field to derive a self-consistent set of positions and magnitudes for all detected starlike objects in that area of sky, thereby extending the range of magnitude and crowding conditions for which useful photometry is obtainable. I tentatively conclude that the color gradient in M15 is due to three distinct effects: (1) there is a deficiency of the brightest red giants in the central regions of the cluster; (2) the giant branch of the dominant cluster population shifts systematically toward the blue as the center of the cluster is approached; and (3) the very center of the cluster (radius approximately equal or less than 12 seconds) contains a large population of blue and yellow stragglers that occupy the area of the color-magnitude diagram between the main-sequence turnoff and the horizontal branch and between the extended blue horizontal branch and the subgiant branch; many of these appear to have a significant ultraviolet excess.

  13. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  14. Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technique to Quantify Metal Concentration in Coral Cores from Belize

    Kingsley, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Hangsterfer, A.; Carilli, J.; Field, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Caribbean coral reefs are some of the most threatened marine ecosystems in the world. Research appears to suggest that environmental stressors of local origin, such as sediment run off, can reduce the resilience of these reefs to global threats such as ocean warming. Sedimentation can stunt coral growth, reduce its resilience, and it is possible that trapped material could render coral skeletons brittle (personal discussions). Material trapped in coral skeletons can provide information on the sources of particulate matter in the ocean ecosystem. Despite the importance of quantifying sources and types of materials trapped in corals, the research community is yet to fully develop techniques that allow accurate representation of trapped matter, which is potentially a major source of metal content in reef building coral skeletons. The dataset presented here explores the usefulness of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), a widely used tool in environmental studies (but generally not in corals), to estimate metal content in coral cores collected from four locations near Belize, with varying degrees of impact from coastal processes. The coral cores together cover a period of 1862-2006. Trace, major, and minor metal content from these cores have been well-studied using solution-based ICP-MS, providing us with the unique opportunity to test the efficacy of XRF technique in characterizing metal content in these coral cores. We have measured more than 50 metals using XRF every two millimeters along slabs removed from the middle of a coral core to characterize materials present in coral skeletons. We compared the results from XRF to solution-based ICP-MS - that involves dissolving subsamples of coral skeleton to measure metal content. Overall, it appears that the non-destructive XRF technique is a viable supplement in determining sediment and metal content in coral cores, and may be particularly helpful for assessing resistant phases such as grains of sediment that are not fully

  15. Alkali Metal Variation and Twisting of the FeNNFe Core in Bridging Diiron Dinitrogen Complexes.

    McWilliams, Sean F; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun; Mercado, Brandon Q; Grubel, Katarzyna; Holland, Patrick L

    2016-03-21

    Alkali metal cations can interact with Fe-N2 complexes, potentially enhancing back-bonding or influencing the geometry of the iron atom. These influences are relevant to large-scale N2 reduction by iron, such as in the FeMoco of nitrogenase and the alkali-promoted Haber-Bosch process. However, to our knowledge there have been no systematic studies of a large range of alkali metals regarding their influence on transition metal-dinitrogen complexes. In this work, we varied the alkali metal in [alkali cation]2[LFeNNFeL] complexes (L = bulky β-diketiminate ligand) through the size range from Na(+) to K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). The FeNNFe cores have similar Fe-N and N-N distances and N-N stretching frequencies despite the drastic change in alkali metal cation size. The two diketiminates twist relative to one another, with larger dihedral angles accommodating the larger cations. In order to explain why the twisting has so little influence on the core, we performed density functional theory calculations on a simplified LFeNNFeL model, which show that the two metals surprisingly do not compete for back-bonding to the same π* orbital of N2, even when the ligand planes are parallel. This diiron system can tolerate distortion of the ligand planes through compensating orbital energy changes, and thus, a range of ligand orientations can give very similar energies.

  16. Diffusion induced nuclear reactions in metals: a possible source of heat in the core

    Hamza, V.M.; Iyer, S.S.S.

    1989-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that diffusion of light nuclei in metals can give rise to unusual electrical charge distributions in their lattice structures, inducing thereby certain nuclear reactions that are otherwise uncommon. In the light of these results we advance the hypothesis that such nuclear reactions take place in the metal rich core of the earth, based on following observations: 1 - The solubility of hydrogen in metals is relatively high compared to that in silicates. 2 - Studies of rare gas samples in intraplate volcanos and diamonds show that 3 He/ He ratio increases with depth in the mantle. 3 - There are indications that He is positively correlated with enrichment of metals in lavas. We propose that hydrogen incorporated into metallic phases at the time of planetary accretion was carried to the core by downward migration of metal rich melts during the early states of proto-earth. Preliminary estimates suggest that cold fusion reactions can give rise to an average rate of heat generation of 8.2x10 12 W and may thus serve as a supplementary source of energy for the geomagnetic dynamo. (author)

  17. Charge-doping and chemical composition-driven magnetocrystalline anisotropy in CoPt core-shell alloy clusters

    Ruiz-Díaz, P.; Muñoz-Navia, M.; Dorantes-Dávila, J.

    2018-03-01

    Charge-doping together with 3 d-4 d alloying emerges as promising mechanisms for tailoring the magnetic properties of low-dimensional systems. Here, throughout ab initio calculations, we present a systematic overview regarding the impact of both electron(hole) charge-doping and chemical composition on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MA) of CoPt core-shell alloy clusters. By taking medium-sized Co n Pt m ( N = n + m = 85) octahedral-like alloy nanoparticles for some illustrative core-sizes as examples, we found enhanced MA energies and large induced spin(orbital) moments in Pt-rich clusters. Moreover, depending on the Pt-core-size, both in-plane and off-plane directions of magnetization are observed. In general, the MA of these binary compounds further stabilizes upon charge-doping. In addition, in the clusters with small MA, the doping promotes magnetization switching. Insights into the microscopical origins of the MA behavior are associated to changes in the electronic structure of the clusters. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Nonlocality and particle-clustering effects on the optical response of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles

    Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.

  19. Research on the development strategy of Pingdingshan iron and steel industry cluster with Wugang Company as the core

    Wang Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arouse the great potential of the industrial clusters will play a significant role in promoting the development of local WuGang company. The article takes the Pingdingshan City as the research object, who is a typical resource-based city and develops on the basis of the local resources of coal and iron ore, the core enterprise WuGang Company is a large state-owned enterprise based on the wide and thick steel plate production. Many problems also exit in the cluster innovation, company network construction, company cooperation. The article is from the perspective of steel industry cluster and cluster innovation. Firstly, the article introduces the correlation theory about the steel industry cluster and the basic development information of Pingdingshan steel industry cluster, and promotes the research purpose and meaning.The article will give the analysis to the problems from the Pingdingshan steel industry cluster and develop the reform proposals and development strategy according to the actual situation.

  20. Medium-induced change of the optical response of metal clusters in rare-gas matrices

    Xuan, Fengyuan; Guet, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Interaction with the surrounding medium modifies the optical response of embedded metal clusters. For clusters from about ten to a few hundreds of silver atoms, embedded in rare-gas matrices, we study the environment effect within the matrix random phase approximation with exact exchange (RPAE) quantum approach, which has proved successful for free silver clusters. The polarizable surrounding medium screens the residual two-body RPAE interaction, adds a polarization term to the one-body potential, and shifts the vacuum energy of the active delocalized valence electrons. Within this model, we calculate the dipole oscillator strength distribution for Ag clusters embedded in helium droplets, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon matrices. The main contribution to the dipole surface plasmon red shift originates from the rare-gas polarization screening of the two-body interaction. The large size limit of the dipole surface plasmon agrees well with the classical prediction.

  1. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%) and low Iron(II) Oxide abundances (less than 2 wt%). Based on these extreme values, the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials was estimated to be approximately 3 to 7 log(sub 10) units below the IW buffer (Delta IW-3 to Delta IW-7). This highly reducing nature of the planet has resulted in a large core and relatively thin mantle, extending to only approximately 420 km depth (corresponding to a core-mantle boundary pressure of approximately 4-7 GPa) within the planet. Furthermore, MESSENGER results have suggested the presence of carbon on the surface of the planet. Previous experimental results from have also suggested the possibility of a primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, produced after a global magma ocean event. With these exotic conditions of this compositional end-member planet, it begs the question, what is the core composition of Mercury? Although no definitive conclusion has been reached, previous studies have made advances towards answering this question. Riner et al. and Chen et al. looked at iron sulfide systems and implemented various crystallization and layered core scenarios to try and determine the composition and structure of Mercury's core. Malavergne et al. examined core crystallization scenarios in the presence of sulfur and silicon. Hauck et al. used the most recent geophysical constraints from the MESSENGER spacecraft to model the internal structure of Mercury, including the core, in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. More recently, Chabot et al. conducted a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. These results showed the core of Mercury has the potential to contain more than 15 wt% silicon. However, with the newest results from MESSENGER's low altitude campaign, carbon is another

  2. Fabrication of sub-micrometric metallic hollow-core structures by laser interference lithography

    Perez, Noemi; Tavera, Txaber [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra) Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Rodriguez, Ainara [CIC Microgune, Paseo Mikeletegi 48, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain); Ellman, Miguel; Ayerdi, Isabel; Olaizola, Santiago M. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra) Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrays of hollow-core sub-micrometric structures are fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser interference lithography is used for the pattering of the resist sacrificial layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal of the sacrificial layer gives rise to metallic channels with a maximum crosssectional area of 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures can be used in nanofluidics. - Abstract: This work presents the fabrication of hollow-core metallic structures with a complete laser interference lithography (LIL) process. A negative photoresist is used as sacrificial layer. It is exposed to the pattern resulting from the interference of two laser beams, which produces a structure of photoresist lines with a period of 600 nm. After development of the resist, platinum is deposited on the samples by DC sputtering and the resist is removed with acetone. The resulting metallic structures consist in a continuous platinum film that replicates the photoresist relief with a hollow core. The cross section of the channels is up to 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2}. The fabricated samples are characterized by FESEM and FIB. This last tool helps to provide a clear picture of the shape and size of the channels. Conveniently dimensioned, this array of metallic submicrometric channels can be used in microfluidic or IC cooling applications.

  3. Fabrication of sub-micrometric metallic hollow-core structures by laser interference lithography

    Pérez, Noemí; Tavera, Txaber; Rodríguez, Ainara; Ellman, Miguel; Ayerdi, Isabel; Olaizola, Santiago M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Arrays of hollow-core sub-micrometric structures are fabricated. ► Laser interference lithography is used for the pattering of the resist sacrificial layer. ► The removal of the sacrificial layer gives rise to metallic channels with a maximum crosssectional area of 0.1 μm 2 . ► These structures can be used in nanofluidics. - Abstract: This work presents the fabrication of hollow-core metallic structures with a complete laser interference lithography (LIL) process. A negative photoresist is used as sacrificial layer. It is exposed to the pattern resulting from the interference of two laser beams, which produces a structure of photoresist lines with a period of 600 nm. After development of the resist, platinum is deposited on the samples by DC sputtering and the resist is removed with acetone. The resulting metallic structures consist in a continuous platinum film that replicates the photoresist relief with a hollow core. The cross section of the channels is up to 0.1 μm 2 . The fabricated samples are characterized by FESEM and FIB. This last tool helps to provide a clear picture of the shape and size of the channels. Conveniently dimensioned, this array of metallic submicrometric channels can be used in microfluidic or IC cooling applications.

  4. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  5. Levels of metals and semimetals in sedimentary cores in Bertioga Channel, Brazil

    Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A.; Figueira, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Baixada Santista is one of the most exploited and populated regions of São Paulo state. During the last decades, due to intense industrialization the Baixada Santista has passed through a strong process of environmental degradation. Metals in sediments are persistent, present toxicity in varied concentrations and may be deposited reaching biota habitats. In this context, high concentrations of metals represent environmental concern to costal management. Bertioga Channel is part of this complex system and is known mainly by a wide adjacent mangrove area. The channel is 25 km long, connecting the upstream region of Santos estuary to the adjacent ocean through an inlet located at the city of Bertioga. Urban development generates the concern of potential waste influx from surrounding streams, generating deposits and contaminating surface sediments along the channel, which may lead to adjacent coastal issues. The objective of this study was to characterize the concentration of the following metals at Bertioga Channel sediments: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, V and Zn. Five sediment cores were sampled along the channel and analyzed. Determination of metals concentration was based on methods SW 846 US EPA 3050B and EPA 7471. High As concentrations were observed at all cores, with considerable concentration similarity between the first and second sampling points. Analytical results showed that cores Bertioga 4 and Bertioga 5 have accumulated high quantity of metals and semimetals, mainly As, Cd and Cr. Normalization of concentration values showed low contamination at the cores. Nevertheless, As and Hg values indicated moderate to significant contamination at a few sampling points. Despite of the low probability of contamination demonstrated by the normalized values, increasing at the sediment surface of Enrichment Factor (ER), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Sediment Pollution Index (SPI) parameters were observed. Results indicate that industrialization

  6. SOLUBILITY OF IRON IN METALLIC HYDROGEN AND STABILITY OF DENSE CORES IN GIANT PLANETS

    Wahl, Sean M.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the giant planets in our solar system, and likely a majority of giant exoplanets, is most commonly explained by the accretion of nebular hydrogen and helium onto a large core of terrestrial-like composition. The fate of this core has important consequences for the evolution of the interior structure of the planet. It has recently been shown that H 2 O, MgO, and SiO 2 dissolve in liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we perform ab initio calculations to study the solubility of an innermost metallic core. We find dissolution of iron to be strongly favored above 2000 K over the entire pressure range (0.4-4 TPa) considered. We compare with and summarize the results for solubilities on other probable core constituents. The calculations imply that giant planet cores are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with surrounding layers, promoting erosion and redistribution of heavy elements. Differences in solubility behavior between iron and rock may influence evolution of interiors, particularly for Saturn-mass planets. Understanding the distribution of iron and other heavy elements in gas giants may be relevant in understanding mass-radius relationships, as well as deviations in transport properties from pure hydrogen-helium mixtures

  7. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    Sarkar, Santanu C.

    2014-01-14

    In this Perspective, we present an overview of recent fundamental studies on the nature of the interaction between individual metal atoms and metal clusters and the conjugated surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotube with a particular focus on the electronic structure and chemical bonding at the metal-graphene interface. We discuss the relevance of organometallic complexes of graphitic materials to the development of a fundamental understanding of these interactions and their application in atomtronics as atomic interconnects, high mobility organometallic transistor devices, high-frequency electronic devices, organometallic catalysis (hydrogen fuel generation by photocatalytic water splitting, fuel cells, hydrogenation), spintronics, memory devices, and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some of the latest advances in understanding the nature of interactions between metals and graphene surfaces from the standpoint of metal overlayers deposited on graphene and SWNT thin films. Finally, we comment on the major challenges facing the field and the opportunities for technological applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films prepared by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Polonskyi, O.; Solar, P.; Kylian, O.; Drabik, M.; Artemenko, A.; Kousal, J.; Hanus, J.; Pesicka, J.; Matolinova, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kolibalova, E. [Tescan, Libusina trida 21, 632 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavinska, D. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Biederman, H., E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-02

    Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films have been prepared by simultaneous plasma polymerization using a mixture of Ar/n-hexane and metal cluster beams. A simple compact cluster gas aggregation source is described and characterized with emphasis on the determination of the amount of charged clusters and their size distribution. It is shown that the fraction of neutral, positively and negatively charged nanoclusters leaving the gas aggregation source is largely influenced by used operational conditions. In addition, it is demonstrated that a large portion of Ag clusters is positively charged, especially when higher currents are used for their production. Deposition of nanocomposite Ag/C:H plasma polymer films is described in detail by means of cluster gas aggregation source. Basic characterization of the films is performed using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies. It is shown that the morphology, structure and optical properties of such prepared nanocomposites differ significantly from the ones fabricated by means of magnetron sputtering of Ag target in Ar/n-hexane mixture.

  9. Collision induced fragmentation dynamics of small metallic clusters; Dynamique de fragmentation induite par collision de petits agregats metalliques

    Picard, Y

    1999-04-15

    The goal of this work is the complete analysis of the fragmentation of alkali clusters (Na{sub n}{sup +} (n < 10), NaK{sup +} and K{sub 2}{sup +}) induced by collision with light atomic (He) or molecular (H{sub 2}) targets. The main point is to study how the energy is transmitted to the cluster during the collision and how this energy is shared among the various degrees of freedom of the system and leads to its fragmentation. Two types of interactions govern the collision induced dissociation processes: on one hand, the electronic mechanisms where the target perturbs the electronic cloud and brings the molecule into a dissociative state, and on the other hand, the impulsive mechanisms where the momentum transferred to the atomic cores leads to the rotational-vibrational dissociation of the molecule. The experimental procedure is based on the measurement of the velocity vectors of the outgoing fragments detected in coincidence. This allows to reconstruct the full kinematics of the fragmentation and to separate and characterize for the first time the two types of interactions. The two basic mechanisms of collision induced dissociation are then clearly resolved for the diatomic molecule Na{sub 2}{sup +}. For the heteronuclear molecular ion NaK{sup +}, it is shown that the dissociation process is due to a combination of electronic and impulsive mechanisms in some of the dissociation pathways. The extension to the study of metallic clusters Na{sub n}{sup +} (n < 10) fragmentation shows the role and the relative importance of the electronic and impulsive mechanisms and their evolution with the cluster size. The complete analysis of Na{sub 3}{sup +} multi-fragmentation is also presented. (author)

  10. Comparative sodium void effects for different advanced liquid metal reactor fuel and core designs

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Gedeon, S.R.; Omberg, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of metal-, oxide-, and nitride-fueled advanced liquid metal reactor cores was performed to investigate the calculated differences in sodium void reactivity, and to determine the relationship between sodium void reactivity and burnup reactivity swing using the three fuel types. The results of this analysis indicate that nitride fuel has the least positive sodium void reactivity for any given burnup reactivity swing. Thus, it appears that a good design compromise between transient overpower and loss of flow response is obtained using nitride fuel. Additional studies were made to understand these and other nitride advantages. (author)

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cool-core clusters with Chandra obs. (Andrade-Santos+, 2017)

    Andrade-Santos, F.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Lovisari, L.; Vikhlinin, A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Murray, S. S.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Democles, J.; Kraft, R.; Mazzotta, P.; Bohringer, H.; Chon, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Clarke, T. E.; Borgani, S.; David, L.; Douspis, M.; Pointecouteau, E.; Dahle, H.; Brown, S.; Aghanim, N.; Rasia, E.

    2018-02-01

    The main goal of this work is to compare the fraction of cool-core (CC) clusters in X-ray-selected and SZ-selected samples. The first catalog of 189 SZ clusters detected by the Planck mission was released in early 2011 (Planck Collaboration 2011, VIII/88/esz). A Chandra XVP (X-ray Visionary Program--PI: Jones) and HRC Guaranteed Time Observations (PI: Murray) combined to form the Chandra-Planck Legacy Program for Massive Clusters of Galaxies. For each of the 164 ESZ Planck clusters at z<=0.35, we obtained Chandra exposures sufficient to collect at least 10000 source counts. The X-ray sample used here is an extension of the Voevodkin & Vikhlinin (2004ApJ...601..610V) sample. This sample contains 100 clusters and has an effective redshift depth of z<0.3. All have Chandra observations. Of the 100 X-ray-selected clusters, 49 are also in the ESZ sample, and 47 are in the HIFLUGCS (Reiprich & Boehringer 2002ApJ...567..716R) catalog. (2 data files).

  12. An Optical and X-Ray Study of Abell 576, a Galaxy Cluster with a Cold Core

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Wegner, Gary; Thorstensen, John; Richstone, Douglas O.

    1996-10-01

    We analyze the galaxy population and dynamics of the galaxy cluster A576; the observational constraints include 281 redshifts (230 new), R- band CCD galaxy photometry over a 2 h^-1^ Mpc x 2 h^-1^ Mpc region centered on the cluster, an Einstein IPC X-ray image, and an Einstein MPC X-ray spectrum. We focus on an 86% complete magnitude-limited sample (R_23.5_ 4 keV at 90% confidence). Because (1) the low-dispersion galaxy population is no more luminous than the global population and (2) the evidence for a cooling flow is weak, we suggest that the core of A576 may contain the remnants of a lower mass subcluster. We examine the cluster mass, baryon fraction, and luminosity function. The cluster virial mass varies significantly depending on the galaxy sample used. Consistency between the hydrostatic and virial estimators can be achieved if (1) the gas temperature at r~1 h^-1^ Mpc is T_X_ ~ 8 keV (the best-fit value) and (2) several velocity outliers are excluded from the virial calculation. Although the best-fit Schechter function parameters and the ratio of galaxy to gas mass in A576 are typical of other clusters, the baryon fraction is relatively low. Using the consistent cluster binding mass, we show that the gas mass fraction is ~3 h^-3/2^% and the baryon fraction is ~4%.

  13. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Madrid, Juan P.; Graham, Alister W.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Harris, William E.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Ferguson, Henry C.; Carter, David; Blakeslee, John P.

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered both a red and a blue subpopulation of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in the Coma galaxy cluster. We analyzed deep F475W (Sloan g) and F814W (I) Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel as part of the Coma Cluster Treasury Survey and have fitted the light profiles of ∼5000 point-like sources in the vicinity of NGC 4874, one of the two central dominant galaxies of the Coma Cluster. Although almost all of these sources are globular clusters that remain unresolved, we found that 52 objects have effective radii between ∼10 and 66 pc, in the range spanned by dwarf globular transition objects (DGTOs) and UCDs. Of these 52 compact objects, 25 are brighter than M V ∼ -11 mag, a magnitude conventionally thought to separate UCDs and globular clusters. The UCD/DGTO candidates have the same color and luminosity distribution as the most luminous globular clusters within the red and blue subpopulations of the immensely rich NGC 4874 globular cluster system. Unlike standard globular clusters, blue and red UCD/DGTO subpopulations have the same median effective radius. The spatial distribution of UCD/DGTO candidates reveals that they congregate toward NGC 4874 and are not uniformly distributed. We find a relative deficit of UCD/DGTOs compared with globular clusters in the inner 15 kpc around NGC 4874; however, at larger radii UCD/DGTO and globular clusters follow the same spatial distribution.

  14. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  15. A simple reactivity feedback model accounting for radial core expansion effects in the liquid metal fast reactor

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Haha, Do Hee

    2002-01-01

    The radial core expansion due to the structure temperature rise is one of major negative reactivity insertion mechanisms in metallic fueled reactor. Thermal expansion is a result of both the laws of nature and the particular core design and it causes negative reactivity feedback by the combination of increased core volume captures and increased core surface leakage. The simple radial core expansion reactivity feedback model developed for the SSC-K code was evaluated by the code-to-code comparison analysis. From the comparison results, it can be stated that the radial core expansion reactivity feedback model employed into the SSC-K code may be reasonably accurate in the UTOP analysis

  16. A simple reactivity feedback model accounting for radial core expansion effects in the liquid metal fast reactor

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Haha, Do Hee [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The radial core expansion due to the structure temperature rise is one of major negative reactivity insertion mechanisms in metallic fueled reactor. Thermal expansion is a result of both the laws of nature and the particular core design and it causes negative reactivity feedback by the combination of increased core volume captures and increased core surface leakage. The simple radial core expansion reactivity feedback model developed for the SSC-K code was evaluated by the code-to-code comparison analysis. From the comparison results, it can be stated that the radial core expansion reactivity feedback model employed into the SSC-K code may be reasonably accurate in the UTOP analysis.

  17. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water

    Nussinovitch, A., E-mail: amos.nussi@mail.huji.ac.il; Dagan, O.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate core were produced. • Capsules demonstrated highest efficiency adsorption of ∼300 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g alginate. • Regeneration was carried out by suspending capsules in 1 M HNO{sub 3} for 24 h. • Adsorption capacities of the capsules followed the order: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan–alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules’ ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations – copper (Cu{sup 2+}), cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) and nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) – was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation’s affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1 M nitric acid suspension for 24 h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  18. Probing dark matter with star clusters: a dark matter core in the ultra-faint dwarf Eridanus II

    Contenta, Filippo; Balbinot, Eduardo; Petts, James A.; Read, Justin I.; Gieles, Mark; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Delorme, Maxime; Gualandris, Alessia

    2018-05-01

    We present a new technique to probe the central dark matter (DM) density profile of galaxies that harnesses both the survival and observed properties of star clusters. As a first application, we apply our method to the `ultra-faint' dwarf Eridanus II (Eri II) that has a lone star cluster ˜45 pc from its centre. Using a grid of collisional N-body simulations, incorporating the effects of stellar evolution, external tides and dynamical friction, we show that a DM core for Eri II naturally reproduces the size and the projected position of its star cluster. By contrast, a dense cusped galaxy requires the cluster to lie implausibly far from the centre of Eri II (>1 kpc), with a high inclination orbit that must be observed at a particular orbital phase. Our results, therefore, favour a DM core. This implies that either a cold DM cusp was `heated up' at the centre of Eri II by bursty star formation or we are seeing an evidence for physics beyond cold DM.

  19. Catalytic dehydrogenation of alcohol over solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters with an octahedral metal framework

    Kamiguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: kamigu@riken.jp [Advanced Catalysis Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Organometallic Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okumura, Kazu [School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, Nakano-machi, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Nagashima, Sayoko; Chihara, Teiji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters catalyzed the dehydrogenation of alcohol. • The dehydrogenation proceeded without the addition of any oxidants. • The catalytic activity developed when the cluster was activated at 300–500 °C in H{sub 2}. • The Lewis-acidic molybdenum atom and basic sulfur ligand were catalytically active. • The clusters function as bifunctional acid–base catalysts. - Abstract: Solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters with an octahedral metal framework, the superconducting Chevrel phases, are applied to catalysis. A copper salt of a nonstoichiometric sulfur-deficient cluster, Cu{sub x}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8–δ} (x = 2.94 and δ ≈ 0.3), is stored in air for more than 90 days. When the oxygenated cluster is thermally activated in a hydrogen stream above 300 °C, catalytic activity for the dehydrogenation of primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones develops. The addition of pyridine or benzoic acid decreases the dehydrogenation activity, indicating that both a Lewis-acidic coordinatively unsaturated molybdenum atom and a basic sulfur ligand synergistically act as the catalytic active sites.

  20. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  1. Synthesis of Various Metal/TiO2 Core/shell Nanorod Arrays

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guan-zhong; Hong, Xun; Shen, Xiao-shuang

    2011-02-01

    We present a general approach to fabricate metal/TiO2 core/shell nanorod structures by two-step electrodeposition. Firstly, TiO2 nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are prepared in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes by electrodeposition. The wall thickness of the nanotubes could be easily controlled by modulating the deposition time, and their outer diameter and length are only limited by the channel diameter and the thickness of the AAO membranes, respectively. The nanotubes' tops prepared by this method are open, while the bottoms are connected directly with the Au film at the back of the AAO membranes. Secondly, Pd, Cu, and Fe elements are filled into the TiO2 nanotubes to form core/shell structures. The core/shell nanorods prepared by this two-step process are high density and free-standing, and their length is dependent on the deposition time.

  2. Cluster perturbation theory for calculation of electronic properties of ensembles of metal nanoclusters

    Zhumagulov, Yaroslav V.; Krasavin, Andrey V.; Kashurnikov, Vladimir A.

    2018-05-01

    The method is developed for calculation of electronic properties of an ensemble of metal nanoclusters with the use of cluster perturbation theory. This method is applied to the system of gold nanoclusters. The Greens function of single nanocluster is obtained by ab initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory, and then is used in Dyson equation to group nanoclusters together and to compute the Greens function as well as the electron density of states of the whole ensemble. The transition from insulator state of a single nanocluster to metallic state of bulk gold is observed.

  3. AGES AND METALLICITIES OF CLUSTER GALAXIES IN A779 USING MODIFIED STROeMGREN PHOTOMETRY

    Sreedhar, Yuvraj Harsha; Rakos, Karl D.; Hensler, Gerhard; Zeilinger, Werner W. [University of Vienna, Institute of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Odell, Andrew P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In the quest for the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, Rakos and co-workers introduced a spectrophotometric method using modified Stroemgren photometry, but with the considerable debate toward the project's abilities, we re-introduce the system by testing for the repeatability of the modified Stroemgren colors and compare them with the Stroemgren colors, and check for the reproducibility of the ages and metallicities (using the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique and the GALEV models) for the six common galaxies in all three A779 data sets. As a result, a fair agreement between two filter systems was found to produce similar colors (with a precision of 0.09 mag in (uz - vz), 0.02 mag in (bz - yz), and 0.03 mag in (vz - vz)) and the generated ages and metallicities are also similar (with an uncertainty of 0.36 Gyr and 0.04 dex from PCA and 0.44 Gyr and 0.2 dex using the GALEV models). We infer that the technique is able to relieve the age-metallicity degeneracy by separating the age effects from the metallicity effects, but it is still unable to completely eliminate it. We further extend this paper to re-study the evolution of galaxies in the low mass, dynamically poor A779 cluster (as it was not elaborately analyzed by Rakos and co-workers in their previous work) by correlating the luminosity (mass), density, and radial distance with the estimated age, metallicity, and the star formation history. Our results distinctly show the bimodality of the young, low-mass, metal-poor population with a mean age of 6.7 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr) and the old, high-mass, metal-rich galaxies with a mean age of 9 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr). The method also observes the color evolution of the blue cluster galaxies to red (Butcher-Oemler phenomenon), and the downsizing phenomenon. Our analysis shows that modified Stroemgren photometry is very well suited for studying low- and intermediate-z clusters, as it is capable of observing deeper with better spatial resolution at

  4. Limits on turbulent propagation of energy in cool-core clusters of galaxies

    Bambic, C. J.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2018-07-01

    We place constraints on the propagation velocity of bulk turbulence within the intracluster medium of three clusters and an elliptical galaxy. Using Reflection Grating Spectrometer measurements of turbulent line broadening, we show that for these clusters, the 90 per cent upper limit on turbulent velocities when accounting for instrumental broadening is too low to propagate energy radially to the cooling radius of the clusters within the required cooling time. In this way, we extend previous Hitomi-based analysis on the Perseus cluster to more clusters, with the intention of applying these results to a future, more extensive catalogue. These results constrain models of turbulent heating in active galactic nucleus feedback by requiring a mechanism which can not only provide sufficient energy to offset radiative cooling but also resupply that energy rapidly enough to balance cooling at each cluster radius.

  5. Consequence analysis of core meltdown accidents in liquid metal fast reactor

    Suk, S.D.; Hahn, D.

    2001-01-01

    Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of the conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 Mw pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. In this study, a simple method was developed using a modified Bethe-Tait method to simulate the kinetics and hydraulic behavior of a homogeneous spherical core over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion. Calculations of energy release during excursions in the sodium-voided core of the KALIMER were subsequently performed using the method for various reactivity insertion rates up to 100 $/s, which has been widely considered to be the upper limit of ramp rates due to fuel compaction. Benchmark calculations were made to compare with the results of more detailed analysis for core meltdown energetics of the oxide fuelled fast reactor. A set of parametric studies was also performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results on the various thermodynamics and reactor parameters. (author)

  6. Linear and nonlinear surface spectroscopy of supported size selected metal clusters and organic adsorbates

    Thaemer, Martin Georg

    2012-03-08

    The spectroscopic investigation of supported size selected metal clusters over a wide wavelength range plays an important role for understanding their outstanding catalytic properties. The challenge which must be overcome to perform such measurements is the difficult detection of the weak spectroscopic signals from these samples. As a consequence, highly sensitive spectroscopic methods are applied, such as surface Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic apparatus developed is shown to have a sensitivity which is high enough to detect sub-monolayer coverages of adsorbates on surfaces. In the measured spectra of small supported silver clusters of the sizes Ag{sub 4}2, Ag{sub 2}1, Ag{sub 9}, and Ag atoms a stepwise transition from particles with purely metallic character to particles with molecule-like properties can be observed within this size range.

  7. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Lentz, Nicholas B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln11]-amyloid β-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will

  8. Influence of urbanization and industrialization on metal enrichment of sediment cores from Shantou Bay, South China

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jiangang; Tao, Ran; Xu, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to investigate geochemical sources and to assess enrichment and pollution of metals in sediments from Shantou Bay, an area experiencing rapid economic development on the Southeastern Coast of China. The results indicated that the concentrations of the majority of metals showed a decrease with depth, with overall maximum values in the top layers, and that different sampling locations in the Bay received slightly different types of inputs. Three major sources were identified by correlation analysis and principal component analysis: river inputs, metropolitan, and port facilities discharge. Calculation of a pollution load index revealed overall low values, but the enrichment factor values for Pb and Cd were typically high for all cores. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and to some extent Cd exceeded the Effects-Range-Low values in the majority of the cases, indicating that there were possible ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Highlights: •Metals had downward decrease with overall maximum value at top layers. •River input, metropolitan and port facilities discharge are identified as major sources. •Pb and Cd are mainly enriched metals. •Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd had potential ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Shantou Bay was polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and showed an increase trend along time. River input, metropolitan and port facilities were identified as their sources based on multi-analysis

  9. Magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus for formation and deposition of size-selected metal nanoparticles

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    selection is achieved using an electrostatic quadrupole mass selector. The deposited silver clusters are studied using atomic force microscopy. The height distributions show typical relative standard size deviation of 9-13% for given sizes in the range between 5-23 nm. Thus, the apparatus demonstrates good...... capability in formation of supported size-selected metal nanoparticles with controllable coverage for various practical applications....

  10. Giant metal sputtering yields induced by 20-5000 keV/atom gold clusters

    Andersen, H.H.; Brunelle, A.; Della-Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Jacquet, D.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Very large non-linear effects have been found in cluster-induced metal sputtering over a broad projectile energy interval for the first time. Recently available cluster beams from tandem accelerators have allowed sputtering yield measurements to be made with Au 1 to Au 5 from 20 keV/atom to 5 MeV/atom. The cluster-sputtering yield maxima were found at the same total energy but not at the same energy/atom as expected. For Au 5 a yield as high as 3000 was reached at 150 keV/atom while the Au 1 yield was only 55 at the same velocity. The Sigmund-Claussen thermal spike theory, which fits published data at low energy, cannot reproduce our extended new data set. (author)

  11. Stability and mobility of defect clusters and dislocation loops in metals

    Osetsky, Y.N.; Bacon, D.J.; Serra, A.

    2000-01-01

    has been observed in the computer simulation of small vacancy loops in alpha-Fe. In the present paper we summarise results obtained by molecular dynamics simulations of defect clusters and small dislocation loops in alpha-Fe(bcc) and Cu(fcc). The structure and stability of vacancy and interstitial......According to the production bias model, glissile defect clusters and small dislocation loops play an important role in the microstructural evolution during irradiation under cascade damage conditions. The atomic scale computer simulations carried out in recent years have clarified many questions...... loops are reviewed, and the dynamics of glissile clusters assessed. The relevance and importance of these results in establishing a better understanding of the observed differences in the damage accumulation behaviour between bcc and fee metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions are pointed out...

  12. Core design studies on various forms of coolants and fuel materials. 2. Studies on liquid heavy metal and gas cooled cores, small cores and evaluation of 4-type cores

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Sakashita, Yoshiyuki; Naganuma, Masayuki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2001-01-01

    Alternative concepts to sodium cooled fast reactors, such as heavy metal liquid cooled reactors and gas cooled fast reactors were studied in Phase-1 of the feasibility studies, aiming at simplification of the system, high thermal efficiency and enhancing safety. Fuel and core specifications and nuclear characteristics were surveyed to meet the targets for commercialization of fast reactor cycle. Nuclear characteristics of small fast reactor cores were also surveyed from the perspective of the possibility of multi-purpose use and dispersed power stations. The key points of the design study for each concept in Phase-2 were summarized from the aspect of the screening of the candidates for FR commercialization. (author)

  13. Historical trend in heavy metal pollution in core sediments from the Masan Bay, Korea.

    Cho, Jinhyung; Hyun, Sangmin; Han, J-H; Kim, Suhyun; Shin, Dong-Hyeok

    2015-06-15

    The spatiotemporal distribution and their mass accumulation rate (MAR) of heavy metals were investigated to evaluate the time-dependent historical trends of heavy metal concentration. The three short cores used for this study were collected from the catchment area (MS-PC5, 60cm length), the central part (MS-PC4, 40cm length) and the offshore (MS-PC2, 60cm length) of the Masan Bay, Korea. The concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) in catchment area is as much as 1.5-2 times higher than central part of the Bay, and about 2 times higher than offshore area approximately. In particular, MAR of metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) show clear spatiotemporal variation, so that MAR's of heavy metal may provide more accurate information in evaluating the degree of pollution. Temporally, the heavy metal concentration had been increased since the late 1970s, but it seems to decrease again since the 2004yr in catchment area. This may came from concentrated efforts for the government to reduce industrial waste release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pair natural orbital and canonical coupled cluster reaction enthalpies involving light to heavy alkali and alkaline earth metals: the importance of sub-valence correlation

    Minenkov, Yury

    2017-03-07

    In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach. Apart from reactions involving Li and Be, the FC approach resulted in non-homogeneous performance. The FC approach leads to very small errors (<2 kcal mol-1) for some reactions of Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb, while for a few reactions of Ca and Ba deviations up to 40 kcal mol-1 have been obtained. Large errors are both due to artificial mixing of the core (sub-valence) orbitals of metals and the valence orbitals of oxygen and halogens in the molecular orbitals treated as core, and due to neglecting core-core and core-valence correlation effects. These large errors are reduced to a few kcal mol-1 if the AE approach is used or the sub-valence orbitals of metals are included in the correlation treatment. On the technical side, the CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T) results differ by a fraction of kcal mol-1, indicating the latter method as the perfect choice when the CPU efficiency is essential. For completely black-box applications, as requested in catalysis or thermochemical calculations, we recommend the DLPNO-CCSD(T) method with all electrons that are not covered by effective core potentials included in the correlation treatment and correlation-consistent polarized core valence basis sets of cc-pwCVQZ(-PP) quality.

  15. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  16. Interaction of Model Inhibitor Compounds with Minimalist Cluster Representations of Hydroxyl Terminated Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of corrosion inhibitors at the level of molecular interactions has been pursued for decades, and recent developments are allowing increasingly realistic models to be developed for inhibitor–inhibitor, inhibitor–solvent and inhibitor–metal interactions. At the same time, there remains a need for simplistic models to be used for the purpose of screening molecules for proposed inhibitor performance. Herein, we apply a reductionist model for metal surfaces consisting of a metal cation with hydroxide ligands and use quantum chemical modeling to approximate the free energy of adsorption for several imidazoline class candidate corrosion inhibitors. The approximation is made using the binding energy and the partition coefficient. As in some previous work, we consider different methods for incorporating solvent and reference systems for the partition coefficient. We compare the findings from this short study with some previous theoretical work on similar systems. The binding energies for the inhibitors to the metal hydroxide clusters are found to be intermediate to the binding energies calculated in other work for bare metal vs. metal oxide surfaces. The method is applied to copper, iron, aluminum and nickel metal systems.

  17. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  18. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. ON THE DISCREPANCY IN METALLICITY BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AND THEIR PARENT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Sohn, Sangmo T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies—globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of the field stellar population, and if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our

  19. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. II. EXPANDING THE METALLICITY RANGE FOR OLD CLUSTERS AND UPDATED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present abundances of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way and Fornax from integrated-light (IL) spectra. Our goal is to evaluate the consistency of the IL analysis relative to standard abundance analysis for individual stars in those same clusters. This sample includes an updated analysis of seven clusters from our previous publications and results for five new clusters that expand the metallicity range over which our technique has been tested. We find that the [Fe/H] measured from IL spectra agrees to ∼0.1 dex for GCs with metallicities as high as [Fe/H] = −0.3, but the abundances measured for more metal-rich clusters may be underestimated. In addition we systematically evaluate the accuracy of abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for Na i, Mg i, Al i, Si i, Ca i, Ti i, Ti ii, Sc ii, V i, Cr i, Mn i, Co i, Ni i, Cu i, Y ii, Zr i, Ba ii, La ii, Nd ii, and Eu ii. The elements for which the IL analysis gives results that are most similar to analysis of individual stellar spectra are Fe i, Ca i, Si i, Ni i, and Ba ii. The elements that show the greatest differences include Mg i and Zr i. Some elements show good agreement only over a limited range in metallicity. More stellar abundance data in these clusters would enable more complete evaluation of the IL results for other important elements.

  20. A High-precision Trigonometric Parallax to an Ancient Metal-poor Globular Cluster

    Brown, T. M.; Casertano, S.; Strader, J.; Riess, A.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Soderblom, D. R.; Kalirai, J.; Salinas, R.

    2018-03-01

    Using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have obtained a direct trigonometric parallax for the nearest metal-poor globular cluster, NGC 6397. Although trigonometric parallaxes have been previously measured for many nearby open clusters, this is the first parallax for an ancient metal-poor population—one that is used as a fundamental template in many stellar population studies. This high-precision measurement was enabled by the HST/WFC3 spatial-scanning mode, providing hundreds of astrometric measurements for dozens of stars in the cluster and also for Galactic field stars along the same sightline. We find a parallax of 0.418 ± 0.013 ± 0.018 mas (statistical, systematic), corresponding to a true distance modulus of 11.89 ± 0.07 ± 0.09 mag (2.39 ± 0.07 ± 0.10 kpc). The V luminosity at the stellar main-sequence turnoff implies an absolute cluster age of 13.4 ± 0.7 ± 1.2 Gyr. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-13817, GO-14336, and GO-14773.

  1. Quantum kinetic theory of metal clusters in an intense electromagnetic field

    M.Bonitz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum kinetic theory for weakly inhomogeneous charged particle systems is derived within the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions. The results are of relevance for valence electrons of metal clusters as well as for confined Coulomb systems, such as electrons in quantum dots or ultracold ions in traps and similar systems. To be specific, here we concentrate on the application to metal clusters, but the results are straightforwardly generalized. Therefore, we first give an introduction to the physics of correlated valence electrons of metal clusters in strong electromagnetic fields. After a brief overview on the jellium model and the standard density functional approach to the ground state properties, we focus on the extension of the theory to nonequilibrium. To this end a general gauge-invariant kinetic theory is developed. The results include the equations of motion of the two-time correlation functions, the equation for the Wigner function and an analysis of the spectral function. Here, the concept of an effective quantum potential is introduced which retains the convenient local form of the propagators. This allows us to derive explicit results for the spectral function of electrons in a combined strong electromagnetic field and a weakly inhomogeneous confinement potential.

  2. A Zoo of Radio Relics: Cluster Cores to Filaments Ruta Kale1,2 ...

    Abstract. Radio relics in galaxy clusters can be electrons accelerated at cluster merger shocks or adiabatically compressed fossil radio cocoons or dying radio galaxies. The spectral evolution of radio relics is affected by the surrounding thermal plasma. We present a low frequency study of three radio relics representing ...

  3. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Sneden, Christopher; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2014-01-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions

  4. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, Luigi R., E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: valerio.nascimbeni@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  5. Transient bowing of core assemblies in advanced liquid metal fast reactors

    Kamal, S.A.; Orechwa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two alternative core restraint concepts are considered for a conceptual design of a 900 MWth liquid metal fast reactor core with a heterogeneous layout. The two concepts, known as limited free bowing and free flowering, are evaluated based on core bowing criteria that emphasize the enhancement of inherent reactor safety. The core reactivity change during a postulated loss of flow transient is calculated in terms of the lateral displacements and displacement-reactivity-worths of the individual assemblies. The NUBOW-3D computer code is utilized to determine the assembly deformations and interassembly forces that arise when the assemblies are subjected to temperature gradients and irradiation induced creep and swelling during the reactor operation. The assembly ducts are made of the ferritic steel HT-9 and remain in the reactor core for four-years at full power condition. Whereas both restraint systems meet the bowing criteria, a properly designed limited free bowing system appears to be more advantageous than a free flowering system from the point of view of enhancing the reactor inherent safety

  6. Assessment of metals pollution in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The distribution, enrichment and pollution status of metals in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters were studied. Seven sediment cores were taken in July 2004 using a gravity box corer. The metals of Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed by ICP-MS to assess the pollution status of the sediments. The sediment fine fraction and organic carbon content was also analyzed. Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) was calculated as criteria of possible contamination. The results showed that collected sediments were composed with clay, silt and sand as 12 - 74 %, 27 - 72 % and 0 - 20 %, respectively. Meanwhile, organic carbon contents were relatively low and constant over time, based on sediment depth profiles, and it did not exceed 5 % at any sampling station. The average metal concentrations in sediment cores at all sampling station were distributed in the ranges of 1.66 ± 1.36 - 6.61 ± 0.12 μgg -1 for Cu, 26.55 ± 1.04 - 57.94 ± 1.58 μgg -1 for Zn and 3.99 ± 0.10 - 14.48 ± 0.32 μgg -1 for Pb. According to calculations of EF, I geo and PLI, it can be concluded that concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were not significantly affected by pollution from anthropogenic sources at the seven sampling locations. Thus, the metal content of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment should not cause pollution problem to the marine environment of Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters and further response measures are not needed. (author)

  7. Magneto-structural properties and magnetic anisotropy of small transition-metal clusters: a first-principles study

    Blonski, Piotr; Hafner, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio density-functional calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) have been performed for Ni and Pd clusters with three to six atoms and for 13-atom clusters of Ni, Pd, and Pt, extending earlier calculations for Pt clusters with up to six atoms (2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 034107). The geometric and magnetic structures have been optimized for different orientations of the magnetization with respect to the crystallographic axes of the cluster. The magnetic anisotropy energies (MAE) and the anisotropies of spin and orbital moments have been determined. Particular attention has been paid to the correlation between the geometric and magnetic structures. The magnetic point group symmetry of the clusters varies with the direction of the magnetization. Even for a 3d metal such as Ni, the change in the magnetic symmetry leads to small geometric distortions of the cluster structure, which are even more pronounced for the 4d metal Pd. For a 5d metal the SOC is strong enough to change the energetic ordering of the structural isomers. SOC leads to a mixing of the spin states corresponding to the low-energy spin isomers identified in the scalar-relativistic calculations. Spin moments are isotropic only for Ni clusters, but anisotropic for Pd and Pt clusters, orbital moments are anisotropic for the clusters of all three elements. The magnetic anisotropy energies have been calculated. The comparison between MAE and orbital anisotropy invalidates a perturbation analysis of magnetic anisotropy for these small clusters.

  8. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal-doped strontium clusters: Prospective magnetic superatoms

    Chauhan, Vikas; Sen, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of TM-Sr clusters are studied using DFT methods. • CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 have enhanced stability in the CrSr n and MnSrn series. • These two clusters behave as magnetic superatoms. • A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two superatom units is offered. • Reactivity of these superatoms to molecular oxygen also studied. - Abstract: Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal doped strontium clusters are studied using first-principles electronic structure methods based on density functional theory. Clusters with enhanced kinetic and thermodynamic stability are identified by studying their hardness, second order energy difference and adiabatic spin excitation energy. CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 are found to have enhanced stability. They retain their structural identities in assemblies, and are classified as magnetic superatoms. A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two cluster units is arrived at. Reactivity of these superatoms with O 2 molecule is also studied. Prospects for using these magnetic superatoms in applications are discussed

  9. A numerical study of spin-dependent organization of alkali-metal atomic clusters using density-functional method

    Liu Xuan; Ito, Haruhiko; Torikai, Eiko

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li n , Na n , K n , Rb n , and Cs n with n = 2–8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.

  10. Metal-Organic Framework of Lanthanoid Dinuclear Clusters Undergoes Slow Magnetic Relaxation

    Hikaru Iwami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanoid metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs can adopt a variety of new structures due to the large coordination numbers of Ln metal ions, and Ln-MOFs are expected to show new luminescence and magnetic properties due to the localized f electrons. In particular, some Ln metal ions, such as Dy(III and Tb(III ions, work as isolated quantum magnets when they have magnetic anisotropy. In this work, using 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB as a ligand, two new Ln-MOFs, [Dy(TATB(DMF2] (1 and [Tb(TATB(DMF2] (2, were obtained. The Ln-MOFs contain Ln dinuclear clusters as secondary building units, and 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation similar to single-molecule magnets.

  11. Three exciting areas of experimental physical sciences : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon

    Rao, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    The author has narrated his experience in carrying out research in three exciting areas of physical sciences. These areas are : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon. (M.G.B.)

  12. Nanoscale semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell heterostructures: facile synthesis and light emission

    Li, Gong Ping; Chen, Rui; Guo, Dong Lai; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shi Jie; Sun, Han Dong; Wu, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in MgO nanotubes and porous MgO nanotubes can be obtained by taking advantage of the reduced thermal stability of the ZnO core. Furthermore, after MgO shell-coating and the appropriate annealing treatment, the intensity of the ZnO near-band-edge UV emission becomes much stronger, showing a 25-fold enhancement. The intensity ratio of the UV/visible emission can be increased further by decorating the surface of the ZnO/MgO nanowires with high-density plasmonic Au nanoparticles. These heterostructured semiconductor-insulator-metal nanowires with tailored morphologies and enhanced functionalities have great potential for use as nanoscale building blocks in photonic and electronic applications.Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in

  13. Spectra of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy: evidence for spectroscopic metallicity bimodality

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Hau, George K. T.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a large sample of over 200 integrated-light spectra of confirmed globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Sombrero (M104) galaxy taken with the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) instrument on the Keck telescope. A significant fraction of the spectra have signal-to-noise ratio levels high enough to allow measurements of GC metallicities using the method of Brodie & Huchra. We find a distribution of spectroscopic metallicities in the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.1 that is bimodal, with peaks at [Fe/H]˜-1.4 and -0.6. Thus, the GC system of the Sombrero galaxy, like a few other galaxies now studied in detail, reveals a bimodal spectroscopic metallicity distribution supporting the long-held belief that colour bimodality reflects two metallicity subpopulations. This further suggests that the transformation from optical colour to metallicity for old stellar populations, such as GCs, is not strongly non-linear. We also explore the radial and magnitude distribution with metallicity for GC subpopulations but small number statistics prevent any clear trends in these distributions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Clustered atom-replaced structure in single-crystal-like metal oxide

    Araki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Mariko; Ishii, Hirotaka; Yokoe, Daisaku; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takeharu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi

    2018-06-01

    By means of metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD), we replaced and localized two or more atoms in a single-crystalline structure having almost perfect orientation. Thus, we created a new functional structure, namely, clustered atom-replaced structure (CARS), having single-crystal-like metal oxide. We replaced metals in the oxide with Sm and Lu and localized them. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results, where the Sm signal increases with the Lu signal in the single-crystalline structure, confirm evidence of CARS. We also form other CARS with three additional metals, including Pr. The valence number of Pr might change from 3+ to approximately 4+, thereby reducing the Pr–Ba distance. We directly observed the structure by a high-angle annular dark-field image, which provided further evidence of CARS. The key to establishing CARS is an equilibrium chemical reaction and a combination of additional larger and smaller unit cells to matrix cells. We made a new functional metal oxide with CARS and expect to realize CARS in other metal oxide structures in the future by using the above-mentioned process.

  15. The Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS). IV. Mass and Age Bimodality of Nuclear Clusters in the Fornax Core Region

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Puzia, Thomas H.; Eigenthaler, Paul; Taylor, Matthew A.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ribbeck, Karen X.; Grebel, Eva K.; Ángel, Simón; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W.; Rong, Yu; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2018-06-01

    We present the analysis of 61 nucleated dwarf galaxies in the central regions (≲R vir/4) of the Fornax galaxy cluster. The galaxies and their nuclei are studied as part of the Next Generation Fornax Survey using optical imaging obtained with the Dark Energy Camera mounted at Blanco/Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and near-infrared data obtained with VIRCam at VISTA/ESO. We decompose the nucleated dwarfs in nucleus and spheroid, after subtracting the surface brightness profile of the spheroid component and studying the nucleus using point source photometry. In general, nuclei are consistent with colors of confirmed metal-poor globular clusters, but with significantly smaller dispersion than other confirmed compact stellar systems in Fornax. We find a bimodal nucleus mass distribution with peaks located at {log}({{ \\mathcal M }}* /{M}ȯ )≃ 5.4 and ∼6.3. These two nucleus subpopulations have different stellar population properties: the more massive nuclei are older than ∼2 Gyr and have metal-poor stellar populations (Z ≤ 0.02 Z ⊙), while the less massive nuclei are younger than ∼2 Gyr with metallicities in the range 0.02 < Z/Z ⊙ ≤ 1. We find that the nucleus mass ({{ \\mathcal M }}nuc}) versus galaxy mass ({{ \\mathcal M }}gal}) relation becomes shallower for less massive galaxies starting around 108 M ⊙, and the mass ratio {η }n={{ \\mathcal M }}nuc}/{{ \\mathcal M }}gal} shows a clear anticorrelation with {{ \\mathcal M }}gal} for the lowest masses, reaching 10%. We test current theoretical models of nuclear cluster formation and find that they cannot fully reproduce the observed trends. A likely mixture of in situ star formation and star cluster mergers seems to be acting during nucleus growth over cosmic time.

  16. Mapping the particle acceleration in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638

    Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; ZuHone, J. A.; Mazzotta, P.; Bourdin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new deep, high-resolution radio images of the diffuse minihalo in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638. The images have been obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 317, 617, and 1280 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 1.5, 4.9, and 8.4 GHz, with angular resolutions ranging from 1'' to 10''. This represents the best radio spectral and imaging data set for any minihalo. Most of the radio flux of the minihalo arises from a bright central component with a maximum radius of ∼80 kpc. A fainter tail of emission extends out from the central component to form a spiral-shaped structure with a length of ∼230 kpc, seen at frequencies 1.5 GHz and below. We find indication of a possible steepening of the total radio spectrum of the minihalo at high frequencies. Furthermore, a spectral index image shows that the spectrum of the diffuse emission steepens with increasing distance along the tail. A striking spatial correlation is observed between the minihalo emission and two cold fronts visible in the Chandra X-ray image of this cool core. These cold fronts confine the minihalo, as also seen in numerical simulations of minihalo formation by sloshing-induced turbulence. All these observations favor the hypothesis that the radio-emitting electrons in cluster cool cores are produced by turbulent re-acceleration.

  17. Viscosity measurements on metal melts at high pressure and viscosity calculations for the earth's core

    Mineev, Vladimir N; Funtikov, Aleksandr I

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of experimental and calculated data on the viscosity of iron-based melts on the melting curve. The interest in these data originates in the division of opinion on whether viscosity increases rather moderately or considerably in the high-pressure range. This disagreement is especially pronounced in the interpretation of the values of molten iron and its compounds in the environment of the earth's outer core. The conclusion on a substantial rise in viscosity mostly follows from the universal law, proposed by Brazhkin and Lyapin [1], of viscosity changing along the metal melting curve in the high-pressure range. The review analyzes available experimental and computational data, including the most recent ones. Data on viscosity of metals under shock wave compression in the megabar pressure range are also discussed. It is shown that data on viscosity of metal melts point to a small increase of viscosity on the melting curve. Specifics are discussed of the phase diagram of iron made more complex by the presence of several phase transitions and by the uncertainty in the position of the melting curve in the high-pressure range. Inaccuracies that arise in extrapolating the results of viscosity measurements to the pressure range corresponding to the earth's core environment are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Cores using Uranium-Free Metallic Fuels for Maximizing TRU Support Ratio

    You, WuSeung; Hong, Ser Gi

    2014-01-01

    The depleted uranium plays important roles in the SFR burner cores because it substantially contributes to the inherent safety of the core through the negative Doppler coefficient and large delayed neutron. However, the use of depleted uranium as a diluent nuclide leads to a limited value of TRU support ratio due to the generation of TRUs through the breeding. In this paper, we designed sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) cores having uranium-free fuels 3,4 for maximization of TRU consumption rate. However, the uranium-free fuelled burner cores can be penalized by unacceptably small values of the Doppler coefficient and small delayed neutron fraction. In this work, metallic fuels of TRU-(W or Ni)-Zr are considered to improve the performances of the uranium-free cores. The objective of this work is to consistently compare the neutronic performances of uranium-free sodium cooled fast reactor cores having TRU-Zr metallic fuels added with Ni or W and also to clarify what are the problematic features to be resolved. In this paper, a consistent comparative study of 400MWe sodium cooled burner cores having uranium-based fuels and uranium-free fuels was done to analyze the relative core neutronic features. Also, we proposed a uranium-free metallic fuel based on Nickel. From the results, it is found that tungsten-based uranium-free metallic fuel gives large negative Doppler coefficient due to high resonance of tungsten isotopes but this core has large sodium void worth and small effective delayed neutron fraction while the nickel-based uranium-free metallic fuelled core has less negative Doppler coefficient but smaller sodium void worth and larger effective delayed neutron fraction than the tungsten-based one. On the other hand, the core having TRU-Zr has very high burnup reactivity swing which may be problematic in compensating it using control rods and the least negative Doppler coefficient

  19. Influence of a transition metal atom on the geometry and electronic structure of Mg and Mg-H clusters

    Siretskiy, M.Yu.; Shelyapina, M.G.; Fruchart, D.; Miraglia, S.; Skryabina, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the study of (MgH 2 ) n + M complexes (M = Ti or Ni) carried out within the framework of the cluster density functional theory (DFT) method. The influence of such transition metal atoms on the cluster geometry and electronic structure is discussed considering the stability of MgH 2 hydride.

  20. Metal oxide core shell nanostructures as building blocks for efficient light emission (SISGR)

    Chang, Jane P [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dorman, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cheung, Cyrus [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The objective of this research is to synthesize core-shell nano-structured metal oxide materials and investigate their structural, electronic and optical properties to understand the microscopic pathways governing the energy conversion process, thereby controlling and improving their efficiency. Specifically, the goal is to use a single metal oxide core-shell nanostructure and a single excitation source to generate photons with long emission lifetime over the entire visible spectrum and when controlled at the right ratio, generating white light. In order to achieve this goal, we need to control the energy transfer between light emitting elements, which dictates the control of their interatomic spacing and spatial distribution. We developed an economical wet chemical process to form the nanostructured core and to control the thickness and composition of the shell layers. With the help from using DOE funded synchrotron radiation facility, we delineated the growth mechanism of the nano-structured core and the shell layers, thereby enhancing our understanding of structure-property relation in these materials. Using the upconversion luminescence and the lifetime measurements as effective feedback to materials sysnthes is and integration, we demonstrated improved luminescence lifetimes of the core-shell nano-structures and quantified the optimal core-multi-shell structure with optimum shell thickness and composition. We developed a rare-earths co-doped LaPO4 core-multishell structure in order to produce a single white light source. It was decided that the mutli-shell method would produce the largest increase in luminescence efficiency while limiting any energy transfer that may occur between the dopant ions. All samples resulted in emission spectra within the accepted range of white light generation based on the converted CIE color coordinates. The white light obtained varied between warm and cool white depending on the layering architecture, allowing for the

  1. Major signal suppression from metal ion clusters in SFC/ESI-MS - Cause and effects.

    Haglind, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt E

    2018-05-01

    The widening application area of SFC-MS with polar analytes and water-containing samples facilitates the use of quick and simple sample preparation techniques such as "dilute and shoot" and protein precipitation. This has also introduced new polar interfering components such as alkali metal ions naturally abundant in e.g. blood plasma and urine, which have shown to be retained using screening conditions in SFC/ESI-TOF-MS and causing areas of major ion suppression. Analytes co-eluting with these clusters will have a decreased signal intensity, which might have a major effect on both quantification and identification. When investigating the composition of the alkali metal clusters using accurate mass and isotopic pattern, it could be concluded that they were previously not described in the literature. Using NaCl and KCl standards and different chromatographic conditions, varying e.g. column and modifier, the clusters proved to be formed from the alkali metal ions in combination with the alcohol modifier and make-up solvent. Their compositions were [(XOCH 3 ) n  + X] + , [(XOH) n  + X] + , [(X 2 CO 3 ) n  + X] + and [(XOOCOCH 3 ) n  + X] + for X = Na + or K + in ESI+. In ESI-, the clusters depended more on modifier, with [(XCl) n  + Cl] - and [(XOCH 3 ) n  + OCH 3 ] - mainly formed in pure methanol and [(XOOCH) n  + OOCH] - when 20 mM NH 4 Fa was added. To prevent the formation of the clusters by avoiding methanol as modifier might be difficult, as this is a widely used modifier providing good solubility when analyzing polar compounds in SFC. A sample preparation with e.g. LLE would remove the alkali ions, however also introducing a time consuming and discriminating step into the method. Since the alkali metal ions were retained and affected by chromatographic adjustments as e.g. mobile phase modifications, a way to avoid them could therefore be chromatographic tuning, when analyzing samples containing them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  2. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  3. Core-Shell Structuring of Pure Metallic Aerogels towards Highly Efficient Platinum Utilization for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Cai, Bin; Hübner, René; Sasaki, Kotaro; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Su, Dong; Ziegler, Christoph; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Adzic, Radoslav R; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2018-03-05

    The development of core-shell structures remains a fundamental challenge for pure metallic aerogels. Here we report the synthesis of Pd x Au-Pt core-shell aerogels composed of an ultrathin Pt shell and a composition-tunable Pd x Au alloy core. The universality of this strategy ensures the extension of core compositions to Pd transition-metal alloys. The core-shell aerogels exhibited largely improved Pt utilization efficiencies for the oxygen reduction reaction and their activities show a volcano-type relationship as a function of the lattice parameter of the core substrate. The maximum mass and specific activities are 5.25 A mg Pt -1 and 2.53 mA cm -2 , which are 18.7 and 4.1 times higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of the core-shell metallic aerogels. The proposed core-based activity descriptor provides a new possible strategy for the design of future core-shell electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fast reactors with axial arrangement of oxide and metal fuels in the core

    Troyanov, M.F.; Ilyunin, V.G.; Matveev, V.I.; Murogov, V.M.; Proshkin, A.A.; Rudneva, V.Ya.; Shmelev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of using metal fuel in fast reactor (FR) core are discussed Results are given of the calculation of two-dimentional (R-Z) FR version having a composed core with the combined usage of oxide and metal fuels having parameters close to optimal from the point of view of fuel breeding rate, an oxide subzone having increased enrichment and a decreased proper conversion ratio. A reactor is considered where metallic fuel elements are placed from the side of ''cold'' coolant inlet (400-480 deg C), and oxide fuel elements - in the region where the coolant has a higher temperature (500-560 deg C). It is shown that the new fuel breeding rate in such a reactor can be increased by 20-30% as compared with an oxide fuel reactor. Growth of the total conversion ratio is mainly stipulated with the increase of the inner conversion ratio of the core (CRC) which is important not only from the point of view of nuclear fuel breeding rate but also the optimization of the mode of powerful fast reactor operation with provision for the change in reactivity in the process of its continuous operation. The fact, that the core version under investigation has a CRC value slightly exceeding unit, stipulates considerably less reactivity change as compared with the oxide version in the process of the reactor operation and permits at a constant reactor control system power to significantly increase the time between reloadings and, therefore, to increase the NPP load factor which is of great importance both from the point of view of economy and the improvement of operation conditions as well as of reactor operation reliability. It is concluded on the base of the analysis of the results obtained that FRs with the combined usage of oxide and metal fuels having an increased specific load and increased conversion ratio as compared with the oxide fuel FRs provide a higher rate of development of the whole nuclear power balanced with respect to the fuel [ru

  5. HTGR Metallic Reactor Internals Core Shell Cutting & Machining Antideformation Technique Study

    Xing Huiping; Xue Song

    2014-01-01

    The reactor shell assembly of HTGR nuclear power station demonstration project metallic reactor internals is key components of reactor, remains with high-precision large component with large-sized thin-walled straight cylinder-shaped structure, and is the first manufacture in China. As compared with other reactor shell, it has a larger ID (Φ5360mm), a longer length (19000mm), a smaller wall thickness (40mm) and a higher precision requirement. During the process of manufacture, the deformation due to cutting & machining will directly affect the final result of manufacture, the control of structural deformation and cutting deformation shall be throughout total manufacture process of such assembly. To realize the control of entire core shell assembly geometry, the key is to innovate and make breakthroughs on anti-deformation technique and then provide reliable technological foundations for the manufacture of HTGR metallic reactor internals. (author)

  6. INSIGHTS INTO PRE-ENRICHMENT OF STAR CLUSTERS AND SELF-ENRICHMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES FROM THEIR INTRINSIC METALLICITY DISPERSIONS

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity Z-bar and intrinsic spread in metallicity σ(Z) 2 . A plot of σ(Z) 2 versus Z-bar shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model, where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behavior in the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the enriched regions. The inhomogeneity of the self-enrichment sets the slope for the observed dwarf galaxy σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar correlation. The offset of the star cluster sequence from that of the dwarf galaxies is due to pre-enrichment, and the slope of the star cluster sequence represents the remnant signature of the self-enriched history of their host galaxies. The offset can be used to separate star clusters from dwarf galaxies without a priori knowledge of their luminosity or dynamical mass. The application of the inhomogeneous model to the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship provides a numerical formalism to connect the self-enrichment and pre-enrichment between star clusters and dwarf galaxies using physically motivated chemical enrichment parameters. Therefore we suggest that the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship can provide insight into what drives the efficiency of star formation and chemical evolution in galaxies, and is an important prediction for galaxy simulation models to reproduce.

  7. Slow Cooling in Low Metallicity Clouds: An Origin of Globular Cluster Bimodality?

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the relative role of small-scale fragmentation and global collapse in low-metallicity clouds, pointing out that in such clouds the cooling time may be longer than the dynamical time, allowing the cloud to collapse globally before it can fragment. This, we suggest, may help to explain the formation of the low-metallicity globular cluster population, since such dense stellar systems need a large amount of gas to be collected in a small region (without significant feedback during the collapse). To explore this further, we carry out numerical simulations of low-metallicity Bonner-Ebert stable gas clouds, demonstrating that there exists a critical metallicity (between 0.001 and 0.01 Z⊙) below which the cloud collapses globally without fragmentation. We also run simulations including a background radiative heating source, showing that this can also produce clouds that do not fragment, and that the critical metallicity - which can exceed the no-radiation case - increases with the heating rate.

  8. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  9. Chemical study of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927

    Mura-Guzmán, A.; Villanova, S.; Muñoz, C.; Tang, B.

    2018-03-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are natural laboratories where stellar and chemical evolution can be studied in detail. In addition, their chemical patterns and kinematics can tell us to which Galactic structure (disc, bulge, halo or extragalactic) the cluster belongs to. NGC 5927 is one of most metal-rich GCs in the Galaxy and its kinematics links it to the thick disc. We present abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of seven giant stars. The data were obtained using Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph/Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectrograph mounted on UT2 telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The principal objective of this work is to perform a wide and detailed chemical abundance analysis of the cluster and look for possible Multiple Populations (MPs). We determined stellar parameters and measured 22 elements corresponding to light (Na, Al), alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu). We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] = -0.47 ± 0.02 (error on the mean). We confirm the existence of MPs in this GC with an O-Na anti-correlation, and moderate spread in Al abundances. We estimate a mean [α/Fe] = 0.25 ± 0.08. Iron-peak elements show no significant spread. The [Ba/Eu] ratios indicate a predominant contribution from SNeII for the formation of the cluster.

  10. Collective-field-corrected strong field approximation for laser-irradiated metal clusters

    Keil, Th; Bauer, D

    2014-01-01

    The strong field approximation (SFA) formulated in terms of so-called ‘quantum orbits’ led to much insight into intense-laser driven ionization dynamics. In plain SFA, the emitted electron is treated as a free electron in the laser field alone. However, with improving experimental techniques and more advanced numerical simulations, it becomes more and more obvious that the plain SFA misses interesting effects even on a qualitative level. Examples are holographic side lobes, the low-energy structure, radial patterns in photoelectron spectra at low kinetic energies and strongly rotated angular distributions. For this reason, increasing efforts have been recently devoted to Coulomb corrections of the SFA. In the current paper, we follow a similar line but consider ionization of metal clusters. It is known that photoelectrons from clusters can be much more energetic than those emitted from atoms or small molecules, especially if the Mie resonance of the expanding cluster is evoked. We develop a SFA that takes the collective field inside the cluster via the simple rigid-sphere model into account. Our approach is based on field-corrected quantum orbits so that the acceleration process (or any other spectral feature of interest) can be investigated in detail. (paper)

  11. Main sequence of the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1980-01-01

    We present photographic photometry for 673 stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099). The Racine wedge was used with the CTIO 1-m Yale telescope (Δm=3/sup m/.60), the CTIO 4-m telescope (Δm=6/sup m/.83), and the ESO 3.6-m telescope (Δm=4/sup m/.12) to extend the photoelectric limit from Vapprox. =16.3 to Vapprox. =20.4. For the main-sequence turn-off, we have determined its position to lie at V=18.4 +- 0.1 (m.e.) and B-V=0.49 +- 0.03 (m.e.). From these values, we calculate the intrinsic values M/sub v/ =3.87 and (B-V) 0 =0.47. For the cluster as a whole, we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/=14.53 +- 0.15 and reddening E(B-V)=0.02 +- 0.02. Using the models of Iben and Rood [Astrophys. J. 159, 605 (1970)] and the isochrones of Demarque and McClure [(1977), in Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, edited by B. Tinsley and R. B. Larson (Yale University Observatory, New Haven), p. 199], we deduce the cluster's age to be 14.5( +- 4.0) x 10 9 yr. The large uncertainty in this value emphasizes the dire need for more work on cluster evolution

  12. Tuning the magnetic properties of deposited transition metal clusters by decoration

    Minar, Jan; Bornemann, S.; Ebert, H. [Dept. Chemie, LMU, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Staunton, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick (United Kingdom); Rusponi, S.; Brunne, H. [EPF Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Using the fully relativistic version of the KKR-method for electronic structure calculations within local spin density functional theory (LSDA) the magnetic properties of Fe, Co and Ni clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface have been investigated. Of central interest are the role of spin-orbit coupling as it influences the spontaneous formation and orientation of magnetic moments and gives rise amongst others to the occurrence of orbital magnetic moments, the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and magnetic circular dichroism in X-ray absorption (XMCD). Our systematic investigations of different clusters and nanostructures aim to reveal the mutual relationship among their spin-orbit induced properties. In addition they show how their various magnetic properties depend on the structural properties and chemical composition of the studied system. For large two-dimensional clusters we focussed especially on the dependency of the MAE on decoration with another transition metal. Our results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental findings. We resolved the MAE contributions for inequivalent cluster atoms and will discuss the effect of the induced MAE within the Pt substrate.

  13. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. III. A spectroscopic metallicity scale for the Revised Bologna Catalog

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We present a new homogeneous set of metallicity estimates based on Lick indices for the old globular clusters of the M 31 galaxy. The final aim is to add homogeneous spectroscopic metallicities to as many entries as possible of the Revised Bologna Catalog of M 31 clusters, by reporting Lick index measurements from any source (literature, new observations, etc.) on the same scale. Methods: New empirical relations of [Fe/H] as a function of [MgFe] and Mg2 indices are based on the well-studied galactic globular clusters, complemented with theoretical model predictions for -0.2≤ [Fe/H]≤ +0.5. Lick indices for M 31 clusters from various literature sources (225 clusters) and from new observations by our team (71 clusters) have been transformed into the Trager et al. system, yielding new metallicity estimates for 245 globular clusters of M 31. Results: Our values are in good agreement with recent estimates based on detailed spectral fitting and with those obtained from color magnitude diagrams of clusters imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. The typical uncertainty on individual estimates is ≃±0.25 dex, as resulted from the comparison with metallicities derived from color magnitude diagrams of individual clusters. Conclusions: The metallicity distribution of M 31 globular cluster is briefly discussed and compared with that of the Milky Way. Simple parametric statistical tests suggest that the distribution is probably not unimodal. The strong correlation between metallicity and kinematics found in previous studies is confirmed. The most metal-rich GCs tend to be packed into the center of the system and to cluster tightly around the galactic rotation curve defined by the HI disk, while the velocity dispersion about the curve increases with decreasing metallicity. However, also the clusters with [Fe/H]<-1.0 display a clear rotation pattern, at odds with their Milky Way counterparts. Based on observations made at La Palma, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque

  14. Weld metal microstructures of hardfacing deposits produced by self-shielded flux-cored arc welding

    Dumovic, M.; Monaghan, B.J.; Li, H.; Norrish, J.; Dunne, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The molten pool weld produced during self-shielded flux-cored arc welding (SSFCAW) is protected from gas porosity arising from oxygen and nitrogen by reaction ('killing') of these gases by aluminium. However, residual Al can result in mixed micro-structures of δ-ferrite, martensite and bainite in hardfacing weld metals produced by SSFCAW and therefore, microstructural control can be an issue for hardfacing weld repair. The effect of the residual Al content on weld metal micro-structure has been examined using thermodynamic modeling and dilatometric analysis. It is concluded that the typical Al content of about 1 wt% promotes δ-ferrite formation at the expense of austenite and its martensitic/bainitic product phase(s), thereby compromising the wear resistance of the hardfacing deposit. This paper also demonstrates how the development of a Schaeffler-type diagram for predicting the weld metal micro-structure can provide guidance on weld filler metal design to produce the optimum microstructure for industrial hardfacing applications.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of αzirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate containing metallic copper clusters

    Souza, Alexilda Oliveira de; Rangel, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2005-01-01

    The α-zirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate (α-ZrP) has received great attention in the last years due to its properties like ion exchange, intercalation, ionic conductivity and catalytic activity. This work reports a method to produce metallic copper clusters on α-ZrP to be used as catalysts in petrochemical processes. It was found that the solids were non-crystalline regardless of the uptake of copper and the reduction. The specific surface area increased as a consequence of the increase of the interlayer distance to accept the copper ions between the layers. During the reduction, big clusters of copper (0,5-11μ) with different sizes and shapes were produced. (author)

  16. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5053: A VERY METAL-POOR AND DYNAMICALLY COMPLEX GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO–Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 75–90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of −2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na–O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  17. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ˜ 75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na-O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  18. Tradeoff of sodium void worth and burnup reactivity swing: Impacts on balance safety position in metallic-fueled cores

    Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effect of a lower sodium void worth on the consequences of severe accidents in metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors. Four 900 MWth designs were used for the study, where all of the reactor cores were designed based on the metallic fuel of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs each have different sodium void worth, in the range of -3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the differences in severe accident response for the four core designs, in order to estimate the improvement in overall safety that could be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores which use a metallic fuel form

  19. Atmospheric Parameters and Metallicities for 2191 Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Malavolta, Luca; Sneden, Christopher; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Nascimbeni, Valerio

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V 14.7, we obtain lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  20. Room-Temperature Synthesis of Transition Metal Clusters and Main Group Polycations from Ionic Liquids

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2011-01-01

    Main group polycations and transition metal clusters had traditionally been synthesized via high-temperature routes by performing reactions in melts or by CTR, at room-temperature or lower temperature by using so-called superacid solvents, and at room-temperature in benzene–GaX3 media. Considering the major problems associated with higher temperature routes (e.g. long annealing time, risk of product decomposition, and low yield) and taking into account the toxicity of benzene and liquid SO2 i...

  1. ORALLOY (93.15 235U) METAL ANNULI WITH BERYLLIUM CORE

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland M.; Reed, Raymond L.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, two were performed that consisted of uranium metal annuli with a solid beryllium metal core. The outer diameter of the annuli was approximately 13 or 15 inches with an inner diameter of 7 inches. The diameter of the core was approximately 7 inches. The critical height of the configurations was approximately 5 and 4 inches, respectively. The uranium annuli consisted of multiple stacked rings with diametral thicknesses of approximately 2 inches apiece and varying heights. The 15-inch experiment was performed on June 4, 1963, and the 13-inch experiment on July 12, 1963 by J. T. Mihalczo and R. G. Taylor (Ref. 1) with accompanying logbook. Both detailed and simplified model specifications are provided in this evaluation. Both of these fast-spectra experiments were determined to represent acceptable benchmarks. The calculated eigenvalues for both the detailed and simple models are within approximately 0.6% of the benchmark values, but significantly greater than 3s from the benchmark value because the uncertainty in the benchmark is very small: eff of ∼0.67%. Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in HEU MET

  2. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  3. Communication: Application of state-specific multireference coupled cluster methods to core-level excitations

    Brabec, Jiří; Bhaskaran-Neir, K.; Govind, N.; Pittner, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 17 (2012), s. 171101 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : coupled cluster calculations * electron correlations * excited states Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.164, year: 2012

  4. The Response of Clamped Shallow Sandwich Arches with Metallic Foam Cores to Projectile Impact Loading

    Yanping Fan

    Full Text Available Abstract The dynamic response and energy absorption capabilities of clamped shallow sandwich arches with aluminum foam core were numerically investigated by impacting the arches at mid-span with metallic foam projectiles. The typical deformation modes, deflection response, and core compression of sandwich arches obtained from the tests were used to validate the computation model. The resistance to impact loading was quantified by the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the arches as a function of projectile momentum. The sandwich arches have a higher shock resistance than the monolithic arches of equal mass, and shock resistance could be significantly enhanced by optimizing geometrical configurations. Meanwhile, decreasing the face-sheet thickness and curvature radius could enhance the energy absorption capability of the sandwich arches. Finite element calculations indicated that the ratio of loading time to structural response time ranged from 0.1 to 0.4. The projectile momentum, which was solely used to quantify the structural response of sandwich arches, was insufficient. These findings could provide guidance in conducting further theoretical studies and producing the optimal design of metallic sandwich structures subjected to impact loading.

  5. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan; Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott; Cooper, Mike; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N gal (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L IR = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10 12 L ⊙ . The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M ⊙ yr −1 . The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times

  6. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3P 1T3 (Canada); Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cooper, Mike [Centre for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Space Science Centre, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunne, Loretta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Geach, James [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayden, Brian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institute fur Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Huang, Jiasheng [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 011003 (United States); Smith, Matthew W. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-20

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N{sub gal} (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L{sub IR} = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  7. Investigation of Large Scale Cortical Models on Clustered Multi-Core Processors

    2013-02-01

    Playstation 3 with 6 available SPU cores outperforms the Intel Xeon processor (with 4 cores) by about 1.9 times for the HTM model and by 2.4 times...runtime breakdowns of the HTM and Dean models respectively on the Cell processor (on the Playstation 3) and the Intel Xeon processor ( 4 thread...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  8. High-resolution optical imaging of the core of the globular cluster M15 with FastCam

    Díaz-Sánchez, Anastasio; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Villó, Isidro; Rebolo, Rafael; Pérez-Prieto, Jorge A.; Oscoz, Alejandro; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; López, Roberto; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2012-07-01

    We present high-resolution I -band imaging of the core of the globular cluster M15 obtained at the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope with FastCam, a low readout noise L3CCD-based instrument. Short exposure times (30 ms) were used to record 200 000 images (512 × 512 pixels each) over a period of 2 h and 43 min. The lucky imaging technique was then applied to generate a final image of the cluster centre with full width at half-maximum ˜0.1 arcsec and 13 × 13 arcsec 2 field of view. We obtained a catalogue of objects in this region with a limiting magnitude of I = 19.5. I -band photometry and astrometry are reported for 1181 stars. This is the deepest I -band observation of the M15 core at this spatial resolution. Simulations show that crowding is limiting the completeness of the catalogue. At shorter wavelengths, a similar number of objects have been reported using Hubble Space Telescope (HST )/Wide Field Planetary Camera observations of the same field. The cross-match with the available HST catalogues allowed us to produce colour-magnitude diagrams where we identify new blue straggler star candidates and previously known stars of this class.

  9. TRAFIC, a computer program for calculating the release of metallic fission products from an HTGR core

    Smith, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    A special purpose computer program, TRAFIC, is presented for calculating the release of metallic fission products from an HTGR core. The program is based upon Fick's law of diffusion for radioactive species. One-dimensional transient diffusion calculations are performed for the coated fuel particles and for the structural graphite web. A quasi steady-state calculation is performed for the fuel rod matrix material. The model accounts for nonlinear adsorption behavior in the fuel rod gap and on the coolant hole boundary. The TRAFIC program is designed to operate in a core survey mode; that is, it performs many repetitive calculations for a large number of spatial locations in the core. This is necessary in order to obtain an accurate volume integrated release. For this reason the program has been designed with calculational efficiency as one of its main objectives. A highly efficient numerical method is used in the solution. The method makes use of the Duhamel superposition principle to eliminate interior spatial solutions from consideration. Linear response functions relating the concentrations and mass fluxes on the boundaries of a homogeneous region are derived. Multiple regions are numerically coupled through interface conditions. Algebraic elimination is used to reduce the equations as far as possible. The problem reduces to two nonlinear equations in two unknowns, which are solved using a Newton Raphson technique

  10. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  11. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    Ruffino, F.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nano structures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag 2 O, Al/Al 2 O 2 , Cu/Cu 2 O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent).

  12. Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

  13. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Schinnerer, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  14. Electronic structures and water reactivity of mixed metal sulfide cluster anions

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    The electronic structures and chemical reactivity of the mixed metal sulfide cluster anion (MoWS{sub 4}{sup −}) have been investigated with density functional theory. Our study reveals the presence of two almost isoenergetic structural isomers, both containing two bridging sulfur atoms in a quartet state. However, the arrangement of the terminal sulfur atoms is different in the two isomers. In one isomer, the two metals are in the same oxidation state (each attached to one terminal S). In the second isomer, the two metals are in different oxidation states (with W in the higher oxidation state attached to both terminal S). The reactivity of water with the two lowest energy isomers has also been studied, with an emphasis on pathways leading to H{sub 2} release. The reactive behavior of the two isomers is different though the overall barriers in both systems are small. The origin of the differences are analyzed and discussed. The reaction pathways and barriers are compared with the corresponding behavior of monometallic sulfides (Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −}) as well as mixed metal oxides (MoWO{sub 4}{sup −})

  15. Diversity, Knowledge Clusters, and Job Placement: Graduate Economics Teaching of Core Microeconomics

    Campbell, Arthur; Feinstein, Jonathan S.; Hong, Soonwook; Qian, Sharon; Williams, Trevor C.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present an empirical analysis of what is taught in core micro-economics at a set of top U.S. doctoral economics programs. Their aim is to evaluate the diversity across programs and assess whether there are distinct "schools of thought" in graduate economics education. Their empirical findings reveal substantial, in fact,…

  16. Uniform formation of Au coated polystyrene core-shell structure using metallization process

    Kim, Kyoungseob; Koo, Jonghyun; Roh, Yonghan, E-mail: yhroh@skku.edu

    2011-08-01

    There are several methods for the fabrication of core-shell particles, including chemical reduction and self-assembly. In this study, the chemical reduction method was used to fabricate 100 nm, Au-coated polystyrene nanoparticles. The formation of the gold layer was based on the increase of gold coverage by the reaction with aniline and HAuCl{sub 4}. This method allowed for efficient control of the gold coverage and led to relatively stable products. The formation of Au clusters on the surface of the 100 nm polystyrene beads was characterized by scanning electron microscope and high resolution tunneling electron microscope. As a result, the Au-coated nanoparticles can be used in various applications such as surface plasmon resonators, drug delivery systems and electronic optical devices.

  17. Metal-core/semiconductor-shell nanocones for broadband solar absorption enhancement.

    Zhou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Jia

    2014-02-12

    Nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices have exhibited several advantages, such as reduced reflection, extraordinary light trapping, and so forth. In particular, semiconductor nanostructures provide optical modes that have strong dependence on the size and geometry. Metallic nanostructures also attract a lot of attention because of the appealing plasmonic effect on the near-field enhancement. In this study, we propose a novel design, the metal-core/semiconductor-shell nanocones with the core radius varying in a linearly gradient style. With a thin layer of semiconductor absorber coated on a metallic cone, such a design can lead to significant and broadband absorption enhancement across the entire visible and near-infrared solar spectrum. As an example of demonstration, a layer of 16 nm thick crystalline silicon (c-Si) coated on a silver nanocone can absorb 27% of standard solar radiation across a broad spectral range of 300-1100 nm, which is equivalent to a 700 nm thick flat c-Si film. Therefore, the absorption enhancement factor approaching the Yablonovitch limit is achieved with this design. The significant absorption enhancement can be ascribed to three types of optical modes, that is, Fabry-Perot modes, plasmonic modes, and hybrid modes that combine the features of the previous two. In addition, the unique nanocone geometry enables the linearly gradient radius of the semiconductor shell, which can support multiple optical resonances, critical for the broadband absorption. Our design may find general usage as elements for the low cost, high efficiency solar conversion and water-splitting devices.

  18. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg 2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4 G Hz = 1.3 x 10 20 W Hz -1 . The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with M r r r ∼ sun yr -1 .

  19. Relaxation processes in optically excites metal clusters; Relaxationsprozesse in optisch angeregten Metallclustern

    Stanzel, J.

    2007-08-10

    The present work is concerned with the dynamics of optically excited metal clusters in the gas phase. Small mass-selected gold and tungsten cluster anions (Au{sup -}{sub n}, n=5-8, 14, 20 and W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) are studied using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Depending on the electronic structure in the valence region as well as on the optical excitation energy fundamentally different relaxation processes are observed. In small gold cluster anions excited with 1.56 eV an isolated electronically excited state is populated. The time-dependent measurements are strongly sizedependent and open insights into photoinduced geometry changes of the nuclear framework. Oscillatory vibrational wavepacket motion in Au{sup -}{sub 5}, an extremely longlived ({tau} >90 ns) electronically excited state in Au{sup -}{sub 6} as well as photoinduced melting in Au{sup -}{sub 7} and Au{sup -}{sub 8} is monitored in real time. By increasing the OPTICAL excitation energy to 3.12 eV a completely different scenario is observed. A multitude of electronically excited states can be reached upon optical excitation and as a consequence electronic relaxation processes that take place on a time scale of 1 ps are dominating. This is shown for Au{sup -}{sub 7}, Au{sup -}{sub 14} and Au{sup -}{sub 20}. Compared to gold clusters, tungsten clusters are characterized by a significantly higher electronic density of states in the valence region. Therefore electronic relaxation processes are much more likely and take place on a significantly faster time scale. The fast electronic relaxation processes are distinguished from pure vibrational relaxation. It is shown that already in the four atomic tungsten cluster W{sup -}{sub 4} electronic relaxation processes take place on a time scale of 30 fs. In all investigated tungsten cluster anions (W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) an equilibrium between electronic and vibrational system is reached within around 1 ps after optical excitation which

  20. DRY MERGER RATE AND POST-MERGER FRACTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER CORE

    Cordero, Juan P.; Campusano, Luis E.; Haines, Christopher P. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); De Propris, Roberto [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, Vaisalantie 20, Piikkio, FI-21500 (Finland); Weinzirl, Tim [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jogee, Shardha, E-mail: jcordero@das.uchile.cl [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We evaluate the dry merger activity in the Coma cluster, using a spectroscopically complete sample of 70 red-sequence (RS) galaxies, most of which (∼75%) are located within 0.2R{sub 200} (∼0.5 Mpc) from the cluster center, with data from the Coma Treasury Survey obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The fraction of close galaxy pairs in the sample is the proxy employed for the estimation of the merger activity. We identify 5 pairs and 1 triplet, enclosing a total of 13 galaxies, based on limits on projected separation and line-of-sight velocity difference. Of these systems, none show signs of ongoing interaction, and therefore we do not find any true mergers in our sample. This negative result sets a 1σ upper limit of 1.5% per Gyr for the major dry merger rate, consistent with the low rates expected in present-day clusters. Detailed examination of the images of all the RS galaxies in the sample reveals only one with low surface brightness features identifiable as the remnant of a past merger or interaction, implying a post-merger fraction below 2%.

  1. DRY MERGER RATE AND POST-MERGER FRACTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER CORE

    Cordero, Juan P.; Campusano, Luis E.; Haines, Christopher P.; De Propris, Roberto; Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, Shardha

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the dry merger activity in the Coma cluster, using a spectroscopically complete sample of 70 red-sequence (RS) galaxies, most of which (∼75%) are located within 0.2R 200 (∼0.5 Mpc) from the cluster center, with data from the Coma Treasury Survey obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The fraction of close galaxy pairs in the sample is the proxy employed for the estimation of the merger activity. We identify 5 pairs and 1 triplet, enclosing a total of 13 galaxies, based on limits on projected separation and line-of-sight velocity difference. Of these systems, none show signs of ongoing interaction, and therefore we do not find any true mergers in our sample. This negative result sets a 1σ upper limit of 1.5% per Gyr for the major dry merger rate, consistent with the low rates expected in present-day clusters. Detailed examination of the images of all the RS galaxies in the sample reveals only one with low surface brightness features identifiable as the remnant of a past merger or interaction, implying a post-merger fraction below 2%

  2. The helium abundance in the metal-poor globular clusters M30 and NGC 6397

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    We present the helium abundance of the two metal-poor clusters M30 and NGC 6397. Helium estimates have been obtained by using the high-resolution spectrograph FLAMES at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope and by measuring the He I line at 4471 Å in 24 and 35 horizontal branch (HB) stars in M30 and NGC 6397, respectively. This sample represents the largest data set of He abundances collected so far in metal-poor clusters. The He mass fraction turns out to be Y = 0.252 ± 0.003 (σ = 0.021) for M30 and Y = 0.241 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.023) for NGC 6397. These values are fully compatible with the cosmological abundance, thus suggesting that the HB stars are not strongly enriched in He. The small spread of the Y distributions are compatible with those expected from the observed main sequence splitting. Finally, we find a hint of a weak anticorrelation between Y and [O/Fe] in NGC 6397 in agreement with the prediction that O-poor stars are formed by (He-enriched) gas polluted by the products of hot proton-capture reactions.

  3. Open cluster Dolidze 25: Stellar parameters and the metallicity in the Galactic anticentre

    Negueruela, I.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Lorenzo, J.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The young open cluster Dolidze 25, in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, has been attributed a very low metallicity, with typical abundances between -0.5 and -0.7 dex below solar. Aims: We intend to derive accurate cluster parameters and accurate stellar abundances for some of its members. Methods: We have obtained a large sample of intermediate- and high-resolution spectra for stars in and around Dolidze 25. We used the fastwind code to generate stellar atmosphere models to fit the observed spectra. We derive stellar parameters for a large number of OB stars in the area, and abundances of oxygen and silicon for a number of stars with spectral types around B0. Results: We measure low abundances in stars of Dolidze 25. For the three stars with spectral types around B0, we find 0.3 dex (Si) and 0.5 dex (O) below the values typical in the solar neighbourhood. These values, even though not as low as those given previously, confirm Dolidze 25 and the surrounding H ii region Sh2-284 as the most metal-poor star-forming environment known in the Milky Way. We derive a distance 4.5 ± 0.3 kpc to the cluster (rG ≈ 12.3 kpc). The cluster cannot be older than ~3 Myr, and likely is not much younger. One star in its immediate vicinity, sharing the same distance, has Si and O abundances at most 0.15 dex below solar. Conclusions: The low abundances measured in Dolidze 25 are compatible with currently accepted values for the slope of the Galactic metallicity gradient, if we take into account that variations of at least ±0.15 dex are observed at a given radius. The area traditionally identified as Dolidze 25 is only a small part of a much larger star-forming region that comprises the whole dust shell associated with Sh2-284 and very likely several other smaller H ii regions in its vicinity. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, the Mercator Telescope, and the telescopes of the Isaac Newton Group.

  4. Assessment of acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from River Uppanar, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India

    Ayyamperumal, T.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2006-01-01

    An acid leachable technique is employed in core samples (C1, C2 and C3) to develop a baseline data on the sediment quality for trace metals of River Uppanar, Cuddalore, southeast coast of India. Acid leachable metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd) indicate peak values at the sulphidic phase and enrichment of metals in the surface layers are due to the anthropogenic activities. Association of trace metals with Fe, Mn indicates their adsorption onto Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and their correlation with S indicate that they are precipitated as metal sulphides. Factor analysis identified three possible types of geochemical associations and the supremacy of trace metals along with Fe, Mn, S and mud supports their geochemical associations. Factor analysis also signifies that anthropogenic activities have affected both the estuarine and fresh water regions of River Uppanar. - Both natural and anthropogenic factors are affecting metals in sediments

  5. Hot stars in young massive clusters: Mapping the current Galactic metallicity

    de la Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Herrero, Artemio

    2013-06-01

    Young Massive Clusters (YMCs) with ages guarantee that these objects present the same chemical composition than the surrounding environment where they are recently born. Finally, the YMCs host very massive stars whose extreme luminosities allow to accomplish detailed spectroscopic analyses even in the most distant regions of the Milky Way. Our group has carried out ISAAC/VLT spectroscopic observations of hot massive stars belonging to several YMCs in different locations around the Galactic disk. As a result, high signal-to-noise, near-infrared spectra of dozens of blue massive stars (including many OB supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars and a B hypergiant) have been obtained. These data are fully reduced, and NLTE spherical atmosphere modeling is in process. Several line diagnostics will be combined in order to calculate metal abundances accurately for each cluster. The diverse locations of the clusters will allow us to draw a two-dimensional chemical map of the Galactic disk for the first time. The study of the radial and azimuthal variations of elemental abundances will be crucial for understanding the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Particularly, the ratio between Fe-peak and alpha elements will constitute a powerful tool to investigate the past stellar populations that originated the current Galactic chemistry.

  6. Theoretical study of electronic and dynamic properties of simple metal clusters in jellium model

    El-Amine Madjet, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the electronic properties of alkali-metal clusters in various theoretical approximations and in the framework of the spherical jellium model. We have investigated the ground state properties of alkali clusters both in the LDA (local density approximation) and in HF (Hartree-Fock) theory. We have compared the LDA predictions of the ground state properties to predictions obtained within the HF theory. Such a comparison permitted us to check the validity of the local density functional theory in describing the ground state of a finite fermion system. For the study of collective dipolar excitations in clusters, we have considered an electromagnetic excitation. We have investigated the collective modes in the following approximations: random phase approximation (RPA), time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA) and the sum-rules approach. An assessment of the approximation for the continuum state within the RPA is made by comparing with TDLDA calculations for the static and dynamic electronic properties. The comparative study that we have done on the exchange-correlation effects on the electronic and optical properties have shown that the discrepancies with measured data are due mostly to the jellium approximation for the ionic background. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Density-functional theory study of ionic inhomogeneity in metal clusters using SC-ISJM

    Payami, Mahmoud; Mahmoodi, Tahereh

    2017-12-01

    In this work we have applied the recently formulated self-compressed inhomogeneous stabilized jellium model [51] to describe the equilibrium electronic and geometric properties of atomic-closed-shell simple metal clusters of AlN (N = 13, 19, 43, 55, 79, 87, 135, 141), NaN, and CsN (N = 9, 15, 27, 51, 59, 65, 89, 113). To validate the results, we have also performed first-principles pseudo-potential calculations and used them as our reference. In the model, we have considered two regions consisting of ;surface; and ;inner; ones, the border separating them being sharp. This generalization makes possible to decouple the relaxations of different parts of the system. The results show that the present model correctly predicts the size reductions seen in most of the clusters. It also predicts increase in size of some clusters, as observed from first-principles results. Moreover, the changes in inter-layer distances, being as contractions or expansions, are in good agreement with the atomic simulation results. For a more realistic description of the properties, it is possible to improve the method of choosing the surface thicknesses or generalize the model to include more regions than just two.

  8. Homochiral coordination polymers with helixes and metal clusters based on lactate derivatives

    Xu, Zhong-Xuan, E-mail: xuzhongxuan4201@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi, Guizhou 563002 (China); Ma, Yu-Lu [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Lv, Guo-ling [Department of Chemistry, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi, Guizhou 563002 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Utilizing the lactic acid derivatives (R)-4-(1-carboxyethoxy)benzoic acid (denoted: (R)-H{sub 2}CBA) and (S)-4-(1-carboxyethoxy)benzoic acid (denoted: (S)-H{sub 2}CBA)as chiral linkers to self-assemble with 4, 4′-bipyridine (denoted: BIP) and Cd(II) ions, a couple of three-dimensional homochiral coordination polymers, namely [Cd{sub 3}((R)-CBA){sub 3} (BIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·xGuest (1-D) and [Cd{sub 3}((S)-CBA){sub 3}(BIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·xGuest (1-L), have been synthesized under solvothermal reaction condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the two complexes contain single helical chains based on enantiopure ligands and cadmium clusters. Moreover, some physical characteristics such as PXRD, thermal stability, solid-state circular dichroism (CD) and luminescent were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Utilizing enantiomeric lactic acid derivatives (R)-H{sub 2}CBA and (S)-H{sub 2}CBA to assemble with Cd{sup 2+} ions and ancillary BIP ligands, a couple of 3D homochiral coordination polymers with metal clusters and helical chains have been prepared by hydrothermal reaction. - Highlights: • Chiral lactic acid derivative. • Enantiomeric coordination polymer. • Helical chain. • Trinuclear cadmium cluster.

  9. Comparison of oxide- and metal-core behavior during CRBRP [Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant] station blackout

    Polkinghorne, S.T.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A resurrected concept that could significantly improve the inherently safe response of Liquid-Metal cooled Reactors (LMRs) during severe undercooling transients is the use of metallic fuel. Analytical studies have been reported on for the transient behavior of metal-fuel cores in innovative, inherently safe LMR designs. This paper reports on an analysis done, instead, for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design with the only innovative change being the incorporation of a metal-fuel core. The SSC-L code was used to simulate a protected station blackout accident in the CRBRP with a 943 MWt Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal-fuel core. The results, compared with those for the oxide-fueled CRBRP, show that the margin to boiling is greater for the IFR core. However, the cooldown transient is more severe due to the faster thermal response time of metallic fuel. Some additional calculations to assess possible LMR design improvements (reduced primary system pressure losses, extended flow coastdown) are also discussed. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  10. CORA. A thermal and hydraulic transient analysis computer code for a cluster of reactor core assemblies

    Johnson, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is arranged for natural circulation emergency core cooling in the event of loss of all plant electrical power. This design feature was conclusively demonstrated in a series of four natural circulation transient tests during the plant startup testing program in 1980 and 1981. Predictions, of core performance during these tests were made using the Westinghouse Hanford Company CORA computer program. The predictions, which compared well with measured plant data, were used in the extrapolation process to demonstrate the validity of the FFTF plant safety models and codes. This paper provides a brief description of the CORA code and includes typical comparisons of predictions to measured plant test data

  11. ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS IN THE COLLAPSED-CORE CLUSTER M15

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Lubell, Gabriel M. G.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M.; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed deep photometry of the central region of the Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our data set consists of images in far-UV (FUV 140 ; F140LP), near-UV (NUV 220 ; F220W), and blue (B 435 ; F435W) filters. The addition of an optical filter complements previous UV work on M15 by providing an additional constraint on the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we identified several populations that arise from non-canonical evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars, blue hook (BHk) stars, cataclysmic variables (CVs), and helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs). Due to preliminary identification of several He WD and BHk candidates, we add M15 as a cluster containing an He WD sequence and suggest it be included among clusters with a BHk population. We also investigated a subset of CV candidates that appear in the gap between the main sequence (MS) and WDs in FUV 140 -NUV 220 but lie securely on the MS in NUV 220 -B 435 . These stars may represent a magnetic CV or detached WD-MS binary population. Additionally, we analyze our candidate He WDs using model cooling sequences to estimate their masses and ages and investigate the plausibility of thin versus thick hydrogen envelopes. Finally, we identify a class of UV-bright stars that lie between the HB and WD cooling sequences, a location not usually populated on cluster CMDs. We conclude these stars may be young, low-mass He WDs.

  12. clusters

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  13. clusters

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  14. Implementation of High-Order Multireference Coupled-Cluster Methods on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture.

    Aprà, E; Kowalski, K

    2016-03-08

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of multireference coupled-cluster formalism with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples (MRCCSD(T)), which is capable of taking advantage of the processing power of the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We discuss the integration of two levels of parallelism underlying the MRCCSD(T) implementation with computational kernels designed to offload the computationally intensive parts of the MRCCSD(T) formalism to Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. Special attention is given to the enhancement of the parallel performance by task reordering that has improved load balancing in the noniterative part of the MRCCSD(T) calculations. We also discuss aspects regarding efficient optimization and vectorization strategies.

  15. Blood trace metals in a sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis geographical cluster.

    De Benedetti, Stefano; Lucchini, Giorgio; Del Bò, Cristian; Deon, Valeria; Marocchi, Alessandro; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder with unknown etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors interplay to determine the onset and the course of the disease. Exposure to toxic metals has been proposed to be involved in the etiology of the disease either through a direct damage or by promoting oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated the concentration of a panel of metals in serum and whole blood of a small group of sporadic patients, all living in a defined geographical area, for which acid mine drainage has been reported. ALS prevalence in this area is higher than in the rest of Italy. Results were analyzed with software based on artificial neural networks. High concentrations of metals (in particular Se, Mn and Al) were associated with the disease group. Arsenic serum concentration resulted lower in ALS patients, but it positively correlated with disease duration. Comet assay was performed to evaluate endogenous DNA damage that resulted not different between patients and controls. Up to now only few studies considered geographically well-defined clusters of ALS patients. Common geographical origin among patients and controls gave us the chance to perform metallomic investigations under comparable conditions of environmental exposure. Elaboration of these data with software based on machine learning processes has the potential to be extremely useful to gain a comprehensive view of the complex interactions eventually leading to disease, even in a small number of subjects.

  16. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Alloy Cores with Spatially Tuned Permeability for Advanced Power Magnetics Applications

    Byerly, K.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; Moon, S. R.; Leary, A. M.; Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Simizu, S.; Beddingfield, R.; Yu, Y.; Feichter, G.; Noebe, R.; Bowman, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-06-01

    Metal amorphous nanocomposite (MANC) alloys are an emerging class of soft magnetic materials showing promise for a range of inductive components targeted for higher power density and higher efficiency power conversion applications including inductors, transformers, and rotating electrical machinery. Magnetization reversal mechanisms within these alloys are typically determined by composition optimization as well as controlled annealing treatments to generate a nanocomposite structure composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous precursor. Here we demonstrate the concept of spatially varying the permeability within a given component for optimization of performance by using the strain annealing process. The concept is realized experimentally through the smoothing of the flux profile from the inner to outer core radius achieved by a monotonic variation in tension during the strain annealing process. Great potential exists for an extension of this concept to a wide range of other power magnetic components and more complex spatially varying permeability profiles through advances in strain annealing techniques and controls.

  17. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS: PHYSICAL AND KINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARLESS CORE Oph A-N6

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Myers, Philip C.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Di Francesco, James [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Belloche, Arnaud [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Plume, Rene, E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    We present high spatial (<300 AU) and spectral (0.07 km s{sup -1}) resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the dense starless cluster core Oph A-N6 in the 1 mm dust continuum and the 3-2 line of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +}. The dust continuum observations reveal a compact source not seen in single-dish observations, of size {approx}1000 AU and mass 0.005-0.01 M{sub Sun }. The combined line and single-dish observations reveal a core of size 3000 Multiplication-Sign 1400 AU elongated in a NW-SE direction, with almost no variation in either line width nor line center velocity across the map, and very small non-thermal motions. The deuterium fraction has a peak value of {approx}0.15 and is >0.05 over much of the core. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density profile across the major axis of Oph A-N6 is well represented by an isothermal cylinder, with temperature 20 K, peak density 7.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. The mass of Oph A-N6 is estimated to be 0.29 M{sub Sun }, compared to a value of 0.18 M{sub Sun} from the isothermal cylinder analysis, and 0.63 M{sub Sun} for the critical mass for fragmentation of an isothermal cylinder. Compared to isolated low-mass cores, Oph A-N6 shows similar narrow line widths and small velocity variation, with a deuterium fraction similar to 'evolved' dense cores. It is significantly smaller than isolated cores, with larger peak column and volume density. The available evidence suggests that Oph A-N6 has formed through the fragmentation of the Oph A filament and is the precursor to a low-mass star. The dust continuum emission suggests that it may already have begun to form a star.

  18. Primary Damage Characteristics in Metals Under Irradiation in the Cores of Thermal and Fast Reactors

    Pechenkin, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    For an analysis and forecasting of radiation-induced phenomena in structural materials of WWERs, PWRs and BN reactors the fast neutron fluence is usually used (for structural materials of the reactor cores and internals the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.1 MeV, for WWER and PWRs vessel steels the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.5 MeV in Russia and East Europe, and with energy > 1.0 MeV in USA and France). Displacements per atom (dpa) seem to be a more appropriate correlation parameter, because it allows comparing the results of materials irradiation in different neutron energy spectra or with different types of particles (neutrons, ions, fast electrons). Energy spectra of primary knocked atoms (PKA) and 'effective' dpa, which are introduced to take into account the point defect recombination during the relaxation stage of a displacement cascade, can be still better representation of the effect of irradiation on material properties. In this work the results of calculating dose rates (dpa/s, NRT-model), PKA energy spectra and PKA mean energies in metals under irradiation in the cores of Russian reactors WWER-440, WWER-1000 (both power thermal reactors) and BN-600 (power fast reactor) and BR-10 (test fast reactor) are presented. In all the reactors Fe and Zr are considered, with addition of Ti and W in BN-600. 'Effective' dose rates in these metals are calculated. Limitations and uncertainties in the standard dpa formulation (the NRT-dpa) are discussed. IPPE activities in the fields related to the TM subject are considered

  19. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    Li Siheng; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag(MFe 2 O 4 ) (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag(C) microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe 3+ and M 2+ on the surface of the Ag(C) spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core. - Graphical abstract: MFe 2 O 4 (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn) hollow spheres with a noble metal nanoparticle core were successfully prepared by using colloidal metal(C) core-shell spheres as templates with no need of surface modification. The shell thickness and magnetic properties of the ferrite hollow spheres could be controlled by varying the synthetic parameters

  20. Polypyrrole shell@3D-Ni metal core structured electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Chen, Gao-Feng; Su, Yu-Zhi; Kuang, Pan-Yong; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Chen, Dao-Yi; Wu, Xu; Li, Nan; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2015-03-16

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanometal films serving as current collectors have attracted much interest recently owing to their promising application in high-performance supercapacitors. In the process of the electrochemical reaction, the 3D structure can provide a short diffusion path for fast ion transport, and the highly conductive nanometal may serve as a backbone for facile electron transfer. In this work, a novel polypyrrole (PPy) shell@3D-Ni-core composite is developed to enhance the electrochemical performance of conventional PPy. With the introduction of a Ni metal core, the as-prepared material exhibits a high specific capacitance (726 F g(-1) at a charge/discharge rate of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (a decay of 33% in Csp with charge/discharge rates increasing from 1 to 20 A g(-1)), and high cycle stability (only a small decrease of 4.2% in Csp after 1000 cycles at a scan rate of 100 mV s(-1)). Furthermore, an aqueous symmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated by using the as-prepared composite as electrodes; the device demonstrates a high energy density (≈21.2 Wh kg(-1)) and superior long-term cycle ability (only 4.4% and 18.6% loss in Csp after 2000 and 5000 cycles, respectively). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Neutronic Parameters in Electron Accelerator-driven Subcritical Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    Marziye Ebrahimkhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of the core neutronic parameters is one of the key components in all nuclear reactors. In this research, the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in a uranium target have been calculated. In addition, sensitivity of the core neutronic parameters in accelerator-driven subcritical advanced liquid metal reactors, such as electron beam energy (Ee and source multiplication coefficient (ks, has been investigated. A Monte Carlo code (MCNPX_2.6 has been used to calculate neutronic parameters such as effective multiplication coefficient (keff, net neutron multiplication (M, neutron yield (Yn/e, energy constant gain (G0, energy gain (G, importance of neutron source (φ∗, axial and radial distributions of neutron flux, and power peaking factor (Pmax/Pave in two axial and radial directions of the reactor core for four fuel loading patterns. According to the results, safety margin and accelerator current (Ie have been decreased in the highest case of ks, but G and φ∗ have increased by 88.9% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, for LP1 loading pattern, with increasing Ee from 100 MeV up to 1 GeV, Yn/e and G improved by 91.09% and 10.21%, and Ie and Pacc decreased by 91.05% and 10.57%, respectively. The results indicate that placement of the Np–Pu assemblies on the periphery allows for a consistent keff because the Np–Pu assemblies experience less burn-up.

  2. A High Performance Multi-Core FPGA Implementation for 2D Pixel Clustering for the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) Processor

    Sotiropoulou, C-L; The ATLAS collaboration; Beretta, M; Gkaitatzis, S; Kordas, K; Nikolaidis, S; Petridou, C; Volpi, G

    2014-01-01

    The high performance multi-core 2D pixel clustering FPGA implementation used for the input system of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) processor is presented. The input system for the FTK processor will receive data from the Pixel and micro-strip detectors read out drivers (RODs) at 760Gbps, the full rate of level 1 triggers. Clustering is required as a method to reduce the high rate of the received data before further processing, as well as to determine the cluster centroid for obtaining obtain the best spatial measurement. Our implementation targets the pixel detectors and uses a 2D-clustering algorithm that takes advantage of a moving window technique to minimize the logic required for cluster identification. The design is fully generic and the cluster detection window size can be adjusted for optimizing the cluster identification process. Τhe implementation can be parallelized by instantiating multiple cores to identify different clusters independently thus exploiting more FPGA resources. This flexibility mak...

  3. Hydrostatic Chandra X-ray analysis of SPT-selected galaxy clusters - I. Evolution of profiles and core properties

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We analyse Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of a set of galaxy clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope using a new publicly available forward-modelling projection code, MBPROJ2, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. By fitting a power law plus constant entropy model we find no evidence for a central entropy floor in the lowest entropy systems. A model of the underlying central entropy distribution shows a narrow peak close to zero entropy which accounts for 60 per cent of the systems, and a second broader peak around 130 keV cm2. We look for evolution over the 0.28-1.2 redshift range of the sample in density, pressure, entropy and cooling time at 0.015R500 and at 10 kpc radius. By modelling the evolution of the central quantities with a simple model, we find no evidence for a non-zero slope with redshift. In addition, a non-parametric sliding median shows no significant change. The fraction of cool-core clusters with central cooling times below 2 Gyr is consistent above and below z = 0.6 (˜30-40 per cent). Both by comparing the median thermodynamic profiles, centrally biased towards cool cores, in two redshift bins, and by modelling the evolution of the unbiased average profile as a function of redshift, we find no significant evolution beyond self-similar scaling in any of our examined quantities. Our average modelled radial density, entropy and cooling-time profiles appear as power laws with breaks around 0.2R500. The dispersion in these quantities rises inwards of this radius to around 0.4 dex, although some of this scatter can be fitted by a bimodal model.

  4. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  5. Ligand combination strategy for the preparation of novel low-dimensional and open-framework metal cluster materials

    Anokhina, Ekaterina V.

    Low-dimensional and open-framework materials containing transition metals have a wide range of applications in redox catalysis, solid-state batteries, and electronic and magnetic devices. This dissertation reports on research carried out with the goal to develop a strategy for the preparation of low-dimensional and open-framework materials using octahedral metal clusters as building blocks. Our approach takes its roots from crystal engineering principles where the desired framework topologies are achieved through building block design. The key idea of this work is to induce directional bonding preferences in the cluster units using a combination of ligands with a large difference in charge density. This investigation led to the preparation and characterization of a new family of niobium oxychloride cluster compounds with original structure types exhibiting 1ow-dimensional or open-framework character. Most of these materials have framework topologies unprecedented in compounds containing octahedral clusters. Comparative analysis of their structural features indicates that the novel cluster connectivity patterns in these systems are the result of complex interplay between the effects of anisotropic ligand arrangement in the cluster unit and optimization of ligand-counterion electrostatic interactions. The important role played by these factors sets niobium oxychloride systems apart from cluster compounds with one ligand type or statistical ligand distribution where the main structure-determining factor is the total number of ligands. These results provide a blueprint for expanding the ligand combination strategy to other transition metal cluster systems and for the future rational design of cluster-based materials.

  6. A new type of sandwich panel with periodic cellular metal cores and its mechanical performances

    Lim, Chae-Hong; Jeon, Insu; Kang, Ki-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on the mechanical properties and optimization of truss PCMs (periodic cellular metals), but those on the fabrication process, which is one of key factors determining the survivability of PCMs in the market, have been relatively limited. This study introduces a new idea on the fabrication of quasi Kagome truss cored sandwich panels, which is based on the expanded-metal process. And the mechanical behavior of the sandwich panels is to be evaluated. The mechanical strengths and failure mechanisms under compression and bending load are estimated based on elementary mechanics of materials, and the optimal design is derived. Its validity is proved by comparison with the results of experiments. The results showed that the new idea is promising with respect to all three requirements, i.e., the morphology, fabrication cost, and raw materials. The simple mechanical analysis was sufficiently effective and accurate for estimating the performance and failure mode of the sandwich panels. In the experiments, sandwich panel specimens of three different designs were compared in their bending behaviors to demonstrate sensitivity of geometric parameters. Namely, although all the designs had little difference in their load capacity-per-weight, the failure mechanisms and the behaviors after a peak load were totally different.

  7. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: Application of acid leachable technique

    Janaki-Raman, D.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Mohan, S.P.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO 3 , organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO 3 indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources. - Natural and anthropogenic trace metals afeecting mangrove sediments

  8. Ferromagnetism and suppression of metallic clusters in Fe implanted ZnO -- a phenomenon related to defects?

    Arenholz, Elke; Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; Reuther, H.; Kuepper, K.; Grenzer, J.; Xu, Q.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ZnO(0001) single crystals annealed in high vacuum with respect to their magnetic properties and cluster formation tendency after implant-doping with Fe. While metallic Fe cluster formation is suppressed, no evidence for the relevance of the Fe magnetic moment to the observed ferromagnetism was found. The latter along with the cluster suppression is discussed with respect to defects in the ZnO host matrix, since the crystalline quality of the substrates was lowered due to the preparation as observed by x-ray diffraction

  9. Ferromagnetism and suppression of metallic clusters in Fe implanted ZnO: a phenomenon related to defects?

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K; Talut, G; Reuther, H; Kuepper, K; Grenzer, J; Xu Qingyu; Muecklich, A; Helm, M; Fassbender, J; Arenholz, E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ZnO(0 0 0 1) single crystals annealed in high vacuum with respect to their magnetic properties and cluster formation tendency after implant-doping with Fe. While metallic Fe cluster formation is suppressed, no evidence for the relevance of the Fe magnetic moment to the observed ferromagnetism was found. The latter along with the cluster suppression is discussed with respect to defects in the ZnO host matrix, since the crystalline quality of the substrates was lowered due to the preparation as observed by x-ray diffraction

  10. Formation of transition metal cluster adducts on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes: HRTEM studies

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    We report the formation of chromium clusters on the outer walls of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The clusters were obtained by reacting purified SWNTs with chromium hexacarbonyl in dibutyl ether at 100°C. The functionalized SWNTs were characterized by thermogravimetic analysis, XPS, and high-resolution TEM. The curvature of the SWNTs and the high mobility of the chromium moieties on graphitic surfaces allow the growth of the metal clusters and we propose a mechanism for their formation. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of heavy metals in sediment cores from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex

    Mueller, C.S.; Ramelow, G.J.; Beck, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Sediment cores were obtained from several locations in the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, including Calcasieu Lake, Calcasieu River, two bayou tributaries, and Lake Charles during the period from November 1983 to November 1985. The cores were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb. The approximate sedimentation rate and a core chronology were determined by the use of 137 Cs and 210 Pb isotopes. The increase in metal concentrations after 1933, particularly along Bayou d'Inde where most industries are located, points to anthropogenic input if these metals to the system. The fact that metal concentrations tend to merge to a common value prior to 1940 throughout the system suggests that geological factors do not contribute to the observed variations in metal concentrations in this area. The background concentrations of heavy metals found in this study for the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex were: Cu (10 mg kg -1 ), Cr (25 mg kg -1 ), Pb (8 mg kg -1 ), and Zn (40 mg kg -1 ). The main emphasis of the study focused along Bayou d'Inde due to the enhanced levels of heavy metals found

  12. Low Metallicities and Old Ages for Three Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Gu, Meng; Conroy, Charlie; Law, David; van Dokkum, Pieter; Yan, Renbin; Wake, David; Bundy, Kevin; Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Drory, Niv; Grabowski, Kathleen; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Zhang, Kai

    2018-05-01

    A large population of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) was recently discovered in the Coma cluster. Here we present optical spectra of three such UDGs, DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17, which have central surface brightnesses of μ g ≈ 24.4–25.1 mag arcsec‑2. The spectra were acquired as part of an ancillary program within the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey. We stacked 19 fibers in the central regions from larger integral field units (IFUs) per source. With over 13.5 hr of on-source integration, we achieved a mean signal-to-noise ratio in the optical of 9.5 Å‑1, 7.9 Å‑1, and 5.0 Å‑1, respectively, for DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17. Stellar population models applied to these spectra enable measurements of recession velocities, ages, and metallicities. The recession velocities of DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17 are {6599}-25+40 km s‑1, {6402}-39+41 km s‑1, and {8315}-43+43 km s‑1, spectroscopically confirming that all of them reside in the Coma cluster. The stellar populations of these three galaxies are old and metal-poor, with ages of {7.9}-2.5+3.6 Gyr, {8.9}-3.3+4.3 Gyr, and {9.1}-5.5+3.9 Gyr, and iron abundances of [Fe/H] -{1.0}-0.4+0.3, -{1.3}-0.4+0.4, and -{0.8}-0.5+0.5, respectively. Their stellar masses are (3–6) × 108 M ⊙. The UDGs in our sample are as old or older than galaxies at similar stellar mass or velocity dispersion (only DF 44 has an independently measured dispersion). They all follow the well-established stellar mass–stellar metallicity relation, while DF 44 lies below the velocity dispersion-metallicity relation. These results, combined with the fact that UDGs are unusually large for their stellar masses, suggest that stellar mass plays a more important role in setting stellar population properties for these galaxies than either size or surface brightness.

  13. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  14. Liquid-liquid phase separation and cluster formation at deposition of metals under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Gorobets, O. Yu; Gorobets, Yu I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.; Grebinaha, V. I.; Kyba, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The formation and dynamic of expansion and deformation of the liquid-liquid interface of an electrolyte at deposition of metals at the surface of the magnetized steel ball is considered in this paper. The electrochemical processes were investigated in an external magnetic field directed at an arbitrary angle to the force of gravity. These processes are accompanied by the formation of effectively paramagnetic clusters of electrochemical products - magnions. Tyndall effect was used for detection of the presence of magnions near the magnetized steel electrode in a solution. The shape of the interface separating the regions with different concentration of magnions, i.e. different magnetic susceptibilities, was described theoretically based on the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium which takes into account magnetic, hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Macrophytes, Water and Sediment of a Tropical Wetland System Using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Technique

    , N. Kumar J.I.; , M. Das; , R. Mukherji; , R.N. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems is becoming a global phenomenon because these metals are indestructible and most of them have toxic effects on living organisms. Most of the fresh water bodies all over the world are getting contaminated thus declining their suitability. Therefore, monitoring and assessment of such freshwater systems has become an environmental concern. This study aims to elucidate the useful role of the cluster analysis to assess the relationship and interdependenc...

  16. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  17. Implementing core NICE guidelines for osteoarthritis in primary care with a model consultation (MOSAICS): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Dziedzic, K S; Healey, E L; Porcheret, M; Afolabi, E K; Lewis, M; Morden, A; Jinks, C; McHugh, G A; Ryan, S; Finney, A; Main, C; Edwards, J J; Paskins, Z; Pushpa-Rajah, A; Hay, E M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a model osteoarthritis consultation, compared with usual care, on physical function and uptake of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) osteoarthritis recommendations, in adults ≥45 years consulting with peripheral joint pain in UK general practice. Two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial with baseline health survey. Eight general practices in England. 525 adults ≥45 years consulting for peripheral joint pain, amongst 28,443 population survey recipients. Four intervention practices delivered the model osteoarthritis consultation to patients consulting with peripheral joint pain; four control practices continued usual care. The primary clinical outcome of the trial was the SF-12 physical component score (PCS) at 6 months; the main secondary outcome was uptake of NICE core recommendations by 6 months, measured by osteoarthritis quality indicators. A Linear Mixed Model was used to analyse clinical outcome data (SF-12 PCS). Differences in quality indicator outcomes were assessed using logistic regression. 525 eligible participants were enrolled (mean age 67.3 years, SD 10.5; 59.6% female): 288 from intervention and 237 from control practices. There were no statistically significant differences in SF-12 PCS: mean difference at the 6-month primary endpoint was -0.37 (95% CI -2.32, 1.57). Uptake of core NICE recommendations by 6 months was statistically significantly higher in the intervention arm compared with control: e.g., increased written exercise information, 20.5% (7.9, 28.3). Whilst uptake of core NICE recommendations was increased, there was no evidence of benefit of this intervention, as delivered in this pragmatic randomised trial, on the primary outcome of physical functioning at 6 months. ISRCTN06984617. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS AT LOW METALLICITY: THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466

    Shetrone, Matthew; Martell, Sarah L.; Wilkerson, Rachel; Adams, Joshua; Siegel, Michael H.; Smith, Graeme H.; Bond, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    We present low-resolution (R ≅850) spectra for 67 asymptotic giant branch (AGB), horizontal branch, and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster NGC 5466, taken with the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Sixty-six stars are confirmed, and one rejected, as cluster members based on radial velocity, which we measure to an accuracy of 16 km s -1 via template-matching techniques. CN and CH band strengths have been measured for 29 RGB and AGB stars in NGC 5466, and the band-strength indices measured from VIRUS-P data show close agreement with those measured from Keck/LRIS spectra previously taken for five of our target stars. We also determine carbon abundances from comparisons with synthetic spectra. The RGB stars in our data set cover a range in absolute V magnitude from +2 to -3, which permits us to study the rate of carbon depletion on the giant branch as well as the point of its onset. The data show a clear decline in carbon abundance with rising luminosity above the luminosity function 'bump' on the giant branch, and also a subdued range in CN band strength, suggesting ongoing internal mixing in individual stars but minor or no primordial star-to-star variation in light-element abundances.

  19. A method for the experimental determination of surface photoemission core-level shifts for 3d transition metals

    Shamsutdinov, N.R.; Sloof, W.G.; Böttger, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the photoelectron surface core-level shift (SCLS) of 3d transition metals using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental difficulties arising from the relatively large broadening of photoemission lines in the 3d transition series can be overcome by the

  20. A tetrapyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core forms metal-organic frameworks with PtS type architecture.

    Caputo, Christopher B; Vukotic, V Nicholas; Sirizzotti, Natalie M; Loeb, Stephen J

    2011-08-14

    A new tetradentate, pyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core can be prepared in good yield by a cross-coupling methodology. Two metal organic framework structures of Cu(II) with PtS-type topology having a carbon atom as the tetrahedral node have been characterized utilising this ligand. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. A numerical study of spin-dependent organization of alkali-metal atomic clusters using density-functional method

    Liu Xuan, E-mail: liu.x.ad@m.titech.ac.jp; Ito, Haruhiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Torikai, Eiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li{sub n}, Na{sub n}, K{sub n}, Rb{sub n}, and Cs{sub n} with n = 2-8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.

  2. Effects of Carbonyl Bond and Metal Cluster Dissociation and Evaporation Rates on Predictions of Nanotube Production in HiPco

    Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the co-formation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO due to its lower bond energy as compared with that ofNiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

  3. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen ad...

  4. Investigating the synthesis of ligated metal clusters in solution using a flow reactor and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Olivares, Astrid; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E

    2014-09-18

    The scalable synthesis of ligated subnanometer metal clusters containing an exact number of atoms is of interest due to the highly size-dependent catalytic, electronic, and optical properties of these species. While significant research has been conducted on the batch preparation of clusters through reduction synthesis in solution, the processes of metal complex reduction as well as cluster nucleation, growth, and postreduction etching are still not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype temperature-controlled flow reactor for qualitatively studying cluster formation in solution at steady-state conditions. Employing this technique, methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane capping ligand, and borane-tert-butylamine reducing agent were combined in a mixing tee and introduced into a heated capillary with a known length. In this manner, the temperature dependence of the relative abundance of different ionic reactants, intermediates, and products synthesized in real time was characterized qualitatively using online mass spectrometry. A wide distribution of doubly and triply charged cationic gold clusters was observed as well as smaller singly charged organometallic complexes. The results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role in determining the relative population of cationic gold clusters and, in general, that higher temperature promotes the formation of doubly charged clusters and singly charged organometallic complexes while reducing the abundance of triply charged species. Moreover, the distribution of clusters observed at elevated temperatures is found to be consistent with that obtained at longer reaction times at room temperature, thereby demonstrating that heating may be used to access cluster distributions characteristic of different stages of batch reduction synthesis in solution.

  5. A new family of Ln₇ clusters with an ideal D(3h) metal-centered trigonal prismatic geometry, and SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

    Mazarakioti, Eleni C; Poole, Katye M; Cunha-Silva, Luis; Christou, George; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2014-08-14

    The first use of the flexible Schiff base ligand N-salicylidene-2-aminocyclohexanol in metal cluster chemistry has afforded a new family of Ln7 clusters with ideal D(3h) point group symmetry and metal-centered trigonal prismatic topology; solid-state and solution studies revealed SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

  6. Generalized vibrating potential model for collective excitations in spherical, deformed and superdeformed systems: (1) atomic nuclei, (2) metal clusters

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.

    1995-01-01

    The self-consistent vibrating potential model (VPM) is extended for description of Eλ collective excitations in atomic nuclei and metal clusters with practically any kind of static deformation. The model is convenient for a qualitative analysis and provides the RPA accuracy of numerical calculations. The VPM is applied to study Eλ giant resonances in spherical metal clusters and deformed and superdeformed nuclei. It is shown that the deformation splitting of superdeformed nuclei results in a very complicated (''jungle-like'') structure of the resonances, which makes the experimental observation of E2 and E3 giant resonances in superdeformed nuclei quite problematic. Calculations of E1 giant resonance in spherical sodium clusters Na 8 , Na 20 and Na 40 are presented, as a test of the VPM in this field. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Ab initio study of neutral (TiO2)n clusters and their interactions with water and transition metal atoms

    Çakır, D; Gülseren, O

    2012-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the growth behavior and stability of small stoichiometric (TiO 2 ) n (n = 1-10) clusters as well as their structural, electronic and magnetic properties by using the first-principles plane wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory. In order to find out the ground state geometries, a large number of initial cluster structures for each n has been searched via total energy calculations. Generally, the ground state structures for the case of n = 1-9 clusters have at least one monovalent O atom, which only binds to a single Ti atom. However, the most stable structure of the n = 10 cluster does not have any monovalent O atom. On the other hand, Ti atoms are at least fourfold coordinated for the ground state structures for n ≥ 4 clusters. Our calculations have revealed that clusters prefer to form three-dimensional structures. Furthermore, all these stoichiometric clusters have nonmagnetic ground state. The formation energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap for the most stable structure of (TiO 2 ) n clusters for each n have also been calculated. The formation energy and hence the stability increases as the cluster size grows. In addition, the interactions between the ground state structure of the (TiO 2 ) n cluster and a single water molecule have been studied. The binding energy (E b ) of the H 2 O molecule exhibits an oscillatory behavior with the size of the clusters. A single water molecule preferably binds to the cluster Ti atom through its oxygen atom, resulting an average binding energy of 1.1 eV. We have also reported the interaction of the selected clusters (n = 3, 4, 10) with multiple water molecules. We have found that additional water molecules lead to a decrease in the binding energy of these molecules to the (TiO 2 ) n clusters. Finally, the adsorption of transition metal (TM) atoms (V, Co and Pt) on the n = 10 cluster has been

  8. A Wide-Field Photometric Survey for Extratidal Tails Around Five Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2010-02-01

    Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo. Based on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. This is part of the

  9. Microfabrication of air core power inductors with metal-encapsulated polymer vias

    Kim, Jungkwun; Herrault, Florian; Yu, Xuehong; Kim, Minsoo; Shafer, Richard H; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports three-dimensional (3-D) microfabricated toroidal inductors intended for power electronics applications. A key fabrication advance is the exploitation of thick metal encapsulation of polymer pillars to form a vertical via interconnections. The radial conductors of the toroidal inductor are formed by conventional plating-through-mold techniques, while the vertical windings (up to 650 µm in height) are formed by polymer cores with metal plated on their external surfaces. This encapsulated polymer approach not only significantly reduces the required plating time but also exploits the relative ease of fabricating high-aspect-ratio SU-8 pillars. To form the top radial conductors, non-photopatternable SU-8 is introduced as a thick sacrificial layer. Two toroidal inductor geometries were fabricated and tested. The first inductor had an inner diameter of 2 mm, an outer diameter of 6 mm, 25 turns and a vertical via height of 650 µm. The second inductor had an inner diameter of 4 mm, an outer diameter of 8 mm, 50 turns and a vertical via height of 650 µm. Both inductor geometries were successfully fabricated and characterized in the frequency range of 0.1−100 MHz. Characterization results of the 25- and 50-turn inductors showed an average inductance of 76 and 200 nH, a low frequency (0.1 MHz) resistance of 0.2 and 1 Ω and a quality factor of 35 and 24 at 100 MHz, respectively. Finite-element simulations of the inductors were performed and agreed with the measured results to within 8%. The turn-to-turn breakdown voltage was measured to be in excess of 800 V and currents as high as 0.5 A could be successfully carried by the inductor windings. (paper)

  10. Central Tibetan Plateau atmospheric trace metals contamination: a 500-year record from the Puruogangri ice core

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 1980s, Asia has experienced enormous industrial development from rapid population growth, industrialization and consequent large-scale environmental changes. The inherent generated atmospheric pollution currently contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions. Asian trace metal aerosols, when deposited on glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Interpreting trace element (TE) records from glaciers implies a thorough comprehension of their provenance and temporal variability. It is then essential to discriminate the TEs' natural background components from their anthropogenic components. Here we present 500-year TE records from the Puruogangri ice core (Tibet, China) that provide a highly resolved account of the impact of past atmospheric influences, environmental processes and human activities on the central TP. A decreasing aeolian dust input to the ice cap allowed the detection of an atmospheric pollution signal. The anthropogenic pollution contribution emerges in the record since the early 1900s and increases substantially after 1935. The metallurgy (Zn, Pb and steel smelting) emission products from the former Soviet Union and especially from central Asia likely enhanced the anthropogenic deposition to the Puruogangri ice cap between 1935 and 1980, suggesting that the westerlies served as a conveyor of atmospheric pollution to central Tibet. The impact of this industrial pollution cumulated with that of the hemispheric coal and gasoline combustion which are respectively traced by Sb and Pb enrichment in the ice. The Chinese steel production accompanying the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) is proposed as a secondary but proximal source of Pb pollution affecting the ice cap between 1958 and 1976. The most recent decade (1980-1992) of the enrichment time series suggests that Puruogangri ice cap recorded the early

  11. Pair natural orbital and canonical coupled cluster reaction enthalpies involving light to heavy alkali and alkaline earth metals: the importance of sub-valence correlation.

    Minenkov, Yury; Bistoni, Giovanni; Riplinger, Christoph; Auer, Alexander A; Neese, Frank; Cavallo, Luigi

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach. Apart from reactions involving Li and Be, the FC approach resulted in non-homogeneous performance. The FC approach leads to very small errors (correlation effects. These large errors are reduced to a few kcal mol -1 if the AE approach is used or the sub-valence orbitals of metals are included in the correlation treatment. On the technical side, the CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T) results differ by a fraction of kcal mol -1 , indicating the latter method as the perfect choice when the CPU efficiency is essential. For completely black-box applications, as requested in catalysis or thermochemical calculations, we recommend the DLPNO-CCSD(T) method with all electrons that are not covered by effective core potentials included in the correlation treatment and correlation-consistent polarized core valence basis sets of cc-pwCVQZ(-PP) quality.

  12. Super-solar Metallicity Stars in the Galactic Center Nuclear Star Cluster: Unusual Sc, V, and Y Abundances

    Do, Tuan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Konopacky, Quinn; Marcinik, Joseph M.; Ghez, Andrea; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    We present adaptive-optics assisted near-infrared high-spectral-resolution observations of late-type giants in the nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way. The metallicity and elemental abundance measurements of these stars offer us an opportunity to understand the formation and evolution of the nuclear star cluster. In addition, their proximity to the supermassive black hole (∼0.5 pc) offers a unique probe of the star formation and chemical enrichment in this extreme environment. We observed two stars identified by medium spectral-resolution observations as potentially having very high metallicities. We use spectral-template fitting with the PHOENIX grid and Bayesian inference to simultaneously constrain the overall metallicity, [M/H], alpha-element abundance [α/Fe], effective temperature, and surface gravity of these stars. We find that one of the stars has very high metallicity ([M/H] > 0.6) and the other is slightly above solar metallicity. Both Galactic center stars have lines from scandium (Sc), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y) that are much stronger than allowed by the PHOENIX grid. We find, using the spectral synthesis code Spectroscopy Made Easy, that [Sc/Fe] may be an order of magnitude above solar. For comparison, we also observed an empirical calibrator in NGC 6791, the highest metallicity cluster known ([M/H] ∼ 0.4). Most lines are well matched between the calibrator and the Galactic center stars, except for Sc, V, and Y, which confirms that their abundances must be anomalously high in these stars. These unusual abundances, which may be a unique signature of nuclear star clusters, offer an opportunity to test models of chemical enrichment in this region.

  13. A cyclam core dendrimer containing dansyl and oligoethylene glycol chains in the branches: protonation and metal coordination.

    Branchi, Barbara; Ceroni, Paola; Bergamini, Giacomo; Balzani, Vincenzo; Maestri, Mauro; van Heyst, Jeroen; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Luppertz, Friedhelm; Vögtle, Fritz

    2006-12-04

    We have synthesized a dendrimer (1) consisting of a 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) core, appended with four benzyl substituents that carry, in the 3- and 5-positions, a dansyl amide derivative (of type 2), in which the amide hydrogen is replaced by a benzyl unit that carries an oligoethylene glycol chain in the 3- and 5-positions. All together, the dendrimer contains 16 potentially luminescent moieties (eight dansyl- and eight dimethoxybenzene-type units) and three distinct types of multivalent sites that, in principle, can be protonated or coordinated to metal ions (the cyclam nitrogen atoms, the amine moieties of the eight dansyl units, and the 16 oligoethylene glycol chains). We have studied the absorption and luminescence properties of 1, 2, and 3 in acetonitrile and the changes taking place upon titration with acid and a variety of divalent (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+), and trivalent (Nd3+, Eu3+, Gd3+) metal ions as triflate and/or nitrate salts. The results obtained show that: 1) double protonation of the cyclam ring takes place before protonation of the dansyl units; 2) the oligoethylene glycol chains do not interfere with protonation of the cyclam core and the dansyl units in the ground state, but affect the luminescence of the protonated dansyl units; 3) the first equivalent of metal ion is coordinated by the cyclam core; 4) the interaction of the resulting cyclam complex with the appended dansyl units depends on the nature of the metal ion; 5) coordination of metal ions by the dansyl units follows at high metal-ion concentrations; 6) the effect of the metal ion depends on the nature of the counterion. This example demonstrates that dendrimers may exhibit complete functionality resulting from the integration of the specific properties of their component units.

  14. Calculation of kinetic parameters of Caliban metallic core experimental reactor from stochastic neutron measurements

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Baud, J. [Commissariat a l' energie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-07-01

    Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Department of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the metallic core reactor Caliban. The knowledge of the fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor is very useful, indeed necessary, to the operator. The purpose of this study was to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of these parameters. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as the interval-distribution, the Feynman variance-to-mean, and the Rossi-{alpha} methods. By introducing the Nelson number, the effective delayed neutron fraction and the average neutron lifetime can also be calculated with the Rossi-{alpha} method. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. With the Rossi-{alpha} technique, it was found that the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was (6.02*10{sup 5} {+-} 9%). Experiments also brought out the limitations of the used experimental parameters. (authors)

  15. An axially and radially two-zoned large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core concept

    Kamei, T.; Arie, K.; Moriki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamaoka, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new core concept that has advantages over conventional homogeneous cores in neutronics characteristics such as power peaking factor, burnup reactivity loss, and reactivity response to the movement of control rods in earthquakes has been evolved. Two options of the new core concept are feasible. One is the so-called axially heterogeneous core, with the internal blanket placed at the lower part of the core. The other concept is similar to the conventional homogeneous core, but has two different plutonium-enriched zones in the axial as well as in the radial direction, so it is a hybrid type of the conventional homogeneous core and the axially heterogeneous core. The new design concept is described and the way that the core characteristics are improved by the chosen key parameters is shown

  16. An Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Concept Using Uranium-Free Metallic Fuels for Maximizing TRU Burning Rate

    Wuseong You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed and analyzed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor cores using uranium-free metallic fuels for maximizing burning rate of transuranics (TRU nuclides from PWR spent fuels. It is well known that the removal of fertile nuclides such as 238U from fuels in liquid metal cooled fast reactor leads to the degradation of important safety parameters such as the Doppler coefficient, coolant void worth, and delayed neutron fraction. To resolve the degradation of the Doppler coefficient, we considered adding resonant nuclides to the uranium-free metallic fuels. The analysis results showed that the cores using uranium-free fuels loaded with tungsten instead of uranium have a significantly lower burnup reactivity swing and more negative Doppler coefficients than the core using uranium-free fuels without resonant nuclides. In addition, we considered the use of axially central B4C absorber region and moderator rods to further improve safety parameters such as sodium void worth, burnup reactivity swing, and the Doppler coefficient. The results of the analysis showed that the final design core can consume ~353 kg per cycle and satisfies self-controllability under unprotected accidents. The fuel cycle analysis showed that the PWR–SFR coupling fuel cycle option drastically reduces the amount of waste going to repository and the SFR burner can consume the amount of TRUs discharged from 3.72 PWRs generating the same electricity.

  17. Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    Brazhkin, Vadim V; Lyapin, A G

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 10 2 Pa s to 10 11 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>10 11 Pa s) glass-like liquid - in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Comparison between XAS, AWAXS and DAFS applied to nanometer scale supported metallic clusters. Pt.2; bimetallic clusters

    Bazin, D.; Sayers, D.

    1993-01-01

    The structural information obtained using three techniques related to synchrotron radiation are compared. XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy), AWAXS (Anomalous Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) and DAFS (Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure) are applied to the study of nanometer scale bimetallic clusters. (author)

  19. Distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for the use of sediment quality standards

    K. L. Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Total metal concentrations in surface sediments and historically contaminated sediments were determined in sediment cores collected from three estuaries (Thames, Medway and Blackwater in south-east England. The partitioning behaviour of metals in these sediments was also determined using a sequential extraction scheme. These data were then compared with sediment quality values (SQVs to determine the potential ecotoxicological risk to sediment dwelling organisms. When total metal concentrations in surface sediments are examined, no risk to biota in any of the estuaries is indicated. However, when historically contaminated sediments at depth are also considered, risks to biota are apparent and are greatest for the Thames, followed by the Medway and then the Blackwater. This suggests that regulatory authorities should examine vertical metal profiles, particularly in estuaries that are experiencing low sediment accumulation rates where historically contaminated sediments are in the shallow sub-surface zone and where erosion or dredging activities may take place. When metal partitioning characteristics are also considered, the risk to biota is comparable for the Medway and the Blackwater with the potentially bioavailable fraction presenting no ecotoxicological risk. Conversely, over 70% of metals are labile in the Thames Estuary sediments and toxic effects are probable. This suggests that the application of SQVs using total sediment metal concentrations may over- or under-estimate the risk to biota in geochemically dissimilar estuarine sediments. Keywords: sediment quality values, estuarine sediments, metal contamination, partitioning, sequential extraction

  20. Metal nitride cluster as a template to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-16

    Rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes have attracted much attention due to the feasibility of encaging metal atom, atoms or cluster inside of carbon cages. By switching the metal atom or cluster entrapped inside of the carbon cage the physical and chemical properties of the fullerene compounds can be tuned. The understanding of magnetic and electrochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes plays an essential role in fundamental scientific researches and potential applications in materials science. In this thesis, synthesizing novel rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerene structures, studying the properties of these isolated endohedral fullerenes and the strategies of tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of endohedral fullerenes were introduced. The DC-arc discharging synthesis of different lanthanide metal-based (Ho, Ce and Pr) mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes was achieved. Those rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes were isolated by multi-step HPLC. The isolated samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques included UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman, LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR and electrochemistry. The Ho-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N rate at C{sub 80} (M= Sc, Lu, Y; x=1, 2) were synthesized by ''reactive gas atmosphere'' method or ''selective organic solid'' route. The isolated samples were characterized by LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic studies demonstrated exceptional NMR behaviors that resulted from switching the second metal inside of the mixed metal nitride cluster Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N from Sc to Lu and further to Y. The LnSc{sub 2}N rate at C{sub 80} (Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu) MMNCFs were characterized by {sup 13}C and {sup 45}Sc NMR study respectively. According to Bleaney's theory and Reilley method, the separation of δ{sup PC} and δ{sup con

  1. Metal nitride cluster as a template to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes have attracted much attention due to the feasibility of encaging metal atom, atoms or cluster inside of carbon cages. By switching the metal atom or cluster entrapped inside of the carbon cage the physical and chemical properties of the fullerene compounds can be tuned. The understanding of magnetic and electrochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes plays an essential role in fundamental scientific researches and potential applications in materials science. In this thesis, synthesizing novel rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerene structures, studying the properties of these isolated endohedral fullerenes and the strategies of tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of endohedral fullerenes were introduced. The DC-arc discharging synthesis of different lanthanide metal-based (Ho, Ce and Pr) mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes was achieved. Those rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes were isolated by multi-step HPLC. The isolated samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques included UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman, LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR and electrochemistry. The Ho-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho x M 3-x N rate at C 80 (M= Sc, Lu, Y; x=1, 2) were synthesized by ''reactive gas atmosphere'' method or ''selective organic solid'' route. The isolated samples were characterized by LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The 13 C NMR spectroscopic studies demonstrated exceptional NMR behaviors that resulted from switching the second metal inside of the mixed metal nitride cluster Ho x M 3-x N from Sc to Lu and further to Y. The LnSc 2 N rate at C 80 (Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu) MMNCFs were characterized by 13 C and 45 Sc NMR study respectively. According to Bleaney's theory and Reilley method, the separation of δ PC and δ con from δ para was achieved by the primary 13 C and 45 Sc NMR analysis of LnSc 2 N rate at C 80 (I). The

  2. AN X-RAY COOLING-CORE CLUSTER SURROUNDING A LOW-POWER COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCE 1321+045

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Siemiginowska, A.; Labiano, A.

    2013-01-01

    We discovered an X-ray cluster in a Chandra observation of the compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio source 1321+045 (z = 0.263). CSS sources are thought to be young radio objects at the beginning of their evolution and can potentially test the cluster heating process. 1321+045 is a relatively low-luminosity source and its morphology consists of two radio lobes on the opposite sides of a radio core with no evidence for jets or hotspots. The optical emission line ratios are consistent with an interstellar medium dominated by active galactic nucleus photoionization with a small contribution from star formation, and no contributions from shocks. Based on these ratios, we classify 1321+045 as a low excitation galaxy (LEG) and suggest that its radioactivity is in a coasting phase. The X-ray emission associated with the radio source is detected with 36.1 ± 8.3 counts, but the origin of this emission is highly uncertain. The current X-ray image of the cluster does not show any signatures of a radio source impact on the cluster medium. Chandra detects the cluster emission at >3σ level out to ∼60'' (240 kpc). We obtain the best-fit beta model parameters of the surface brightness profile of β = 0.58 ± 0.2 and a core radius of 9.4 +1.1 -0.9 arcsec. The average temperature of the cluster is equal to kT = 4.4 +0.5 -0.3 keV, with a temperature and cooling profile indicative of a cooling core. We measure the cluster luminosity L (0.5-2 k eV) = 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 and mass 1.5 × 10 14 M ☉

  3. AN X-RAY COOLING-CORE CLUSTER SURROUNDING A LOW-POWER COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCE 1321+045

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M. [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, NCU, Grudziacka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Labiano, A., E-mail: magda@astro.uni.torun.pl [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-20

    We discovered an X-ray cluster in a Chandra observation of the compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio source 1321+045 (z = 0.263). CSS sources are thought to be young radio objects at the beginning of their evolution and can potentially test the cluster heating process. 1321+045 is a relatively low-luminosity source and its morphology consists of two radio lobes on the opposite sides of a radio core with no evidence for jets or hotspots. The optical emission line ratios are consistent with an interstellar medium dominated by active galactic nucleus photoionization with a small contribution from star formation, and no contributions from shocks. Based on these ratios, we classify 1321+045 as a low excitation galaxy (LEG) and suggest that its radioactivity is in a coasting phase. The X-ray emission associated with the radio source is detected with 36.1 {+-} 8.3 counts, but the origin of this emission is highly uncertain. The current X-ray image of the cluster does not show any signatures of a radio source impact on the cluster medium. Chandra detects the cluster emission at >3{sigma} level out to {approx}60'' (240 kpc). We obtain the best-fit beta model parameters of the surface brightness profile of {beta} = 0.58 {+-} 0.2 and a core radius of 9.4{sup +1.1}{sub -0.9} arcsec. The average temperature of the cluster is equal to kT = 4.4{sup +0.5}{sub -0.3} keV, with a temperature and cooling profile indicative of a cooling core. We measure the cluster luminosity L{sub (0.5-2{sub keV)}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and mass 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun}.

  4. Evidence for the direct ejection of clusters from non-metallic solids during laser vaporization

    Bloomfield, L.A.; Yang, Y.A.; Xia, P.; Junkin, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the formation of molecular scale particles or clusters of alkali halides and semiconductors during laser vaporization of solids. By measuring the abundances of cluster ions produced in several different source configurations, the authors have determined that clusters are ejected directly from the source sample and do not need to grow from atomic or molecular vapor. Using samples of mixed alkali halide powders, the authors have found that unalloyed clusters are easily produced in a source that prevents growth from occurring after the clusters leave the sample surface. However, melting the sample or encouraging growth after vaporization lead to the production of alloyed cluster species. The sizes of the ejected clusters are initially random, but the population spectrum quickly becomes structured as hot, unstable-sized clusters decay into smaller particles. In carbon, large clusters with odd number of atoms decay almost immediately. The hot even clusters also decay, but much more slowly. The longest lived clusters are the magic C 50 and C 60 fullerenes. The mass spectrum of large carbon clusters evolves in time from structureless, to only the even clusters, to primarily C 50 and C 60 . If cluster growth is encouraged, the odd clusters reappear and the population spectrum again becomes relatively structureless

  5. Lake sediment cores as indicators of historical metal(loid) accumulation – A case study in Mexico

    Hansen, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    To examine and compare historical accumulation of metal(loid)s in Mexican lakes and reservoirs, 210 Pb and 137 Cs dated sediment cores were evaluated: two from the remote Zempoala and Miramar Lagoons and three from Lake Pátzcuaro, and the Intermedia and Silva dams that are affected by human activities. Sediment ecotoxicology was assessed using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. The +100 a sediment core from the remote Miramar Lagoon had the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni these being higher than the Probable Effect Levels (PELs). Zinc concentrations were also higher in the Miramar Lagoon compared to the other lakes and reservoirs, with concentrations higher than the Threshold Effect Level (TEL). Mercury concentrations from this lagoon were comparable to those for the Intermedia dam that receives water from urban, industrial and agricultural areas. The higher metal concentrations in the core from the Miramar Lagoon suggest that metal concentrations in the rocks of the watershed are high. Another explanation for the higher metal concentrations is the slow sediment accumulation that causes metals to be accumulated over longer time-periods at the sediment–water interface. A decrease in the concentration of As in the Intermedia dam was observed in sediments corresponding to the last decades. This may be due to an increase in sediment accumulation rate or to the reduction in sources of this metalloid in the watershed. In the Miramar Lagoon, an increase was observed in concentrations of As and Cr in more recent sediments, probably related to increased deforestation in the area or the eruption of El Chichonal volcano in 1982. Concentrations of Pb showed a decreasing tendency over the past decades in the Lake Pátzcuaro, Miramar and Zempoala Lagoons sediment cores while such behavior was not be observed for the Intermedia dam. This reduction in concentrations of Pb was attributed to the decrease in use of leaded gasoline.

  6. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    Krishnan Balasubramanian

    2009-07-18

    methods with all-electron Douglas-Kroll relativistic methods. We have the capabilities for computing full CI extrapolations including spin-orbit effects and several one-electron properties and electron density maps including spin-orbit effects. We are continuously collaborating with several experimental groups around the country and at National Labs to carry out computational studies on the DOE-BES funded projects. The past work in the last 3 years was primarily motivated and driven by the concurrent or recent experimental studies on these systems. We were thus significantly benefited by coordinating our computational efforts with experimental studies. The interaction between theory and experiment has resulted in some unique and exciting opportunities. For example, for the very first time ever, the upper spin-orbit component of a heavy trimer such as Au{sub 3} was experimentally observed as a result of our accurate computational study on the upper electronic states of gold trimer. Likewise for the first time AuH{sub 2} could be observed and interpreted clearly due to our computed potential energy surfaces that revealed the existence of a large barrier to convert the isolated AuH{sub 2} back to Au and H{sub 2}. We have also worked on yet to be observed systems and have made predictions for future experiments. We have computed the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of transition metal carbides transition metal clusters and compared our electronic states to the anion photodetachment spectra of Lai Sheng Wang. Prof Mike Morse and coworkers(funded also by DOE-BES) and Prof Stimle and coworkers(also funded by DOE-BES) are working on the spectroscopic properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides. Our predictions on the excited states of transition metal clusters such as Hf{sub 3}, Nb{sub 2}{sup +} etc., have been confirmed experimentally by Prof. Lombardi and coworkers using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have also been studying larger complexes critical to the

  7. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    methods with all-electron Douglas-Kroll relativistic methods. We have the capabilities for computing full CI extrapolations including spin-orbit effects and several one-electron properties and electron density maps including spin-orbit effects. We are continuously collaborating with several experimental groups around the country and at National Labs to carry out computational studies on the DOE-BES funded projects. The past work in the last 3 years was primarily motivated and driven by the concurrent or recent experimental studies on these systems. We were thus significantly benefited by coordinating our computational efforts with experimental studies. The interaction between theory and experiment has resulted in some unique and exciting opportunities. For example, for the very first time ever, the upper spin-orbit component of a heavy trimer such as Au 3 was experimentally observed as a result of our accurate computational study on the upper electronic states of gold trimer. Likewise for the first time AuH 2 could be observed and interpreted clearly due to our computed potential energy surfaces that revealed the existence of a large barrier to convert the isolated AuH 2 back to Au and H 2 . We have also worked on yet to be observed systems and have made predictions for future experiments. We have computed the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of transition metal carbides transition metal clusters and compared our electronic states to the anion photodetachment spectra of Lai Sheng Wang. Prof Mike Morse and coworkers(funded also by DOE-BES) and Prof Stimle and coworkers(also funded by DOE-BES) are working on the spectroscopic properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides. Our predictions on the excited states of transition metal clusters such as Hf 3 , Nb 2 + etc., have been confirmed experimentally by Prof. Lombardi and coworkers using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have also been studying larger complexes critical to the environmental management of high

  8. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  9. Radiation clusters formation and evolution in FCC metals at low-temperature neutron irradiation up to small damage fluences

    Kozlov, A.V.; Shcherbakov, E.N.; Asiptsov, O.I.; Skryabin, L.A.; Portnykh, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of transmission electron microscopy and precision size measurements are used to study the formation of radiation-induced clusters in FCC metals (Ni, Pt, austenitic steels EhI-844, ChS-68) irradiated with fast neutron (E>0.1 MeV) fluences from 7 x 10 21 up to 3.5 x 10 22 m -2 at a temperature of 310 K. Using statistical thermodynamic methods the process of radiation clusters formation and evolution is described quantitatively. The change in the concentration of point defects under irradiation as well as size variations of irradiated specimens on annealing are calculated [ru

  10. Variable stars in metal-rich globular clusters. IV. Long-period variables in NGC 6496

    Abbas, Mohamad A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Layden, Andrew C.; Guldenschuh, Katherine A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States); Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Welch, Douglas L., E-mail: mabbas@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: laydena@bgsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8 S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    We present VI-band photometry for stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6496. Our time-series data were cadenced to search for long-period variables (LPVs) over a span of nearly two years, and our variability search yielded the discovery of 13 new variable stars, of which 6 are LPVs, 2 are suspected LPVs, and 5 are short-period eclipsing binaries. An additional star was found in the ASAS database, and we clarify its type and period. We argue that all of the eclipsing binaries are field stars, while five to six of the LPVs are members of NGC 6496. We compare the period–luminosity distribution of these LPVs with those of LPVs in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae, and with theoretical pulsation models. We also present a VI color–magnitude diagram, display the evolutionary states of the variables, and match isochrones to determine a reddening of E(B−V)= 0.21±0.02 mag and apparent distance modulus of 15.60±0.15 mag.

  11. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  12. Stellar Population Properties of Ultracompact Dwarfs in M87: A Mass–Metallicity Correlation Connecting Low-metallicity Globular Clusters and Compact Ellipticals

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Puzia, Thomas H.; Peng, Eric W.; Liu, Chengze; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Eigenthaler, Paul; Lim, Sungsoon; Lançon, Ariane; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben; Taylor, Matthew A.; Yu, Jincheng

    2018-05-01

    We derive stellar population parameters for a representative sample of ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) and a large sample of massive globular clusters (GCs) with stellar masses ≳ 106 M ⊙ in the central galaxy M87 of the Virgo galaxy cluster, based on model fitting to the Lick-index measurements from both the literature and new observations. After necessary spectral stacking of the relatively faint objects in our initial sample of 40 UCDs and 118 GCs, we obtain 30 sets of Lick-index measurements for UCDs and 80 for GCs. The M87 UCDs have ages ≳ 8 Gyr and [α/Fe] ≃ 0.4 dex, in agreement with previous studies based on smaller samples. The literature UCDs, located in lower-density environments than M87, extend to younger ages and smaller [α/Fe] (at given metallicities) than M87 UCDs, resembling the environmental dependence of the stellar nuclei of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. The UCDs exhibit a positive mass–metallicity relation (MZR), which flattens and connects compact ellipticals at stellar masses ≳ 108 M ⊙. The Virgo dE nuclei largely follow the average MZR of UCDs, whereas most of the M87 GCs are offset toward higher metallicities for given stellar masses. The difference between the mass–metallicity distributions of UCDs and GCs may be qualitatively understood as a result of their different physical sizes at birth in a self-enrichment scenario or of galactic nuclear cluster star formation efficiency being relatively low in a tidal stripping scenario for UCD formation. The existing observations provide the necessary but not sufficient evidence for tidally stripped dE nuclei being the dominant contributors to the M87 UCDs.

  13. Chemodynamics of metal ion complexation by charged nanoparticles: a dimensionless rationale for soft, core-shell and hard particle types.

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2017-05-17

    Soft nanoparticulate complexants are defined by a spatial confinement of reactive sites and electric charges inside their 3D body. In turn, their reactivity with metal ions differs significantly from that of simple molecular ligands. A revisited form of the Eigen mechanism recently elucidated the processes leading to metal/soft particle pair formation. Depending on e.g. particle size and metal ion nature, chemodynamics of nanoparticulate metal complexes is controlled by metal conductive diffusion to/from the particles, by intraparticulate complex formation/dissociation kinetics, or by both. In this study, a formalism is elaborated to achieve a comprehensive and systematic identification of the rate-limiting step governing the overall formation and dissociation of nanoparticulate metal complexes. The theory covers the different types of spherical particulate complexants, i.e. 3D soft/permeable and core-shell particles, and hard particles with reactive sites at the surface. The nature of the rate-limiting step is formulated by a dynamical criterion involving a power law function of the ratio between particle radius and an intraparticulate reaction layer thickness defined by the key electrostatic, diffusional and kinetic components of metal complex formation/dissociation. The analysis clarifies the intertwined contributions of particle properties (size, soft or hard type, charge, density or number of reactive sites) and aqueous metal ion dehydration kinetics in defining the chemodynamic behavior of nanoparticulate metal complexes. For that purpose, fully parameterized chemodynamic portraits involving the defining features of particulate ligand and metal ion as well as the physicochemical conditions in the local intraparticulate environment, are constructed and thoroughly discussed under conditions of practical interest.

  14. [Ti8Zr2O12(COO)16] Cluster: An Ideal Inorganic Building Unit for Photoactive Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Yuan, Shuai; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Hai-Qun; Su, Jie; Rossi, Daniel; Chen, Yuanping; Zhang, Liangliang; Lollar, Christina; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Hai-Long; Son, Dong Hee; Xu, Hongyi; Huang, Zhehao; Zou, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-01-24

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on Ti-oxo clusters (Ti-MOFs) represent a naturally self-assembled superlattice of TiO 2 nanoparticles separated by designable organic linkers as antenna chromophores, epitomizing a promising platform for solar energy conversion. However, despite the vast, diverse, and well-developed Ti-cluster chemistry, only a scarce number of Ti-MOFs have been documented. The synthetic conditions of most Ti-based clusters are incompatible with those required for MOF crystallization, which has severely limited the development of Ti-MOFs. This challenge has been met herein by the discovery of the [Ti 8 Zr 2 O 12 (COO) 16 ] cluster as a nearly ideal building unit for photoactive MOFs. A family of isoreticular photoactive MOFs were assembled, and their orbital alignments were fine-tuned by rational functionalization of organic linkers under computational guidance. These MOFs demonstrate high porosity, excellent chemical stability, tunable photoresponse, and good activity toward photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions. The discovery of the [Ti 8 Zr 2 O 12 (COO) 16 ] cluster and the facile construction of photoactive MOFs from this cluster shall pave the way for the development of future Ti-MOF-based photocatalysts.

  15. Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 1: Validation through the critical experiments on compact metallic cores

    Ivanova, T.T.; Manturov, G.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Rozhikhin, E.V.; Semenov, M.Yu.; Tsiboulia, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide compilation of criticality safety benchmark experiments, evaluated due to an activity of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), discovers new possibilities for validation of the ABBN-93.1 cross section library for criticality safety analysis. Results of calculations of small assemblies with metal-fuelled cores are presented in this paper. It is concluded that ABBN-93.1 predicts criticality of such systems with required accuracy

  16. A heptadecanuclear Mn(III)9Dy(III)8 cluster derived from triethanolamine with two edge sharing supertetrahedra as the core and displaying SMM behaviour.

    Langley, Stuart K; Moubarakia, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2010-06-07

    A heterometallic, heptadecanuclear cluster of formula [Mn(III)9Dy(III)8O8(OH)8(tea)2(teaH)2(teaH2)4(Ac)4(NO3)2(H2O)4](NO3)7·8H2O (1) is reported. The core of 1 displays two edge sharing Mn(III)5Dy(III)5 supertetrahedra and represents one of the largest Mn/4f cluster compound so far reported. Magnetic studies show that 1 displays probable SMM behaviour as observed via non-zero values in the χM''vs T plot.

  17. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, St?phane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth ...

  18. Reactions of ruthenium and osmium cluster carbonyls with heteroatom-substituted and functionalized alkynes

    Koridze, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies of the reactions of ruthenium and osmium cluster carbonyls with metal (M = Re, Mn, Fe) alkynes, silylalkynes, propargyl alcohols and their derivatives, diynes, enynes, and ferrocenylacetylene are summarized. Intramolecular rearrangements in the cluster complexes including migrations of carbonyl, hydride, and hydrocarbon ligands and the metal core reorganization are considered [ru

  19. On the Chemical Abundances of Miras in Clusters: V1 in the Metal-rich Globular NGC 5927

    D’Orazi, V.; Magurno, D.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Braga, V. F.; Elgueta, S. S.; Fukue, K.; Hamano, S.; Inno, L.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, S.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Przybilla, N.; Sameshima, H.; Saviane, I.; Taniguchi, D.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja-Perez, M.; Watase, A.; Arai, A.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Dall’Ora, M.; Da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Fiorentino, G.; Francois, P.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Jian, M.; Kawakita, H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Lemasle, B.; Marengo, M.; Marinoni, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Minniti, D.; Neeley, J.; Otsubo, S.; Prieto, J. L.; Proxauf, B.; Romaniello, M.; Sanna, N.; Sneden, C.; Takenaka, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Valenti, E.; Yasui, C.; Yoshikawa, T.; Zoccali, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first spectroscopic abundance determination of iron, α-elements (Si, Ca, and Ti), and sodium for the Mira variable V1 in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927. We use high-resolution (R ∼ 28,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (∼200) spectra collected with WINERED, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph covering simultaneously the wavelength range 0.91–1.35 μm. The effective temperature and the surface gravity at the pulsation phase of the spectroscopic observation were estimated using both optical (V) and NIR time-series photometric data. We found that the Mira is metal-rich ([Fe/H] = ‑0.55 ± 0.15) and moderately α-enhanced ([α/Fe] = 0.15 ± 0.01, σ = 0.2). These values agree quite well with the mean cluster abundances based on high-resolution optical spectra of several cluster red giants available in the literature ([Fe/H] = ‑ 0.47 ± 0.06, [α/Fe] = + 0.24 ± 0.05). We also found a Na abundance of +0.35 ± 0.20 that is higher than the mean cluster abundance based on optical spectra (+0.18 ± 0.13). However, the lack of similar spectra for cluster red giants and that of corrections for departures from local thermodynamical equilibrium prevents us from establishing whether the difference is intrinsic or connected with multiple populations. These findings indicate a strong similarity between optical and NIR metallicity scales in spite of the difference in the experimental equipment, data analysis, and in the adopted spectroscopic diagnostics. Based on spectra collected with the WINERED spectrograph available as a visitor instrument at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), La Silla, Chile (ESO Proposal: 098.D-0878(A), PI: G. Bono).

  20. Effect of clustering on the mechanical properties of SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 2024 metal matrix composites

    Hong, Soon-Jik; Kim, Hong-Moule; Huh, Dae; Suryanarayana, C.; Chun, Byong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Al 2024-SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) powders produced by centrifugal atomization were hot extruded to investigate the effect of clustering on their mechanical properties. Fracture toughness and tension tests were conducted on specimens reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC. A model was proposed to suggest that the strength of the MMCs could be estimated from the load transfer model approach that takes into consideration the extent of clustering. This model has been successful in predicting the experimentally observed strength and fracture toughness values of the Al 2024-SiC MMCs. On the basis of experimental observations, it is suggested that the strength of particulate-reinforced MMCs may be calculated from the relation: σ y =σ m V m +σ r (V r -V c )-σ r V c , where σ and V represent the yield strength and volume fraction, respectively, and the subscripts m, r, and c represent the matrix, reinforcement, and clusters, respectively

  1. DERIVING METALLICITIES FROM THE INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EXTRAGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS USING THE NEAR-INFRARED CALCIUM TRIPLET

    Foster, Caroline; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    The Ca II triplet (CaT) feature in the near-infrared has been employed as a metallicity indicator for individual stars as well as integrated light of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and galaxies with varying degrees of success, and sometimes puzzling results. Using the DEIMOS multi-object spectrograph on Keck we obtain a sample of 144 integrated light spectra of GCs around the brightest group galaxy NGC 1407 to test whether the CaT index can be used as a metallicity indicator for extragalactic GCs. Different sets of single stellar population models make different predictions for the behavior of the CaT as a function of metallicity. In this work, the metallicities of the GCs around NGC 1407 are obtained from CaT index values using an empirical conversion. The measured CaT/metallicity distributions show unexpected features, the most remarkable being that the brightest red and blue GCs have similar CaT values despite their large difference in mean color. Suggested explanations for this behavior in the NGC 1407 GC system are (1) the CaT may be affected by a population of hot blue stars, (2) the CaT may saturate earlier than predicted by the models, and/or (3) color may not trace metallicity linearly. Until these possibilities are understood, the use of the CaT as a metallicity indicator for the integrated spectra of extragalactic GCs will remain problematic.

  2. Mass-spectrometric study of ion clustering in alkali-metal hydroxide vapor: cluster-ion energy and structural characteristics

    Kudin, L.S.; Butman, M.F.; Krasnov, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Various positive and negative ions have been recorded in the equilibrium vapors from alkali-metal hydroxides: M/sup +/-/, OH - , O - , MO - , MOH - , and X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/, where X = M/sup +/-/, OH - , n = 1-6. The equilibrium constants have been measured for X/sup +/-/(MOH)/sub n/ = x/sup +/-/ + nMOH(k), n = 1-3, and the enthalpies of reaction have been determined, from which the enthalpies of formation and dissociation energies of X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/ have been calculated. The relative stabilities of the ions in the series from Na to Cs are examined

  3. Effect of non-metallic precipitates and grain size on core loss of non-oriented electrical silicon steels

    Wang, Jiayi; Ren, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Lifeng

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the number density and size of non-metallic precipitates and the size of grains on the core loss of the 50W800 non-oriented electrical silicon steel sheets were investigated. The number density and size of precipitates and grains were statistically analyzed using an automatic scanning electron microscope (ASPEX) and an optical microscope. Hypothesis models were established to reveal the physical feature for the function of grain size and precipitates on the core loss of the steel. Most precipitates in the steel were AlN particles smaller than 1 μm so that were detrimental to the core loss of the steel. These finer AlN particles distributed on the surface of the steel sheet. The relationship between the number density of precipitates (x in number/mm2 steel area) and the core loss (P1.5/50 in W/kg) was regressed as P1.5/50 = 4.150 + 0.002 x. The average grain size was approximately 25-35 μm. The relationship between the core loss and grain size (d in μm) was P1.5/50 = 3.851 + 20.001 d-1 + 60.000 d-2.

  4. SMC west halo: a slice of the galaxy that is being tidally stripped?. Star clusters trace age and metallicity gradients

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The evolution and structure of the Magellanic Clouds is currently under debate. The classical scenario in which both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) are orbiting the Milky Way has been challenged by an alternative in which the LMC and SMC are in their first close passage to our Galaxy. The clouds are close enough to us to allow spatially resolved observation of their stars, and detailed studies of stellar populations in the galaxies are expected to be able to constrain the proposed scenarios. In particular, the west halo (WH) of the SMC was recently characterized with radial trends in age and metallicity that indicate tidal disruption. Aims: We intend to increase the sample of star clusters in the west halo of the SMC with homogeneous age, metallicity, and distance derivations to allow a better determination of age and metallicity gradients in this region. Positions are compared with the orbital plane of the SMC from models. Methods: Comparisons of observed and synthetic V(B-V) colour-magnitude diagrams were used to derive age, metallicity, distance, and reddening for star clusters in the SMC west halo. Observations were carried out using the 4.1 m SOAR telescope. Photometric completeness was determined through artificial star tests, and the members were selected by statistical comparison with a control field. Results: We derived an age of 1.23 ± 0.07 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.87 ± 0.07 for the reference cluster NGC 152, compatible with literature parameters. Age and metallicity gradients are confirmed in the WH: 2.6 ± 0.6 Gyr/° and -0.19 ± 0.09 dex/°, respectively. The age-metallicity relation for the WH has a low dispersion in metallicity and is compatible with a burst model of chemical enrichment. All WH clusters seem to follow the same stellar distribution predicted by dynamical models, with the exception of AM-3, which should belong to the counter-bridge. Brück 6 is the youngest cluster in our sample. It is only 130 ± 40 Myr old and

  5. [Concentrations and Distribution of Metals in the Core Sediments from Estuary and City Section of Liaohe River].

    Wang, Wei-jie; Zhou, Jun-li; Pei, Shu-wei; Liu, Zheng-tao

    2016-01-15

    The particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and metal concentrations as well as activities of 210Pb were determined in Liaohe River estuary area (LN-2) and Shenyang area (LN-5), and the organic matter resources were discussed in two core sediments. Also the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and enrichment factors (EFs) methods were applied to evaluate the state of heavy metal contamination in the studied sties. The study showed that both sediment cores LN-2 and LN-5 were dominated by silts, and the vertical variations of grain-size composition and organic matter were well distributed in LN- 2 while fluctuated in LN-5. According to the organic matter source analysis through C/N ratio, C/N ratio varied in the scale of 5. 24-7.93 in LN-2 which was dominated by river source, and 9.94-14.21 in LN-5 which was dominated by terrestrial input. Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr in two sediment cores had different vertical changing rules, Ni and Zn in LN-2 as well as Pb and Zn in LN-5 were affected by both natural and human factors, other elements had similar distributions to those of organic matters, which showed that these elements were mainly affected by the natural activities. Based on Igeo and EFs, both sediment cores were more severely polluted with Ni, Zn and Pb than other metals. The effects of human activities on the environment were also discussed in this study, combined with the economical development of Liaoning Province and the studied sites in the past 20 years.

  6. OPTICAL LINE EMISSION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 0.6: EVIDENCE FOR A LACK OF STRONG COOL CORES 3.5 Gyr AGO?

    McDonald, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the number of known galaxy clusters beyond z ∼> 0.2 has increased drastically with the release of multiple catalogs containing >30,000 optically detected galaxy clusters over the range 0 0.3, hinting at an earlier epoch of strong cooling. We compare the evolution of emission-line nebulae to the X-ray-derived cool core (CC) fraction from the literature over the same redshift range and find overall agreement, with the exception that an upturn in the strong CC fraction is not observed at z > 0.3. The overall agreement between the evolution of CCs and optical line emission at low redshift suggests that emission-line surveys of galaxy clusters may provide an efficient method of indirectly probing the evolution of CCs and thus provide insights into the balance of heating and cooling processes at early cosmic times.

  7. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer BN

    Meng, Jingjing; Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer BN doped with 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen clusters are investigated using first-principle calculations. TMO_3_(_4_)-doped monolayer BN exhibits a low negative formation energy, whereas TM atoms embedded in monolayer BN show a high positive formation energy. TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. Compared with TMO_3-doped structures, TMO_4-doped structures have a higher structural stability because of their higher binding energies. Given their low negative formation energies, TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications than TMO_3-doped structures and TM atom-doped structures. Large magnetic moments per supercell and significant ferromagnetic couplings between a TM atom and neighboring B and N atoms on the BN layer were observed in all TMO_4-doped structures, except for TiO_4-doped structures. - Highlights: • TMO_3_(_4_) superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer BN were investigated. • TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. • TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications. • Large magnetic moments were observed in TMO_4-doped structures. • The band gap was sensitively dependent on the doped clusters.

  8. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters MA Sharaf

    Introduction. A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. They are generally composed of hundreds of thousands of low-metal, old stars. The types of stars found in a globular cluster are similar to those in the bulge of a spiral galaxy but confined to a volume of only a few cubic ...

  9. Quality of Metal Deposited Flux Cored Wire With the System Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co

    Gusev, Aleksander I.; Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Osetkovskiy, Ivan V.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Kozyreva, Olga A.

    2017-10-01

    Studied the effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge powder fused wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V, used in cladding assemblies and equipment parts and mechanisms operating under abrasive and abrasive shock loads. the cored wires samples were manufactured in the laboratory conditions and using appropriate powder materials and as a carbonfluoride contained material were used the dust from gas purification of aluminum production, with the following components composition, %: Al2O3 = 21-46.23; F = 18-27; Na2O = 8-15; K2O = 0.4-6; CaO = 0.7-2.3; Si2O = 0.5-2.48; Fe2O3 = 2.1-3.27; C = 12.5-30.2; MnO = 0.07-0.9; MgO = 0.06-0.9; S = 0.09-0.19; P = 0.1-0.18. Surfacing was produced on the St3 metal plates in 6 layers under the AN-26C flux by welding truck ASAW-1250. Cutting and preparation of samples for research had been implemented. The chemical composition and the hydrogen content of the weld metal were determined by modern methods. The hardness and abrasion rate of weld metal had been measured. Conducted metallographic studies of weld metal: estimated microstructure, grain size, contamination of oxide non-metallic inclusions. Metallographic studies showed that the microstructure of the surfaced layer by cored wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co is uniform, thin dendrite branches are observed. The microstructure consists of martensite, which is formed inside the borders of the former austenite grain retained austenite present in small amounts in the form of separate islands, and thin layers of δ-ferrite, which is located on the borders of the former austenite grains. Carried out an assessment the effect of the chemical composition of the deposited metal on the hardness and wear and hydrogen content. In consequence of multivariate correlation analysis, it was determined dependence to the hardness of the deposited layer and the wear resistance of the mass fraction of the elements included in the flux-cored wires of the system Fe

  10. Voltage-dependent cluster expansion for electrified solid-liquid interfaces: Application to the electrochemical deposition of transition metals

    Weitzner, Stephen E.; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-11-01

    The detailed atomistic modeling of electrochemically deposited metal monolayers is challenging due to the complex structure of the metal-solution interface and the critical effects of surface electrification during electrode polarization. Accurate models of interfacial electrochemical equilibria are further challenged by the need to include entropic effects to obtain accurate surface chemical potentials. We present an embedded quantum-continuum model of the interfacial environment that addresses each of these challenges and study the underpotential deposition of silver on the gold (100) surface. We leverage these results to parametrize a cluster expansion of the electrified interface and show through grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations the crucial need to account for variations in the interfacial dipole when modeling electrodeposited metals under finite-temperature electrochemical conditions.

  11. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet@metal-organic framework core-shell nanoparticles for photo-chemo combination therapy

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xianfeng; Zapien, J. Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX and the PDT effect of g-C3N4 nanosheets can lead to considerably enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, the red fluorescence of DOX and the blue fluorescence of g-C3N4 nanosheets provide the additional function of dual-color imaging for monitoring the drug release process.Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX

  12. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  13. Distribution and possible sources of some heavy metals in the sediment cores at the front bay (Carter) and Labor Island (Khor Maksar), Aden (Yemen)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Metal contents (Cd, Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Pb an Zn) in the sediments are measured in the same cores that collected and determined by using atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) method. two areas were chosen in Aden, Labor Island, and front Bay. The vertical sequence of sedimentary structures reflected variations in processes and rates of sedimentation with ti,e. The difference in metal concentration between the recent (upper) and the historical (lower) sediments is defined as the anthropogenic metal concentration. the series of studied cores, gave a regional picture of the sediments, metal fluxes, the calculated budgets for sediments, and metal deposition. Statistically, significant correlations (p<0.01) between concentrations of selected metals were observed, fractions < 100μm and < 250μm are the best to accumulate the heavy metals. Improvement of the situation in the two studied areas during the last decades is reflected by the decrease in anthropogenic fluxes into these areas. (author)

  14. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    Sarkar, Santanu C.; Moser, Matthew L.; Tian, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xixiang; Al-Hadeethi, Yas Fadel; Haddon, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    , and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some

  15. Condensation and dissociation rates for gas phase metal clusters from molecular dynamics trajectory calculations

    Yang, Huan; Goudeli, Eirini; Hogan, Christopher J.

    2018-04-01

    In gas phase synthesis systems, clusters form and grow via condensation, in which a monomer binds to an existing cluster. While a hard-sphere equation is frequently used to predict the condensation rate coefficient, this equation neglects the influences of potential interactions and cluster internal energy on the condensation process. Here, we present a collision rate theory-molecular dynamics simulation approach to calculate condensation probabilities and condensation rate coefficients. We use this approach to examine atomic condensation onto 6-56-atom Au and Mg clusters. The probability of condensation depends upon the initial relative velocity (v) between atom and cluster and the initial impact parameter (b). In all cases, there is a well-defined region of b-v space where condensation is highly probable, and outside of which the condensation probability drops to zero. For Au clusters with more than 10 atoms, we find that at gas temperatures in the 300-1200 K range, the condensation rate coefficient exceeds the hard-sphere rate coefficient by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Conversely, for Au clusters with 10 or fewer atoms and for 14- and 28-atom Mg clusters, as cluster equilibration temperature increases, the condensation rate coefficient drops to values below the hard-sphere rate coefficient. Calculations also yield the self-dissociation rate coefficient, which is found to vary considerably with gas temperature. Finally, calculations results reveal that grazing (high b) atom-cluster collisions at elevated velocity (>1000 m s-1) can result in the colliding atom rebounding (bounce) from the cluster surface or binding while another atom dissociates (replacement). The presented method can be applied in developing rate equations to predict material formation and growth rates in vapor phase systems.

  16. Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg

    Hay, P.J.; Wadt, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP's) have been generated to replace the Coulomb, exchange, and core-orthogonality effects of the chemically inert core electron in the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg. For the second and third transition series relative ECP's have been generated which also incorporate the mass--velocity and Darwin relativistic effects into the potential. The ab initio ECP's should facilitate valence electron calculations on molecules containing transition-metal atoms with accuracies approaching all-electron calculations at a fraction of the computational cost. Analytic fits to the potentials are presented for use in multicenter integral evaluation. Gaussian orbital valence basis sets are developed for the (3d,4s,4p), (4d,5s,5p), and (5d,6s,6p) orbitals of the first, second, and third transition series atoms, respectively. All-electron and valence-electron atomic excitation energies are also compared for the low-lying states of Sc--Hg, and the valence-electron calculations are found to reproduce the all-electron excitation energies (typically within a few tenths of an eV)

  17. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  18. Adjustment of cast metal post/cores modeled with different acrylic resins

    Gusmão, João Milton Rocha; Pereira, Renato Piai; Alves, Guilhermino Oliveira; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Moreira, David Costa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Evaluate the performance of four commercially available chemically-activated acrylic resins (CAARs) by measuring the level of displacement of the cores following casting. Materials and Methods: Two devices were constructed to model the cores based on a natural tooth. Forty post/cores were modeled, 10 in each of the following CAARs: Duralay (Reliance Dental, Illinois, USA), Pattern Resin (GC, Tokyo, Japan), Dencrilay (Dencril, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and Jet (Clássico, Sao Paulo, Brazil). Two...

  19. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    Li, Siheng; Wang, Enbo; Tian, Chungui; Mao, Baodong; Kang, Zhenhui; Li, Qiuyu; Sun, Guoying

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag@ MFe 2O 4 ( M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag@C microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe 3+ and M 2+ on the surface of the Ag@C spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core.

  20. Variables process effect in the pure ferritic metal contribution deposited with an tubular metal-cored E111T5-K3 wire

    Svoboda, Hernan G; Ramini de Rissone, N.M; Surian, E; De Vedia, L

    2004-01-01

    The welding deposit performed with an ANSI-AWS E111T5-K3 type from the system C-Mn-Ni-Mo metal coring tubular welding, with a low slag generation was studied. Different operatives configurations with two thermal contribution levels (1 kJ and 1.5 kJ) and two types of protector gases (CO 2 and Ar-20%CO 2 ) at two welding position (under hand and ascendant vertical) were analyzed. The resulting pure contributor metal from the different process configurations was chemical, mechanically and structural characterized and the effect of the different process conditions was evaluated. The microstructure is fundamentally composed by FS(NA) and AF. For similar values of hardness and strength, good values of tenacity were observed and they show little variation with the process variables studied (AG)

  1. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained

  2. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters]. Final performance report

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained.

  3. Structure investigation of metal ions clustering in dehydrated gel using x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    Soejima, Y; Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Nakamura, A; Hiramatsu, N; Hara, K

    2003-01-01

    The structure of copper ion clusters in dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gel has been studied by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. In order to distinguish the intensity scattered by Cu ions, the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect around the Cu K absorption edge has been coupled with SAXS. It is found that the dispersion effect dependent on the incident X-ray energy is remarkable only at the momentum transfer q = 0.031 A sup - sup 1 , where a SAXS peak is observed. The results indicate that copper ions form clusters in the dehydrated gel, and that the mean size of clusters is the same as that of SA clusters produced by microphase separation. It is therefore naturally presumed that copper ions are adsorbed into the SA molecules. On the basis of the presumption, a mechanism is proposed for microphase-separation and clustering of Cu ions.

  4. Irradiation characteristics of metal-cluster-complex ions containing diverse multi-elements with large mass differences

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kondou, Kouji; Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Saito, Naoaki; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, Ir 4 (CO) 12 , is a metal cluster complex which has a molecular weight of 1104.9. Using a metal-cluster-complex ion source, the interaction between Ir 4 (CO) n + ions (n=0-12) and silicon substrates was studied at a beam energy ranging from 2keV to 10keV at normal incidence. By adjusting Wien-filter voltage, the influence of CO ligands was investigated. Experimental results showed that sputtering yield of silicon bombarded with Ir 4 (CO) n + ions at 10keV decreased with the number of CO ligands. In the case of 2keV, deposition tended to be suppressed by removing CO ligands from the impinging cluster ions. The influence of CO ligands was explained by considering changes in surface properties caused by the irradiation of Ir 4 (CO) n + ions. It was also found that the bombardment with Ir 4 (CO) 7 + ions at 2.5keV caused deposition on silicon target

  5. Characterization of the core-shell interaction of differently stabilized transition-metal nanoparticles by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Bucher, S.

    2002-05-01

    Transition metal nanoparticles with different surfactants were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain information about the interaction between metal core and protecting shell. For tetraalkylammoniumchloride stabilized Pd- and Co-colloids, a detailed model of the interaction between the metal core and the stabilizing shell could be established, in which chlorine is the connecting element between the metal core and the organic protection cover. Different lengths of the alkyl-chains can cause different equilibrium positions for the chlorine atoms. At aluminum-organic stabilized Pt-colloids, Al K-XANES and Pt L III -XAS were carried out. In this case, it turned out that aluminum is the connecting element between metal core and protection shell. After modification of the shell by connecting different molecules to the outside of the shell, rearrangements of the shell could be observed. In contrast to the surfactant stabilized systems discussed above, metallic covers, especially gold coatings, of Co-particles did not lead to a complete protection shell. In all cases, the cobalt in the nanoparticles was oxidized. A core shell structure could not be verified for any of the metallic stabilized colloids. (orig.)

  6. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey IV. WR 62-2, a new very massive star in the core of the VVV CL041 cluster

    Chene, A.-N.; Alegria, S.R.; Borissova, J.; O'Leary, E.; Martins, F.; Hervé, Anthony; Kuhn, M.; Kurtev, R.; Consuelo Amigo Fuentes, P.; Bonatto, C.; Minniti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 584, December (2015), A31/1-A31/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : open clusters and associations * VVV CL041 * massive star s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  7. Metal Substitution in Keggin-Type Tridecameric Aluminum-Oxo-Hydroxy Clusters.

    Parker, Wallace O'Neil; Millini, Roberto; Kiricsi, Imre

    1997-02-12

    The species resulting from a typical preparation for metal-substituted hybrids of the Keggin tridecamer, Al 13 or [AlO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (OH 2 ) 12 ] 7+ , were examined by performing 27 Al NMR on the solutions during aging and by studying the precipitated sulfate salts via solid state 27 Al NMR and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Aqueous mixtures (0.25 mol L -1 ) of AlCl 3 and another metal ion (M), in a 12:1 mole ratio (Al:M), where M = Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ , Ga 3+ , In 3+ , Sn 2+ , La 3+ , and Bi 3+ , were subjected to forced hydrolysis by addition of NaOH (1.0 mol L -1 ) until OH/(Al + M) = 2.25, and the kinetics of Al 13 formation and disappearance with aging at 80 °C was monitored by 27 Al NMR spectroscopy. Al 13 units polymerize on aging with an apparent rate constant (k) of 4.8(8) × 10 -2 h -1 to form a species referred to as AlP 2 . Only the solutions containing Ga 3+ and Sn 2+ exhibited faster Al 13 conversion rates. GaAl 12 forms quickly at 80 °C (k = 0.54 h -1 ) and is more stable than AlP 2 . Sn 2+ apparently promotes AlP 2 formation (k = 0.38 h -1 ). XRD and solid state NMR reveal that only the Ga hybrid can be prepared by this method. No hybrid formation was evidenced using M = Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , In 3+ , La 3+ , or Ce 3+ at 25 °C or M = Co 2+ or La 3+ under reflux conditions. Isostructural (cubic symmetry) single crystals were obtained for the sulfate salts of Al 13 and GaAl 12 . Single-crystal XRD analysis of these two polyoxocations provides the first rigorous comparison between them and shows they have very similar structures. The main crystallographic data for Al 13 and GaAl 12 are as follows:  Na[AlO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (H 2 O) 12 ](SO 4 ) 4 ·10H 2 O, cubic, F4̄3m, a = 17.856(2) Å, Z = 4; Na[GaO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (H 2 O) 12 ](SO 4 ) 4 ·10H 2 O, cubic, F4̄3m, a = 17.869(3) Å, Z = 4. Thus, the greater thermal stability of GaAl 12 cannot be rationalized in terms of the overall geometric considerations, as suggested by

  8. Quantum molecular dynamics: Numerical methods and physical study of the structure, thermodynamics, stability and fragmentation of sodium metallic clusters

    Blaise, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study metallic sodium clusters by numerical simulation. We have developed two ab initio molecular dynamics programs within the formalism of density functional theory. The first is based on the semi-classical extended Thomas-Fermi approach. We use a real-space grid and a Car-Parrinello-like scheme. The computational cost is O(N), and we have built a pseudopotential that speeds up the calculations. By neglecting quantum shell effects, we are able to study a very large set of clusters. We show that sodium cluster energies fit well a liquid drop formula, by adjusting a few parameters. We have investigated breathing modes, surface oscillations and the net charge density. We have shown that the surface energy varies strongly with temperature, and that clusters have a lower melting point than bulk material. We have calculated fission barriers by a constraint method. The second program is based on the quantum Kohn-Sham approach. We use a real-space grid, and combine a generalized Broyden scheme for assuring self-consistency with an iterative Davidson-Lanczos algorithm for solving the Eigen-problem. The cost of the method is much higher. First of all, we have calculated some stable structures for small clusters and their energetics. We obtained very good agreement with previous works. Then, we have investigated highly charged cluster dynamics. We have identified a chaotic fission process. For high fissility systems, we observe a multi-fragmentation dynamics and we find preferential emission of monomers on a characteristic time scale less than a pico-second. This has been simulated for the first time, with the help of our adaptive grid method which follows each fragment as they move apart during the fragmentation. (author)

  9. Clustering of nucleosides in the presence of alkali metals: Biologically relevant quartets of guanosine, deoxyguanosine and uridine observed by ESI-MS/MS.

    Aggerholm, Tenna; Nanita, Sergio C; Koch, Kim J; Cooks, R Graham

    2003-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of nucleosides, recorded in the presence of alkali metals, display alkali metal ion-bound quartets and other clusters that may have implications for understanding non-covalent interactions in DNA and RNA. The tetramers of guanosine and deoxyguanosine and also their metaclusters (clusters of clusters), cationized by alkali metals, were observed as unusually abundant magic number clusters. The observation of these species in the gas phase parallels previous condensed-phase studies, which show that guanine derivatives can form quartets and metaclusters of quartets in solution in the presence of metal cations. This parallel behavior and also internal evidence suggest that bonding in the guanosine tetramers involves the bases rather than the sugar units. The nucleobases thymine and uracil are known to form magic number pentameric adducts with K+, Cs+ and NH4+ in the gas phase. In sharp contrast, we now show that the nucleosides uridine and deoxythymidine do not form the pentameric clusters characteristic of the corresponding bases. More subtle effects of the sugars are evident in the fact that adenosine and cytidine form numerous higher order clusters with alkali metals, whereas deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine show no clustering. It is suggested that hydrogen bonding between the bases in the tetramers of dG and rG are the dominant interactions in the clusters, hence changing the ribose group to deoxyribose (and vice versa) generally has little effect. However, the additional hydroxyl group of RNA nucleosides enhances the non-selective formation of higher-order aggregates for adenosine and cytidine and results in the lack of highly stable magic number clusters. Some clusters are the result of aggregation in the course of ionization (ESI) whereas others appear to be intrinsic to the solution being examined. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Review of Post and Core Application with Emphasize on Non Metallic Posts

    Shahroodi MH

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Many different methods are suggested to restore endodontically treated teeth. Prefabricated posts can not be indicated for all teeth and cast posts require extra time and cost. In addition, with the introduction of full ceramic restorations, achieving the ideal esthetic with metal post underneath them may be problematic or impossible because the darkness of the metallic posts may show through the highly translucent all ceramic restorations. In this article the review of litature and describiton of applied methods of different procedure in restoring the root canal therapied teeth and few techniques of non metallic posts fabrication such as fiber reinforced composite and zirconium oxide posts have been described.

  11. The Metal-poor non-Sagittarius (?) Globular Cluster NGC 5053: Orbit and Mg, Al, and Si Abundances

    Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, Doug; Zamora, Olga; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Masseron, Thomas; Cohen, Roger E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Hasselquist, Sten; Robin, Annie C.; Shetrone, Matthew; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Schiappacasse Ulloa, Jose; Lane, Richard R.; Minnti, Dante; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Almeida, Andres; Moreno, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) exhibit intriguing Al–Mg anti-correlations and possible Si–Al correlations, which are important clues to decipher the multiple-population phenomenon. NGC 5053 is one of the most metal-poor GCs in the nearby universe and has been suggested to be associated with the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy, due to its similarity in location and radial velocity with one of the Sgr arms. In this work, we simulate the orbit of NGC 5053, and argue against a physical connection between Sgr and NGC 5053. On the other hand, the Mg, Al, and Si spectral lines, which are difficult to detect in the optical spectra of NGC 5053 stars, have been detected in the near-infrared APOGEE spectra. We use three different sets of stellar parameters and codes to derive the Mg, Al, and Si abundances. Regardless of which method is adopted, we see a large Al variation, and a substantial Si spread. Along with NGC 5053, metal-poor GCs exhibit different Mg, Al, and Si variations. Moreover, NGC 5053 has the lowest cluster mass among the GCs that have been identified to exhibit an observable Si spread until now.

  12. Gas-generated thermal oxidation of a coordination cluster for an anion-doped mesoporous metal oxide.

    Hirai, Kenji; Isobe, Shigehito; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-12-18

    Central in material design of metal oxides is the increase of surface area and control of intrinsic electronic and optical properties, because of potential applications for energy storage, photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Here, we disclose a facile method, inspired by geochemical process, which gives rise to mesoporous anion-doped metal oxides. As a model system, we demonstrate that simple calcination of a multinuclear coordination cluster results in synchronic chemical reactions: thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 and generation of gases including amino-group fragments. The gas generation during the thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 creates mesoporosity in TiO2. Concurrently, nitrogen atoms contained in the gases are doped into TiO2, thus leading to the formation of mesoporous N-doped TiO2. The mesoporous N-doped TiO2 can be easily synthesized by calcination of the multinuclear coordination cluster, but shows better photocatalytic activity than the one prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Owing to an intrinsic designability of coordination compounds, this facile synthetic will be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides and anion dopants.

  13. Data characterizing compressive properties of Al/Al2O3 syntactic foam core metal matrix sandwich

    Mohammed Yaseer Omar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural observations and compressive property datasets of metal matrix syntactic foam core sandwich composite at quasi-static and high strain rate (HSR conditions (525–845 s−1 are provided. The data supplied in this article includes sample preparation procedure prior to scanning electron and optical microscopy as well as the micrographs. The data used to construct the stress–strain curves and the derived compressive properties of all specimens in both quasi-static and HSR regions are included. Videos of quasi-static compressive failure and that obtained by a high speed image acquisition system during deformation and failure of HSR specimen are also included.

  14. Passive safety features of low sodium void worth metal fueled cores in a bottom supported reactor vessel

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Wade, D.C.; Wigeland, R.A.; Kumaoka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Masao; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features of low-sodium-void-worth metallic-fueled reactors with emphasis on using a bottom-supported reactor vessel design. The reactor core designs included self-sufficient types as well as actinide burners. The analyses covered the reactor response to the unprotected, i.e. unscrammed, transient overpower accident and the loss-of-flow accident. Results are given demonstrating the safety margins that were attained. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    Holmlid, Leif, E-mail: holmlid@chem.gu.se [Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kotzias, Bernhard [Airbus DS, Department Mechanical Engineering, D28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H{sub 2N}(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H{sub 4}(0) and H{sub 3}(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H{sub 2N}(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  16. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    Holmlid, Leif; Kotzias, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H_2_N(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H_4(0) and H_3(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H_2_N(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  17. Coulomb frustration of the multiphoton ionization of metallic clusters under intense EUV FEL evidenced by ion spectrometry

    Mazza, T; Devetta, M; Milani, P; Motomura, K; Liu, X-J; Fukuzawa, H; Yamada, A; Nagaya, K; Iwayama, H; Sugishima, A; Mizoguchi, Y; Saito, N; Coreno, M; Nagasono, M; Tono, K; Togashi, T; Kimura, H; Okunishi, M; Fennel, Th; Senba, Y

    2015-01-01

    Free electron laser light sources delivering high intensity pulses of short wavelength radiation are opening novel possibilities for the investigation of matter at the nanoscale and for the discovery and understanding of new physical processes occurring at the exotic transient states they make accessible. Strong ionization of atomic constituents of a nano-sized sample is a representative example of such processes and the understanding of ionization dynamics is crucial for a realistic description of the experiments. We report here on multiple ionization experiments on free clusters of titanium, a high cohesive energy metal. The time of flight ion spectra reveal a saturation of the cluster ionization at ∼10 16 photons per pulse per cm 2 . Our results also show a clear lack of any explosion process, opposite to what is observed for a rare-gas cluster under similar conditions. A simple and generalized multi-step ionization model including Coulomb frustration of the photoemission process effectively reproduces with a good agreement the main features of the experimental observation and points to an interpretation of the data involving a substantial energy deposition into the cluster through electronic system heating upon scattering events within photoemission. (paper)

  18. Quantum size correction to the work function and the centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    M. Payami

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different values . For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model (SJM as well as simple jellium model (JM with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere.

  19. Quantum size correction to the work function and centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    Payami, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different r s values (2≤ r s ≥ 7). For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes 2≤ N ≥100 in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model as well as simple jellium model with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere

  20. Chemical bonding of water to metal surfaces studied with core-level spectroscopies

    Schiros, T.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the contact layer of water on surfaces is of relevance for many practical fields, including corrosion, electrochemistry, environmental science and heterogeneous catalysis. Here we focus on the geometric and electronic structure of the water contact layer on transition metal surfaces......-specific information on the partial local density of states, local atomic structure, geometrical parameters and molecular orientation, allowing general principles for water-metal interaction to be derived....

  1. Core-shell composite metal catalysts incased into natural ceramic nanotubes

    Vinokurov, V; Berberov, A; Afonin, D; Borzaev, H; Ivanov, E; Gushchin, P; Lvov, Y

    2014-01-01

    The bimetallic halloysite nanotubes were prepared by the injection of halloysite- containing aerosols into the microwave plasma reactor. Nanotubes contain metal nanoparticles formed from the metal salt solution in the lumen of nanotubes and the iron oxide nanoparticles at the outer surface of nanotubes. Such halloysite composites may be sputtered onto the surface of the porous carrier forming the nanostructured catalyst, as was shown by the pure halloysite sputtering onto the model porous ceramic surface

  2. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien.

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Safety aspects of LMR [liquid metal-cooled reactor] core design

    Cahalan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Features contributing to increased safety margins in liquid metal-cooled reactor (LMR) design are identified. The technical basis is presented for the performance of a pool-type reactor system with an advanced metallic alloy fuel in unprotected accidents. Results are presented from analyses of anticipated transients without scram, including loss-of-flow (LOF), transient overpower (TOP), and loss-of-heat-sink (LOHS) accidents

  4. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    Qiu Yaowen; Yu Kefu; Zhang Gan; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 μg g -1 , whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 μg g -1 , respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  5. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    Qiu Yaowen, E-mail: yqiu@scsio.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Yu Kefu [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Wenxiong [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-06-15

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  6. Levels and ages of selenium and metals in sedimentary cores of Ise Bay as determined by 210-Pb dating technique

    Itoh, K.; Chikuma, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Ise Bay is connected with estuaries of Nagoya harbor which is one of the most active industrial areas in Japan. Nagoya harbor estuaries are recipient of a large quantity of municipal and industrial discharge. The land boundaries of estuaries are sites of the manufacturing industries and they are utilized by oil tankers and cargo vessels. Accumulation of various kinds of metal such as selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and chromium have occurred in sediments for many years. The authors have carried out an extensive investigation on the selenium pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries. The input of selenium to Ise Bay has occurred ever since the industrial activity was established in Nagoya city. Investigators have reported the sedimentary record of metals of Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Seto Inland Sea. Some investigators reported the pollution caused by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in sediments of Ise Bay, but did not mention metals. The authors determined metals including selenium in sedimentary core samples. The ages of those samples were already estimated by 210-Pb dating technique

  7. Effect of inclusions on microstructure and toughness of deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires

    Zhang, Tianli; Li, Zhuoxin; Kou, Sindo; Jing, Hongyang; Li, Guodong; Li, Hong; Jin Kim, Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inclusions on the microstructure and toughness of the deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires was investigated by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and mechanical testing. The deposited metals of three different wires showed different levels of low temperature impact toughness at −40 °C mainly because of differences in the properties of inclusions. The inclusions formed in the deposited metals as a result of deoxidation caused by the addition of extra Al–Mg alloy and ferromanganese to the flux. The inclusions, spherical in shape, were mixtures of Al 2 O 3 and MgO. Inclusions predominantly Al 2 O 3 and 0.3–0.8 μm in diameter were effective for nucleation of acicular ferrite. However, inclusions predominantly MgO were promoted by increasing Mg in the flux and were more effective than Al 2 O 3 inclusions of the same size. These findings suggest that the control of inclusions can be an effective way to improve the impact toughness of the deposited metal

  8. Fluid effects on the core seismic behavior of a liquid metal reactor

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, Jae Han

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical application algorithm for applying the CFAM (Consistent Fluid Added Mass) matrix for a core seismic analysis is developed and applied to the 7-ducts core system to investigate the fluid effects on the dynamic characteristics and the seismic time history responses. To this end, three cases such as the in-air condition, the in-water condition without the fluid coupling terms, and the in-water condition with the fluid coupling terms are considered in this paper. From modal analysis, the core duct assemblies revealed strongly coupled out-of-phase vibration modes unlike the other cases with the fluid coupling terms considered. From the results of the seismic time history analysis, it was also verified that the fluid coupling terms in the CFAM matrix can significantly affect the impact responses and the seismic displacement responses of the ducts

  9. Arrays of Size-Selected Metal Nanoparticles Formed by Cluster Ion Beam Technique

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Zenin, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of size-selected copper and silver nanoparticles (NPs) on polymers using cluster beam technique is studied. It is shown that ratio of particle embedment in the film can be controlled by simple thermal annealing. Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition, and heat...... with required configurations which can be applied for wave-guiding, resonators, in sensor technologies, and surface enhanced Raman scattering....

  10. Simulation of resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering of molecules and metal clusters using a time-dependent density functional theory approach.

    Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse

    2014-09-28

    Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (β) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters Ag 8 and Ag 20 are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.

  11. Coordination Chemistry inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Metal Migration and Cross-Exchange in Amphiphilic Core-Shell Polymer Latexes

    Si Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-defined amphiphilic core-shell polymer functionalized with bis(p-methoxy-phenylphosphinophenylphosphine (BMOPPP in the nanogel (NG core has been obtained by a convergent RAFT polymerization in emulsion. This BMOPPP@NG and the previously-reported TPP@NG (TPP = triphenylphosphine and core cross-linked micelles (L@CCM; L = TPP, BMOPPP having a slightly different architecture were loaded with [Rh(acac(CO2] or [RhCl(COD]2 to yield [Rh(acac(CO(L@Pol] or [RhCl(COD(L@Pol] (Pol = CCM, NG. The interparticle metal migration from [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@NG] to TPP@NG is fast at natural pH and much slower at high pH, the rate not depending significantly on the polymer architecture (CCM vs. NG. The cross-exchange using [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] (Pol = CCM or NG as reagents at natural pH is also rapid (ca. 1 h, although slower than the equivalent homogeneous reaction on the molecular species (<5 min. On the other hand, the subsequent rearrangement of [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] within the TPP@Pol core and of [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(BMOPPP@Pol] within the BMOPPP@Pol core, leading respectively to [RhCl(CO(TPP@Pol2] and [RhCl(CO(BMOPPP@Pol2], is much more rapid (<30 min than on the corresponding homogeneous process with the molecular species (>24 h.

  12. A Comparative Physics Study of Commercial PWR Cores using Metallic Micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Cr (or Mo) Pellets with Cr-based Cladding Coating

    Hwang, Dae Hee; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); In, Wang Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a comparative neutronic analysis of the cores using ATFs which include metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Cr, UO{sub 2}-Mo pellets and Cr-based alloy coating on cladding was performed to show the effects of the ATF fuels on the core performance. In this study, the cores having different ATFs use the same initial uranium enrichments. The ATF concepts studied in this work are the metallic microcell UO{sub 2} pellets containing Cr or Mo with cladding outer coating composed of Cr-based alloy which have been suggested as the ATF concepts in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The metallic micro-cell pellets and Cr-based alloy coating can enhance thermal conductivity of fuel and reduce the production of hydrogen from the reaction of cladding with coolant, respectively. The objective of this work is to compare neutronic characteristics of commercial PWR equilibrium cores utilizing the different variations of metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellets with cladding coating composed of Cr-based alloy. The results showed that the cores using UO{sub 2}-Cr and UO{sub 2}-Mo pellets with Cr-based alloy coating on cladding have reduced cycle lengths by 60 and 106 EFPDs, respectively, in comparison with the reference UO{sub 2} fueled core due to the reduced heavy metal inventories and large thermal absorption cross section but they do not have any significant differences in the core performances parameters. However, it is notable that the core fueled the micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Mo pellet and Cr-based alloy coating has considerably more negative MTC and slightly more negative FTC than the other cases. These characteristics of the core using micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Mo pellet and Cr-based alloy coating is due to the hard neutron spectrum and large capture resonance cross section of Mo isotopes.

  13. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy irradiation experiments with cluster dynamics modeling to study nanoscale defect agglomeration in structural metals

    Xu Donghua; Wirth, Brian D.; Li Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combinatorial approach that integrates state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in situ irradiation experiments and high-performance computing techniques to study irradiation defect dynamics in metals. Here, we have studied the evolution of visible defect clusters in nanometer-thick molybdenum foils under 1 MeV krypton ion irradiation at 80 °C through both cluster dynamics modeling and in situ TEM experiments. The experimental details are reported elsewhere; we focus here on the details of model construction and comparing the model with the experiments. The model incorporates continuous production of point defects and/or small clusters, and the accompanying interactions, which include clustering, recombination and loss to the surfaces that result from the diffusion of the mobile defects. To account for the strong surface effect in thin TEM foils, the model includes one-dimensional spatial dependence along the foil depth, and explicitly treats the surfaces as black sinks. The rich amount of data (cluster number density and size distribution at a variety of foil thickness, irradiation dose and dose rate) offered by the advanced in situ experiments has allowed close comparisons with computer modeling and permitted significant validation and optimization of the model in terms of both physical model construct (damage production mode, identities of mobile defects) and parameterization (diffusivities of mobile defects). The optimized model exhibits good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the in situ TEM experiments. The combinatorial approach is expected to bring a unique opportunity for the study of radiation damage in structural materials.

  14. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with 210 Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  15. The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels

    Martsiniouk, D.Ye.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)

  16. Defining the Architecture of the Core Machinery for the Assembly of Fe-S Clusters in Human Mitochondria.

    Gakh, Oleksandr; Ranatunga, Wasantha; Galeano, Belinda K; Smith, Douglas S; Thompson, James R; Isaya, Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Although Fe-S clusters may assemble spontaneously from elemental iron and sulfur in protein-free systems, the potential toxicity of free Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and S 2- ions in aerobic environments underscores the requirement for specialized proteins to oversee the safe assembly of Fe-S clusters in living cells. Prokaryotes first developed multiprotein systems for Fe-S cluster assembly, from which mitochondria later derived their own system and became the main Fe-S cluster suppliers for eukaryotic cells. Early studies in yeast and human mitochondria indicated that Fe-S cluster assembly in eukaryotes is centered around highly conserved Fe-S proteins (human ISCU) that serve as scaffolds upon which new Fe-S clusters are assembled from (i) elemental sulfur, provided by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine desulfurase (human NFS1) and its stabilizing-binding partner (human ISD11), and (ii) elemental iron, provided by an iron-binding protein of the frataxin family (human FXN). Further studies revealed that all of these proteins could form stable complexes that could reach molecular masses of megadaltons. However, the protein-protein interaction surfaces, catalytic mechanisms, and overall architecture of these macromolecular machines remained undefined for quite some time. The delay was due to difficulties inherent in reconstituting these very large multiprotein complexes in vitro or isolating them from cells in sufficient quantities to enable biochemical and structural studies. Here, we describe approaches we developed to reconstitute the human Fe-S cluster assembly machinery in Escherichia coli and to define its remarkable architecture. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term Records of Trace Metal Elements in Core Sediments: Anthropogenic Impacts in The Eure River Watershed

    Gardes, T.; Debret, M.; Copard, Y.; Patault, E.; Deloffre, J.; Marcotte, S.; Develle, A. L.; Sabatier, P.; Chaumillon, E.; Coulombier, T.; Revillon, S.; Nizou, J.; Laberdesque, Y.; Koltalo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Martot Dam is located in the Eure River Watershed (Normandy, France), few hundred meters upstream the Eure-Seine Rivers confluence. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the French Authorities planned to remove this dam in 2017. Nevertheless, impacts of the removal remain poorly studied. Classically, dam blocked sedimentary transfers downstream, but here, sediments are not blocked behind the dam but stored three hundred meters upstream in a hydraulic annex, called the Martot Pond. Furthermore, this pond is submitted to the tidal flow from the Seine Estuary despite the Martot Dam. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dam removal impacts on sedimentary transfers and re-suspension of contaminated sediments stored in the Martot Pond and the Eure River's channel. Concerning past transfers and sediments accumulation in the Eure River Watershed, sedimentary archives have been cored, before dam removal, at the Martot Pond and the Les Damps Pond (located 10km upstream the latter). Dating of sedimentary cores for both ponds indicates a sedimentation rate around 1 cm y-1. Trace metal elements quantification showed a wide metallic contamination with highest concentrations evidenced during the 1950-1960's (As: 13-22 mg kg-1; Cd: 40-55 mg kg-1; Cr: 170-210 mg kg-1; Cu: 400-490 mg kg-1; Hg: 2.3 mg kg-1; Mn: 1,280-2,200 mg kg-1; Ni: 64-75 mg kg-1; Zn: 905-990 mg kg-1) and the 1990-2000's (Cr: 95-215 mg kg-1; Ni: 100 mg kg-1; Pb: 670-855 mg kg-1). These variations of concentrations along cores can be associated with industrial past of the Eure River Watershed and sources of contamination can be identified. Thereby, Zn, Ni or Hg contamination could be associated with wastes of battery factory released in the Eure River during the economic recovery, while Pb contamination is linked to the activities of a cathode-ray tubes factory. Metals quantification in core materials highlighted anthropogenic impacts in the Eure River Watershed. These

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d-metal trioxides superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer MoS2: A first-principles study

    Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing first-principle calculations, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer MoS 2 doped with 3d transition-metal (TM) atoms and 3d-metal trioxides (TMO 3 ) superhalogen clusters are investigated. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen cluster-doped monolayers MoS 2 almost have negative formation energies except CoO 3 and NiO 3 doped monolayer MoS 2 , which are much lower than those of 3d TM-doped structures. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters are more easily embedded in monolayer MoS 2 than 3d-metal atoms. MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic, and the total magnetic moments are approximately 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 μB per supercell, respectively. MnO 3 and FeO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become semiconductors, whereas CoO 3 and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become half-metallic. Our studies demonstrate that the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature of 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters-doped monolayer MoS 2 has a great potential for MoS 2 -based spintronic device applications. -- Highlights: •TMO 3 superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. •TMO 3 doped structures have much lower formation energies than TM doped structures. •TMO 3 cluster-doped MoS 2 are thermodynamically favored. •Significant charge transfers between O atoms and Mo atoms in TMO 3 doped structures. •MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic.

  19. The Merging Galaxy Cluster A520 - A Broken-Up Cool Core, A Dark Subcluster, and an X-Ray Channel

    Wang, Qian H.S.; Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep Chandra X-ray observation of a merging galaxy cluster A520. A high-resolution gas temperature map reveals a long trail of dense, cool clumpsapparently the fragments of a cool core that has been stripped from the infalling subcluster by ram pressure. The clumps should still be connected by the stretched magnetic field lines. The observed temperature variations imply that thermal conductivity is suppressed by a factor greater than 100 across the presumed direction of the magnetic field (as found in other clusters), and is also suppressed along the field lines by a factor of several. Two massive clumps in the periphery of A520, visible in the weak-lensing mass map and the X-ray image, have apparently been completely stripped of gas during the merger, but then re-accreted the surrounding high-entropy gas upon exit from the cluster. The mass clump that hosted the stripped cool core is also re-accreting hotter gas. An X-ray hydrostatic mass estimate for the clump that has the simplest geometry agrees with the lensing mass. Its current gas mass to total mass ratio is very low, 1.5 percent to 3 percent, which makes it a "dark subcluster." We also found a curious low X-ray brightness channel (likely a low-density sheet in projection) going across the cluster along the direction of an apparent secondary merger. The channel may be caused by plasma depletion in a region of an amplified magnetic field (with plasma Beta approximately equal to 10-20). The shock in A520 will be studied in a separate paper.

  20. Copper Sensing Function of Drosophila Metal-Responsive Transcription Factor-1 Is Mediated By a Tetranuclear Cu(I) Cluster

    Chen, X.; Hua, H.; Balamurugan, K.; Kong, X.; Zhang, L.; George, G.N.; Georgiev, O.; Schaffner, W.; Giedroc, D.P.

    2009-05-12

    Drosophila melanogaster MTF-1 (dMTF-1) is a copper-responsive transcriptional activator that mediates resistance to Cu, as well as Zn and Cd. Here, we characterize a novel cysteine-rich domain which is crucial for sensing excess intracellular copper by dMTF-1. Transgenic flies expressing mutant dMTF-1 containing alanine substitutions of two, four or six cysteine residues within the sequence {sup 547}CNCTNCKCDQTKSCHGGDC{sup 565} are significantly or completely impaired in their ability to protect flies from copper toxicity and fail to up-regulate MtnA (metallothionein) expression in response to excess Cu. In contrast, these flies exhibit wild-type survival in response to copper deprivation thus revealing that the cysteine cluster domain is required only for sensing Cu load by dMTF-1. Parallel studies show that the isolated cysteine cluster domain is required to protect a copper-sensitive S. cerevisiae ace1 strain from copper toxicity. Cu(I) ligation by a Cys-rich domain peptide fragment drives the cooperative assembly of a polydentate [Cu{sub 4}-S{sub 6}] cage structure, characterized by a core of trigonally S{sub 3} coordinated Cu(I) ions bound by bridging thiolate ligands. While reminiscent of Cu{sub 4}-L{sub 6} (L = ligand) tetranuclear clusters in copper regulatory transcription factors of yeast, the absence of significant sequence homology is consistent with convergent evolution of a sensing strategy particularly well suited for Cu(I).

  1. Scattering of neutral metal clusters: Long-range interactions and response properties

    Kresin, V.V.; Scheidemann, A.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute integral cross sections for low-energy collisions of neutral sodium clusters Na n (n=2--40) with atoms and molecules (Ar, N 2 , O 2 , and halogens) have been measured. The cross sections are found to be exceptionally large (up to thousands of square angstroms), showing the dominant role of long-range intermolecular interactions. Elastic scattering proceeding under the influence of the van der Waals force, and a reaction channel involving electron transfer can successfully describe the measurements. The strength of the van der Waals potential is defined by such cluster response properties as the electric polarizability and the frequency of the giant dipole resonance. The reactive electron-jump channel, in turn, is described by the ''harpooning'' mechanism which is sensitive to the cluster ionization potential. Employing parameters taken from spectroscopic studies of alkali clusters, we obtain good agreement with the observed cross sections. This provides a direct connection between beam scattering experiments and studies of cluster electromagnetic response properties

  2. On the applicability of deformed jellium model to the description of metal clusters

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Matveentsev, Anton; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2003-01-01

    -density approximation deformed jellium model we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and the optimized values of the Wigner-Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms $N0$. These characteristics are compared...... shape deformations in the formation cluster properties and the quite reasonable level of applicability of the deformed jellium model.......This work is devoted to the elucidation the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties on the basis of comparison the jellium model results with those derived from experiment and within ab initio theoretical framework. On the basis of the Hartree-Fock and local...

  3. THE MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR CLUSTER NGC 6334I AT 220 au RESOLUTION: DISCOVERY OF FURTHER MULTIPLICITY, DIVERSITY, AND A HOT MULTI-CORE

    Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Indebetouw, R. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Chandler, C. J. [NRAO, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Friesen, R., E-mail: cbrogan@nrao.edu [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    We present Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array imaging of the deeply embedded protostellar cluster NGC 6334I from 5 cm to 1.3 mm at angular resolutions as fine as 0.″17 (220 au). The dominant hot core MM1 is resolved into seven components at 1.3 mm, clustered within a radius of 1000 au. Four of the components have brightness temperatures >200 K, radii ∼300 au, minimum luminosities ∼10{sup 4} L {sub ⊙}, and must be centrally heated. We term this new phenomenon a “hot multi-core.” Two of these objects also exhibit compact free–free emission at longer wavelengths, consistent with a hypercompact H ii region (MM1B) and a jet (MM1D). The spatial kinematics of the water maser emission centered on MM1D are consistent with it being the origin of the high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow seen in CO. The close proximity of MM1B and MM1D (440 au) suggests a proto-binary or a transient bound system. Several components of MM1 exhibit steep millimeter spectral energy distributions indicative of either unusual dust spectral properties or time variability. In addition to resolving MM1 and the other hot core (MM2) into multiple components, we detect five new millimeter and two new centimeter sources. Water masers are detected for the first time toward MM4A, confirming its membership in the protocluster. With a 1.3 mm brightness temperature of 97 K coupled with a lack of thermal molecular line emission, MM4A appears to be a highly optically thick 240  L {sub ⊙} dust core, possibly tracing a transient stage of massive protostellar evolution. The nature of the strongest water maser source CM2 remains unclear due to its combination of non-thermal radio continuum and lack of dust emission.

  4. Proceedings of the international conference on irradiation behaviour of metallic materials for fast reactor core components

    Poirier, J.; Dupouy, J.M.

    In this conference are presented papers dealing with swelling of metals and alloys, (and specially ferritic steels), structural evolution and stability under irradiation, modifications of mechanical properties, consequences on the behaviour of fuel elements and the optimization of materials selection, and irradiation creep [fr

  5. Metal cluster cation reactions: Carbon monoxide association to Cu + n ions

    Leuchtner, R. E.; Harms, A. C.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Copper cluster cations (Cu+n,n=1-14) were produced in a laser vaporization/flow tube apparatus and equilibrated to room temperature. The association rate constants of carbon monoxide onto these ions were measured; low-pressure, termolecular behavior was observed for the smaller species while for clusters greater than Cu+7, the longer lifetimes due to the increased number of degrees of freedom leads to pressure independence (>0.3 Torr) of the effective bimolecular rates. Unimolecular decay theory (RRKM) is used to explain the overall trend and when intrinsic surface site reactivity is taken into account, excellent agreement with measured reactivity is obtained.

  6. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters.

  7. Density functional study of structural and catalytic properties of free and supported metal nano cluster; Dichtefunktionalstudie der strukturellen und katalytischen Eigenschaften freier und getraegerter Metallnanocluster

    Huber, B.

    2007-04-11

    The structural and catalytic properties of metal clusters were determined in the framework of density functional theory. The first part of this work investigates the electronic and geometrical structure of sodium clusters with up to 309 atoms. The ground-state structures of the clusters are determined and the corresponding electronic density of states is compared to experimental photoelectron spectras. The excellent agreement to the experimental results indicates that the correct growth motive of the sodium clusters was found. Small clusters from Na{sup -}{sub 20} to Na{sup -}{sub 42} prefer pentagonal and icosahedral structures with anti-Mackay overlayers, while clusters larger than Na{sup -}{sub 50} prefer icosahedral structures with Mackay overlayers. Clusters between the closed-shell Mackay Clusters often exhibit a twist deformation with respect to the regular Mackay positions. The second part of this work investigates the catalytic properties of free and supported palladium clusters. For both cases the oxidation of small Pd{sub N} clusters (N {<=} 9) was studied. It turned out that MgO supported Pd-clusters dissociate oxygen with a significant lower reaction energy than free clusters or supported systems with particles consisting of several thousands of atoms. The reaction with oxygen transforms the non-crystalline Pd-clusters into crystalline Pd{sub x}O{sub y} nano-oxide clusters that are in epitaxy with the underlying support. Simulations of the CO oxidation on the Pd{sub x}O{sub y} cluster predict a low-temperature reaction mechanism. By calculating the electronic density of states and CO stretch frequencies, different ways of verifying the results experimentally are discussed. (orig.)

  8. LDA+DMFT approach to core-level spectroscopy: Application to 3d transition metal compounds

    Hariki, A.; Uozumi, T.; Kuneš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 045111. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 646807 - EXMAG Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : core -level x-ray photoemission * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  9. Oxygen abundances in halo giants. I - Giants in the very metal-poor globular clusters M92 and M15 and the metal-poor halo field

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Prosser, Charles F.; Langer, G. E.

    1991-12-01

    Oxygen, iron, vanadium, and scandium abundances are derived for very metal-poor giants in the globular clusters M92 and M15, and giants of comparable metallicity in the local halo field. The forbidden O I line dublet (6300, 6363) and nearby metallic lines in spectra are analyzed using line analysis and spectral synthesis codes. The Fe/H abundance for M92 is estimated at -2.25 +/-0.02 based on nine giants with a range of 500 K in effective temperature. No evidence for star-to-star variations in the Fe/H abundance was found. O-rich and O-poor stars appear intermixed in the H-R diagram. O - N nuclear synthesis and mixing to the surface are proposed as the best explanation for the low-oxygen giants. The nitrogen abundances obtained earlier for nine of the ten halo field giants in this sample are incompatible with the very large nitrogen abundances expected of the O/Fe abundance of about + 1.2 in halo field subdwarfs, as found by Abia and Rebolo (1989), and not more than 0.6 in halo giants, as found in this and other studies.

  10. Microcautery based on zinc metallic nanoparticles photodeposited on the core of an optical fiber

    Zaca-Morán, P., E-mail: zmoran_placido@icloud.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico); Pastelín, C.F., E-mail: c_pastelin@yahoo.com.mx [Departemento de Biología y Toxicologia de la Reproducción, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Morán, C., E-mail: carolina.moran@correo.buap.mx [Departemento de Biología y Toxicologia de la Reproducción, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Pérez-Sánchez, G.F., E-mail: f_perez_s@hotmail.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico); Chávez, F., E-mail: fchr172@hotmail.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles photodeposited on its core. • We achieved a controllable heat “tip” via radiation intensity of a laser source. • We carried out cauterization and coagulation processes to induce hemostasis in blood vessels using rats. • The system is ideal to carry out micro cauterization processes. - Abstract: The experimental arrangement of a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) photodeposited on its core for the cauterization and coagulation in blood vessels hemostasis processes is presented. The interaction between a laser radiation source and the ZnNPS on the fiber core produces a controllable punctual heat source through the radiation intensity, which is capable of reaching a temperature up to 200 °C covering an area of approximately ten micrometers. By using three-to-four-month-old rats of CIIZ-V strain, we made several microcauterization experimental tests to stop blood flow. The findings show that the microcautery obliterates the smooth muscle of the blood vessels concatenating mutually to tissue in an average time of three seconds, at the same time, the blood elements responsible for the coagulation are thermally activated and thus the bleeding is stopped.

  11. Microcautery based on zinc metallic nanoparticles photodeposited on the core of an optical fiber

    Zaca-Morán, P.; Pastelín, C.F.; Morán, C.; Pérez-Sánchez, G.F.; Chávez, F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles photodeposited on its core. • We achieved a controllable heat “tip” via radiation intensity of a laser source. • We carried out cauterization and coagulation processes to induce hemostasis in blood vessels using rats. • The system is ideal to carry out micro cauterization processes. - Abstract: The experimental arrangement of a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) photodeposited on its core for the cauterization and coagulation in blood vessels hemostasis processes is presented. The interaction between a laser radiation source and the ZnNPS on the fiber core produces a controllable punctual heat source through the radiation intensity, which is capable of reaching a temperature up to 200 °C covering an area of approximately ten micrometers. By using three-to-four-month-old rats of CIIZ-V strain, we made several microcauterization experimental tests to stop blood flow. The findings show that the microcautery obliterates the smooth muscle of the blood vessels concatenating mutually to tissue in an average time of three seconds, at the same time, the blood elements responsible for the coagulation are thermally activated and thus the bleeding is stopped.

  12. Simulation of Molten Core-Concrete Interaction in oxide/metal stratified configuration with the TOLBIAC-ICB code

    Tourniaire, B.; Spindler, B.

    2005-01-01

    The frame of this work is the validation of the TOLBIAC-ICB code which is devoted to the simulation of Molten Core-Concrete Interaction (MCCI) for reactor safety analysis. Attention focuses here on the validation of TOLBIAC-ICB in configurations expected to be representative of the long term phase of MCCI i.e. during an interaction between an oxide/metal stratified corium melt and a concrete structure. Up to now the BETA tests performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are the only tests available to study such kind of interaction. The BETA tests are first described and the operating conditions are reminded. The TOLBIAC-ICB code is then briefly described, with emphasis on the models used for stratified configurations. The results of the simulations are discussed. A sensitivity study is also performed with the power generated in the oxide layer instead of the metal layer as in the test. This last calculation shows that the large axial ablation observed in the tests is probably due to the peculiar configuration of the test with input power in the bottom metal layer. Since in the reactor case the residual power would be mainly concentrated in the upper oxide layer, the conclusions of the BETA tests for the reactor applications, in term of axial ablation, must be derived with caution. (author)

  13. Methane Oxidation to Methanol Catalyzed by Cu-Oxo Clusters Stabilized in NU-1000 Metal-Organic Framework.

    Ikuno, Takaaki; Zheng, Jian; Vjunov, Aleksei; Sanchez-Sanchez, Maricruz; Ortuño, Manuel A; Pahls, Dale R; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Li, Zhanyong; Ray, Debmalya; Mehdi, B Layla; Browning, Nigel D; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Lercher, Johannes A

    2017-08-02

    Copper oxide clusters synthesized via atomic layer deposition on the nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 are active for oxidation of methane to methanol under mild reaction conditions. Analysis of chemical reactivity, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations are used to determine structure/activity relations in the Cu-NU-1000 catalytic system. The Cu-loaded MOF contained Cu-oxo clusters of a few Cu atoms. The Cu was present under ambient conditions as a mixture of ∼15% Cu + and ∼85% Cu 2+ . The oxidation of methane on Cu-NU-1000 was accompanied by the reduction of 9% of the Cu in the catalyst from Cu 2+ to Cu + . The products, methanol, dimethyl ether, and CO 2 , were desorbed with the passage of 10% water/He at 135 °C, giving a carbon selectivity for methane to methanol of 45-60%. Cu oxo clusters stabilized in NU-1000 provide an active, first generation MOF-based, selective methane oxidation catalyst.

  14. New insights into the origin and evolution of the old, metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Gieles, Mark; Pichardo, Barbara; Peimbert, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    NGC 6791 is one of the most studied open clusters, it is massive (˜5000 M⊙), located at the solar circle, old (˜8 Gyr) and yet the most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ≃ 0.4) known in the Milky Way. By performing an orbital analysis within a Galactic model including spiral arms and a bar, we found that it is plausible that NGC 6791 formed in the inner thin disc or in the bulge, and later displaced by radial migration to its current orbit. We apply different tools to simulate NGC 6791, including direct N-body summation in time-varying potentials, to test its survivability when going through different Galactic environments. In order to survive the 8-Gyr journey moving on a migrating orbit, NGC 6791 must have been more massive, M0 ≥ 5 × 104 M⊙, when formed. We find independent confirmation of this initial mass in the stellar mass function, which is observed to be flat; this can only be explained if the average tidal field strength experienced by the cluster is stronger than what it is at its current orbit. Therefore, the birth place and journeys of NGC 6791 are imprinted in its chemical composition, in its mass-loss and in its flat stellar mass function, supporting its origin in the inner thin disc or in the bulge.

  15. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Bakker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb-n (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1)

  16. Chemical Bonding of Transition-Metal Co13 Clusters with Graphene.

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2015-12-01

    We carried out density functional calculations to study the adsorption of Co13 clusters on graphene. Several free isomers were deposited at different positions with respect to the hexagonal lattice nodes, allowing us to study even the hcp 2d isomer, which was recently obtained as the most stable one. Surprisingly, the Co13 clusters attached to graphene prefer icosahedron-like structures in which the low-lying isomer is much distorted; in such structures, they are linked with more bonds than those reported in previous works. For any isomer, the most stable position binds to graphene by the Co atoms that can lose electrons. We find that the charge transfer between graphene and the clusters is small enough to conclude that the Co-graphene binding is not ionic-like but chemical. Besides, the same order of stability among the different isomers on doped graphene is kept. These findings could also be of interest for magnetic clusters on graphenic nanostructures such as ribbons and nanotubes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Non-Linear Optically Active Metal Clusters in Nanoscaled Systems Including Self-Assembled Organic Films

    Balzer, Frank; Jett, S. D.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2000-01-01

    are initially monitored in ultrahigh vacuum by comparison of calculated with measured polarization-dependent extinction spectra. We find that at low surface temperatures (150 K) the cluster growth is very similar to growth directly on insulating substrates. With increasing surface temperature the size...

  18. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, bright