WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal chalcogenide precursors

  1. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  2. Precursor directed synthesis - ``molecular'' mechanisms in the Soft Chemistry approaches and their use for template-free synthesis of metal, metal oxide and metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2014-05-01

    This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials.This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials. To Professor David Avnir on his 65th birthday.

  3. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  4. Precursor directed synthesis--"molecular" mechanisms in the Soft Chemistry approaches and their use for template-free synthesis of metal, metal oxide and metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G

    2014-06-21

    This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials.

  5. Noble-Metal Chalcogenide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Zibouche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the stability and the electronic properties of hypothetical noble-metal chalcogenide nanotubes PtS2, PtSe2, PdS2 and PdSe2 by means of density functional theory calculations. Our findings show that the strain energy decreases inverse quadratically with the tube diameter, as is typical for other nanotubes. Moreover, the strain energy is independent of the tube chirality and converges towards the same value for large diameters. The band-structure calculations show that all noble-metal chalcogenide nanotubes are indirect band gap semiconductors. The corresponding band gaps increase with the nanotube diameter rapidly approaching the respective pristine 2D monolayer limit.

  6. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  7. Surfactant free metal chalcogenides microparticles consisting of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANYASINAIDU GOTTAPU

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... Metal chalcogenides; copper sulphide; copper selenide; micro flowers. 1. Introduction .... adding calculated quantity (2.7 mmol) of each acid separately. .... salts (LiCl, LiNO3, and LiOAc), and then hydride ions from (BH. − ... Concentration of metal .... hait A and Lim J Y 2016 Cation exchange synthesis of.

  8. A library of atomically thin metal chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Xiangwei; Zhou, Yao; Chen, Yu; Xia, Juan; Wang, Hong; Xie, Yu; Yu, Huimei; Lei, Jincheng; Wu, Di; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Qundong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li; Yu, Ting; Shen, Zexiang; Lin, Hsin; Yakobson, Boris I; Liu, Qian; Suenaga, Kazu; Liu, Guangtong; Liu, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Investigations of two-dimensional transition-metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have recently revealed interesting physical phenomena, including the quantum spin Hall effect 1,2 , valley polarization 3,4 and two-dimensional superconductivity 5 , suggesting potential applications for functional devices 6-10 . However, of the numerous compounds available, only a handful, such as Mo- and W-based TMCs, have been synthesized, typically via sulfurization 11-15 , selenization 16,17 and tellurization 18 of metals and metal compounds. Many TMCs are difficult to produce because of the high melting points of their metal and metal oxide precursors. Molten-salt-assisted methods have been used to produce ceramic powders at relatively low temperature 19 and this approach 20 was recently employed to facilitate the growth of monolayer WS 2 and WSe 2 . Here we demonstrate that molten-salt-assisted chemical vapour deposition can be broadly applied for the synthesis of a wide variety of two-dimensional (atomically thin) TMCs. We synthesized 47 compounds, including 32 binary compounds (based on the transition metals Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Pt, Pd and Fe), 13 alloys (including 11 ternary, one quaternary and one quinary), and two heterostructured compounds. We elaborate how the salt decreases the melting point of the reactants and facilitates the formation of intermediate products, increasing the overall reaction rate. Most of the synthesized materials in our library are useful, as supported by evidence of superconductivity in our monolayer NbSe 2 and MoTe 2 samples 21,22 and of high mobilities in MoS 2 and ReS 2 . Although the quality of some of the materials still requires development, our work opens up opportunities for studying the properties and potential application of a wide variety of two-dimensional TMCs.

  9. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Orme, Christine A.

    2017-04-25

    Disclosed here is a method for hydrocarbon conversion, comprising contacting at least one graphene-supported assembly with at least one hydrocarbon feedstock, wherein the graphene-supported assembly comprises (i) a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and (ii) at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on the graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of the metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te, and wherein the metal chalcogenide compound accounts for at least 20 wt. % of the graphene-supported assembly.

  10. Solvent properties of hydrazine in the preparation of metal chalcogenide bulk materials and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Mitzi, David B

    2009-08-21

    A combination of unique solvent properties of hydrazine enables the direct dissolution of a range of metal chalcogenides at ambient temperature, rendering this an extraordinarily simple and soft synthetic approach to prepare new metal chalcogenide-based materials. The extended metal chalcogenide parent framework is broken up during this process, and the resulting metal chalcogenide building units are re-organized into network structures (from 0D to 3D) based upon their interactions with the hydrazine/hydrazinium moieties. This Perspective will review recent crystal and materials chemistry developments within this family of compounds and will briefly discuss the utility of this approach in metal chalcogenide thin-film deposition.

  11. Chalcogenide metal centers for oxygen reduction reaction: Activity and tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yongjun; Gago, Aldo; Timperman, Laure; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes materials design methods, oxygen reduction kinetics, tolerance to small organic molecules and fuel cell performance of chalcogenide metal catalysts, particularly, ruthenium (Ru x Se y ) and non-precious transition metals (M x X y : M = Co, Fe and Ni; X = Se and S). These non-platinum catalysts are potential alternatives to Pt-based catalysts because of their comparable catalytic activity (Ru x Se y ), low cost, high abundance and, in particular, a high tolerance to small organic molecules. Developing trends of synthesis methods, mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction and applications in direct alcohol fuel cells as well as the substrate effect are highlighted.

  12. Synthesis of 2D Metal Chalcogenide Thin Films through the Process Involving Solution-Phase Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Park, Gyeongbae; Yang, Heeseung; Pal, Monalisa; Kwak, Junghyeok; Jeong, Unyong

    2018-04-24

    2D metal chalcogenide thin films have recently attracted considerable attention owing to their unique physicochemical properties and great potential in a variety of applications. Synthesis of large-area 2D metal chalcogenide thin films in controllable ways remains a key challenge in this research field. Recently, the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenide thin films has emerged as an alternative approach to vacuum-based synthesis because it is relatively simple and easy to scale up for high-throughput production. In addition, solution-based thin films open new opportunities that cannot be achieved from vacuum-based thin films. Here, a comprehensive summary regarding the basic structures and properties of different types of 2D metal chalcogenides, the mechanistic details of the chemical reactions in the synthesis of the metal chalcogenide thin films, recent successes in the synthesis by different reaction approaches, and the applications and potential uses is provided. In the last perspective section, the technical challenges to be overcome and the future research directions in the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenides are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism and Stability of Transition Metal Pnictides and Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bang-Gui

    It is highly desirable to explore robust half-metallic ferromagnetic materials compatible with important semiconductors for spintronic applications. A state-of-the-art full potential augmented plane wave method within the densityfunctional theory is reliable enough for this purpose. In this chapter we review theoretical research on half-metallic ferromagnetism and structural stability of transition metal pnictides and chalcogenides. We show that some zincblende transition metal pnictides are half-metallic and the half-metallic gap can be fairly wide, which is consistent with experiment. Systematic calculations reveal that zincblende phases of CrTe, CrSe, and VTe are excellent half-metallic ferromagnets. These three materials have wide half-metallic gaps, are low in total energy with respect to the corresponding ground-state phases, and, importantly, are structurally stable. Halfmetallic ferromagnetism is also found in wurtzite transition metal pnictides and chalcogenides and in transition-metal doped semiconductors as well as deformed structures. Some of these half-metallic materials could be grown epitaxially in the form of ultrathin .lms or layers suitable for real spintronic applications.

  14. Mechanism for resistive switching in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization memory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhuge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization (ECM memory cells (e.g., As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the metal filament grows from the cathode (e.g., Pt and W towards the anode (e.g., Cu and Ag, whereas filament growth along the opposite direction has been observed in oxide-based ECM cells (e.g., ZnO, ZrO2, and SiO2. The growth direction difference has been ascribed to a high ion diffusion coefficient in chalcogenides in comparison with oxides. In this paper, upon analysis of OFF state I–V characteristics of ZnS-based ECM cells, we find that the metal filament grows from the anode towards the cathode and the filament rupture and rejuvenation occur at the cathodic interface, similar to the case of oxide-based ECM cells. It is inferred that in ECM cells based on the chalcogenides such as As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the filament growth from the cathode towards the anode is due to the existence of an abundance of ready-made mobile metal ions in the chalcogenides rather than to the high ion diffusion coefficient.

  15. Trends in oxygen reduction and methanol activation on transition metal chalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, Georgios; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We use density functional theory calculations to study the oxygen reduction reaction and methanol activation on selenium and sulfur-containing transition metal surfaces. With ruthenium selenium as a starting point, we study the effect of the chalcogen on the activity, selectivity and stability...... of the catalyst. Ruthenium surfaces with moderate content of selenium are calculated active for the oxygen reduction reaction, and insensitive to methanol. A significant upper limit for the activity of transition metal chalcogenides is estimated....

  16. Microorganism mediated biosynthesis of metal chalcogenides; a powerful tool to transform toxic effluents into functional nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vena, M. Paula; Jobbágy, Matías; Bilmes, Sara A., E-mail: sarabil@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2016-09-15

    Cadmium contained in soil and water can be taken up by certain crops and aquatic organisms and accumulate in the food-chain, thus removal of Cd from mining or industrial effluents – i.e. Ni-Cd batteries, electroplating, pigments, fertilizers – becomes mandatory for human health. In parallel, there is an increased interest in the production of luminescent Q-dots for applications in bioimaging, sensors and electronic devices, even the present synthesis methods are economic and environmentally costly. An alternative green pathway for producing Metal chalcogenides (MC: CdS, CdSe, CdTe) nanocrystals is based on the metabolic activity of living organisms. Intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis of can be achieved within a biomimetic approach feeding living organisms with Cd precursors providing new routes for combining bioremediation with green routes for producing MC nanoparticles. In this mini-review we present the state-of-the-art of biosynthesis of MC nanoparticles with a critical discussion of parameters involved and protocols. Few existing examples of scaling-up are also discussed. A modular reactor based on microorganisms entrapped in biocompatible mineral matrices – already proven for bioremediation of dissolved dyes – is proposed for combining both Cd-depletion and MC nanoparticle's production. - Highlights: • Removal of heavy metals by living matter is feasible trough biosorption and bioaccumulation • Algae, fungi, bacteria and yeasts can synthesize CdS, CdSe and CdTe Q-dots • Encapsulation of microorganisms in mineral gels provides building blocks for reactor design. • Depletion of Cd with production of Q-dots can be achieved with modular bioreactors with entrapped cells.

  17. 2D Metal Chalcogenides Incorporated into Carbon and their Assembly for Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongnan; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2018-05-01

    2D metal chalcogenides have become a popular focus in the energy storage field because of their unique properties caused by their single-atom thicknesses. However, their high surface energy and van der Waals attraction easily cause serious stacking and restacking, leading to the generation of more inaccessible active sites with rapid capacity fading. The hybridization of 2D metal chalcogenides with highly conductive materials, particularly, incorporating ultrasmall and few-layered metal chalcogenides into carbon frameworks, can not only maximize the exposure of active sites but also effectively avoid their stacking and aggregation during the electrochemical reaction process. Therefore, a satisfactory specific capacity will be achieved with a long cycle life. In this Concept, the representative progress on such intriguing nanohybrids and their applications in energy storage devices are mainly summarized. Finally, an outlook of the future development and challenges of such nanohybrids for achieving an excellent energy storage capability is also provided. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interfacial scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Mahmoud M.; Abdallah, Tamer [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Easawi, Khalid; Negm, Sohair [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Talaat, Hassan, E-mail: hassantalaat@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparing band gaps values obtained optically with STS. • Comparing direct imaging with calculated dimensions. • STS determination of the interfacial band bending of metal/chalcogenide. - Abstract: The electronic structure at the interface of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure (CdSe–Au tipped) had been studied by UHV scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. This nanostructure was synthesized by a phase transfer chemical method. The optical absorption of this hybrid nanostructure was recorded, and the application of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model gave dimensions that were confirmed by the direct measurements using the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The energy band gap obtained by STS agrees with the values obtained from the optical absorption. Moreover, the STS at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure between CdSe of size about 4.1 ± 0.19 nm and Au tip of size about 3.5 ± 0.29 nm shows a band bending about 0.18 ± 0.03 eV in CdSe down in the direction of the interface. Such a result gives a direct observation of the electron accumulation at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure, consistent with its energy band diagram. The presence of the electron accumulation at the interface of chalcogenides with metals has an important implication for hybrid nanoelectronic devices and the newly developed plasmon/chalcogenide photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  19. Method of making metal-chalcogenide photosensitive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazacos, M.S.; Miller, B.

    1981-01-01

    We have found that a photoactive metal selenide film, such as cdse, may be formed by cathodic eletrodeposition from a selenosulfite (Seso32-) solution without the need for a subsequent heat treating step which, it is hypothesized, was required by the simultaneous deposition of elemental selenium

  20. Recent Advances in Layered Metal Chalcogenides as Superconductors and Thermoelectric Materials: Fe-Based and Bi-Based Chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in layered (Fe-based and Bi-based) chalcogenides as superconductors or functional materials are reviewed. The Fe-chalcogenide (FeCh) family are the simplest Fe-based high-Tc superconductors. The superconductivity in the FeCh family is sensitive to external or chemical pressure, and high Tc is attained when the local structure (anion height) is optimized. The Bi-chalcogenide (BiCh2) family are a new group of layered superconductors with a wide variety of stacking structures. Their physical properties are also sensitive to external or chemical pressure. Recently, we revealed that the emergence of superconductivity and the Tc in this family correlate with the in-plane chemical pressure. Since the flexibility of crystal structure and electronic states are an advantage of the BiCh2 family for designing functionalities, I briefly review recent developments in this family as not only superconductors but also other functional materials. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Trends in oxygen reduction and methanol activation on transition metal chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Norskov, Jens K.; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Oxygen electro-reduction reaction on chalcogen-containing transition metal surfaces. → Evaluation of catalytic performance with density functional theory. → Ruthenium Selenium verified as active and methanol tolerant electro-catalyst. → Water boils at -10000 K. - Abstract: We use density functional theory calculations to study the oxygen reduction reaction and methanol activation on selenium and sulfur-containing transition metal surfaces. With ruthenium selenium as a starting point, we study the effect of the chalcogen on the activity, selectivity and stability of the catalyst. Ruthenium surfaces with moderate content of selenium are calculated active for the oxygen reduction reaction, and insensitive to methanol. A significant upper limit for the activity of transition metal chalcogenides is estimated.

  2. Solution-based synthesis and design of late transition metal chalcogenide materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-09

    Late transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) nanomaterials have been introduced as a promising Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts because of their low cost, good ORR activity, high methanol tolerance, and facile synthesis. Herein, an overview on the design and synthesis of LTMC nanomaterials by solution-based strategies is presented along with their ORR performances. Current solution-based synthetic approaches towards LTMC nanomaterials include a hydrothermal/solvothermal approach, single-source precursor approach, hot-injection approach, template-directed soft synthesis, and Kirkendall-effect-induced soft synthesis. Although the ORR activity and stability of LTMC nanomaterials are still far from what is needed for practical fuel-cell applications, much enhanced electrocatalytic performance can be expected. Recent advances have emphasized that decorating the surface of the LTMC nanostructures with other functional nanoparticles can lead to much better ORR catalytic activity. It is believed that new synthesis approaches to LTMCs, modification techniques of LTMCs, and LTMCs with desirable morphology, size, composition, and structures are expected to be developed in the future to satisfy the requirements of commercial fuel cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Oxide and Chalcogenide-Based Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farjana; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Ou, Jian Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal oxide and chalcogenide (TMO&C)-based photocatalysts have recently attracted significant attention for addressing the current worldwide challenges of energy shortage and environmental pollution. The ultrahigh surface area and unconventional physiochemical, electronic and optical properties of 2D TMO&Cs have been demonstrated to facilitate photocatalytic applications. This review provides a concise overview of properties, synthesis methods and applications of 2D TMO&C-based photocatalysts. Particular attention is paid on the emerging strategies to improve the abilities of light harvesting and photoinduced charge separation for enhancing photocatalytic performances, which include elemental doping, surface functionalization as well as heterojunctions with semiconducting and conductive materials. The future opportunities regarding the research pathways of 2D TMO&C-based photocatalysts are also presented. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-11-01

    In this dissertation, the metathesis route of metal chalcogenide aerogel synthesis was expanded by conducting systematic studies between polysulfide building blocks and the 1st-row transition metal linkers. Resulting materials were screened as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated. The effect of the presence of different counter-ion within chalcogel frameworks on the adsorption capacity of the chalcogels was studied on AFe3Zn3S17 (A= K, Na, and Rb) chalcogels. The highest adsorption capacity toward hydrocarbons and gases was observed on Rb based chalcogels. Adopting a new building block [BiTe3]3- with the 1st-row transition metal ions results in the formation of three high BET surface area chalcogels, KCrBiTe3, KZnBiTe3, and KFeBiTe3. The resulting chalcogels showed preferential adsorption of toluene vapor, and remarkable selectivity of CO2, indicating the potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes. The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 are also reported. Rare earth metal ions react with the thiostannate clusters in formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Obtained chalcogels have high BET surface areas, and showed notable adsorption capacity toward CO2 and toluene vapor. These chalcogels have also been engaged in the absorption of different organic molecules. The results reveal the ability of the chalcogels to distinguish among organic molecules on their electronic structures; hence, they could be used as sensors. Furthermore, the synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 and Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2- chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3

  5. Correlated structural and electronic phase transformations in transition metal chalcogenide under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunyu, E-mail: licy@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yanhao@hpstar.ac.cn; Ke, Feng; Yu, Zhenhai; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hao, E-mail: licy@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yanhao@hpstar.ac.cn [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Hu, Qingyang [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Zhao, Jinggeng [Natural Science Research Center, Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2016-04-07

    Here, we report comprehensive studies on the high-pressure structural and electrical transport properties of the layered transition metal chalcogenide (Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3}) up to 36.3 GPa. A structural phase transition was observed in the rhombohedral Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} near 16.5 GPa by the synchrotron angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurement using a diamond anvil cell. Through in situ resistance measurement, the electric resistance value was detected to decrease by an order of three over the pressure range of 7–15 GPa coincided with the structural phase transition. Measurements on the temperature dependence of resistivity indicate that it is a semiconductor-to-metal transition in nature. The results were also confirmed by the electronic energy band calculations. Above results may shed a light on optimizing the performance of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} based applications under extreme conditions.

  6. Surface functionalization of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides by Lewis acid-base chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Sidong; Wang, Xifan; Li, Bo; Kang, Jiahao; He, Yongmin; George, Antony; Ge, Liehui; Gong, Yongji; Dong, Pei; Jin, Zehua; Brunetto, Gustavo; Chen, Weibing; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Baines, Robert; Galvão, Douglas S.; Lou, Jun; Barrera, Enrique; Banerjee, Kaustav; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-05-01

    Precise control of the electronic surface states of two-dimensional (2D) materials could improve their versatility and widen their applicability in electronics and sensing. To this end, chemical surface functionalization has been used to adjust the electronic properties of 2D materials. So far, however, chemical functionalization has relied on lattice defects and physisorption methods that inevitably modify the topological characteristics of the atomic layers. Here we make use of the lone pair electrons found in most of 2D metal chalcogenides and report a functionalization method via a Lewis acid-base reaction that does not alter the host structure. Atomic layers of n-type InSe react with Ti4+ to form planar p-type [Ti4+n(InSe)] coordination complexes. Using this strategy, we fabricate planar p-n junctions on 2D InSe with improved rectification and photovoltaic properties, without requiring heterostructure growth procedures or device fabrication processes. We also show that this functionalization approach works with other Lewis acids (such as B3+, Al3+ and Sn4+) and can be applied to other 2D materials (for example MoS2, MoSe2). Finally, we show that it is possible to use Lewis acid-base chemistry as a bridge to connect molecules to 2D atomic layers and fabricate a proof-of-principle dye-sensitized photosensing device.

  7. Thin HTSC films produced by a polymer metal precursor technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, L. v.; Zygalsky, F.; Hinrichsen, G.

    In precursors the metal ions are combined with acid groups of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), polyacrylic acid (PAA) or novolac. Compared to thermal degradation temperature of pure polymers those of precursors are low. Precursors films were patterned by UV lithography. Diffractometric investigations showed that the c-axis oriented epitaxial films of YBa 2Cu 3O x and Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x originated from amorphous metal oxide films, which were received after thermal degradation of the precursor. Transition temperatures and current densities were determined by electric resistivity measurements.

  8. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Discovered in 1863, indium is nowadays a strategic scarce metal used both in classical technologic fields (like low melting-temperature alloys and solders) and in innovative nano-technologies to produce "high-tech devices" by means of new materials, namely liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the recently introduced transparent flexible thin-films manufactured with ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors (IAOS). Indium is a typical chalcophile element, seldom forming specific minerals and occurring mainly dispersed within polymetallic sulphides, particularly with excess metal ions [1]. The average content of indium in the Earth's crust is very low but a further increase in its demand is still expected in the next years, thus focusing a special interest in uncovering new exploitation sites through promising polymetallic sulphide ores - e.g., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) [2] - and in improving recycling technologies. Indium recovery stands mostly on zinc extraction from sphalerite, the natural cubic sulphide which is the prototype of so-called "tetrahedral sulphides" where metal ions fill half of the available tetrahedral sites within the cubic closest packing of sulphur anions where the double of unfilled interstices are available for further in-filling. It is worth remarking that such packing array is particularly suitable for accommodating polymetallic cations by filling closely located interstitial sites [3] as happens in excess-metal tetrahedral sulphides - e.g. bornite, ideally Cu5FeS4, recognized as an In-carrying mineral [4]. Studying the tendency towards In-In interactions able of leading to the formation of polycations would efficiently contribute to understand indium crystal chemistry and the metal binding state in natural chalcogenides. Accordingly, an X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) study at In L3-edge was undertaken using the instrumental set-up of ID21 beamline at the ESRF (European Synchrotron

  9. A Self-Templating Scheme for the Synthesis of Nanostructured Transition Metal Chalcogenide Electrodes for Capacitive Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-06-11

    Due to their unique structural features including well-defined interior voids, low density, low coefficients of thermal expansion, large surface area and surface permeability, hollow micro/nanostructured transition metal sulfides with high conductivity have been investigated as new class of electrode materials for pseudocapacitor applications. Herein, we report a novel self-templating strategy to fabricate well-defined single and double-shell NiCo2S4 hollow spheres, as a promising electrode material for pseudocapacitors. The surfaces of the NiCo2S4 hollow spheres consist of self-assembled 2D mesoporous nanosheets. This unique morphology results in a high specific capacitance (1257 F g-1 at 2 A g-1), remarkable rate performance (76.4% retention of initial capacitance from 2 A g-1 to 60 A g-1) and exceptional reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 93.8% and 87% after 10,000 and 20,000 cycles, respectively, at a high current density of 10 A g-1. The cycling stability of our ternary chalcogenides is comparable to carbonaceous electrode materials, but with much higher specific capacitance (higher than any previously reported ternary chalcogenide), suggesting that these unique chalcogenide structures have potential application in next-generation commercial pseudocapacitors.

  10. Recent Advances in Metal Chalcogenides (MX; X = S, Se) Nanostructures for Electrochemical Supercapacitor Applications: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthagiri, Jayaraman; Durai, Govindarajan; Rana, Abu ul Hassan Sarwar; Sangeetha, Kirubanandam; Kuppusami, Parasuraman; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have received a great deal of attention and play an important role for future self-powered devices, mainly owing to their higher power density. Among all types of electrical energy storage devices, electrochemical supercapacitors are considered to be the most promising because of their superior performance characteristics, including short charging time, high power density, safety, easy fabrication procedures, and long operational life. An SC consists of two foremost components, namely electrode materials, and electrolyte. The selection of appropriate electrode materials with rational nanostructured designs has resulted in improved electrochemical properties for high performance and has reduced the cost of SCs. In this review, we mainly spotlight the non-metallic oxide, especially metal chalcogenides (MX; X = S, Se) based nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical SCs. Different non-metallic oxide materials are highlighted in various categories, such as transition metal sulfides and selenides materials. Finally, the designing strategy and future improvements on metal chalcogenide materials for the application of electrochemical SCs are also discussed. PMID:29671823

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Transition Metal Chalcogenide Phases for Energy Storage, Energy Conversion and Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Erica Maxine

    Today's energy needs are primarily provided by fossil fuels, which are harvested from the earth. Consuming fossil fuels to provide energy for civilization releases products into the atmosphere that contribute to climate change. Ongoing efforts to combat the existential crisis which climate change presents many of the emerging and commercialized technologies for solar, thermoelectric and battery applications involve transition metal chalcogenides. Some of the materials used for these applications are expensive and rare, such as gallium, vanadium and indium, or have no merits towards environmental stewardship, such as cadmium and lead. Thus, the purpose of this work is to further the ongoing effort to discover and develop new materials which are able to meet or exceed benchmarks for their application. This work focuses on the development of various metal chalcogenide material systems featuring d-block transition metals selected for their contribution to alter structure and properties. Various thermal, electronic and optical properties can be changed through substitution or doping with additional elements to affect to the base composition or as part of a gradient composition series. After an extensive description of experimental methods which describe the associated materials synthesis, processing and characterization techniques in chapter 2, chapter 3 explores the Cu4-xLixS 2 phases for their contribution as further evidence in the formation of lithiated copper sulfide phases as part of the intercalation reaction before being converted to the binaries copper and lithium sulfide. Chapter 4 documents the development of Cu4TiSe4, a novel material with potential for thin-film photovoltaic technologies with its band gap in the range where the solar spectrum is the most bountiful (Eg,indirect = 1.16 eV, Eg,direct = 1.34 eV), an outstanding optical absorbance ( > 10-4 cm-1) outperforming commercially successful materials in the solar spectrum, and suitable for thin

  12. Phosphorene for energy and catalytic application—filling the gap between graphene and 2D metal chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rishabh; Narayan, Rekha; Padmajan Sasikala, Suchithra; Lee, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hong Ju; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2017-12-01

    Phosphorene, a newly emerging graphene analogous 2D elemental material of phosphorous atoms, is unique on the grounds of its natural direct band gap opening, highly anisotropic and extraordinary physical properties. This review highlights the current status of phosphorene research in energy and catalytic applications. The initial part illustrates the typical physical properties of phosphorene, which successfully bridge the prolonged gap between graphene and 2D metal chalcogenides. Various synthetic methods available for black phosphorus (BP) and the exfoliation/growth techniques for single to few-layer phosphorene are also overviewed. The latter part of this review details the working mechanisms and performances of phosphorene/BP in batteries, supercapacitors, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis. Special attention has been paid to the research efforts to overcome the inherent shortcomings faced by phosphorene based devices. The relevant device performances are compared with graphene and 2D metal chalcogenides based counterparts. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism behind the unstable nature of phosphorene under ambient condition is discussed along with the various approaches to avoid ambient degradation. Finally, comments are offered for the future prospective explorations and outlook as well as challenges lying in the road ahead for phosphorene research.

  13. Extraction and recovery of mercury and lead from aqueous waste streams using redox-active layered metal chalcogenides. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorhout, P.K.; Strauss, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    'The authors have begun to examine the extraction and recovery of heavy elements from aqueous waste streams using redox-active metal chalcogenides. They have been able to prepare extractants from known chalcogenide starting materials, studied the efficacy of the extractants for selective removal of soft metal ions from aqueous phases, studied the deactivation of extractants and the concomitant recovery of soft metal ions from the extractants, and characterized all of the solids and solutions thus far in the study. The study was proposed as two parallel tasks: Part 1 and Part 2 emphasize the study and development of known metal chalcogenide extractants and the synthesis and development of new metal chalcogenide extractants, respectively. The two tasks were divided into sub-sections that study the extractants and their chemistry as detailed below: Preparation and reactivity of metal chalcogenide host solids Extraction of target waste (guest) ions from simulated waste streams Examination of the guest-host solids recovery of the guest metal and reuse of extractant Each section of the two tasks was divided into focused subsections that detail the specific problems and solutions to those problems that were proposed. The extent to which those tasks have been accomplished and the continued efforts of the team are described in detail below. (b) Progress and Results. The DOE-supported research has proceeded largely as proposed and has been productive in its first 12 months. Two full-paper manuscripts were submitted and are currently under peer review. A third paper is in preparation and will be submitted shortly. In addition, 5 submitted or invited presentations have been made.'

  14. Magnetic chalcogenides in 3 and lower dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdyna, J. K.; Dong, S.-N.; Lee, S.; Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this article we review magnetic phenomena that occur in the chalcogenide family involving transition metals. Magnetic properties displayed by bulk 3D chalcogenides compounds and alloys produced by equilibrium growth methods are discussed. 2D magnetic chalcogenide systems such as epitaxial films and more complex multilayers, whose formation is made possible by epitaxial methods and/or by van der Waals epitaxy, are presented in detail. We present a brief overview of magnetic effects emerging as the dimensionality of chalcogenide materialss is reduced to 1D (nanowires and related structures) and to zero-D (quantum dots formed by both top-down and bottom-up methods).

  15. Thin films by metal-organic precursor plasma spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Sailer, Robert A.; Payne, Scott; Leach, James; Molz, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    While most plasma spray routes to coatings utilize solids as the precursor feedstock, metal-organic precursor plasma spray (MOPPS) is an area that the authors have investigated recently as a novel route to thin film materials. Very thin films are possible via MOPPS and the technology offers the possibility of forming graded structures by metering the liquid feed. The current work employs metal-organic compounds that are liquids at standard temperature-pressure conditions. In addition, these complexes contain chemical functionality that allows straightforward thermolytic transformation to targeted phases of interest. Toward that end, aluminum 3,5-heptanedionate (Al(hd) 3 ), triethylsilane (HSi(C 2 H 5 ) 3 or HSiEt 3 ), and titanium tetrakisdiethylamide (Ti(N(C 2 H 5 ) 2 ) 4 or Ti(NEt 2 ) 4 ) were employed as precursors to aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and titanium nitride, respectively. In all instances, the liquids contain metal-heteroatom bonds envisioned to provide atomic concentrations of the appropriate reagents at the film growth surface, thus promoting phase formation (e.g., Si-C bond in triethylsilane, Ti-N bond in titanium amide, etc.). Films were deposited using a Sulzer Metco TriplexPro-200 plasma spray system under various experimental conditions using design of experiment principles. Film compositions were analyzed by glazing incidence x-ray diffraction and elemental determination by x-ray spectroscopy. MOPPS films from HSiEt 3 showed the formation of SiC phase but Al(hd) 3 -derived films were amorphous. The Ti(NEt 2 ) 4 precursor gave MOPPS films that appear to consist of nanosized splats of TiOCN with spheres of TiO 2 anatase. While all films in this study suffered from poor adhesion, it is anticipated that the use of heated substrates will aid in the formation of dense, adherent films.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-01-01

    as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated

  17. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  18. Metal oxide, Group V-VI chalcogenides and GaN/AlGaN photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Rezaul

    In this work, a simple, low-cost and catalyst free one-step solution processing of onedimensional Sb2S3 nanostructures on polyimide substrates was done. This structure demonstrated its potential application as a photoconductor in the UV and visible regime. Using-field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy measurements, it was shown that the Sb 2S3 films have high crystallinity, uniform morphology and nearstoichiometric composition. Further, using tauc plot, it was found that the films have a direct bandgap of 1.67 eV. MSM photodetectors, fabricated using these films showed a clear photo response in both UV as well as visible wavelength. These devices showed UV on/off ratio as high as 160 under the light intensity of 30 mW/cm2 and a small rise time and fall time of 44 ms 28 ms respectively. The effect of geometry of metal pad and bonding wire orientation of a multi-channel FET on the coupling of THz radiation was studied. The spatial variation images were taken by raster scan with the resolution of 0.07 mm steps in both x and y directions. An effective gate bias, where the effect of noise is minimum and photoresponse is maximum, was used for imaging. By applying VGS =-2.8V and VDS =380mV, the images were taken for all different combinations of activated bonding wires and metal pads. It was observed that, effect of bonding wire orientation is negligible for the large source pad as the radiation is coupled basically between drain and gate pad. Effect of drain bonding wire on coupling depends on the maximum width or diameter of metal pad and the incoming wavelength. In this work, Position of activated Drain pad and orientation of respective bonding wire defined the image tilting angle. Voltage drop across the shorting metal between drain pads, also played a role in increasing the asymmetry by selectively exciting a certain portion of FET Channels more than the other portion

  19. Synchronous γ (Co60) photons and thermal processing induced insulator metal transition in amorphous chalcogenide As4Se3Te3 composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Morsy, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Amorphous chalcogenide composition AS4Se3Te3 is prepared by conventional quenching technique. The separate annealing or γ quanta irradiation not effect on the dc conductivity properties of the prepared composition. When the prepared samples are subjected to simultaneous annealing at temperature 413 K and γ quanta irradiation the dc conductivity increases. The dark dc conductivity increases by increasing the time of exposure to γ irradiation. At irradiation dose 1.47 × 104 Gy the dc conductivity starts to have metallic like conductivity character. These samples could be used as high temperature γ quanta dosimeter. By applying scaling theory on the samples irradiated with different dose of γ irradiation the critical exponents are determined and found to be temperature tends to zero. The steric value is low in the insulator side of conductivity, but high and almost saturated in the metallic side of conductivity.

  20. An optimized In–CuGa metallic precursors for chalcopyrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun-feng, E-mail: junfeng.han@cnrs-imn.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liao, Cheng [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 601207 (China); Jiang, Tao; Xie, Hua-mu; Zhao, Kui [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Besland, M.-P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2013-10-31

    We report a study of CuGa–In metallic precursors for chalcopyrite thin film. CuGa and In thin films were prepared by DC sputtering at room temperature. Due to low melting point of indium, the sputtering power on indium target was optimized. Then, CuGa and In multilayers were annealed at low temperature. At 120 °C, the annealing treatment could enhance diffusion and alloying of CuGa and In layers; however, at 160 °C, it caused a cohesion and crystalline of indium from the alloy which consequently formed irregular nodules on the film surface. The precursors were selenized to form copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films. The morphological and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. The relationships between metallic precursors and CIGS films were discussed in the paper. A smooth precursor layer was the key factor to obtain a homogeneous and compact CIGS film. - Highlights: • An optimized sputtered indium film • An optimized alloying process of metallic precursor • An observation of nodules forming on the indium film and precursor surface • An observation of cauliflower structure in copper indium gallium selenide film • The relationship between precursor and CIGS film surface morphology.

  1. Exploring the anionic reactivity of ynimines, useful precursors of metalated ketenimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouiti, Anouar; Couty, François; Marrot, Jérome; Boubaker, Taoufik; Rammah, Mohamed M; Rammah, Mohamed B; Evano, Gwilherm

    2014-04-18

    Insights into the reactivity of ynimines under anionic conditions are reported. They were shown to be excellent precursors of metalated ketenimines, which can be generated in situ by the reaction of ynimines with organolithium reagents or strong bases. The metalated ketenimines can then be trapped with various electrophiles and, depending on their substitution pattern, afford original and divergent entries to various building blocks.

  2. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  3. The chemistry of copper chalcogenides in waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.D.; Lambert, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The solubilities of copper chalcogenides (CuS, CuSe, CuTe) were measured in a glass melt which is representative of those proposed for nuclear waste immobilization and circuit board vitrification. CuTe is more soluble than CuS and CuSe in the glass melt under relatively oxidizing conditions. However, the solubilities of all the copper chalcogenides in the glass melt are virtually identical at reducing conditions, probably a result of the redox-controlled solubility of copper metal in all cases. The redox chemistry of a glass melt coexisting with an immiscible copper chalcogenide depends primarily on the prevailing oxygen fugacity, not on the identity of the chalcogenide. The target concentration of less than 0.3 to 0.5 wt% copper in the waste glass should eliminate the precipitation of copper chalcogenides during processing

  4. Formation of TiC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites from metal-polymer-precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, H.; Braun, M.; Staedler, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe

    2002-07-01

    A new synthesis route for TiC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials was developed starting from a mixed metal-polymer precursor. The Precursor was prepared from aluminium nitrate, titantetrachloride and polymethacrylic acid dissolved in a solvent in order to achieve a high homogeneity of the precursor reactants. (orig.)

  5. Degradation of Highly Alloyed Metal Halide Perovskite Precursor Inks: Mechanism and Storage Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Benjia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wheeler, Lance M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harvey, Steven P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barnes, Frank S. [University of Colorado; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Whereas the promise of metal halide perovskite (MHP) photovoltaics (PV) is that they can combine high efficiency with solution-processability, the chemistry occurring in precursor inks is largely unexplored. Herein, we investigate the degradation of MHP solutions based on the most widely used solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the MHP inks studied, which contain formamidinium (FA+), methylammonium (MA+), cesium (Cs+), lead (Pb2+), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-), dramatic compositional changes are observed following storage of the inks in nitrogen in the dark. We show that hydrolysis of DMF in the precursor solution forms dimethylammonium formate, which subsequently incorporates into the MHP film to compromise the ability of Cs+ and MA+ to stabilize FA+-based MHP. The changes in solution chemistry lead to a modification of the perovskite film stoichiometry, band gap, and structure. The solid precursor salts are stable when ball-milled into a powder, allowing for the storage of large quantities of stoichiometric precursor materials.

  6. Room temperature oxidative intercalation with chalcogen hydrides: Two-step method for the formation of alkali-metal chalcogenide arrays within layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranmohotti, K.G. Sanjaya; Montasserasadi, M. Dariush; Choi, Jonglak; Yao, Yuan; Mohanty, Debasish; Josepha, Elisha A.; Adireddy, Shiva; Caruntu, Gabriel; Wiley, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Topochemical reactions involving intercalation allow construction of metal chalcogenide arrays within perovskite hosts. ► Gaseous chalcogen hydrides serve as effect reactants for intercalation of sulfur and selenium. ► New compounds prepared by a two-step intercalation strategy are presented. -- Abstract: A two-step topochemical reaction strategy utilizing oxidative intercalation with gaseous chalcogen hydrides is presented. Initially, the Dion-Jacobson-type layered perovskite, RbLaNb 2 O 7 , is intercalated reductively with rubidium metal to make the Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Rb 2 LaNb 2 O 7 . This compound is then reacted at room-temperature with in situ generated H 2 S gas to create Rb-S layers within the perovskite host. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data (tetragonal, a = 3.8998(2) Å, c = 15.256(1) Å; space group P4/mmm) shows the compound to be isostructural with (Rb 2 Cl)LaNb 2 O 7 where the sulfide resides on a cubic interlayer site surrounded by rubidium ions. The mass increase seen on sulfur intercalation and the refined S site occupation factor (∼0.8) of the product indicate a higher sulfur content than expected for S 2− alone. This combined with the Raman studies, which show evidence for an H-S stretch, indicate that a significant fraction of the intercalated sulfide exists as hydrogen sulfide ion. Intercalation reactions with H 2 Se (g) were also carried out and appear to produce an isostructural selenide compound. The utilization of such gaseous hydride reagents could significantly expand multistep topochemistry to a larger number of intercalants.

  7. Room temperature oxidative intercalation with chalcogen hydrides: Two-step method for the formation of alkali-metal chalcogenide arrays within layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranmohotti, K.G. Sanjaya; Montasserasadi, M. Dariush; Choi, Jonglak; Yao, Yuan; Mohanty, Debasish; Josepha, Elisha A.; Adireddy, Shiva; Caruntu, Gabriel [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States); Wiley, John B., E-mail: jwiley@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Topochemical reactions involving intercalation allow construction of metal chalcogenide arrays within perovskite hosts. ► Gaseous chalcogen hydrides serve as effect reactants for intercalation of sulfur and selenium. ► New compounds prepared by a two-step intercalation strategy are presented. -- Abstract: A two-step topochemical reaction strategy utilizing oxidative intercalation with gaseous chalcogen hydrides is presented. Initially, the Dion-Jacobson-type layered perovskite, RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is intercalated reductively with rubidium metal to make the Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Rb{sub 2}LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This compound is then reacted at room-temperature with in situ generated H{sub 2}S gas to create Rb-S layers within the perovskite host. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data (tetragonal, a = 3.8998(2) Å, c = 15.256(1) Å; space group P4/mmm) shows the compound to be isostructural with (Rb{sub 2}Cl)LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} where the sulfide resides on a cubic interlayer site surrounded by rubidium ions. The mass increase seen on sulfur intercalation and the refined S site occupation factor (∼0.8) of the product indicate a higher sulfur content than expected for S{sup 2−} alone. This combined with the Raman studies, which show evidence for an H-S stretch, indicate that a significant fraction of the intercalated sulfide exists as hydrogen sulfide ion. Intercalation reactions with H{sub 2}Se{sub (g)} were also carried out and appear to produce an isostructural selenide compound. The utilization of such gaseous hydride reagents could significantly expand multistep topochemistry to a larger number of intercalants.

  8. General Top-Down Ion Exchange Process for the Growth of Epitaxial Chalcogenide Thin Films and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-12-30

    We demonstrate a versatile top-down ion exchange process, done at ambient temperature, to form epitaxial chalcogenide films and devices, with nanometer scale thickness control. To demonstrate the versatility of our process we have synthesized (1) epitaxial chalcogenide metallic and semiconducting films and (2) free-standing chalcogenide films and (3) completed in situ formation of atomically sharp heterojunctions by selective ion exchange. Epitaxial NiCo2S4 thin films prepared by our process show 115 times higher mobility than NiCo2S4 pellets (23 vs 0.2 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) prepared by previous reports. By controlling the ion exchange process time, we made free-standing epitaxial films of NiCo2S4 and transferred them onto different substrates. We also demonstrate in situ formation of atomically sharp, lateral Schottky diodes based on NiCo2O4/NiCo2S4 heterojunction, using a single ion exchange step. Additionally, we show that our approach can be easily extended to other chalcogenide semiconductors. Specifically, we used our process to prepare Cu1.8S thin films with mobility that matches single crystal Cu1.8S (25 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), which is ca. 28 times higher than the previously reported Cu1.8S thin film mobility (0.58 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), thus demonstrating the universal nature of our process. This is the first report in which chalcogenide thin films retain the epitaxial nature of the precursor oxide films, an approach that will be useful in many applications.

  9. Near-field microwave detection of corrosion precursor pitting under thin dielectric coatings in metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.; Zoughi, R.; Austin, R.; Wood, N.; Engelbart, R.

    2003-01-01

    Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the preliminary results of using microwave techniques to detect corrosion precursor pitting under paint and primer, applique and on bare metal. Machined pits of 500 μm diameter were detected using open-ended rectangular waveguides at V-Band under paint and primer and applique, and on bare metal. Using coaxial probes, machined pits with diameters down to 150 μm on bare metal were also detected. Relative pit size and density were shown on a corrosion-pitted sample using open-ended rectangular waveguides at frequencies of 35 GHz to 70 GHz. The use of Boeing's MAUS TM scanning systems provided improved results by alleviating standoff variation and scanning artifact. Typical results of this investigation are also presented

  10. Alkoxide-based precursors for direct drawing of metal oxide micro- and nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taette, Tanel; Hussainov, Medhat; Paalo, Madis; Part, Marko; Talviste, Rasmus; Kiisk, Valter; Maendar, Hugo; Pohako, Kaija; Reivelt, Kaido; Lohmus, Ants [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Pehk, Tonis [National Institute of Chemical and Biological Physics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618 (Estonia); Natali, Marco [ICIS-CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Gurauskis, Jonas [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon C.S.I.C., University of Zaragoza Fac. De Ciencias, c/Pedro Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Maeeorg, Uno, E-mail: tanelt@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, Tartu 50411 (Estonia)

    2011-06-15

    The invention of electrospinning has solved the problem of producing micro- and nanoscaled metal oxide fibres in bulk quantities. However, until now no methods have been available for preparing a single nanofibre of a metal oxide. In this work, the direct drawing method was successfully applied to produce metal oxide (SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}) fibres with a high aspect ratio (up to 10 000) and a diameter as small as 200 nm. The sol-gel processing includes consumption of precursors obtained from alkoxides by aqueous or non-aqueous polymerization. Shear thinning of the precursors enables pulling a material into a fibre. This rheological behaviour can be explained by sliding of particles owing to external forces. Transmission (propagation) of light along microscaled fibres and their excellent surface morphology suggest that metal oxide nanofibres can be directly drawn from sol precursors for use in integrated photonic systems.

  11. New organometallic salts as precursors for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes with metallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Nunez, G., E-mail: galonso@cnyn.unam.mx; Garza, L. Morales de la; Rogel-Hernandez, E.; Reynoso, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia (Mexico); Licea-Claverie, A.; Felix-Navarro, R. M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Centro de Graduados e Investigacion (Mexico); Berhault, G. [UMR 5256 CNRS-Universite de Lyon, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon (France); Paraguay-Delgado, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    New organometallic salts were synthesized in aqueous solution and were used as precursors for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by metallic nanoparticles. The precursors were obtained by reaction between HAuCl{sub 4}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 6}, or (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}RhCl{sub 6} with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The as-obtained (CTA){sub n}Me{sub x}Cl{sub y} salts (with Me = Au, Pt, Pd, Rh) were characterized by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. These precursors were then used to synthesize metallic nanoparticles of Au, Pt, Pd, and Rh over multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Characterization by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and thermogravimetric analysis under air reveals that the CNT-supported catalysts exhibit high loading and good dispersion of the metallic nanoparticles with small average particle sizes. The present preparation procedure therefore allows obtaining high densities of small metallic nanoparticles at the surface of MWCNT.

  12. A Self-Templating Scheme for the Synthesis of Nanostructured Transition Metal Chalcogenide Electrodes for Capacitive Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unique structural features including well-defined interior voids, low density, low coefficients of thermal expansion, large surface area and surface permeability, hollow micro/nanostructured transition metal sulfides with high

  13. Modular metal chalcogenide chemistry: secondary building blocks as a basis of the silicate-type framework structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhausen, Christine; Rocker, Frank; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The novel uranium thiophosphate CsLiU(PS_4)_2 has been synthesized by reacting uranium metal, Cs_2S, Li_2S, S, and P_2S_5 at 700 C in an evacuated silica tube. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. CsLiU(PS_4)_2 crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group R anti 3c (a = 15.2797(7) Aa; c = 28.778(2) Aa, V = 5818.7(5) Aa"3, Z = 18). The structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2 is a unique three-dimensional U(PS_4)_2"2"- framework with large tunnels with an approximate diameter of 6.6 Aa running parallel to the crystallographic c axis. The tunnels are filled with Cs"+ cations. The smaller Li"+ cations are located at tetrahedral sites at the periphery of the channels. In the structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2 the uranium atoms are coordinated by thiophosphate groups in a pseudotetrahedral fashion, and the PS_4 groups act as linear connectors. Topologically, CsLiU(PS_4)_2 may be regarded a chalcogenide analogue of silicate frameworks, with the uranium atoms and PS_4 groups replacing silicon and oxygen atoms. Alternatively, CsLiU(PS_4)_2 may be viewed as a coordination polymer, which is formed in salt melts by the solid state equivalent of the ''self-assembly'' reactions in solution. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated Curie-Weiss-type behavior between 4 K and 300 K. The μ_e_f_f of 2.83 μ_B at 300 K is in agreement with an f"2 configuration of U"4"+. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. The Effect of 1-Pentylamine as Solid Electrolyte Interphase Precursor on Lithium Metal Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Markus S.; Koch, Stephan L.; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing of a well-controlled artificial SEI on lithium metal electrodes. • Native SEI-free lithium electrodes. • Lithium electrodes with decreased impedance and overpotential due to artificial SEI. • Process development to remove influence of native SEI. • 1-pentylamine in n-pentane as artificial SEI precursor for lithium metal. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of an artificial primary solid electrolyte interphase on a fresh Li surface, via reaction with 1-pentylamine (PA), is reported, allowing removing the influence of the metal electrode’s prior history. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic cycling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used in order to investigate the effect of PA as solid electrolyte interphase precursor on Li metal. It is shown that pretreating native SEI-free Li metal surfaces with 1 M PA in n-pentane sharply decreases the electrode impedance and overpotential with respect to the treatment with only n-pentane. The treatment with 1 M PA in n-pentane results in surface roughening, but no increase of dendrite formation upon cycling. However, the use of higher PA concentration (5 M) increases impedance and overpotential and leads to dendrite growth.

  15. Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnou, Panagiota; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Cooper, Carl S; Malkov, Andrei V; Walls, John M; Bowers, Jake W

    2016-05-18

    Solution processing of semiconductors, such as CuInSe2 and its alloys (CIGS), can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of thin film solar cells. Despite the recent success of solution deposition approaches for CIGS, toxic reagents such as hydrazine are usually involved, which introduce health and safety concerns. Here, we present a simple and safer methodology for the preparation of high-quality CuIn(S, Se)2 absorbers from metal sulfide solutions in a diamine/dithiol mixture. The solutions are sprayed in air, using a chromatography atomizer, followed by a postdeposition selenization step. Two different selenization methods are explored resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 8%.

  16. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the Thermal Properties of Precursor-Ionomers to Optimize Fabrication Processes for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Trabia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs are one of many smart materials and have ionomer bases with a noble metal plated on the surface. The ionomer is usually Nafion, but recently Aquivion has been shown to be a promising alternative. Ionomers are available in the form of precursor pellets. This is an un-activated form that is able to melt, unlike the activated form. However, there is little study on the thermal characteristics of these precursor ionomers. This lack of knowledge causes issues when trying to fabricate ionomer shapes using methods such as extrusion, hot-pressing, and more recently, injection molding and 3D printing. To understand the two precursor-ionomers, a set of tests were conducted to measure the thermal degradation temperature, viscosity, melting temperature, and glass transition. The results have shown that the precursor Aquivion has a higher melting temperature (240 °C than precursor Nafion (200 °C and a larger glass transition range (32–65°C compared with 21–45 °C. The two have the same thermal degradation temperature (~400 °C. Precursor Aquivion is more viscous than precursor Nafion as temperature increases. Based on the results gathered, it seems that the precursor Aquivion is more stable as temperature increases, facilitating the manufacturing processes. This paper presents the data collected to assist researchers in thermal-based fabrication processes.

  19. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  20. Metal phosphonate coordination networks and frameworks as precursors of electrocatalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; El-Refaei, Sayed M.; Russo, Patrícia A.; Pinna, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play key roles in the conversion of energy derived from renewable energy sources into chemical energy. Efficient, robust, and inexpensive electrocatalysts are necessary for driving these reactions at high rates at low overpotentials and minimize energetic losses. Recently, electrocatalysts derived from hybrid metal phosphonate compounds have shown high activity for the HER or OER. We review here the utilization of metal phosphonate coordination networks and metal-organic frameworks as precursors/templates for transition-metal phosphides, phosphates, or oxyhydroxides generated in situ in alkaline solutions, and their electrocatalytic performance in HER or OER.

  1. General Top-Down Ion Exchange Process for the Growth of Epitaxial Chalcogenide Thin Films and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Li, Peng; Li, Jun; Jiang, Qiu; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    ) epitaxial chalcogenide metallic and semiconducting films and (2) free-standing chalcogenide films and (3) completed in situ formation of atomically sharp heterojunctions by selective ion exchange. Epitaxial NiCo2S4 thin films prepared by our process show 115

  2. The influence of the precursor compositional ratio on Cu2ZnSnS4 films prepared by using sulfurization of the metallic precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, Muhamad I.; Kim, Kyoo Ho

    2013-12-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films were prepared by using the sulfurization of sputtered metallic precursors. The compositional ratio of the CZTS films was slightly different compared to their initial metallic precursors due to elemental loss during annealing. The Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio for the CZTS-1, CZTS-2 and CZTS-3 films were 0.91, 1.06 and 1.21, respectively. In addition, all films had a compositional ratio of Zn/Sn >1. The grain sizes of the CZTS films increased with increasing Cu ratio. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the CZTS films with an excess of copper and zinc had secondary phases of Cu2SnS3 and ZnS. The optical band gap and absorption coefficient for all CZTS films in the range of the experimental compositions were calculated to be 1.5 eV and >104 cm-1, respectively. The presence of secondary phases related to compositional ratio in the CZTS films influenced the electrical properties. The CZTS-1 film with a Cu-poor and Zn-rich composition whose a carrier concentration, an electrical mobility, and a resistivity values were 2.29 × 1018 cm-3, 10.29 cm2 V-1 s-1, 3.16 Ω cm, is the most suitable for solar-cell applications.

  3. A new method for synthesis of As-Te chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Markelov, Aleksey; Trushin, Vladimir; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; De Filpo, Giovanni; Gogova, Daniela; Mashin, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    A novel Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method for synthesis of amorphous AsxTe100-x (31 ≤ x ≤ 49) films is demonstrated. The innovative process has been developed in a non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma under reduced pressure, employing for the first time volatile As and Te as precursors. Utilization of inorganic precursors, in contrast to the typically used in CVD metal-organic precursors, has given us the chance to achieve ≿halcogenide As-Te films of very high quality and purity. Phase and structural evolution of the As-Te system, based on equilibrium coexistence of two phases (AsTe and As2Te3) has been studied. The dependence of structure and optical bandgap of the chalcogenide materials on their composition was established. The newly developed process is cost-effective and enables deposition of As-Te films with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm, the latter is highly desireable for one-mode planar waveguides applications and in other components of integral optics.

  4. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  5. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  6. Direct Electrospray Printing of Gradient Refractive Index Chalcogenide Glass Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Spencer; Lin, Pao Tai; Li, Cheng; Lumdee, Chatdanai; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kik, Pieter G; Deng, Weiwei; Richardson, Kathleen

    2017-08-16

    A spatially varying effective refractive index gradient using chalcogenide glass layers is printed on a silicon wafer using an optimized electrospray (ES) deposition process. Using solution-derived glass precursors, IR-transparent Ge 23 Sb 7 S 70 and As 40 S 60 glass films of programmed thickness are fabricated to yield a bilayer structure, resulting in an effective gradient refractive index (GRIN) film. Optical and compositional analysis tools confirm the optical and physical nature of the gradient in the resulting high-optical-quality films, demonstrating the power of direct printing of multimaterial structures compatible with planar photonic fabrication protocols. The potential application of such tailorable materials and structures as they relate to the enhancement of sensitivity in chalcogenide glass based planar chemical sensor device design is presented. This method, applicable to a broad cross section of glass compositions, shows promise in directly depositing GRIN films with tunable refractive index profiles for bulk and planar optical components and devices.

  7. Carbon nanotube-chalcogenide composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Hara, T.; Matsui, Y.; Ueda, K.; Pumera, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2010), s. 144-149 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chalcogenide glasses * composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Fluoro- and Chlorobimetallic Alkoxides as Precursors for Luminescent Metal Oxide Materials via Sol-Gel Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ATHAR, Taimur; SEOK, Sang II; KWON, Jeong Oh

    2007-01-01

    Heterobimetallic alkoxides are broadly recognized as versatile precursors for luminescence materials, and efforts are being made to develop novel routes by applying the concept of geometrical molecular design, for their synthesis and to design a single source precursor suited to photoluminescent materials. Novel and new series of bimetallic alkoxides has been prepared by metathesis route. They exhibit a lower sensitivity towards hydrolysis and so they are easier to handle as compared to other alkoxides. All the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopies. FT-IR revealed that the molecular structure of these metal spectroscopy provided useful information about chemical shifts for better understanding the likely structure based on interactions with their coordinate metals. The mass spectra show similar types of fragmentation pattern.SEM-EDS analyses showed consistency with the formulation. XRD patterns show an enhanced homogeneity at high temperature. TGA measurements show that thermal decomposition occured in steps that depended entirely on the chemical compositions and the synthesis routes. SEM observation reveals that the morphology and particle size strongly depend on synthesis routes for their precursors.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of CZTS Thin Films Prepared by the Sulfurization of RF-Sputtered Stacked Metal Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusnina, Mohamed; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; DeHart, Clay; Matin, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared by the sulfurization of metal precursors deposited sequentially via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Mo-coated soda-lime glass. The stack order of the precursors was Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. Sputtered precursors were annealed in sulfur atmosphere with nine different conditions to study the impact of sulfurization time and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the final CZTS films. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the elemental composition ratio of the metal precursors. Final CZTS films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and EDS were combined to investigate the films' structure and to identify the presence of secondary phases. XRD analysis indicated an improvement in film crystallinity with an increase of the substrate temperature and annealing times. Also indicated was the minimization and/or elimination of secondary phases when the films experienced longer annealing time. EDS revealed slight Sn loss in films sulfurized at 550°C; however, an increase of the sulfurization temperature to 600°C did not confirm these results. SEM study showed that films treated with higher temperatures exhibited dense morphology, indicating the completion of the sulfurization process. The estimated absorption coefficient was on the order of 104 cm-1 for all CZTS films, and the values obtained for the optical bandgap energy of the films were between 1.33 eV and 1.52 eV.

  10. Metal complexes of alkyl-aryl dithiocarbamates: Structural studies, anticancer potentials and applications as precursors for semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Fartisincha P.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2018-03-01

    Dithiocarbamates are versatile ligands able to stabilize wide range of metal ions in their various oxidation states with the partial double bond character of Csbnd N and Csbnd S of thioureide moiety. Variation of the substituents attached to the nitrogen atom of dithiocarbamate moiety generates various intermolecular interactions, which lead to different structural arrangement in the solid state. The presence of bulky substituents on the N atom obviates the supramolecular aggregation via secondary Msbnd S interactions whereas smaller substituents encourage such aggregation that results in their wide properties and applications. Over the past decades, the synthesis and structural studies of metal complexes of dithiocarbamates have received considerable attention as potential anticancer agents with various degree of DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity and as single molecule precursors for the preparation of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this paper, we review the synthesis, structural studies, anticancer potency and the use of alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes as precursors for the preparation of semiconductor nanocrystals. The properties of these compounds and activities are ascribed to be due to either the dithiocarbamate moieties, the nature or type of the substituents around the dithiocarbamate backbone and the central metal ions or combination of these factors.

  11. Rare earth [beta]-diketonate and carboxylate metal complexes as precursors for MOCVD of oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmina, N.P. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Martynenko, L.I. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Tu, Z.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Kaul, A.R. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Girichev, G.V. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Giricheva, N.I. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Rykov, A.N. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Korenev, Y.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation))

    1993-08-01

    Volatile and thermostable complexes of lanthanide acetylacetonates and pivalates were obtained and investigated by different methods. These compounds were used for lanthanide oxide containing film producing and for fabrication of silica optical fibers doped by lanthanide oxide. The properties of these and already known volatile precursors are compared. (orig.).

  12. Rare earth β-diketonate and carboxylate metal complexes as precursors for MOCVD of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Tu, Z.A.; Kaul, A.R.; Girichev, G.V.; Giricheva, N.I.; Rykov, A.N.; Korenev, Y.M.

    1993-01-01

    Volatile and thermostable complexes of lanthanide acetylacetonates and pivalates were obtained and investigated by different methods. These compounds were used for lanthanide oxide containing film producing and for fabrication of silica optical fibers doped by lanthanide oxide. The properties of these and already known volatile precursors are compared. (orig.)

  13. Photocatalytic deposition of Ag nanoparticles on TiO2: Metal precursor effect on the structural and photoactivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1 wt.% Ag–TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by photodeposition using different organic (acetylacetonate, Ag-A and inorganic (nitrate, Ag-N, and perchlorate, Ag-C silver precursors in order to determinate the influence of the silver precursor on final properties of the photocatalysts. The resulting photocatalytic materials were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis DRS, TEM/HRTEM and XPS and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (used as model pollutant in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The photocatalytic reduction of Ag species to Ag0 on TiO2 was higher with silver nitrate as precursor compared to acetylacetonate or perchlorate. All the Ag-modified TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region (400–530 nm indicating different metal particle sizes depending on the Ag precursor used in their synthesis. A higher photocatalytic activity was obtained with all the Ag/TiO2 samples compared with non-modified TiO2. The descending order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: Ag-A/TiO2 ≈ Ag-N/TiO2 > Ag-C/TiO2 > TiO2-P25. The enhanced photoactivity was attributed to the presence of different amounts Ag0 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on Ag2O and TiO2, trapping the photogenerated electrons and avoiding charge recombination.

  14. Influence of the precursor chemical composition on heavy metal adsorption properties of hemp (Cannabis Sativa fibers based biocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste hemp (Cannabis sativa fibers were used as sustainable and renewable raw materials for production of low-cost biocarbon sorbent for heavy metals removal. Carbon precursors of different chemical composition were obtained by oxidative and alkaline treatments of hemp fibers. Influence of lignocellulosic precursor chemical composition on hemp fibers-based biocarbon (HFB characteristics was examined by BET surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and mass titration. It was found that lignin content and polymorphic transformation of cellulose increase the SBET of microporous HFBs, while hemicelluloses induce more homogeneous distribution of adsorption active sites. Heavy metal ions adsorption onto HFBs is primarily influenced by the amount of surface oxygen groups, while specific surface area plays a secondary role. Equilibrium data obtained for lead ions adsorption were analyzed by different nonlinear adsorption isotherms, and the best fitting model was chosen using standard deviation and Akaike information criterion (AICC. The maximum adsorption capacities of HFBs ranged from 103.1 to 116.3 mg Pb/g. Thermodynamic parameters showed that Pb2+ adsorption onto HFBs is a spontaneous and complex endothermic process, suggesting the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172007 and Grant no. 172029

  15. Synthesis of metals chalcogenides nano-particles from H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produced electrochemically; Synthese de nanoparticules de chalcogenures de metaux a partir de H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produit electrochimiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, S.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, 94 - Thiais (France); Hodes, G. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, an electrochemical method to produce H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) hydrides in a controlled way (without being able to store them) and to transfer them directly in the synthesis reactor has been perfected. By this method, the use of H{sub 2}Te has been possible. The method uses the reduction of the elementary chalcogenide in acid medium. The Te being conductor, it can be directly used as electrode, on the other hand S and Se are insulators. Nevertheless, graphite-S or Se conducing composite electrodes can also be used. When the electrolyte composition (pH, salts presence) is well adjusted, the essential of the cathodic current is consumed by the chalcogenide reduction (low evolution of H{sub 2}) with faradic yields of about 100% for H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se and 40% for HeTe. The use of H{sub 2}X allows the synthesis of nano-particles of metals chalcogenides directly by reaction with dissolved metallic salts in aqueous or organic medium and precipitation. Thus it has been possible to prepare all the CdX compounds under the form of nano-particles of diameter between 3 and 5 nm by bubbling of the gaseous hydrides in aqueous acetate solutions of Cd. In producing concomitantly H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se, nano-particles of solid solutions CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} have been synthesized too. (O.M.)

  16. Predicting a new phase (T'') of two-dimensional transition metal di-chalcogenides and strain-controlled topological phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yalong; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2016-02-01

    Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological phase transitions. Our findings greatly enrich the 2D families of transition metal dichalcogenides and offer a feasible way to control the electronic states of 2D topological insulators for the fabrication of high-speed spintronics devices.Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological

  17. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu) 2 ] 2 precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities

  18. Infrared emitting and photoconducting colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots from a silylamide-promoted synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Günter; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2011-05-24

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region, making these materials promising as environmentally benign alternatives to established infrared active nanocrystals containing toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb. We present Ag(2)Se nanocrystals in detail, giving size-tunable luminescence with quantum yields above 1.7%. The luminescence, with a decay time on the order of 130 ns, was shown to improve due to the growth of a monolayer thick ZnSe shell. Photoconductivity with a quantum efficiency of 27% was achieved by blending the Ag(2)Se nanocrystals with a soluble fullerene derivative. The co-injection of lithium silylamide was found to be crucial to the synthesis of Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals, which drastically increased their nucleation rate even at relatively low growth temperatures. Because the same observation was made for the nucleation of Cd chalcogenide nanocrystals, we conclude that the addition of lithium silylamide might generally promote wet-chemical synthesis of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, including in as-yet unexplored materials.

  19. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen; Helmi Keskinen; Mikko Aromaa; Mikael Järn; Tomi Kanerva; Erkki Levänen; Jyrki M. Mäkelä; Tapio Mäntylä

    2008-01-01

    The liquid flame spray (LFS) method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K) H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical compositi...

  20. Ex situ formation of metal selenide quantum dots using bacterially derived selenide precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellowes, J W; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Charnock, J M; Coker, V S; Mosselmans, J F W; Weng, T-C; Pearce, C I

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (Se II− ) as the precursor. Biogenic Se II− was produced by the reduction of Se IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and β-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological Se II− formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic Se II− included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic Se II− is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, ‘green’ synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams. (paper)

  1. Ex Situ Formation of Metal Selenide Quantum Dots Using Bacterially Derived Selenide Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellowes, Jonathan W.; Pattrick, Richard; Lloyd, Jon; Charnock, John M.; Coker, Victoria S.; Mosselmans, JFW; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pearce, Carolyn I.

    2013-04-12

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (SeII-) as the precursor. Biogenic SeII- was produced by the reduction of Se-IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se-IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and beta-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological SeII- formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic SeII- included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic SeII- is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, 'green' synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams.

  2. Laser-driven coating of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with manganese oxide from metal organic precursors for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez del Pino, A.; György, E.; Alshaikh, I.; Pantoja-Suárez, F.; Andújar, J. L.; Pascual, E.; Amade, R.; Bertran-Serra, E.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes-transition metal oxide systems are intensively studied due to their excellent properties for electrochemical applications. In this work, an innovative procedure is developed for the synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) coated with transition metal oxide nanostructures. VACNTs are grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and coated with a manganese-based metal organic precursor (MOP) film based on manganese acetate solution. Subsequent UV pulsed laser irradiation induces the effective heating-decomposition of the MOP leading to the crystallization of manganese oxide nanostructures on the VACNT surface. The study of the morphology, structure and composition of the synthesized materials shows the formation of randomly oriented MnO2 crystals, with few nanometers in size, and to their alignment in hundreds of nm long filament-like structures, parallel to the CNT’s long axis. Electrochemical measurements reveal a significant increase of the specific capacitance of the MnO2-VACNT system (100 F g-1) as compared to the initial VACNT one (21 F g-1).

  3. Amorphous chalcogenides advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong Ping

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the chalcogenide glass science and various applications based on the glasses. It starts with a review on the glass-forming ability of various systems, followed by a discussion on the structural and physical properties of various chalcolgenide glasses and their application in integrated optics. The chapters have been contributed by prominent experts from all over the world, and therefore, the book presents the recent research advances in the area. This book will appeal to anyone who is involved in glass science and technology and glass application.

  4. Homogeneity of single phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 produced by selenisation of metal precursors: An optical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, J.R.; Schumacher, S.A.; Leitch, A.W.R.; Alberts, V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage processes involving the selenisation of metallic precursor layers are among the most promising techniques for the formation of chalcopyrite-based solar cell absorber layers on a commercial scale. In this paper, the homogeneity of Cu(In 0.75 Ga 0.25 )Se 2 prepared by a new two-stage technique [V. Alberts, Semicond. Sci. Technol., 19 (2004) 65.], which involves the selenisation of sputtered CuIn 0.75 Ga 0.25 precursor films in steps designed to control the reaction rates of the binary selenide phases and to prevent the formation of the more stable CuGaSe 2 phase, is studied. Photoluminescence spectroscopy, optical absorption measurements and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that layers grown by a traditional process, which involves a single selenisation step, contain separate quaternary phases: gallium-rich phases are found closer to the substrate, while gallium-poor phases reside near the front surface. Layers produced by the novel process do not show this grading. A line appearing at ∼ 0.8 eV is ascribed to Na III , which results from the out-diffusion of Na from the glass substrate

  5. Metal organic frameworks as precursors for the manufacture of advanced catalytic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oar-Arteta Gonzalez, L.; Wezendonk, T.A.; Sun, X.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.

    The use of metal organic frameworks as hard templates for the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts is thoroughly reviewed. In this critical article, the main factors to consider when using a MOF as a sacrificial template are first discussed. Then, the existing literature on the topic is reviewed,

  6. CZTS absorber layer for thin film solar cells from electrodeposited metallic stacked precursors (Zn/Cu-Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.I., E-mail: mdibrahim.khalil@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Atici, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Lucotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A. [Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Centre (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano- Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Magagnin, L., E-mail: luca.magagnin@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • CZTS absorber layer was fabricated by electrodeposition—annealing route from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn). • Different characterization techniques have ensured the well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness also. • Two different excitation wavelengths of laser lines (514.5 and 785 nm) have been used for the Raman characterization of the films. • No significant Sn loss is observed in CZTS films after the sulfurization of the stacked bilayer precursors. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals the PL peak of CZTS at 1.15 eV at low temperature (15 K). - Abstract: In the present work, Kesterite-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N{sub 2} atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose

  7. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical composition were determined by TEM, XRD, XPS, and N2-adsorption measurements. The collected particulate material consists of micron-sized aggregates with nanosized primary particles. In both doped and undoped samples, tetragonal phase of zirconia was detected in room temperature while alumina was found to be noncrystalline. In the doped powder, Fe was oxidized to Fe2O3. The primary particle size of collected sample was approximately from 6 nm to 40 nm. Doping was observed to increase the specific surface area of the powder from 39 m2/g to 47 m2/g.

  8. ZnO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY-PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE FROM ORGANO-METALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulics

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented experiments utilize methanolic solution of zinc acetyl-acetonate as a precursor and sapphire (001 as a substrate for deposition of thin films of ZnO. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed polycrystalline character of prepared films with preferential growth orientation along c-axis. The roughness of prepared films was assessed by AFM microscopy and represented by roughness root mean square (RMS value in range of 1.8 - 433 nm. The surface morphology was mapped by scanning electron microscopy showing periodical structure with several local defects. The optical transmittance spectrum of ZnO films was measured in wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. Prepared films are transparent in visible range with sharp ultra-violet cut-off at approximately 370 nm. Raman spectroscopy confirmed wurtzite structure and the presence of compressive stress within its structure as well as the occurrence of oxygen vacancies. The four-point Van der Pauw method was used to study the transport prosperities. The resistivity of presented ZnO films was found 8 × 10–2 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.3 × 1018 cm–3 and electron mobility of 40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

  9. An evaluation of absorption spectroscopy to monitor YBa2Cu3O7-x precursors for metal organics chemical vapor deposition processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Edward Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy was evaluated as a technique to monitor the metal organics chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process for forming YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconducting coated conductors. Specifically, this study analyzed the feasibility of using absorption spectroscopy to monitor the MOCVD supply vapor concentrations of the organic ligand 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate (TMHD) metal chelates of barium, copper, and yttrium. Ba(TMHD) 2 , Cu(TMHD) 2 , and Y(TMHD) 3 compounds have successfully been vaporized in the MOCVD processing technique to form high temperature superconducting ''coated conductors,'' a promising technology for wire fabrication. The absorption study of the barium, copper, and yttrium (TMHD) precursors was conducted in the ultraviolet wavelength region from 200nm to 400nm. To simulate the MOCVD precursor flows the Ba(TMHD) 2 , Cu(TMHD) 2 , and Y(TMHD) 3 complexes were vaporized at vacuum pressures of (0.03--10)Torr. Spectral absorption scans of each precursor were conducted to examine potential measurement wavelengths for determining vapor concentrations of each precursor via Beer's law. The experimental results show that under vacuum conditions the barium, copper, and yttrium (TMHD) precursors begin to vaporize between 90 C and 135 C, which are considerably lower vaporization temperatures than atmospheric thermal gravimetric analyses indicate. Additionally, complete vaporization of the copper and yttrium (TMHD) precursors occurred during rapid heating at temperatures between 145 C and 195 C and after heating at constant temperatures between 90 C and 125 C for approximately one hour, whereas the Ba(TMHD) 2 precursor did not completely vaporize. At constant temperatures, near constant vaporization levels for each precursor were observed for extended periods of time. Detailed spectroscopic scans at stable vaporization conditions were conducted

  10. High-performance zno transistors processed via an aqueous carbon-free metal oxide precursor route at temperatures between 80-180 °c

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yenhung; Faber, Hendrik; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Qingxiao; Amassian, Aram; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    An aqueous and carbon-free metal-oxide precursor route is used in combination with a UV irradiation-assisted low-temperature conversion method to fabricate low-voltage ZnO transistors with electron mobilities exceeding 10 cm2/Vs at temperatures <

  11. Metastable states in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mikla, Victor I

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting and technologically important class of materials, the amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors. Experimental results on the structural and electronic metastable states in Se-rich chalcogenides are presented. Special attention is paid to the states in the mobility gap and their sensitivity to various factors such as irradiation, annealing and composition. Photoinduced changes of structure and physical properties are also considered and structural transformation at photocrystallization is studied in detail. Finally, the authors discuss potential applications of th

  12. The intercalation chemistry of layered iron chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, Hector K.; Rodriguez, Efrain E., E-mail: efrain@umd.edu

    2016-10-15

    The iron chalcogenides FeSe and FeS are superconductors composed of two-dimensional sheets held together by van der Waals interactions, which makes them prime candidates for the intercalation of various guest species. We review the intercalation chemistry of FeSe and FeS superconductors and discuss their synthesis, structure, and physical properties. Before we review the latest work in this area, we provide a brief background on the intercalation chemistry of other inorganic materials that exhibit enhanced superconducting properties upon intercalation, which include the transition metal dichalcogenides, fullerenes, and layered cobalt oxides. From past studies of these intercalated superconductors, we discuss the role of the intercalates in terms of charge doping, structural distortions, and Fermi surface reconstruction. We also briefly review the physical and chemical properties of the host materials—mackinawite-type FeS and β-FeSe. The three types of intercalates for the iron chalcogenides can be placed in three categories: 1.) alkali and alkaline earth cations intercalated through the liquid ammonia technique; 2.) cations intercalated with organic amines such as ethylenediamine; and 3.) layered hydroxides intercalated during hydrothermal conditions. A recurring theme in these studies is the role of the intercalated guest in electron doping the chalcogenide host and in enhancing the two-dimensionality of the electronic structure by spacing the FeSe layers apart. We end this review discussing possible new avenues in the intercalation chemistry of transition metal monochalcogenides, and the promise of these materials as a unique set of new inorganic two-dimensional systems.

  13. Computational analysis of the atomic size effect in bulk metallic glasses and their liquid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotin, V.; Hermann, H.

    2008-01-01

    The atomic size effect and its consequences for the ability of multicomponent liquid alloys to form bulk metallic glasses are analyzed in terms of the generalized Bernal's model for liquids, following the hypothesis that maximum density in the liquid state improves the glass-forming ability. The maximum density that can be achieved in the liquid state is studied in the 2(N-1) dimensional parameter space of N-component systems. Computer simulations reveal that the size ratio of largest to smallest atoms are most relevant for achieving the maximum packing for N = 3-5, whereas the number of components plays a minor role. At small size ratio, the maximum packing density can be achieved by different atomic size distributions, whereas for medium size ratios the maximum density is always correlated to a concave size distribution. The relationship of the results to Miracle's efficient cluster packing model is also discussed

  14. A facile precursor route to highly loaded metal/ceramic nanofibers as a robust surface-enhanced Raman template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2017-09-01

    We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.

  15. Comparison of precursors for pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of HfO2 high-K dielectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teren, Andrew R.; Thomas, Reji; He, Jiaqing; Ehrhart, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and evaluated for high-K dielectric applications. Three types of precursors were tested: two oxygenated ones, Hf butoxide-dmae and Hf butoxide-mmp, and an oxygen-free one, Hf diethyl-amide. Depositions were carried out in the temperature range of 350-650 deg. C, yielding different microstructures ranging from amorphous to crystalline, monoclinic, films. The films were compared on the basis of growth rate, phase development, density, interface characteristics, and electrical properties. Some specific features of the pulsed injection technique are considered. For low deposition temperatures the growth rate for the amide precursor was significantly higher than for the mixed butoxide precursors. A thickness-dependent amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature was found for all precursors. There is an increase of the film density along with the deposition temperature from values as low as 5 g/cm 3 at 350 deg. C to values close to the bulk value of 9.7 g/cm 3 at 550 deg. C. Crystallization is observed in the same temperature range for films of typically 10-20 nm thickness. However, annealing studies show that this density increase is not simply related to the crystallization of the films. Similar electrical properties could be observed for all precursors and the dielectric constant of the films reaches values similar to the best values reported for bulk crystalline HfO 2

  16. Iron chalcogenide superconductors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hechang; Wang, Kefeng; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Bozin, Emil S; Petrovic, Cedomir

    2012-01-01

    Iron chalcogenide superconductors have become one of the most investigated superconducting materials in recent years due to high upper critical fields, competing interactions and complex electronic and magnetic phase diagrams. The structural complexity, defects and atomic site occupancies significantly affect the normal and superconducting states in these compounds. In this work we review the vortex behavior, critical current density and high magnetic field pair-breaking mechanism in iron chalcogenide superconductors. We also point to relevant structural features and normal-state properties. PMID:27877518

  17. Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.

  18. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of LaMO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxide using heteronuclearcyano metal complex precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sanchez@udg.edu [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif.PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Wada, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Syuhei [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Farjas, Jordi [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif.PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Yahiro, Hidenori, E-mail: yahiro.hidenori.me@ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The decomposition of La[Fe(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O and La[Co(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O under different atmospheres has been analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). In addition, the decomposition temperature at different sample locations was monitored for sample masses around 2 g of La[Fe(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O and La[Co(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O, when they were calcined for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 °C in a controlled gas-flow system. Results showed that, the large enough of the cyano complex precursors undergo combustion when they are decomposed under oxygen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results revealed that perovskite-type oxides crystallize due to the overheating of the process. As a result, it has been possible to produce LaFeO{sub 3} and LaCoO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxide powders by SHS under oxygen atmosphere using La[Fe(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O and La[Co(CN){sub 6}]·5H{sub 2}O as a precursor. The effect of the ignition temperature has been investigated. The specific surface area of the perovskite-type oxides produced via SHS using heteronuclearcyano metal complex as a precursor is significantly higher than that of other LaMO{sub 3} produced using the same technique but obtained from other type of precursors. - Highlights: • The decomposition of La[Fe(CN){sub 6}] and La[Co(CN){sub 6}] precursors was analyzed. • The combustion process proceeded under oxygen when sample was large enough. • Perovskite oxides via SHS from the cyano complex precursors were synthesized. • LaMO{sub 3} perovskite oxides via SHS was obtained with high specific surface area.

  19. Magnetic excitations in iron chalcogenide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Fujita, Masaki

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron scattering experiments in iron chalcogenide superconductors are reviewed to make a survey of the magnetic excitations in FeSe, FeSe 1- x Te x and alkali-metal-doped A x Fe 2- y Se 2 ( A = K, Rb, Cs, etc). In FeSe, the intimate relationship between the spin fluctuations and superconductivity can be seen universally for the variations in the off-stoichiometry, the Co-substitution and applied pressure. The isovalent compound FeTe has a magnetic ordering with different wave vector from that of other Fe-based magnetic materials. The transition temperature T c of FeSe increases with Te substitution in FeSe 1- x Te x with small x , and decreases in the vicinity of the end member FeTe. The spin fluctuations are drastically modified by the Te substitution. In the vicinity of the end member FeTe, the low-energy part of the spin fluctuation is dominated by the wave vector of the ordered phase of FeTe; however, the reduction of T c shows that it does not support superconductivity. The presence of same wave vector as that of other Fe-based superconductors in FeSe 1- x Te x and the observation of the resonance mode demonstrate that FeSe 1- x Te x belongs to the same group as most of other Fe-based superconductors in the entire range of x , where superconductivity is mediated by the spin fluctuations whose wave vector is the same as the nesting vector between the hole pockets and the electron pockets. On the other hand, the spin fluctuations differ for alkali-metal-doped A x Fe 2- y Se 2 and FeSe or other Fe-based superconductors in their wave vector and strength in the low-energy part, most likely because of the different Fermi surfaces. The resonance mode with different wave vector suggests that A x Fe 2- y Se 2 has an exceptional superconducting symmetry among Fe-based superconductors.

  20. Multimode supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is considered in chalcogenide fibres when taking into account both polarisations and the necessary higher order modes. In particular we focus on high pulse energy supercontinuum generation with long pump pulses. The modeling indicates that when only a single...

  1. Solution processing of chalcogenide materials using thiol-amine "alkahest" solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Brutchey, Richard L

    2017-05-02

    Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks. In this review, we recount the work that has been done toward elucidating the scope of this method for the solution processing of inorganic materials for use in applications such as photovoltaic devices, electrocatalysts, photodetectors, thermoelectrics, and nanocrystal ligand exchange. We also take stock of the wide range of bulk materials that can be used as soluble precursors, and discuss the work that has been done to reveal the nature of the dissolved species. This method has provided a vast toolbox of over 65 bulk precursors, which can be utilized to develop new routes to functional chalcogenide materials. Future studies in this area should work toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dissolution and recovery of bulk materials, as well as broadening the scope of soluble precursors and recoverable functional materials for innovative applications.

  2. High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Chemical interaction of chalcogenides and some impurities (CS 2, TeO2 ) with the quartz glass at high temperature leads to the thin layers formation...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1523 TITLE: High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides...Materials Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 341 - 349 HIGH-PURITY GLASSES BASED ON ARSENIC CHALCOGENIDES M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S

  3. Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3 composites prepared by using metal-organic frameworks as precursor for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Zheng, Bing; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Jian; Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Rui, Xianhong; Chen, Bo; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-08-26

    Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3M (rGO/MoO3 ) is prepared by a novel and simple method that is developed by using a metal-organic framework as the precursor. After a two-step annealing process, the obtained rGO/MoO3 composite is used for a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Moreover, an all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor is fabricated based on the rGO/MoO3 composite, which shows stable performance under different bending states. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High-performance zno transistors processed via an aqueous carbon-free metal oxide precursor route at temperatures between 80-180 °c

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yenhung

    2013-06-25

    An aqueous and carbon-free metal-oxide precursor route is used in combination with a UV irradiation-assisted low-temperature conversion method to fabricate low-voltage ZnO transistors with electron mobilities exceeding 10 cm2/Vs at temperatures <180°C. Because of its low temperature requirements the method allows processing of high-performance transistors onto temperature sensitive substrates such as plastic. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La{sub 3}Ga{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaCh{sub 7} (Ch=S, Se), and La{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (M=Zn, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Abishek K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Yin, Wenlong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Rudyk, Brent W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Lin, Xinsong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Centre for Oil Sands Sustainability, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N1E5 (Canada); Nilges, Tom [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaS{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaSe{sub 7}, La{sub 3}ZnGaSe{sub 7}, and La{sub 3}CdGaSe{sub 7}, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La{sub 3}Ga{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaS{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaSe{sub 7}) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced. - Graphical abstract: Partial occupation of metal atoms in multiple sites accounts for versatility in Ga-containing chalcogenides La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} with noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures. - Highlights: • La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} (M =Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch =S, Se) adopt related hexagonal structures. • Large displacements of M atoms originate from partial occupation of multiple

  6. Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Min-Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da [National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lei, Po-Hsun [National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl{sub 4} in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS{sub 2} were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl{sub 2}:ZnCl{sub 2}:SnCl{sub 4}:CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl{sub 4} was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS{sub 2} phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl{sub 4} in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl{sub 4} from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} and ∼1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

  7. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  8. Dry etching of thin chalcogenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Kiril [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Gergo; Vassilev, Venceslav, E-mail: kpetkov@clf.bas.b [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon plasmas (pure and mixtures with Ar) were used to investigate the changes in the etching rate depending on the chalcogenide glasses composition and light exposure. The experiments were performed on modified commercial HZM-4 vacuum equipment in a diode electrode configuration. The surface microstructure of thin chalcogenide layers and its change after etching in CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasmas were studied by SEM. The dependence of the composition of As-S-Ge, As-Se and multicomponent Ge-Se-Sb-Ag-I layers on the etching rate was discussed. The selective etching of some glasses observed after light exposure opens opportunities for deep structure processing applications.

  9. Direct observation of the lattice precursor of the metal-to-insulator transition in V2O3 thin films by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kündel, J.; Pontiller, P.; Müller, C.; Obermeier, G.; Liu, Z.; Nateprov, A. A.; Hörner, A.; Wixforth, A.; Horn, S.; Tidecks, R.

    2013-03-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line is used to study the metal-to-insulator (MI) transition of V2O3 thin films deposited on a piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate. Effects contributing to the sound velocity shift of the SAW which are caused by elastic properties of the lattice of the V2O3 films when changing the temperature are separated from those originating from the electrical conductivity. For this purpose the electric field accompanying the elastic wave of the SAW has been shielded by growing the V2O3 film on a thin metallic Cr interlayer (coated with Cr2O3), covering the piezoelectric substrate. Thus, the recently discovered lattice precursor of the MI transition can be directly observed in the experiments, and its fine structure can be investigated.

  10. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties of the Two-Dimensional Chalcogenides: Monolayers, Alloys, and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeffrey D.

    Inspired by the triumphs of graphene, and motivated by its limitations, the science and engineering community is rapidly exploring the landscape of other layered materials in their atomically-thin forms. Dominating this landscape are the layered chalcogenides; diverse in chemistry, crystal structure, and properties, there are well over 100 primary members of this material family. Driven by quantum confinement, single layers (or few, in some cases) of these materials exhibit electronic, optical, and mechanical properties that diverge dramatically from their bulk counterparts. While initially isolated in monolayer form via mechanical exfoliation, the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials is being forced evolve to more scalable and reliable methods. Focusing on the chalcogenides (e.g. MoS2, Bi 2Se3, etc.), this dissertation introduces and mechanistically examines multiple novel synthetic approaches for the direct growth of monolayers, heterostructures, and alloys with the desired quality, reproducibility and generality. The first methods described in this thesis are physical vapor transport (PVT) and evaporative thinning (ET): a facile, top-down synthesis approach for creating ultrathin specimens of layered materials down to the two-dimensional limit. Evaporative thinning, applied in this study to the fabrication of A2X3 (Bi2Se3 and Sb2Te3) monolayers, is based on the controlled evaporation of material from initially thick specimens until the 2D limit is reached. The resultant flakes are characterized with a suite of imaging and spectroscopic techniques and the mechanism of ET is investigated via in-situ heating within a transmission electron microscope. Additionally, the basic transport properties of the resultant flakes are probed. The growth of ultrathin GeSe flakes is explored using PVT and the material's basic structure, properties, and stability are addressed. Second, oxide precursor based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is presented for the direct growth of

  12. Multi-layered Chalcogenides with potential for magnetism and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li, E-mail: lil2@ornl.gov [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Parker, David S. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cruz, Clarina R. dela [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sefat, Athena S., E-mail: sefata@ornl.gov [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A comprehensive study on multi-layered thallium copper chalcogenides TlCu{sub 2n}Ch{sub n+1}. • All the TlCu{sub 2n}Ch{sub n+1} exhibit metallic behaviors with no long-range magnetism. • Calculations suggest a lack of Fermi-level spectral weight for magnetic instability. • Our results suggest a likelihood of magnetism for multiple structural layers with Fe. - Abstract: Layered thallium copper chalcogenides can form single, double, or triple layers of Cu–Ch separated by Tl sheets. Here we report on the preparation and properties of Tl-based materials of TlCu{sub 2}Se{sub 2}, TlCu{sub 4}S{sub 3}, TlCu{sub 4}Se{sub 3} and TlCu{sub 6}S{sub 4}. Having no long-range magnetism for these materials is quite surprising considering the possibilities of inter- and intra-layer exchange interactions through Cu 3d, and we measure by magnetic susceptibility and confirm by neutron diffraction. First principles density-functional theory calculations for both the single-layer TlCu{sub 2}Se{sub 2} (isostructural to the ‘122’ iron-based superconductors) and the double-layer TlCu{sub 4}Se{sub 3} suggest a lack of Fermi-level spectral weight that is needed to drive a magnetic or superconducting instability. However, for multiple structural layers with Fe, there is much greater likelihood for magnetism and superconductivity.

  13. Comparative study of post-growth annealing of Cu(hfac)2, Co2(CO)8 and Me2Au(acac) metal precursors deposited by FEBID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puydinger Dos Santos, Marcos Vinicius; Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rydosz, Artur; Guerra-Nuñez, Carlos; Béron, Fanny; Pirota, Kleber Roberto; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Diniz, José Alexandre; Utke, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Non-noble metals, such as Cu and Co, as well as noble metals, such as Au, can be used in a number modern technological applications, which include advanced scanning-probe systems, magnetic memory and storage, ferroelectric tunnel junction memristors, metal interconnects for high performance integrated circuits in microelectronics and nano-optics applications, especially in the areas of plasmonics and metamaterials. Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is a maskless direct-write tool capable of defining 3-dimensional metal deposits at nanometre scale for above applications. However, codeposition of organic ligands when using organometallic precursors is a typical problem that limits FEBID of pure metal nanostructures. In this work, we present a comparative study using a post-growth annealing protocol at 100, 200, and 300 °C under high vacuum on deposits obtained from Co 2 (CO) 8 , Cu(II)(hfac) 2 , and Me 2 Au(acac) to study improvements on composition and electrical conductivity. Although the as-deposited material was similar for all precursors, metal grains embedded in a carbonaceous matrix, the post-growth annealing results differed. Cu-containing deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit for temperatures above 100 °C, due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing carbon, oxygen, and fluorine atoms. The average size of the Cu crystals doubles between 100 and 300 °C of annealing temperature, while the composition remains constant. In contrast, for Co-containing deposits oxygen release was observed upon annealing, while the carbon content remained approximately constant; the cobalt atoms coalesced to form a metallic film. The as-deposited Au-containing material shows subnanometric grains that coalesce at 100 °C, maintaining the same average size at annealing temperatures up to 300 °C. Raman analysis suggests that the amorphous carbonaceous matrix of the as-written Co

  14. Terahertz-induced Kerr effect in amorphous chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the terahertz-induced third-order (Kerr) nonlinear optical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide glasses As2S3 and As2Se3. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their high optical Kerr nonlinearities which can be several hundred times greater than those of fused silica. We use...

  15. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules.

  16. Direct preparation of Al-base alloys from their oxides/metal precursors in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bingliang; Zhu, Hao; Xia, Yuxiang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the preparation of Al–Cu–Li alloy from their oxides/metal precursors using the method of electro-deoxidation in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt at 648 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the system. The samples were prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis at −1.0 V to −2.0 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) for 5 h. XRD analysis shows that Li 2 O is not electrochemically reduced to Li at −1.0 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) or more negative potential. During the preparation process of Al–Cu–Li alloy, lithium peroxide is formed as an intermediate compound. Al–Cu–Li alloy is chemically prepared through the reaction between aluminum and lithium peroxide by heating of Al–Cu–Li 2 O precursors in KCl–LiCl–LiF melt at 1023 K. Eelectro-deoxidation in LiCl–KCl melt can increase the lithium content in the final alloy product. Al–Mg and Al–Nd alloy were also prepared by using the same method from their mixture of aluminum and corresponding oxide, respectively. Al–Nd alloy can only be obtained at the temperature above 773 K. Al–Li alloy could not be obtained in eutectic CaCl 2 –LiCl melt because of formation of calcium aluminates. - Highlights: • Al–Cu–Li alloy was prepared using electrochemical deoxidation of Al–Cu–Li 2 O precursor in eutectic KCl–LiCl melt at 648 K. • Al–Nd alloy was successfully produced by the same method at 773 K. • CaCl 2 –LiCl melt is not a good choice for preparing Al–Li alloy because of formation of calcium aluminate.

  17. Direct preparation of Al-base alloys from their oxides/metal precursors in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bingliang, E-mail: blgao@mail.neu.edu.cn; Zhu, Hao; Xia, Yuxiang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-04-25

    A study was carried out on the preparation of Al–Cu–Li alloy from their oxides/metal precursors using the method of electro-deoxidation in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt at 648 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the system. The samples were prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis at −1.0 V to −2.0 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) for 5 h. XRD analysis shows that Li{sub 2}O is not electrochemically reduced to Li at −1.0 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) or more negative potential. During the preparation process of Al–Cu–Li alloy, lithium peroxide is formed as an intermediate compound. Al–Cu–Li alloy is chemically prepared through the reaction between aluminum and lithium peroxide by heating of Al–Cu–Li{sub 2}O precursors in KCl–LiCl–LiF melt at 1023 K. Eelectro-deoxidation in LiCl–KCl melt can increase the lithium content in the final alloy product. Al–Mg and Al–Nd alloy were also prepared by using the same method from their mixture of aluminum and corresponding oxide, respectively. Al–Nd alloy can only be obtained at the temperature above 773 K. Al–Li alloy could not be obtained in eutectic CaCl{sub 2}–LiCl melt because of formation of calcium aluminates. - Highlights: • Al–Cu–Li alloy was prepared using electrochemical deoxidation of Al–Cu–Li{sub 2}O precursor in eutectic KCl–LiCl melt at 648 K. • Al–Nd alloy was successfully produced by the same method at 773 K. • CaCl{sub 2}–LiCl melt is not a good choice for preparing Al–Li alloy because of formation of calcium aluminate.

  18. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  19. Group 12 dithiocarbamate complexes: Synthesis, spectral studies and their use as precursors for metal sulfides nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Ejelonu, Benjamin C.

    2013-09-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) dithiocarbamate complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The complexes were thermolysed at 180 °C and used as single molecule precursors for the synthesis of HDA capped ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites. The optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles and nanocomposites were studied by UV-Vis, PL, XRD and SEM. The crystallites sizes of the nanoparticles varied between 3.03 and 23.45 nm. SEM and EDX analyses of the nanocomposites confirmed the presence of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  20. Synthesis of aluminum oxide by the polymer precursor method (Pechini) in 4: 1 ratio of citric acid: metal cation: calcination temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.C.; Lira, H.L.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    The technology field is nanopowders prominent in science since these materials fall in various sectors regarding their applications. This work aims at the synthesis of aluminum oxide by polymeric precursors in 4:1 ratio of citric acid:metal cation and evaluate the influence of calcination temperature on their structural and morphological characteristics. The samples after reaction were characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. After calcination 500-1200°C the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and particle size distribution. The results showed that the variation of the calcination temperature is sufficient to achieve a same material with different structural and morphological characteristics. The most stable phase aluminum oxide arose only after calcination at 1100°C, below 900°C, the amorphous material appeared. As regards the morphology, the change was not as significant as compared to the structure. (author)

  1. The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu as prospective precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iljina, E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Korjeva, A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Kuzmina, N. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Troyanov, S. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Dunaeva, K. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Martynenko, L. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation))

    1993-04-15

    The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu were synthesized and characterized by chemical and thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry. The volatilities of metal pivalates was studied; the vapour pressures, thermodynamic characteristics and rates of sublimation were investigated. The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu are new prospective accessible compounds. (orig.)

  2. Chalcogenide Sensitized Carbon Based TiO2 Nanomaterial For Solar Driven Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pawan

    The demand for renewable energy is growing because fossils fuels are depleting at a rapid pace. Solar energy an abundant green energy resource. Utilizing this resource in a smart manner can resolve energy-crisis related issues. Sun light can be efficiently harvested using semiconductor based materials by utilizing photo-generated charges for numerous beneficial applications. The main goal of this thesis is to synthesize different nanostructures of TiO2, develop a novel method of coupling and synthesizing chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 and to study the charge transportation effects of the various carbon allotropes in the chalcogenide nanocrystal sensitized TiO2 nanostructure. We have fabricated different nanostructures of TiO2 as solar energy harvesting materials. Effects of the different phases of TiO2 have also been studied. The anatase phase of TiO2 is more photoactive than the rutile phase of TiO2, and the higher dimension of the TiO2 can increase the surface area of the material which can produce higher photocurrent. Since TiO2 only absorbs in the UV range; to increase the absorbance TiO2 should be coupled to visible light absorbing materials. This dissertation presents a simple approach to synthesize and couple chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 nanostructure to form a heterostructured composite. An atmospheric pressure based, single precursor, one-pot approach has been developed and tested to assemble chalcogenide nanocrystal on the TiO2 surface. Surface characterization using microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis indicates the formation of nanocrystals along the nanotube walls and inter-tubular spacing. Optical measurements indicate that the chalcogenide nanocrystals absorb in the visible region and demonstrate an increase in photocurrent in comparison to bare TiO2 nanostructure. The CdS synthesized TiO2 nanostructure produced the highest photocurrent as measured in the three electrode system. We have also assembled the PbS nanocrystal

  3. Formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films from metal sulfide and selenide precursor nanocrystals by gas-phase selenization, an in-situ XRD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, B., E-mail: boris.capon@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dierick, R. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hens, Z. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Center for Nano and Biophotonics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-08-01

    In this work phase pure CuInSe{sub 2} thin flms were obtained by selenization of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals and mixtures of binary nanocrystals such as CuS, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. The temperature of the selenium source was kept at 400 °C during selenization. Monitoring the process using in-situ x-ray diffraction, the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor film was investigated. Whereas CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibit little grain growth, we found that mixtures of binary nanocrystals can show significant sintering depending on the reaction conditions. For the mixture of CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals, the crystallinity and the morphology of the obtained fims strongly depends on the Cu/In ratio, with a Cu excess strongly promoting grain growth. With mixtures of Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals the selenium partial pressure plays a crucial role. Selenium evaporation from the mixed compounds results in CuInSe{sub 2} films composed of relatively small crystallites. Higher selenium partial pressures however resulted in improved sintering. Incomplete propagation of the selenization reaction through the layer was observed though, only leading to a well sintered CuInSe{sub 2} top layer above a fine grained bottom layer. - Highlights: • Different types of colloidal nanocrystals were used as precursors to obtain CuInSe{sub 2} films by gas-phase selenization. • In-situ XRD was used to study the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor films. • For a mixture of binary metal sulfides the crystallinity and the morphology strongly depend on the Cu/In ratio. • Higher selenium partial pressures result in improved sintering for a mixture of binary metal selenides.

  4. Part I: Structural Characterization of Doped Nanostructured Magnesium: Understanding Disorder for Enhanced Hydrogen Absorption Kinetics Part II: Synthesis, Film Deposition, and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystals for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Max B.

    absorption processes. Chapter 3 introduces the many considerations needed to be taken into account during the development of a novel synthesis for copper zinc tin chalcogenide colloidal nanocrystals. In addition to introducing synthetic approaches to achieve this goal, Chapter 3 also describes essential characteristics that need to be considered for further investigation into the properties of films made from the nanocrystals. Chapter 4 is a publication that appeared in Chemistry of Materials, that describes an approach to tuning the surface and ligand chemistry of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals for use as an absorber layer in next generation photovoltaic devices. The publication describes ligand exchange chemistry achieved via layer-by-layer dip-casting of nanocrystal thin films, and the effects that this exchange chemistry has on the resulting films. It also details the fabrication of full photovoltaic (PV) devices to characterize the benefits of controlling the surface chemistry can have on PV performance. Chapter 5 is a paper--to be submitted to ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces--that describes the investigations into how varying the chalcogen ratio (i.e., S:Se) leads to changes in the physical and electrical properties of thin films made from Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 (where 0 < x < 1) NCs. It highlights the novel synthetic procedure (detailed in chapter 3) that was required for a systematic, deconvoluted evaluation of S:Se composition on the materials optical and electronic properties. Moreover, the characteristics of full PV devices based on thin films of each stoichiometry (x=0 to x=1) are assessed to establish a relationship between composition and the materials performance.

  5. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass...... nanofilms at the inner surface of the air-channels of a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) PCF. The integrated high refractive index glass films introduce distinct antiresonant transmission bands in the 480-900 nm wavelength region. We demonstrate that the ultra-high Kerr nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass...

  6. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  7. Uptake of hazardous radionuclides within layered chalcogenide for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pranesh, E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dudwadkar, N.L. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vishwanadh, B. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pulhani, V. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, Rekha [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tripathi, S.C. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure prepared by hydrothermal route. • Exploration of the possibilities for radionuclides’ uptake using layered chalcogenide. • Proposing ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as major uptake mechanism. -- Abstract: Ensuring environmental protection in and around nuclear facilities is a matter of deep concern. Toward this, layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure has been prepared. Structural characterizations of layered chalcogenide suggest ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as the dominant mechanism behind uptake of different cations within its lattice structure. An equilibration time of 45 min and volume to mass ratio of 30:1 are found to absorb {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 85+89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am radionuclides to the maximum extents.

  8. Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te with Group IV and/or V elements. The etchant was selected from the literature and was composed of sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, and deionized water and the types of chalcogenide glass for study were As2S3 and As24S38Se38. The main goals here were to obtain a single variable etch rate curve of etch depth per time versus NaOH overall solution concentration in M and to see the difference in etch rate between a given etchant when used on the different chalcogenide stoichiometries. Upon completion of these two goals, future studies will begin to explore creating complex, integrated photonic devices via these methods.

  9. Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, ... Keywords. Uranium chalcogenides; p-wave electronic superconductor; phonon frequency; Debye tempera- ture; spin ... to the ionic crystals of similar structure.

  10. Achievements in the field of thermophysics of pniktides and chalcogenides of transition elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrum, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Thermophysical aspects of thermodynamics of chalcogenides of transition metals are analyzed briefly with the aim of development of concepts on connection of these compounds entropy with their structure, expressed by Grenvold and Westrum in 1962. In a more detail way discussed are the achievement in the field of low-temperature thermophysics of pniktides of transition metals permitting to consider the similarity and the differences in properties of the two compound classes mentioned above. The characteristics of chalcogenides and pniktides, obtained by the method of low-temperature calorimetry and by the method of high-temperature adiabatic calorimetry as well, are considered. A more detail estimate is made of the heat capacity component caused by expansion (that is of the most importance while considering the high-temperature data on heat capacity). The effect of energy levels of ions and atoms on heat capacity and a number of other problems are also considered. The approach to solution of these problems is illustrated on experimental data for a number of compounds, such as marcasite (FeS 2 ), low-temperature digenite (Csub(1.80)S), CoFe 2 , arsenides and antimonides of a number of metals (FeSb 2 , CrSb 2 , CrAs 2 , U 2 As 4 , U 3 Sb 4 , USb 2 , UAs 2 )

  11. Wireless Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio-Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    A new nonvolatile nanoionic switch is powered and controlled through wireless radio-frequency (RF) transmission. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass doped with a metal ion, such as silver, comprises the operational portion of the switch. For the switch to function, an oxidizable electrode is made positive (anode) with respect to an opposing electrode (cathode) when sufficient bias, typically on the order of a few tenths of a volt or more, is applied. This action causes the metal ions to flow toward the cathode through a coordinated hopping mechanism. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs to form a metal deposit. This metal deposit creates a conductive path that bridges the gap between electrodes to turn the switch on. Once this conductive path is formed, no further power is required to maintain it. To reverse this process, the metal deposit is made positive with respect to the original oxidizable electrode, causing the dissolution of the metal bridge thereby turning the switch off. Once the metal deposit has been completely dissolved, the process self-terminates. This switching process features the following attributes. It requires very little to change states (i.e., on and off). Furthermore, no power is required to maintain the states; hence, the state of the switch is nonvolatile. Because of these attributes the integration of a rectenna to provide the necessary power and control is unique to this embodiment. A rectenna, or rectifying antenna, generates DC power from an incident RF signal. The low voltages and power required for the nanoionic switch control are easily generated from this system and provide the switch with a novel capability to be operated and powered from an external wireless device. In one realization, an RF signal of a specific frequency can be used to set the switch into an off state, while another frequency can be used to set the switch to an on state. The wireless, miniaturized, and nomoving- part features of this switch make it

  12. Magnetic and electronic properties of Neptunium chalcogenides from GGA + U + SOC and DFT investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Wilayat [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Goumri-Said, Souraya, E-mail: sosaid@alfaisal.edu [College of Science, Physics Department, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of Neptunium chalcogenides were explored theoretically using DFT approach. • Spin orbit coupling and GGA + U approach described successfully the f–f coupling. • Np{sub 2}X{sub 5} ate metallic with high magnetic character due to the Neptunium. • Fermi surfaces of Np{sub 2}Te{sub 5} have shown a greater electrical conductivity compared to Np{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Np{sub 2}S{sub 5}. - Abstract: First-principles calculations techniques were employed to explore the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Neptunium chalcogenides (Np{sub 2}X{sub 5}, X = S, Se and Te). No experimental or theoretical studies of their physical properties have been previously reported in the literature. The presence of highly localized f states has requested the employment of the spin orbit coupling and GGA + U approach in order to describe correctly the f–f coupling. Np{sub 2}X{sub 5} was found metallic with high magnetic character due to the Neptunium presence. Fermi surfaces of Np{sub 2}Te{sub 5} have shown a greater electrical conductivity compared to Np{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Np{sub 2}S{sub 5}. The magnetic moment was found to be between 13.24 and 13.92μ{sub B}, principally induced by Np f and d-orbitals as well as the spin-polarization of the chalcogenes (Te, Se, S) induced by Np. Neptunium chalcogenides have shown interesting magnetic properties and should be manipulated with precaution due to their radioactive properties.

  13. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  14. In situ generation of Ni nanoparticles from metal-organic framework precursors and their use for biomass hydrodeoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelič, Tadeja Birsa; Grilc, Miha; Likozar, Blaž; Tušar, Nataša Novak

    2015-05-22

    So far, in situ-generated Ni nanoparticles have been reported to be efficient catalysts for tar cracking during wood liquefaction by pyrolysis. Herein, their performance in further bio-oil conversion steps is evaluated. Nanoparticles were generated for the first time from a Ni-containing metal-organic framework, MIL-77, during the hydrotreatment of glycerol-solvolyzed lignocellulosic (LC) biomass. Reactions were conducted at 300 °C and the H2 pressure was 8 MPa in a slurry reactor. The catalytic activity and selectivity of the deoxygenation and hydrocracking reactions for real biomass-derived feedstock using in situ-generated nanoparticles was compared with Ni nanoparticles dispersed on a silica-alumina support (commercial Ni/SiO2 -Al2 O3 catalyst). The mass activity of the in situ-generated nanoparticles for hydrogenolysis was more than ten times higher in comparison to their commercial analogues, and their potential for the use in LC biorefinery is discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001 with germane precursor in metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of germanium (Ge epitaxial film grown directly on a silicon (Si (001 substrate with 6° off-cut using conventional germane precursor in a metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD system is studied. The growth sequence consists of several steps at low temperature (LT at 400 °C, intermediate temperature ramp (LT-HT of ∼10 °C/min and high temperature (HT at 600 °C. This is followed by post-growth annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 650 to 825 °C. The Ge epitaxial film of thickness ∼ 1 μm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.11 % with a treading dislocation density (TDD of ∼107/cm2 and the root-mean-square (RMS roughness of ∼ 0.75 nm. The benefit of growing Ge epitaxial film using MOCVD is that the subsequent III-V materials can be grown in-situ without the need of breaking the vacuum hence it is manufacturing worthy.

  16. Thermal, electronic and ductile properties of lead-chalcogenides under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dinesh C; Bhat, Idris Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Fully relativistic pseudo-potential ab-initio calculations have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of lead-chalcogenides including the less known lead polonium. The calculated ground state parameters, for the rock-salt structure show good agreement with the experimental data. PbS, PbSe, PbTe and PbPo undergo a first-order phase transition from rock-salt to CsCl structure at 19.4, 15.5, 11.5 and 7.3 GPa, respectively. The elastic properties have also been calculated. The calculations successfully predicted the location of the band gap at L-point of Brillouin zone and the band gap for each material at ambient pressure. It is observed that unlike other lead-chalcogenides, PbPo is semi-metal at ambient pressure. The pressure variation of the energy gap indicates that these materials metalize under pressure. The electronic structures of these materials have been computed in parent as well as in high pressure B2 phase.

  17. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  18. Transuranium element chalcogenides. Crystallochemistry and Moessbauer spectrometry of neptunium 237 chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, T.; Pages, M.; Damien, D.

    1981-09-01

    To study actinide compounds , neptunium 237 has been studied by Moessbauer resonance. The different oxidation degrees of neptunium (7, 6, 5, 4 and 3) have a very important effect on isomeric displacements. In the study of chalcogenides, the isomeric displacement value of NpS 3 confirms the valency 4+ of neptunium in this compound. Results obtained with Np 3 S 5 show two valency state +3 and +4 in this compound. There is a good agreement with the two crystalline sites determined by crystallography [fr

  19. Photocatalytic applications of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} synthesized from single and multi-source precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Wajid [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: aminbadshah@qau.edu.pk [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hussain, Raja Azadar; Imtiaz-ud-Din [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Aleem, Muhammad Adeel [The Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) (Pakistan); Bahadur, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Farooq, Muhammad Umar; Ali, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Most of the material research work is pertinent to the synthesis of transition-metal sulfides nanoparticles but here the studies are limited to the synthesis of chromium sulfide. However, the preparation method, presented in this work, may be extended to other metal chalcogenides nanoparticles for various potential applications. The ligand (precursor), 1-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-3,3-chlorobenzoyl and Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been synthesized initially from single source precursor and then from multi source precursors. The target was to alter the morphologies of nanomaterial while altering the synthetic route and that was successfully achieved. Chromium sulfide nano-rods were synthesized using single source precursors while nanoparticles were fabricated using multi source precursors. Characterization were carried out through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction microscopy (PXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our objective is to change the morphologies by changing the synthetic route so that is why further applications were done only for multi-source product, denying single source product. The metal sulfides nanoparticles exhibit higher activity than their bulk material for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible-light irradiation. So, photocatalytic activity was successfully achieved under direct sunlight against five different cationic and anionic organic dyes including malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), methyl violet (MV) and methyl orange (MO). These organic dyes MV, MG, MB, and RB were almost diminished or decolorized by Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} within 110, 90, 100, and 130, minutes, respectively expect MO. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} from single and multisource precursors is

  20. Microwave irradiation for the facile synthesis of transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) in ionic liquids (ILs) from metal-carbonyl precursors and Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-NP/IL dispersions as biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation nanocatalysts for cyclohexene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christian; Redel, Engelbert; Abu-Shandi, Khalid; Thomann, Ralf; Manyar, Haresh; Hardacre, Christopher; Janiak, Christoph

    2010-03-22

    Stable chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, rhenium, ruthenium, osmium, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium metal nanoparticles (M-NPs) have been reproducibly obtained by facile, rapid (3 min), and energy-saving 10 W microwave irradiation (MWI) under an argon atmosphere from their metal-carbonyl precursors [M(x)(CO)(y)] in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]). This MWI synthesis is compared to UV-photolytic (1000 W, 15 min) or conventional thermal decomposition (180-250 degrees C, 6-12 h) of [M(x)(CO)(y)] in ILs. The MWI-obtained nanoparticles have a very small (TED), and dynamic light scattering (DLS)). The ruthenium, rhodium, or iridium nanoparticle/IL dispersions are highly active and easily recyclable catalysts for the biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane with activities of up to 522 (mol product) (mol Ru)(-1) h(-1) and 884 (mol product) (mol Rh)(-1) h(-1) and give almost quantitative conversion within 2 h at 10 bar H(2) and 90 degrees C. Catalyst poisoning experiments with CS(2) (0.05 equiv per Ru) suggest a heterogeneous surface catalysis of Ru-NPs.

  1. Electrochemical kinetics and X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of select chalcogenide electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegelbauer, Joseph M.; Murthi, Vivek S.; O'Laoire, Cormac; Gulla, Andrea F.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal-based chalcogenide electrocatalysts exhibit a promising level of performance for oxygen reduction reaction applications while offering significant economic benefits over the state of the art Pt/C systems. The most active materials are based on Ru x Se y clusters, but the toxicity of selenium will most likely limit their embrace by the marketplace. Sulfur-based analogues do not suffer from toxicity issues, but suffer from substantially less activity and stability than their selenium brethren. The structure/property relationships that result in these properties are not understood due to ambiguities regarding the specific morphologies of Ru x S y -based chalcogenides. To clarify these properties, an electrochemical kinetics study was interpreted in light of extensive X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy evaluations. The performance characteristics of ternary M x Ru y S z /C (M = Mo, Rh, or Re) chalcogenide electrocatalysts synthesized by the now-standard low-temperature nonaqueous (NA) route are compared to commercially available (De Nora) Rh- and Ru-based systems. Interpretation of performance differences is made in regards to bulk and surface properties of these systems. In particular, the overall trends of the measured activation energies in respect to increasing overpotential and the gross energy values can be explained in regards to these differences

  2. Optimization of Phase Change Memory with Thin Metal Inserted Layer on Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, Sanchai; Sa-Ngiamsak, Chiranut; Siritaratiwat, Apirat

    This works reports, for the first time, the thorough study and optimisation of Phase Change Memory (PCM) structure with thin metal inserted chalcogenide via electrical resistivity (ρ) using finite element modeling. PCM is one of the best candidates for next generation non-volatile memory. It has received much attention recently due to its fast write speed, non-destructive readout, superb scalability, and great compatibility with current silicon-based mass fabrication. The setback of PCM is a high reset current typically higher than 1mA based on 180nm lithography. To reduce the reset current and to solve the over-programming failure, PCM with thin metal inserted chalcogenide (bottom chalcogenide/metal inserted/top chalcogenide) structure has been proposed. Nevertheless, reports on optimisation of the electrical resistivity using the finite element method for this new PCM structure have never been published. This work aims to minimize the reset current of this PCM structure by optimizing the level of the electrical resistivity of the PCM profile using the finite element approach. This work clearly shows that PCM characteristics are strongly affected by the electrical resistivity. The 2-D simulation results reveal clearly that the best thermal transfer of and self-joule-heating at the bottom chalcogenide layer can be achieved under conditions; ρ_bottom chalcogenide > ρ_metal inserted > ρ_top chalcogenide More specifically, the optimized electrical resistivity of PCMTMI is attained with ρ_top chalcogenide: ρ_metal inserted: ρ_bottom chalcogenide ratio of 1:6:16 when ρ_top chalcogenide is 10-3 Ωm. In conclusion, high energy efficiency can be obtained with the reset current as low as 0.3mA and with high speed operation of less than 30ns.

  3. Thermoset precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-04-01

    This invention pertains to a distinctive thermoset precursor which is prepared by mixing a resin composition (A) which can be hardened by ionizing radiation, and a resin composition (B) which can be hardened by heat but cannot be hardened by, or is resistant to, ionizing radiation, and by coating or impregnating a molding or other substrate with a sheet or film of this mixture and irradiating this with an ionizing radiation. The principal components of composition (A) and (B) can be the following: (1) an acrylate or methacrylate and an epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (2) an unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (3) a diacrylate or dimethacrylate or polyethylene glycol and an epoxy resin; (4) an epoxy acrylates or epoxy methacrylate obtained by the addition reaction of epoxy resin and acrylic or methacrylic acid

  4. Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao; Song, Yi; Huang, Yizhong; Kita, Derek; Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Wang, Kaiqi; Li, Lan; Li, Junying; Zheng, Hanyu; Luo, Zhengqian; Wang, Haozhe; Novak, Spencer; Yadav, Anupama; Huang, Chung-Che; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Englund, Dirk; Gu, Tian; Hewak, Daniel; Richardson, Kathleen; Kong, Jing; Hu, Juejun

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are of tremendous interest to integrated photonics, given their singular optical characteristics spanning light emission, modulation, saturable absorption and nonlinear optics. To harness their optical properties, these atomically thin materials are usually attached onto prefabricated devices via a transfer process. Here, we present a new route for 2D material integration with planar photonics. Central to this approach is the use of chalcogenide glass, a multifunctional material that can be directly deposited and patterned on a wide variety of 2D materials and can simultaneously function as the light-guiding medium, a gate dielectric and a passivation layer for 2D materials. Besides achieving improved fabrication yield and throughput compared with the traditional transfer process, our technique also enables unconventional multilayer device geometries optimally designed for enhancing light-matter interactions in the 2D layers. Capitalizing on this facile integration method, we demonstrate a series of high-performance glass-on-graphene devices including ultra-broadband on-chip polarizers, energy-efficient thermo-optic switches, as well as graphene-based mid-infrared waveguide-integrated photodetectors and modulators.

  5. Recent Progress In Infrared Chalcogenide Glass Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, A.; Croitoru, N.; Marom, E.

    1984-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses containing elements like As, Ge, Sb and Se have been prepared. A new technique of preparing the raw material and subsequently drawing fibers has been devel-oped in order to avoid the forming of oxygen compounds. The fibers have been drawn by cru-cible and rod method from oxygen free raw material inside an Ar atmosphere glove box. The fibers drawn to date with air and glass cladding have a diameter of 50-500 pm and length of several meterd. Preliminary attenuation measurements indicate that the attentuation is better than 0.1 dB/cm and it is not affected even when the fiber is bent to 2 cm circular radius. The fibes were testes a CO laser beam and were not damaged at power densities below 10 kW/2cm2 CW &100 kw/cm using short pulses 75 n sec. The transmitted power density was 0.8 kW/cm2 which is an appropriate value to the needed for cutting and ablation of human tissues.

  6. Quaternary chalcogenides of the IVa metals with layered structures: preparation and crystal structures of TlCuTIVQ3 (T=Zr, Hf; Q=S, Se) and their relation to the Re3B structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepp, K.O.; Gurtner, D.

    1996-01-01

    The new compounds TlCuT IV Q 3 (T = Zr, Hf; Q = S, Se) were prepared by reacting intimate mixtures of Tl 2 S or TlSe with stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding Group IV metal, Cu and the corresponding chalcogen at 870 . The four compounds are isostructural and crystallize in Cmcm, Z = 4 with a 3.726(4) A, b = 13.987(9) A, c = 9.783(4) A for TlCuZrS 3 ; a = 3.847(1) A, b 14.381(6) A, c = 10.150(1) A for TlCuZrSe 3 ; a = 3.694(1) A, b = 14.030(3) A, c = 9.750(3) A for TlCuHfS 3 ; and a = 3.831(1) A, b = 14.409(9) A, c = 10.124(2) A for TlCuHfSe 3 . Their crystal structures were determined from single crystal diffractometer data (Mo Kα radiation, ambient temperature) and refined to conventional R values of 0.016, 0.040, 0.019 and 0.031 respectively. An outstanding feature of their crystal structures is the formation of infinite anionic layers, 2 ∞ -[CuT IV Q 3 ] - parallel to (010), which are separated by Tl + cations. These layers are built up by edge sharing TQ 6 octahedra and distorted CuQ 4 tetrahedra. Average T-Q distances are anti d(Zr-S) = 2.586(1) A, anti d(Zr-Se) = 2.707(1) A, anti d(Hf-S) = 2.569(2) A and anti d(Hf-Se) = 2.694(1) A. Cu-chalcogen distances are anti d(Cu-S) = 2.318(2) A and anti d(Cu-Se) = 2.432(3) A respectively. The thallium ions are in bicapped trigonal prismatic chalcogen coordinations. The atomic arrangement corresponds to that of KCuZrS 3 ; based on the thallium-chalcogen partial structure it can be regarded as a filled variant of an anti-Re 3 B structure type. (orig.)

  7. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm 2 , using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass

  8. Index change of chalcogenide materials from precision glass molding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, J.; Walsh, K.; Lindberg, G.; Benson, R.; Gibson, D.; Bayya, S.; Sanghera, J.; Stover, E.

    2015-05-01

    With the increase in demand for infrared optics for thermal applications and the use of glass molding of chalcogenide materials to support these higher volume optical designs, an investigation of changes to the optical properties of these materials is required. Typical precision glass molding requires specific thermal conditions for proper lens molding of any type of optical glass. With these conditions a change (reduction) of optical index occurs after molding of all oxide glass types and it is presumed that a similar behavior will happen with chalcogenide based materials. We will discuss the effects of a typical molding thermal cycle for use with commercially and newly developed chalcogenide materials and show results of index variation from nominally established material data.

  9. Ion beam assisted synthesis of nano-crystals in glasses (silver and lead chalcogenides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

    2005-04-01

    This work deals with the interest in ion beams for controlling nano-crystals synthesis in glasses. We show two different ways to reach this aim, insisting on importance of redox phenomena induced by the penetration and implantation of ions in glasses. We first show that we can use the great energy density deposited by the ions to tailor reducing conditions, favorable to metallic nano-crystal precipitation. In particular, we show that microscopic mechanism of radiation induced silver precipitation in glasses are analogous to the ones of classical photography. Ion beams can also be used to overcome supersaturation of elements in a given matrix. In this work, we synthesized lead chalcogenide nano-crystals (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) whose optical properties are interesting for telecommunication applications. We demonstrate the influence of complex chalcogenide chemistry in oxide glasses, and its relationship with the observed loss of growth control when nano-crystals are synthesized by sequential implantation of Pb and S in pure silica. As a consequence of this understanding, we demonstrate a novel and controlled synthesis of PbS nano-crystals, consisting in implanting sulfur into a Pb-containing glass, before annealing. Choice of glass composition provides a better control of precipitation physico-chemistry, whereas the use of implantation allows high nano-crystal volume fractions to be reached. Our study of IR emission properties of these nano-crystals shows a very high excitation cross section, and evidence for a 'dark exciton' emitting level. (author)

  10. Pressure dependence of crystal field splitting in Pr pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Weaver, H.T.; Ginley, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    We have measured the pressure dependence of the Pr nuclear magnetic resonance shift in PrN, PrP, PrSb, PrAs, PrS and PrSe. The shifts in all the pnictides increase while in the chalcogenides the shifts decrease with pressure. The rare earth frequency shift is inversely proportional to the crystal field splitting in the context of the point charge model (PCM) so a decrease would be expected for all of these materials at a rate of 5/3 the volume compressibility. Our values for the pnictides tend to be considerably larger than the PCM value as well as the wrong sign. The chalcogenide values are much nearer in magnitude and are of the right sign for the PCM. Contrary to the report of Guertin et al. we see no anomaly in the pressure dependence of the susceptibility of PrS. The fact that PrN which is reported to be non-metallic also shows the wrong sign for the PCM presents difficulties for various conduction electron explanations for this unexpected behavior of the pnictides

  11. Electrical conduction mechanism in GeSeSb chalcogenide glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by melt quenching has been determined at different temperatures in bulk through the I–V characteristic curves ... DC conductivity; chalcogenide glass; Sb–Se bonding; Poole–Frenkel mechanism .... measurements were taken at room temperature as well as ele- .... age across the sample was continuued, the induced thermal.

  12. On the instability effects in radiation-sensitive chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Vakiv, M.

    2007-01-01

    The features of application of radiation-sensitive media based on chalcogenide glasses of As-Ge-S system for registration of high-energy γ-radiation are analysed. It is shown that compositional features of the observed time-instability effect should be taken into account in order to ensure a higher accuracy of the developed dosimeters

  13. On the instability effects in radiation-sensitive chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V. [Lviv State University for Vital Activity Safety, 35 Kleparivska str., Lviv, UA-79007 (Ukraine); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States)], E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua; Vakiv, M. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2007-04-15

    The features of application of radiation-sensitive media based on chalcogenide glasses of As-Ge-S system for registration of high-energy {gamma}-radiation are analysed. It is shown that compositional features of the observed time-instability effect should be taken into account in order to ensure a higher accuracy of the developed dosimeters.

  14. Conductivity in Ag-As-S(Se,Te) chalcogenide glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Kolář, J.; Bartoš, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Wágner, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 181, 37/38 (2010), s. 1625-1630 ISSN 0167-2738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide glasses * ionics conductivity * phase separation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2010

  15. Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phonon dispersion relations in uranium chalcogenides have been investigated using a modified three-body force shell model. From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, on the basis of the spin fluctuation in the heavy fermion uranium compounds, UPt3 and UBe13, the possible ...

  16. 1D - photonic crystals prepared from the amorphous chalcogenide films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Orava, J.; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2009), S346-S350 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference of Optical and Optoelectronic Materials and Applications. London, 29.07.2007-03.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide thin films Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2009

  17. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  18. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) method, has emerged as one of the solution methods to deposit a variety of compound materials in thin film form. The SILAR method is inexpensive, simple and convenient for large area deposition. A variety of substrates such as insulators, ...

  19. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in (Z B, Al, Ga, and In) Heusler alloys ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K H SADEGHI

    2018-01-03

    11], and zincblende (ZB) transition-metal pnictides and chalcogenides [12–17]. Among HM ferromagnets, Heusler alloys are attractive because of their technical applications (in spin-injection devices [18], spin-filters [19], ...

  20. The Effects of Annealing Parameters on the Crystallization and Morphology of Cu(In,GaSe2 Absorber Layers Prepared by Annealing Stacked Metallic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ho Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CIGS films are prepared by single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor. The annealing processes were performed using various Ar pressures, heating rates, and soaking times. A higher Ar pressure is needed to fabricate highly crystalline CIGS films, as no extra Se-vapor source is supplied. As the heating rate increases, the surface morphologies of the CIGS films become looser and some cracks are observed. However, the influence of soaking time is insignificant and the selenization process only requires a short time when the precursors are selenized at a higher temperature with a lower heating rate and a higher Ar pressure. In this study, a dense chalcopyrite CIGS film with a thickness of about 1.5-1.6 μm, with large grains (~1.2 μm and no cracking or peeling is obtained after selenizing at a temperature of 550°C, an Ar pressure of 300 Torr, a heating rate of 60°C/min, and a soaking time of 20 min. By adequate design of the stacked precursor and controlling the annealing parameters, single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor is simplified for the fabrication of a fully crystallized chalcopyrite CIGS absorber layers with good crystallization and large grains.

  1. Synthesis, thermolysis and pyrolysis of group IV metal pinacolates: The impact of a vicinal diol as a supporting ligand for molecular precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Cecilia A.

    In an effort to investigate the suitability of an alternative ligand class for molecular precursors, the following studies were carried out: (1) New zirconium species were obtained by reaction of zirconium isopropoxide alcoholate, Zr2(OiPr)8(HOiPr) 2, with pinacol (HOCMe2CMe2OH). Control of reaction stoichiometries followed by azeotropic distillation of evolved isopropanol led to the successful preparation of a range of homo- and heteroleptic trinuclear species, Zr3(OCMe2CMe2O)2(O iPr)8(HOiPr)2, Zr3(OCMe 2CMe2O)4(OCMe2CMe2OH) 2(OiPr)2, and Zr3(OCMe2CMe 2O)4(OCMe2CMe2OH)4. Dinuclear products could be obtained by carrying out the reactions at room temperature or by addition of excess pinacol (in which case Zr2(OCMe2 CMe2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH) 4 was the product). (2) Similar reactions between Ti(Oi Pr)4 and pinacol gave dinuclear products under all conditions. Both homo- (Ti2(OiPr)2(OCMe2CMe 2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH)2) and heterometallic complexes (Ti2(OCMe2CMe2O) 2(OCMe2CMe2OH)4) were characterized. (3) Controlled addition of water to either of the isolated titanium pinacolates gave Ti3(mu3-O)(OCMe2CMe2O) 4(OCMe2CMe2OH)2. (4) Reaction of zirconium pinacolates with water led to the isolation of Zr4(mu 2-O)(OCMe2CMe2O)4(OCMe2CMe 2OH)6 and Zr6(mu3-O)4(H 2O)2(OCMe2CMe2O)5(OCMe 2CMe2OH)5. 17O NMR studies aided in the investigation of active equilibria and reversibility of hydrolysis. (5) The thermolysis of Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O) 2(OCMe2CMe2OH)4 gave ZrO2 in a mixture of crystalline phases. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the volatiles revealed 4 C6 products as well as two ligand coupled products. Isotope-labeling studies were carried out to probe the mechanisms by which the organic products were formed. (6) Reaction of Zr2(OCMe 2CMe2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH) 4 with Ti(OiPr)4 gives (OiPr) 2TiZr2(OCMe2CMe2O)4(OCMe 2CMe2OH)2 which reacts with a second equivalent of Ti(OiPr)4 to give (OiPr) 4Ti2Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O) 6. (7) Reaction of Li{N(SiMe3)2}·Et 2O or Na{N(SiMe3)2}·x THF with Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O)2(OCMe 2CMe2OH)4

  2. Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Xu, Jing; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of error-free 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing using the Kerr non-linearity of an only 5 cm long chalcogenide glass waveguide chip. Our approach exploits four-wave mixing by the instantaneous nonlinear response of chalcogenide. Excellent performance is achieved with onl...... 2 dB average power penalty and no indication of error-floor. Characterisation of the FWM efficiency for the chalcogenide waveguide is given and confirms the good performance of the device....

  3. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy study of AsS chalcogenide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Dorosz, Dominik; Kudryashov, Mikhail; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Gogova, Daniela; Zelentsov, Sergey; Boryakov, Aleksey; Mashin, Alexandr

    2018-03-15

    AsS chalcogenide films, where As content is 60-40at.%, have been prepared via a RF non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma discharge, using volatile As and S as the precursors. Optical properties of the films were studied in UV-visible-NIR region in the range from 0.2 to 2.5μm. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the elucidation of the molecular structure of the newly developed material. It was established that PECVD films possess a higher degree of transparency (up to 80%) and a wider transparency window (>20μm) in comparison with the "usual" AsS thin films, prepared by different thermal methods, which is highly advantageous for certain applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The structural heterogeneity and optical properties in chalcogenide glass films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurgalin, Max; Fuflyigin, Vladimir N; Anderson, Emilia G

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic structure and optical properties of glassy films prepared by vapour phase deposition process from the germanium-arsenic-selenium family of chalcogenide glasses have been studied. A number of different molecular clusters or domains that can exist in the glass structure are found to play a significant role in determining the absorption characteristics and refractive index of the glass films. Modifications of the glass structure can be described by a variation of relative concentrations of the clusters and can be effected by modifications of film chemical composition and deposition conditions. Changes in absorption spectra are directly correlated with variation in relative concentrations of the structural fragments with different electronic bandgap properties. Experimental results suggest structural heterogeneity and support validity of the cluster structural model for the chalcogenide glasses

  5. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  6. Inverse opal photonic crystal of chalcogenide glass by solution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Tomas; Orava, Jiri; Sawada, Tsutomu; Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    Chalcogenide opal and inverse opal photonic crystals were successfully fabricated by low-cost and low-temperature solution-based process, which is well developed in polymer films processing. Highly ordered silica colloidal crystal films were successfully infilled with nano-colloidal solution of the high refractive index As(30)S(70) chalcogenide glass by using spin-coating method. The silica/As-S opal film was etched in HF acid to dissolve the silica opal template and fabricate the inverse opal As-S photonic crystal. Both, the infilled silica/As-S opal film (Δn ~ 0.84 near λ=770 nm) and the inverse opal As-S photonic structure (Δn ~ 1.26 near λ=660 nm) had significantly enhanced reflectivity values and wider photonic bandgaps in comparison with the silica opal film template (Δn ~ 0.434 near λ=600 nm). The key aspects of opal film preparation by spin-coating of nano-colloidal chalcogenide glass solution are discussed. The solution fabricated "inorganic polymer" opal and the inverse opal structures exceed photonic properties of silica or any organic polymer opal film. The fabricated photonic structures are proposed for designing novel flexible colloidal crystal laser devices, photonic waveguides and chemical sensors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Forced Ion Migration for Chalcogenide Phase Change Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristy A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices with two stacked layers of chalcogenide materials comprising the active memory device have been investigated for their potential as phase-change memories. The devices tested included GeTe/SnTe, Ge2Se3/SnTe, and Ge2Se3/SnSe stacks. All devices exhibited resistance switching behavior. The polarity of the applied voltage with respect to the SnTe or SnSe layer was critical to the memory switching properties, due to the electric field induced movement of either Sn or Te into the Ge-chalcogenide layer. One embodiment of the invention is a device comprising a stack of chalcogenide-containing layers which exhibit phase-change switching only after a reverse polarity voltage potential is applied across the stack causing ion movement into an adjacent layer and thus "activating" the device to act as a phase-change random access memory device or a reconfigurable electronics device when the applied voltage potential is returned to the normal polarity. Another embodiment of the invention is a device that is capable of exhibiting more than two data states.

  8. Chalcogenide glasses as optical and ion-conducting materials. Kogaku oyobi ion dendo zairyo toshite no chalcogenide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toge, N.; Minami, T. (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Nonoxide glasses whose main constituent are chalcogen elements like S, Se, or Te etc. show a lot of various properties, for instance, high infrared transmittancy and semi-conductivity which are already well known. Additionally, the optical properties change a lot along with the phase transition's happening between crystal and noncrystal under comparative low temperature. Further, it is also observed that the glasses containing proper cation appear high ion-conductivity. This paper supplies a brief reviews of chalcogenide glasses used as materials for infrared fiber, phase transition optical memory and superionic conductor, wherein the former two have already on the stage of utilization, particularly the realization of a rewritable optical memory is possible by using chalcogenide glasses film, and ion-conductor is in the phase to have shown the possibility of high conductivity while the development thereof is being expected. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan; Renuga, Velayutham; Manikandan, Ayyar

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  10. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan [Cauvery College for Women, Tamilnadu (India); Renuga, Velayutham [National College, Tamilnadu (India); Manikandan, Ayyar [Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-03-15

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  11. Infrared Emitting and Photoconducting Colloidal Silver Chalcogenide Nanocrystal Quantum Dots from a Silylamide-Promoted Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T.; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Guenter; Heiss, Wolfgang; Hesser, Günter

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region,

  12. Living catalyzed-chain-growth polymerization and block copolymerization of isoprene by rare-earth metal allyl precursors bearing a constrained-geometry-conformation ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhongbao; Cui, Dongmei; Hou, Zhaomin; Li, Xiaofang

    2010-05-07

    Aminophenyl functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligated rare-earth metal allyl mediated cationic systems display high cis-1,4 selectivity for the polymerization of isoprene, and living reversible and rapid chain transfer to aluminium additives.

  13. Synthesis of aluminum oxide by the polymer precursor method (Pechini) in 4: 1 ratio of citric acid: metal cation: calcination temperature effect; Sintese do oxido de aluminio pelo metodo dos precursores polimericos (Pechini) na relacao 4:1 de acido citrico: cation metalico: efeito da temperatura de calcinacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.C.; Lira, H.L.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L., E-mail: mirelecsilva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The technology field is nanopowders prominent in science since these materials fall in various sectors regarding their applications. This work aims at the synthesis of aluminum oxide by polymeric precursors in 4:1 ratio of citric acid:metal cation and evaluate the influence of calcination temperature on their structural and morphological characteristics. The samples after reaction were characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. After calcination 500-1200°C the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and particle size distribution. The results showed that the variation of the calcination temperature is sufficient to achieve a same material with different structural and morphological characteristics. The most stable phase aluminum oxide arose only after calcination at 1100°C, below 900°C, the amorphous material appeared. As regards the morphology, the change was not as significant as compared to the structure. (author)

  14. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  15. Electrical properties of GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition using water and ozone as the oxygen precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Toshiharu; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Egawa, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as an insulator in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures for GaN-based MIS-devices. As the oxygen precursors for the ALD process, water (H2O), ozone (O3), and both H2O and O3 were used. The chemical characteristics of the ALD-Al2O3 surfaces were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After fabrication of MIS-diodes and MIS-high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) with the ALD-Al2O3, their electrical properties were evaluated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The threshold voltage of the C-V curves for MIS-diodes indicated that the fixed charge in the Al2O3 layer is decreased when using both H2O and O3 as the oxygen precursors. Furthermore, MIS-HEMTs with the H2O + O3-based Al2O3 showed good dc I-V characteristics without post-deposition annealing of the ALD-Al2O3, and the drain leakage current in the off-state region was suppressed by seven orders of magnitude.

  16. Synthesis of self-supported non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction with preserved nanostructures from the polyaniline nanofiber precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Xiao; Huang, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are an active subject of recent research on proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this study, we report a new approach to preparation of self-supported and nano-structured NPMCs using pre-prepared polyaniline (PANI...

  17. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200-400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  18. Investigations on the parent compounds of Fe-chalcogenide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz, Cevriye

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the parent compounds of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors. For this purpose poly- and single-crystalline forms of tetragonal β-Fe x Se, Fe 1+y Te, Fe 1+y Te 1-x Se x and Fe (1+y)-x M x Te (M = Ni, Co) have been prepared. Second focal points of this study are the low-temperature structural phase transitions and physical property changes in tetragonal Fe 1+y Te which are induced by composition, external pressure, and cationic substitution.

  19. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kozyukhin, S. A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Ingram, A.; Szatanik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using As 2 S 3 and AsS 2 glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models

  20. Reversibility windows in selenide-based chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Hyla, M.; Boyko, V.; Golovchak, R.

    2008-01-01

    A simple route for the estimation of the reversibility windows in the sense of non-ageing ability is developed for chalcogenide glasses obeying '8-N' rule at the example of As-Se, Ge-Se and Ge-As-Se glass systems. The low limit of their reversibility windows is determined at the average coordination number Z=2.4 in full agreement with rigidity percolation theory, while the upper limit is shown to be related to the glass preparation conditions and samples prehistory

  1. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Kozyukhin, S. A., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Shpotyuk, M. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Ingram, A. [Opole Technical University (Poland); Szatanik, R. [Opole University (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Using As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsS{sub 2} glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models.

  2. Reversibility windows in selenide-based chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL 42200 (Poland); Hyla, M. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL 42200 (Poland); Boyko, V. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv National Polytechnic University, 12, Bandera Street, Lviv, UA 79013 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine)], E-mail: golovchak@novas.lviv.ua

    2008-10-01

    A simple route for the estimation of the reversibility windows in the sense of non-ageing ability is developed for chalcogenide glasses obeying '8-N' rule at the example of As-Se, Ge-Se and Ge-As-Se glass systems. The low limit of their reversibility windows is determined at the average coordination number Z=2.4 in full agreement with rigidity percolation theory, while the upper limit is shown to be related to the glass preparation conditions and samples prehistory.

  3. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  4. Rare earth metal bis(amide) complexes bearing amidinate ancillary ligands: synthesis, characterization, and performance as catalyst precursors for cis-1,4 selective polymerization of isoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunjie; Fan, Shimin; Yang, Jianping; Fang, Jianghua; Xu, Ping

    2011-03-28

    A family of rare earth metal bis(amide) complexes bearing monoanionic amidinate [RC(N-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(2)](-) (R = cyclohexyl (Cy), phenyl (Ph)) as ancillary ligands were synthesized and characterized. One-pot salt metathesis reaction of anhydrous LnCl(3) with one equivalent of amidinate lithium [RC(N-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(2)]Li, following the introduction of two equivalents of NaN(SiMe(3))(2) in THF at room temperature afforded the neutral and unsolvated mono(amidinate) rare earth metal bis(amide) complexes [RC(N-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(2)]Y[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) (R = Cy (1); R = Ph (2)), and the "ate" mono(amidinate) rare earth metal bis(amide) complex [CyC(N-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(2)]Lu[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) (3) in 61-72% isolated yields. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal structural determination revealed that the central metal in complexes 1 and 2 adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry, and in complex 3 forms a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In the presence of AlMe(3), and in combination with one equimolar amount of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], complexes 1 and 2 showed high activity towards isoprene polymerization to give high molecular weight polyisoprene (M(n) > 10(4)) with good cis-1,4 selectivity (>90%).

  5. Molecular Control of the Nanoscale: Effect of Phosphine–Chalcogenide Reactivity on CdS–CdSe Nanocrystal Composition and Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberu, T. Purnima A.; Albright, Haley R.; Callis, Brandon; Ward, Brittney; Cisneros, Joana; Fan, Hua-Jun; Vela, Javier

    2012-04-22

    We demonstrate molecular control of nanoscale composition, alloying, and morphology (aspect ratio) in CdS–CdSe nanocrystal dots and rods by modulating the chemical reactivity of phosphine–chalcogenide precursors. Specific molecular precursors studied were sulfides and selenides of triphenylphosphite (TPP), diphenylpropylphosphine (DPP), tributylphosphine (TBP), trioctylphosphine (TOP), and hexaethylphosphorustriamide (HPT). Computational (DFT), NMR (31P and 77Se), and high-temperature crossover studies unambiguously confirm a chemical bonding interaction between phosphorus and chalcogen atoms in all precursors. Phosphine–chalcogenide precursor reactivity increases in the order: TPPE < DPPE < TBPE < TOPE < HPTE (E = S, Se). For a given phosphine, the selenide is always more reactive than the sulfide. CdS1–xSex quantum dots were synthesized via single injection of a R3PS–R3PSe mixture to cadmium oleate at 250 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV/Vis and PL optical spectroscopy reveal that relative R3PS and R3PSe reactivity dictates CdS1–xSex dot chalcogen content and the extent of radial alloying (alloys vs core/shells). CdS, CdSe, and CdS1–xSex quantum rods were synthesized by injection of a single R3PE (E = S or Se) precursor or a R3PS–R3PSe mixture to cadmium–phosphonate at 320 or 250 °C. XRD and TEM reveal that the length-to-diameter aspect ratio of CdS and CdSe nanorods is inversely proportional to R3PE precursor reactivity. Purposely matching or mismatching R3PS–R3PSe precursor reactivity leads to CdS1–xSex nanorods without or with axial composition gradients, respectively. We expect these observations will lead to scalable and highly predictable “bottom-up” programmed syntheses of finely heterostructured nanomaterials with well-defined architectures and properties that are tailored for precise applications.

  6. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  7. gem-Difluoroolefination of Diazo Compounds with TMSCF3 or TMSCF2Br: Transition-Metal-Free Cross-Coupling of Two Carbene Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyou; Ni, Chuanfa; Li, Lingchun; Han, Yongxin; Hu, Jinbo

    2015-11-18

    A new olefination protocol for transition-metal-free cross-coupling of two carbene fragments arising from two different sources, namely, a nonfluorinated carbene fragment resulting from a diazo compound and a difluorocarbene fragment derived from Ruppert-Prakash reagent (TMSCF3) or TMSCF2Br, has been developed. This gem-difluoroolefination proceeds through the direct nucleophilic addition of diazo compounds to difluorocarbene followed by elimination of N2. Compared to previously reported Cu-catalyzed gem-difluoroolefination of diazo compounds with TMSCF3, which possesses a narrow substrate scope due to a demanding requirement on the reactivity of diazo compounds and in-situ-generated CuCF3, this transition-metal-free protocol affords a general and efficient approach to various disubstituted 1,1-difluoroalkenes, including difluoroacrylates, diaryldifluoroolefins, as well as arylalkyldifluoroolefins. In view of the ready availability of diazo compounds and difluorocarbene reagents and versatile transformations of 1,1-difluoroalkenes, this new gem-difluoroolefination method is expected to find wide applications in organic synthesis.

  8. Synthesis of Alkanethiolate-Capped Metal Nanoparticles Using Alkyl Thiosulfate Ligand Precursors: A Method to Generate Promising Reagents for Selective Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Aye San

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of metal nanoparticle catalysts functionalized with well-defined thiolate ligands can be potentially important because such systems can provide a spatial control in the reactivity and selectivity of catalysts. A synthetic method utilizing Bunte salts (sodium S-alkylthiosulfates allows the formation of metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Ir capped with alkanethiolate ligands. The catalysis studies on Pd nanoparticles show a strong correlation between the surface ligand structure/composition and the catalytic activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation/isomerization of alkenes, dienes, trienes, and allylic alcohols. The high selectivity of Pd nanoparticles is driven by the controlled electronic properties of the Pd surface limiting the formation of Pd–alkene adducts (or intermediates necessary for (additional hydrogenation. The synthesis of water soluble Pd nanoparticles using ω-carboxylate-S-alkanethiosulfate salts is successfully achieved and these Pd nanoparticles are examined for the hydrogenation of various unsaturated compounds in both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Alkanethiolate-capped Pt nanoparticles are also successfully synthesized and further investigated for the hydrogenation of various alkynes to understand their geometric and electronic surface properties. The high catalytic activity of activated terminal alkynes, but the significantly low activity of internal alkynes and unactivated terminal alkynes, are observed for Pt nanoparticles.

  9. Open-framework micro- and meso-structured chalcogenides and their ion exchange properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan

    2007-12-01

    Micro- and meso- structured chalcogenides with open inorganic framework have driven tremendous attention and intense work during the last two decades. They belong to a special category of materials possessing multifunctional potential due to their large void space within the atomic skeletons and the novel physical properties brought by the chalcogen elements. The latter are not generally present in typical open-framework oxides. In addition, because of the different size and electronegativity of the chalcogen elements compared to oxygen, many new structural properties were expected to emerge when the work in this dissertation was undertaken. The major body of this work involves group 13 (e.g. Ga, In) or 14 (e.g. Ge, Sn) elements with chalcogen. Transition metals also are incorporated in a few examples. The first two groups of compounds reported belong to the latter case. Unique structure types have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions via the combination of M (M = Zn, Cd), Sn and Q (Q = S, Se) to build microporous A6M4Sn3Q13 (A = K, Rb) based on truncated penta-supertrahedral cluster [M4Sn4Q 17]10-. More surprisingly, the protonation of K 6Cd4Sn3Se13 led to another new compound K14Cd15Sn12Se46 which possesses a labyrinth-like void space within the compact [Cd15Sn12Se 46]14- anionic skeleton. This structural characteristic leads to an unusual stability of the compound in acid. Both the K6Cd 4Sn3Se13 and K14Cd15Sn 12Se46 are fast ion-exchangers and their K+ ions can be replaced by other alkali metal cations and even H+ for the latter. Other work reported was aimed at the heavier analogs of alumiophosphate, i.e. the open-frameworks based on group 13 (Ga, In), 15 (Sb) and chalcogen elements. Two groups of chalcoantimonates with two-dimensional architectures [M5Sb6S19]5- and polymorphic [M2Sb2Q7]2- (M = Ga, In; Q = S, Se) were obtained. With the help of bulky organic structure-directing agents, large windows were formed in some of these anionic slabs. The windows

  10. Time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon through a linear array of metal nanoparticles: Precursor and normal mode contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaijen, P. J.; Malyshev, V. A.; Knoester, J.

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon excitation through a linear array of identical and equidistantly spaced metal nanoparticles. Two different signals propagating through the array are found: one traveling with the group velocity of the surface plasmon polaritons of the system and damped exponentially, and the other running with the speed of light and decaying in a power-law fashion, as x-1 and x-2 for the transversal and longitudinal polarizations, respectively. The latter resembles the Sommerfeld-Brillouin forerunner and has not been identified in previous studies. The contribution of this signal dominates the plasmon transport at large distances. In addition, even though this signal is spread in the propagation direction and has the lateral dimension larger than the wavelength, the field profile close to the chain axis does not change with distance, indicating that this part of the signal is confined to the array.

  11. Synthesis of quaternary chalcogenide CZTS nanoparticles by a hydrothermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Sa, K.; Mahakul, P. C.; Raiguru, J.; Alam, I.; Subramanyam, BVRS; Mahanandia, P.

    2018-03-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has emerged as a potential absorber towards inorganic photovoltaic device application for its outstanding properties like non toxicity, earth abundancy nature, optimal band gap matched with solar spectrum (1.45- 1.65eV), high absorption coefficient (104cm‑1). Here, a low cost, environment friendly facile hydrothermal route to synthesize phase pure CZTS nanoparticles using Cu (II), Zn (II), Sn (II) inorganic metal salts and thiourea as Sulphur source in distilled water solution as precursor is reported. The as synthesized samples characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN confirmed structure and phase of CZTS nanocrystals. The morphology of the prepared CZTS have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size is found in the range 4-5 nm with crystalline nature have been characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical band gap of the as prepared samples is calculated to be 1.65eV from UV-Visible analysis which proves it can be used towards photovoltaic applications.

  12. Low-temperature synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of self-dopant LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles from a metal-organic polymeric precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Lone, Irfan H.; Ubaidullah, Mohd. [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Coolhan, Kelsey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Monophasic and highly crystalline Self-dopant LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles (72 nm) have been successfully synthesized at low temperature (773 K) by metal citrate complex method based on Pechini-type reaction route which showed ferromagnetic interaction. Surface areas of LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles were found to be 157.4 and 153 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} for the samples annealed at 773 K and 1173 K, respectively. - Highlights: • Self-dopant LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles using Pechini-type reaction route at 773 K. • Size range varies from 72 to 80 nm. • Surface area varies from 153 to 157 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • Extensive characterization using sophisticated techniques. - Abstract: Self-dopant LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by metal citrate complex method based on Pechini-type reaction route, at low temperature (773 K). Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope revealed pure and nanostructured phase of LaMnO{sub 3+δ} (δ = 0.125) with an average grain size of ∼72 nm (773 K) and ∼80 nm (1173 K). DC-magnetization measurements under an applied magnetic field of H = ±60 kOe showed an increase in the magnetization with the increase of calcination temperature. Ferromagnetic nature shown by non-stoichiometric LaMnO{sub 3+δ} was verified by well-defined hysteresis loop with large remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercive field (H{sub c}). Surface areas of LaMnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles were found to be 157.4 and 153 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} for the samples annealed at 773 K and 1173 K, respectively.

  13. Infrared waveguide fabrications with an E-beam evaporated chalcogenide glass film

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-12-12

    Chalcogenide glasses have a variety of unique optical properties due to the intrinsic structural flexibility and bonds metastability. They are desirable materials for many applications, such as infrared communication sensors, holographic grating, optical imaging, and ultrafast nonlinear optic devices. Here, we introduce a novel electron-beam evaporation process to deposit the good quality arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) films and then the As2S3 films were used to fabricate the As2S3 waveguides with three approaches. The first method is photoresist lift-off. Because of the restriction of thermal budget of photoresist, the As2S3 film must be deposited at the room temperature. The second one is the silicon dioxide lift-off process on sapphire substrates, in which the As2S3 film could be evaporated at a high temperature (>180 °C) for better film quality. The third one is the plasma etching process with a metal protective thin layer in the pattern development process.

  14. New Trends in Amplifiers and Sources via Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mescia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glass fiber lasers and amplifiers have great applicative potential in many fields since they are key elements in the near and medium-infrared (mid-IR wavelength range. In this paper, a review, even if not exhaustive, on amplification and lasing obtained by employing rare-earth-doped chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers is reported. Materials, devices, and feasible applications in the mid-IR are briefly mentioned.

  15. Modulation-instability biosensing using an As2S3 chalcogenide tapered fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an experimentally feasible biosensor design based on As2S3 chalcogenide tapered fiber. Pumping the fiber close to 1064 nm, a record sensitivity up to ~18 nm/nm was predicted.......We demonstrate an experimentally feasible biosensor design based on As2S3 chalcogenide tapered fiber. Pumping the fiber close to 1064 nm, a record sensitivity up to ~18 nm/nm was predicted....

  16. Visible-active photocatalytic behaviors observed in nanostructured lead chalcogenides PbX (X = S, Se, Te)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Li-Na; Wang, H.C.; Shen, Y.; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured lead chalcogenides (PbX, X = Te, Se, S) were prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. The powder samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, SAED and DRS. Phase composition and microstructure analysis indicate that these samples are pure lead chalcogenides phases and have similar morphologies. These lead chalcogenides display efficient absorption in the UV-visible light range. The photocatalytic properties of lead chalcogenides nanoparticles were evaluated by the photodegradation of Congo red under UV-visible light irradiation in air atmosphere. The Congo red solution can be efficiently degraded under visible light in the presence of lead chalcogenides nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of lead chalcogenides generally increase with increasing their band gaps and shows no appreciable loss after repeated cycles. Our results may be useful for developing new photocatalyst systems responsive to visible light among narrow band gap semiconductors

  17. Chalcogenide phase-change thin films used as grayscale photolithography materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wei, Jingsong; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-03-10

    Chalcogenide phase-change thin films are used in many fields, such as optical information storage and solid-state memory. In this work, we present another application of chalcogenide phase-change thin films, i.e., as grayscale photolithgraphy materials. The grayscale patterns can be directly inscribed on the chalcogenide phase-change thin films by a single process through direct laser writing method. In grayscale photolithography, the laser pulse can induce the formation of bump structure, and the bump height and size can be precisely controlled by changing laser energy. Bumps with different height and size present different optical reflection and transmission spectra, leading to the different gray levels. For example, the continuous-tone grayscale images of lifelike bird and cat are successfully inscribed onto Sb(2)Te(3) chalcogenide phase-change thin films using a home-built laser direct writer, where the expression and appearance of the lifelike bird and cat are fully presented. This work provides a way to fabricate complicated grayscale patterns using laser-induced bump structures onto chalcogenide phase-change thin films, different from current techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography. The ability to form grayscale patterns of chalcogenide phase-change thin films reveals many potential applications in high-resolution optical images for micro/nano image storage, microartworks, and grayscale photomasks.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-structured Zinc(II)-based metal-organic frameworks as precursors for the synthesis of ZnO nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Fahime; Ghasempour, Hosein; Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A 3D, porous Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)]·(DMF) 1.5 } n (TMU-21), (4-bpmn=N,N'-Bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-naphtalene-1,5-diamine, H 2 oba=4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) with nano-rods morphology under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Sonication time and concentration of initial reagents effects on the size and morphology of nano-structured MOFs were studied. Also {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)] (TMU-21) and {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmb)] (TMU-6), 4-bpmb=N,N'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)methanimine) were easily prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained by calcination of these compounds and their de-solvated analogue as activated MOFs, at 550°C under air atmosphere. As a result of that, different Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Barrierless growth of precursor-free, ultrafast laser-fragmented noble metal nanoparticles by colloidal atom clusters - A kinetic in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzej, Sandra; Gökce, Bilal; Amendola, Vincenzo; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Unintended post-synthesis growth of noble metal colloids caused by excess amounts of reactants or highly reactive atom clusters represents a fundamental problem in colloidal chemistry, affecting product stability or purity. Hence, quantified kinetics could allow defining nanoparticle size determination in dependence of the time. Here, we investigate in situ the growth kinetics of ps pulsed laser-fragmented platinum nanoparticles in presence of naked atom clusters in water without any influence of reducing agents or surfactants. The nanoparticle growth is investigated for platinum covering a time scale of minutes to 50days after nanoparticle generation, it is also supplemented by results obtained from gold and palladium. Since a minimum atom cluster concentration is exceeded, a significant growth is determined by time resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy, analytical disc centrifugation, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. We suggest a decrease of atom cluster concentration over time, since nanoparticles grow at the expense of atom clusters. The growth mechanism during early phase (<1day) of laser-synthesized colloid is kinetically modeled by rapid barrierless coalescence. The prolonged slow nanoparticle growth is kinetically modeled by a combination of coalescence and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner kinetic for Ostwald ripening, validated experimentally by the temperature dependence of Pt nanoparticle size and growth quenching by Iodide anions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Process for producing ceramic nitrides anc carbonitrides and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G.M.; Maya, L.

    1987-02-25

    A process for preparing ceramic nitrides and carbon nitrides in the form of very pure, fine particulate powder. Appropriate precursors is prepared by reaching a transition metal alkylamide with ammonia to produce a mixture of metal amide and metal imide in the form of an easily pyrolyzable precipitate.

  1. Microbial synthesis of chalcogenide semiconductor nanoparticles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jaya Mary; Lens, Piet N L; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as promising nanomaterials due to their size tunable optoelectronic properties. The commercial synthesis and their subsequent integration for practical uses have, however, been contorted largely due to the toxicity and cost issues associated with the present chemical synthesis protocols. Accordingly, there is an immediate need to develop alternative environment-friendly synthesis procedures. Microbial factories hold immense potential to achieve this objective. Over the past few years, bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been experimented with as eco-friendly and cost-effective tools for the biosynthesis of semiconductor quantum dots. This review provides a detailed overview about the production of chalcogen-based semiconductor quantum particles using the inherent microbial machinery. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on iron-chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletz, Janek; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr; Evtushinsky, Daniil; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Wolter-Giraud, Anja; Harnagea, Luminita; Kordyuk, Alexander; Borisenko, Sergey [IFW Dresden (Germany); Yaresko, Alexander [MPI-FKF, Stuttgart (Germany); Vasiliev, Alexander [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Chareev, Dimitri [RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Rienks, Emile [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Shermadini, Zurab; Luetkens, Hubertus; Sedlak, Kamil; Khasanov, Rustem; Amato, Alex; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Conder, Kazimierz; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Klauss, Hans-Henning [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The electronic structure of the iron chalcogenide superconductors FeSe{sub 1-x} and Rb{sub 0.77}Fe{sub 1.61}Se{sub 2} was investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The results were compared to DFT calculations and μSR measurements. Both compounds share ''cigar-shaped'' Fermi surface sheets in their electronic structure, that can be found in almost all iron-pnictide superconductors. These features originate from a strong interplay of two hole- and electron-like bands in the Brillouin zone center, leading to a pronounced singularity in the density of states just below the Fermi level. This facilitates the coupling to a bosonic mode responsible for superconductivity.

  3. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  4. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waal's forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have

  5. Zinc Antimonides and Copper Chalcogenides as Thermoelectric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    2017-01-01

    , and linked with the physical properties. The materials crystallography approach, relating physical properties with a structural understating, has been applied in this thesis for two highly interesting materials systems, zinc antimonides and copper chalcogenides. Both of these systems are high profiled....... The preparation parameters used, have a large influence on the homogeneity of the products, and new electric phases were identified and studied for ZnSb. For the samples prepared by physical vapor deposition, the growth takes place under non-thermodynamic conditions, making it possible to access kinetically...... intensity X-ray radiation at large international facilities, making it possible to measure pair distribution function data directly on thin-film samples in a normal incident setup, termed tfPDF. The tfPDF method was demonstrated on the iron antimony system. tfPDF was developed even further to include...

  6. Radionuclides in diffusion probing of inorganic materials based on chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, L.P.

    1994-01-01

    Migration of tellurium-125m, selenium-75, sulfur-35 radionuclides in solid solutions Pb 1-y (Se 0.08 Te 0.92 ) y and (Pb 1-x Sn x ) y Te 1-y , where x=0.1 and 0.2, has been studied, the results are presented. Data on dependence of selenium and tellurium self-diffusion coefficients on temperature in the range of 600-750 deg C are given. The results of the study of self-diffusion coefficient isothermal dependences on lead and tellurium vapour pressure in equilibrium with solid phases have been considered. It is ascertained that a change in the temperature and p-n transitions initiate the change in self-diffusion mechanisms of chalcogenide atoms. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Diffusion of 64Cu in copper-containing chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.G.; Bychkov, E.A.; Bolotov, A.M.; Tsegel'nik, V.S.; Gavrilov, Yu.A.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion experiments with 64 Cu radioactive tracer for a number of copper-containing chalcogenide glasses CuI-As 2 Se 3 , Cu-SbI 3 -As 2 Se 3 , CuI-PbI 2 -As 2 Se 3 , CuI-PbI 2 -SbI 3 -As 2 Se 3 and Cu 2 Se-As 2 Se 3 are carried out for the first time. The results of diffusion and electrodiffusion measurements are in correspondence with information on electroconductivity and diffusion in a limited space (cage diffusion) from the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 124 I. It is shown for the first time that the Cheivin factor index for copper-conducting glasses in by 2-3 times higher as compared to silver-conducting glasses with approximate diffusion coefficients indices. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Structural phase transition and elastic properties of mercury chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shriya, S. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Departement de Technologie, Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)

    2012-08-15

    Pressure induced structural transition and elastic properties of ZnS-type (B3) to NaCl-type (B1) structure in mercury chalcogenides (HgX; X = S, Se and Te) are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP) with long-range Coulomb, as well charge transfer interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbor ions and van der Waals interactions are considered. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the pressure dependent Poisson's ratio {nu}, the ratio R{sub BT/G} of B (bulk modulus) over G (shear modulus), anisotropy parameter, Shear and Young's modulus, Lame constant, Kleinman parameter, elastic wave velocity and thermodynamical property as Debye temperature. The Poisson's ratio behavior infers that Mercury chalcogenides are brittle in nature. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of elastic and thermodynamical properties explicitly the ductile (brittle) nature of HgX and still awaits experimental confirmations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vast volume discontinuity in phase diagram infers transition from ZnS to NaCl structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shear elastic constant C{sub 44} is nonzero confirms the mechanical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure dependence of {theta}{sub D} infers the softening of lattice with increasing pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated bulk, shear and tetragonal moduli satisfied elastic stability criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In both B3 and B1 phases, C{sub 11} and C{sub 12} increase linearly with pressure.

  9. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  10. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  11. Preparation of thin films, with base to precursor materials of type Cu-In-Se elaborated by electrodeposition for the solar cells elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide compounds are promising because they have excellent optoelectronic characteristics to be applied in solar cells. In particular, CuInSe 2 and Cd Te thin films have shown high solar to electrical conversion efficiency. However, this efficiency is limited by the method of preparation, in this case, physical vapor deposition techniques are used. In order to increase the area of deposition t is necessary to use chemical methods, for example, electrodeposition technique. In this paper, the preparation of Cu-In-Se precursors thin films by electrochemical method is reported. These precursors were used to build solar cells with 7.9 % of efficiency. (Author)

  12. Engineering of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for carrier multiplication: Core/shell, 1D, and 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianglu

    Near infrared emitting semiconductors have been used widely in industry especially in solar-cell fabrications. The efficiency of single junction solar-cell can reach the Shockley-Queisser limit by using optimum band gap material such as silicon and cadmium telluride. The theoretical efficiency can be further enhanced through carrier multiplication, in which a high energy photon is absorbed and more than one electron-hole pair can be generated, reaching more than 100% quantum efficiency in the high energy region of sunlight. The realization of more than unity external quantum efficiency in lead selenide quantum dots solar cell has motivated vast investigation on lowering the carrier multiplication threshold and further improving the efficiency. This dissertation focuses on synthesis of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for their optical spectroscopy studies. PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots were synthesized by cation exchange to obtain thick shells (up to 14 monolayers) for studies of visible and near infrared dual band emissions and carrier multiplication efficiency. By examining the reaction mechanism, a thermodynamic and a kinetic model are introduced to explain the vacancy driven cation exchange. As indicated by the effective mass model, PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots has quasi-type-II band alignment, possessing electron delocalized through the entire quantum dot and hole localized in the core, which breaks down the symmetry of energy levels in the conduction and valence band, leading to hot-hole-assisted efficient multi-exciton generation and a lower carrier multiplication threshold to the theoretical value. For further investigation of carrier multiplication study, PbTe, possessing the highest efficiency among lead chalcogenides due to slow intraband cooling, is synthesized in one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures. By using dodecanethiol as the surfactant, PbTe NRs can be prepared with high uniformity in width and resulted in fine quantum

  13. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  14. Similarity in the superconducting properties of chalcogenides, cuprate oxides and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsendin, K.D.; Popov, B.P.; Denisov, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of Anderson pairs has been put forward for explanation of many extraordinary properties of chalcogenides glassy semiconductors. Recent decades made obvious that these pairs localized on the centers with negative effective correlation energy (negative-U centers) really exist in chalcogenides. If the concentration of negative-U centers is enough to create the pair band states, this can lead to superconductivity because Anderson pairs are Bose particles. In the present paper we show that several puzzling superconductivity properties of chalcogenides, high-temperature cuprate superconductors and fullerides are similar for these three groups of materials and can be naturally explained in the frame of negative-U centers model of superconductivity

  15. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Rao, Ashutosh [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Fathpour, Sasan, E-mail: fathpour@creol.ucf.edu [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    A chlorine plasma etching-based method for the fabrication of high-performance chalcogenide-based integrated photonics on silicon substrates is presented. By optimizing the etching conditions, chlorine plasma is employed to produce extremely low-roughness etched sidewalls on waveguides with minimal penalty to propagation loss. Using this fabrication method, microring resonators with record-high intrinsic Q-factors as high as 450 000 and a corresponding propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB/cm are demonstrated in submicron chalcogenide waveguides. Furthermore, the developed chlorine plasma etching process is utilized to demonstrate fiber-to-waveguide grating couplers in chalcogenide photonics with high power coupling efficiency of 37% for transverse-electric polarized modes.

  16. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Rao, Ashutosh; Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen; Fathpour, Sasan

    2015-01-01

    A chlorine plasma etching-based method for the fabrication of high-performance chalcogenide-based integrated photonics on silicon substrates is presented. By optimizing the etching conditions, chlorine plasma is employed to produce extremely low-roughness etched sidewalls on waveguides with minimal penalty to propagation loss. Using this fabrication method, microring resonators with record-high intrinsic Q-factors as high as 450 000 and a corresponding propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB/cm are demonstrated in submicron chalcogenide waveguides. Furthermore, the developed chlorine plasma etching process is utilized to demonstrate fiber-to-waveguide grating couplers in chalcogenide photonics with high power coupling efficiency of 37% for transverse-electric polarized modes

  17. Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Ponader, C.W.; Aitken, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The coordination environments of Ge and As atoms in Ge x As y S 1-x-y glasses with x:y=1:2, 1:1, and 2.5:1 and with wide-ranging S contents have been studied with Ge and As K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The coordination numbers of Ge and As atoms are found to be 4 and 3, respectively, in all glasses. The first coordination shells of Ge and As atoms in the stoichiometric and S-excess glasses consist of S atoms only, implying the preservation of chemical order at least over the length scale of the first coordination shell. As-As homopolar bonds are found to appear at low and intermediate levels of S deficiency, whereas Ge-Ge bonds are formed only in strongly S-deficient glasses indicating clustering of metal atoms and violation of chemical order in S-deficient glasses. The composition-dependent variation in chemical order in chalcogenide glasses has been hypothesized to result in topological changes in the intermediate-range structural units. The role of such topological transitions in controlling the structure-property relationships in chalcogenide glasses is discussed

  18. Theoretical prediction of the structural properties of uranium chalcogenides under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shilpa; Yaduvanshi, Namrata; Singh, Sadhna

    2018-05-01

    Uranium chalcogenides crystallize in rock salt structure at normal condition and transform to Cesium Chloride structure at high pressure. We have investigated the transition pressure and volume drop of USe and UTe using three body potential model (TBIP). Present model includes long range Columbic, three body interaction forces and short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors. We have reported the phase transition pressure, relative volume collapses, the thermo physical properties such as molecular force constant (f), infrared absorption frequency (v0), Debye temperature (θD) and Gruneisen parameter (γ) of present chalcogenides and found that our results in general good agreement with experimental and other theoretical data.

  19. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source.......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  20. Fabrication and characterization of on-chip optical nonlinear chalcogenide nanofiber devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiming; Li, Ming; Hao, Qiang; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhou, Hui; Zeng, Heping; Zhan, Li; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2010-11-15

    Chalcogenide (As(2)S(3)) nanofibers as narrow as 200 nm in diameter are drawn by the fiber pulling method, are successfully embedded in SU8 polymer, and form on-chip waveguides and high-Q microknot resonators (Q = 3.9 × 10(4)) with smooth cleaved end faces. Resonance tuning of resonators is realized by localized laser irradiation. Strong supercontinuum generation with a bandwidth of 500 nm is achieved in a 7-cm-long on-chip chalcogenide waveguide. Our result provides a method for the development of compact, high-optical-quality, and robust photonic devices.

  1. Homogeneity and internal defects detect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zupana; Wu, Ligang; Lin, Changgui; Song, Bao'an; Wang, Xunsi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixunb

    2011-10-01

    Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses is a kind of excellent infrared optical material, which has been enviromental friendly and widely used in infrared thermal imaging systems. However, due to the opaque feature of Se-based glasses in visible spectral region, it's difficult to measure their homogeneity and internal defect as the common oxide ones. In this study, a measurement was proposed to observe the homogeneity and internal defect of these glasses based on near-IR imaging technique and an effective measurement system was also constructed. The testing result indicated the method can gives the information of homogeneity and internal defect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass clearly and intuitionally.

  2. An overview of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M K; Wen, Y C; Chen, T K; Chang, C C; Wu, P M; Wang, M J; Lin, P H; Lee, W C

    2015-01-01

    This review intends to summarize recent advancements in FeSe and related systems. The FeSe and related superconductors are currently receiving considerable attention for the high critical temperature (T C ) observed and for many similar features to the high T C cuprate superconductors. These similarities suggest that understanding the FeSe-based compounds could potentially help our understanding of the cuprates. We begin the review by presenting common features observed in the FeSe- and FeAs-based systems. Then we discuss the importance of careful control of the material preparation allowing for a systematic structure characterization. With this control, numerous rich phases have been observed. Importantly, we suggest that the Fe-vacancy ordered phases found in the FeSe-based compounds, which are non-superconducting magnetic Mott insulators, are the parent compounds of the superconductors. Superconductivity can emerge from the parent phases by disordering the Fe vacancy order, often by a simple annealing treatment. Then we review physical properties of the Fe chalcogenides, specifically the optical properties and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. From the literature, strong evidence points to the existence of orbital modification accompanied by a gap-opening, prior to the structural phase transition, which is closely related to the occurrence of superconductivity. Furthermore, strong lattice to spin coupling are important for the occurrence of superconductivity in FeSe. Therefore, it is believed that the iron selenides and related compounds will provide essential information to understand the origin of superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors, and possibly the superconducting cuprates. (topical review)

  3. Mid-infrared performance of single mode chalcogenide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Justin; Sincore, Alex; Tan, Felix; El Halawany, Ahmed; Riggins, Anthony; Shah, Lawrence; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Schepler, Kenneth L.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the intrinsic absorption edge in silica near 2.4 μm, more exotic materials are required to transmit laser power in the IR such as fluoride or chalcogenide glasses (ChGs). In particular, ChG fibers offer broad IR transmission with low losses fibers at four different infrared wavelengths: 2053 nm, 2520 nm and 4550 nm. Polymer clad ChG fibers were drawn with 12.3 μm and 25 μm core diameters. Testing at 2053 nm was accomplished using a > 15 W, CW Tm:fiber laser. Power handling up to 10.2 W with single mode beam quality has been demonstrated, limited only by the available Tm:fiber output power. Anti-reflective coatings were successfully deposited on the ChG fiber facets, allowing up to 90.6% transmission with 12.2 MW/cm2 intensity on the facet. Single mode guidance at 4550 nm was also demonstrated using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). A custom optical system was constructed to efficiently couple the 0.8 NA QCL radiation into the 0.2 NA ChG fiber, allowing for a maximum of 78% overlap between the QCL radiation and fundamental mode of the fiber. With an AR-coated, 25 μm core diameter fiber, >50 mW transmission was demonstrated with > 87% transmission. Finally, we present results on fiber coupling from a free space Cr:ZnSe resonator at 2520 nm.

  4. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  5. Thermo-chemical properties and electrical resistivity of Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schlechte, R. Niewa, M. Schmidt, G. Auffermann, Yu. Prots, W. Schnelle, D. Gnida, T. Cichorek, F. Steglich and R. Kniep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary phases in the systems Zr–As–Se and Zr–As–Te were studied using single crystals of ZrAs1.40(1Se0.50(1 and ZrAs1.60(2Te0.40(1 (PbFCl-type of structure, space group P4/nmm as well as ZrAs0.70(1Se1.30(1 and ZrAs0.75(1Te1.25(1 (NbPS-type of structure, space group Immm. The characterization covers chemical compositions, crystal structures, homogeneity ranges and electrical resistivities. At 1223 K, the Te-containing phases can be described with the general formula ZrAsxTe2−x, with 1.53(1≤x≤1.65(1 (As-rich and 0.58(1≤x≤0.75(1 (Te-rich. Both phases are located directly on the tie-line between ZrAs2 and ZrTe2, with no indication for any deviation. Similar is true for the Se-rich phase ZrAsxSe2−x with 0.70(1≤x≤0.75(1. However, the compositional range of the respective As-rich phase ZrAsx−ySe2−x (0.03(1≤y≤0.10(1; 1.42(1≤x≤1.70(1 is not located on the tie-line ZrAs2–ZrSe2, and exhibits a triangular region of existence with intrinsic deviation of the composition towards lower non-metal contents. Except for ZrAs0.75Se1.25, from the homogeneity range of the Se-rich phase, all compounds under investigation show metallic characteristics of electrical resistivity at temperatures >20 K. Related uranium and thorium arsenide selenides display a typical magnetic field-independent rise of the resistivity towards lower temperatures, which has been explained by a non-magnetic Kondo effect. However, a similar observation has been made for ZrAs1.40Se0.50, which, among the Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides, is the only system with a large concentration of intrinsic defects in the anionic substructure.

  6. Effect of pressure on the crystal field splitting in rare earth pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Weaver, H.T.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental situation for the pressure dependence of the crystal field of praseodymium pnictides and chalcogenides is reviewed and compared with the predictions of the point charge model. The problem of separating exchange and crystal field contributions from the measured NMR frequency shift or susceptibility measurements is discussed as well as problems explaining these effects with conduction electron related models

  7. THz waveguides, devices and hybrid polymer-chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our recent activities in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer THz waveguides. Besides the THz waveguides, we finally will also briefly show some of our initial results on a novel hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide...

  8. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.

    1997-01-01

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author)

  9. Diffusion of Ag ions under random potential barriers in silver-containing chalcogenide glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Shimakawa, K.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 20 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ag ion diffusion * chalcogenide glass * Nyquist plots Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/45/20/205304/

  10. Neutron diffraction study on the medium and short-range order of ternary chalcogenide glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neov, S.; Gerasimova, I.; Skordeva, E.; Arsova, D.; Pamukchieva, V.; Mikula, Pavol; Lukáš, Petr; Sonntag, R.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (1999), s. 3669-3676 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Keywords : neutron diffraction * short-range order * chalcogenide glasses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.786, year: 1999

  11. Low-temperature photoluminescence in chalcogenide glasses doped with rare-earth ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, Petr; Zavadil, Jiří; Iovu, M.S.; Ivanova, Z. G.; Furniss, D.; Seddon, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 648, NOV 5 (2015), s. 237-243 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : chalcogenide glasses * rare earth ions * low-temperature photoluminescence * optical transmission Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015

  12. Generation and Applications of High Average Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum in Chalcogenide Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum with up to 54.8 mW average power, and maximum bandwidth of 1.77-8.66 μm is demonstrated as a result of pumping tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers with a MHz parametric source at 4 μm

  13. Controlled fabrication of semiconductor-metal hybrid nano-heterostructures via site-selective metal photodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Becerra, Javier; Ruberu, T. Purnima A.

    2017-12-05

    A method of synthesizing colloidal semiconductor-metal hybrid heterostructures is disclosed. The method includes dissolving semiconductor nanorods in a solvent to form a nanorod solution, and adding a precursor solution to the nanorod solution. The precursor solution contains a metal. The method further includes illuminating the combined precursor and nanorod solutions with light of a specific wavelength. The illumination causes the deposition of the metal in the precursor solution onto the surface of the semiconductor nanorods.

  14. Understanding Animal Detection of Precursor Earthquake Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Kelley, Michael C

    2017-08-31

    We use recent research to provide an explanation of how animals might detect earthquakes before they occur. While the intrinsic value of such warnings is immense, we show that the complexity of the process may result in inconsistent responses of animals to the possible precursor signal. Using the results of our research, we describe a logical but complex sequence of geophysical events triggered by precursor earthquake crustal movements that ultimately result in a sound signal detectable by animals. The sound heard by animals occurs only when metal or other surfaces (glass) respond to vibrations produced by electric currents induced by distortions of the earth's electric fields caused by the crustal movements. A combination of existing measurement systems combined with more careful monitoring of animal response could nevertheless be of value, particularly in remote locations.

  15. Chalcogenide oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ru, Ru/Se and Ru/S samples emersed from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewera, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Inukai, J. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 7-32 Miyamae-cho, Kofu 400-0006 (Japan); Zhou, W.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cao, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Duong, H.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Alonso-Vante, N. [Laboratory of Electrocatalysis, UMR-CNRS 6503, University of Poitiers, F-86022 Poitiers (France)]. E-mail: Nicolas.Alonso.Vante@univ-poitiers.fr; Wieckowski, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: andrzej@scs.uiuc.edu

    2007-05-10

    Oxygen reduction Ru/Se and Ru/S fuel cell surface chalcogenide catalysts were prepared via chemical reaction of reduced Ru nanoparticles with selenium and sulfur in xylenes [D. Cao, A. Wieckowski, J. Inukai, N. Alonso-Vante, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (2006) A869]. The chalcogenide samples - as well as the starting chalcogens-free Ru nanoparticle material - were immobilized on a gold disk for X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. While we found oxygen in most of the samples, predominantly from Ru oxides, we conclude that the oxygen on Ru/S may be located in subsurface sites: the subsurface oxygen. We also found that the transformation of the oxidized Ru black to metallic Ru required intensive electrochemical treatment, including hydrogen evolution. In contrast, five cyclic voltammetric scans in the potential range from 0.00 and 0.75 V versus RHE were sufficient to remove the oxygen forms from Ru/Se and, to a large extent, from Ru/S. We therefore conclude that Ru metal is protected against oxidation to Ru oxides by the chalcogens additives. The voltammetric treatment in the 0.00 and 0.75 V range also removed the SeO{sub 2} or SO {sub x} forms leaving anionic/elemental Se or S on the surface. Upon larger amplitude voltammetric cycling, from 0.00 to 1.20 V versus RHE, both Se and S were dissolved and the dissolution process was coincidental with the oxygen growth in/on the Ru samples.

  16. Chalcogenide oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ru, Ru/Se and Ru/S samples emersed from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewera, A.; Inukai, J.; Zhou, W.P.; Cao, D.; Duong, H.T.; Alonso-Vante, N.; Wieckowski, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen reduction Ru/Se and Ru/S fuel cell surface chalcogenide catalysts were prepared via chemical reaction of reduced Ru nanoparticles with selenium and sulfur in xylenes [D. Cao, A. Wieckowski, J. Inukai, N. Alonso-Vante, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (2006) A869]. The chalcogenide samples - as well as the starting chalcogens-free Ru nanoparticle material - were immobilized on a gold disk for X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. While we found oxygen in most of the samples, predominantly from Ru oxides, we conclude that the oxygen on Ru/S may be located in subsurface sites: the subsurface oxygen. We also found that the transformation of the oxidized Ru black to metallic Ru required intensive electrochemical treatment, including hydrogen evolution. In contrast, five cyclic voltammetric scans in the potential range from 0.00 and 0.75 V versus RHE were sufficient to remove the oxygen forms from Ru/Se and, to a large extent, from Ru/S. We therefore conclude that Ru metal is protected against oxidation to Ru oxides by the chalcogens additives. The voltammetric treatment in the 0.00 and 0.75 V range also removed the SeO 2 or SO x forms leaving anionic/elemental Se or S on the surface. Upon larger amplitude voltammetric cycling, from 0.00 to 1.20 V versus RHE, both Se and S were dissolved and the dissolution process was coincidental with the oxygen growth in/on the Ru samples

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of chalcogenide sulfides from multi- and single-component targets: the non-stoichiometric material transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Ganskukh, Mungunshagai; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    2018-01-01

    The mass transfer from target to films is incongruent for chalcogenide sulfides in contrast to the expectations of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as a stoichiometric film growth process. Films produced from a CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) multi-component target have no Cu below a fluence threshold of 0.2 J/cm2......, and the Cu content is also very low at low fluence from a single-component target. Above this threshold, the Cu content in the films increases almost linearly up to a value above the stoichiometric value, while the ratio of the concentration of the other metals Zn to Sn (Zn/Sn) remains constant. Films...... of a similar material CTS (Cu2SnS3) have been produced by PLD from a CTS target and exhibits a similar trend in the same fluence region. The results are discussed on the basis of solid-state data and the existing data from the literature....

  18. Nanoscale Device Properties of Tellurium-based Chalcogenide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Bishnu R.

    The great progress achieved in miniaturization of microelectronic devices has now reached a distinct bottleneck, as devices are starting to approach the fundamental fabrication and performance limit. Even if a major breakthrough is made in the fabrication process, these scaled down electronic devices will not function properly since the quantum effects can no longer be neglected in the nanoscale regime. Advances in nanotechnology and new materials are driving novel technologies for future device applications. Current microelectronic devices have the smallest feature size, around 10 nm, and the industry is planning to switch away from silicon technology in the near future. The new technology will be fundamentally different. There are several leading technologies based on spintronics, tunneling transistors, and the newly discovered 2-dimensional material systems. All of these technologies are at the research level, and are far from ready for use in making devices in large volumes. This dissertation will focus on a very promising material system, Te-based chalcogenides, which have potential applications in spintronics, thermoelectricity and topological insulators that can lead to low-power-consumption electronics. Very recently it was predicted and experimentally observed that the spin-orbit interaction in certain materials can lead to a new electronic state called topological insulating phase. The topological insulator, like an ordinary insulator, has a bulk energy gap separating the highest occupied electronic band from the lowest empty band. However, the surface states in the case of a three-dimensional or edge states in a two-dimensional topological insulator allow electrons to conduct at the surface, due to the topological character of the bulk wavefunctions. These conducting states are protected by time-reversal symmetry, and cannot be eliminated by defects or chemical passivation. The edge/surface states satisfy Dirac dispersion relations, and hence the physics

  19. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  20. Theory of Persistent, P-Type, Metallic Conduction in C-GeTe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Arthur H; Pineda, Andrew C; Schultz, Peter A; Martin, Marcus G; Thompson, Aidan P; Hjalmarson, Harold P

    2005-01-01

    .... However, it always displays p-type metallic conduction. This behavior is also observed in other chalcogenide materials, including Ge2Sb2Te5, commonly used for optically and electrically switched, non-volatile memory, and so is or great interest...

  1. Activation of chalcogens and chalcogenides at reactive uranium centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Michael Sebastian

    2015-07-23

    -κ{sup 1}:κ{sup 2}-COSE)] (E = S, Se) could be obtained via insertion of CO{sub 2} or COS into the U-E bond, whereas CS{sub 2} is added to the U-Se-U bond and thus forms dithioselenocarbonate [{(("A"d","M"eArO)_3N)U"I"V(DME)}{sub 2}(μ-κ{sup 2}:κ{sup 2}-CS{sub 2}Se)]. The synthesis of terminal uranium monochalcogenido complexes with a U=E multiple bond is of great current interest, as ligands containing soft donor atoms such as sulfur, selenium, and tellurium are expected to participate in covalent bonding with uranium.s 5f-orbitals. Generating those compounds is difficult due to the high nucleophilicity of the E{sup 2-} ligands and requires special conditions to prevent the formation of di-, tri-, and polynuclear species. The development of new precursor complexes in order to access terminal uranium monochalcogenido species was another subject of this thesis and resulted in the synthesis of the hydrochalcogenido complexes [(({sup Ad,Me}ArO){sub 3}N)U{sup IV}(DME)(EH)] from H{sub 2}E (E = S, Se, Te). Many terminal ligands like the nitrido (N{sup 3-}), phosphido (P{sup 3-}), and chalcogenido (O{sup 2-}, S{sup 2-}, Se{sup 2-}, Te{sup 2-}) moieties are very reactive and require metal complexes with sterically demanding, supporting ligands that prevent undesired further reactivity. As a consequence, a new phenol HOAr* (Ar* = 2,6-(CHPh{sub 2}){sub 2}-4-Me-C{sub 6}H{sub 2}, 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenyl) that combines bulkiness around the uranium center with very high flexibility, was developed to be used for uranium coordination chemistry. Depending on the reaction conditions, both a THF-coordinated and a solvent-free uranium(III) tris(aryloxo) complex could be obtained. Both compounds exhibit a uranium-(η{sup 6}-arene) interaction in their respective molecular structures, which could be further confirmed through DFT calculations. In a preliminary reactivity study it is shown that both uranium(III) complexes, the THF-coordinated and the coordinatively unsaturated

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachmayr, Ursula Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides a new preparative approach to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors. The hydrothermal synthesis of anti-PbO type FeSe, which can be seen as basis structure of the compounds of interest was successfully developed. Along with this, some insights regarding the influence of synthesis parameters were gained featuring a basis for further hydrothermal syntheses of new iron-chalcogenide compounds. The potential of this method, primarily the extension of the so far limited accessibility of iron-chalcogenide based superconductors by solid-state sythesis, was revealed within the present work. The solid-solution FeSe_1_-_xS_x was prepared for the whole substitution range, whereas solid-state synthesis exhibits a solubility limit at x = 0.3. Furthermore, the new compounds [(Li_0_._8Fe_0_._2)OH]FeX (X = Se, S) were synthesized which are exclusively accessible via hydrothermal method. The compounds, where layers of (Li_0_._8Fe_0_._2)OH alternate with FeX layers, feature exceptional physical properties, notably a coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. They were intensively studied within this work. By combination of solid-state and hydrothermal ion-exchange synthesis even large crystals necessary for subsequent physical measurements are accessible. Apart from these layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors, further compounds which likewise exhibit building blocks of edge-sharing FeSe_4 tetrahedra were found via this synthesis method. The iron selenides A_2Fe_4Se_6 (A = K, Rb, Cs) consist of double chains of [Fe_2Se_3]"1"-, whereas a new compound Na_6(H_2O)_1_8Fe_4Se_8 exhibits [Fe_4Se_8]"6"- 'stella quadrangula' clusters. This structural diversity as well as the associated physical properties of the compounds demonstrates the numerous capabilities of hydrothermal synthesis in the field of iron-chalcogenide compounds. In particular with regard to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors this synthesis strategy is encouraging. It seems probable

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachmayr, Ursula Elisabeth

    2017-04-06

    This thesis provides a new preparative approach to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors. The hydrothermal synthesis of anti-PbO type FeSe, which can be seen as basis structure of the compounds of interest was successfully developed. Along with this, some insights regarding the influence of synthesis parameters were gained featuring a basis for further hydrothermal syntheses of new iron-chalcogenide compounds. The potential of this method, primarily the extension of the so far limited accessibility of iron-chalcogenide based superconductors by solid-state sythesis, was revealed within the present work. The solid-solution FeSe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} was prepared for the whole substitution range, whereas solid-state synthesis exhibits a solubility limit at x = 0.3. Furthermore, the new compounds [(Li{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})OH]FeX (X = Se, S) were synthesized which are exclusively accessible via hydrothermal method. The compounds, where layers of (Li{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})OH alternate with FeX layers, feature exceptional physical properties, notably a coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. They were intensively studied within this work. By combination of solid-state and hydrothermal ion-exchange synthesis even large crystals necessary for subsequent physical measurements are accessible. Apart from these layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors, further compounds which likewise exhibit building blocks of edge-sharing FeSe{sub 4} tetrahedra were found via this synthesis method. The iron selenides A{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 6} (A = K, Rb, Cs) consist of double chains of [Fe{sub 2}Se{sub 3}]{sup 1-}, whereas a new compound Na{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 18}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 8} exhibits [Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 8}]{sup 6-} 'stella quadrangula' clusters. This structural diversity as well as the associated physical properties of the compounds demonstrates the numerous capabilities of hydrothermal synthesis in the field of iron-chalcogenide compounds. In particular with regard

  4. Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Němec, P. [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, Enssat, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion (France); Cathelinaud, M. [Missions des Ressources et Compétences Technologiques, UPS CNRS 2274, 92195 Meudon (France); Allix, M. [CEMHTI-CNRS, Site Haute Température, Orléans (France); Adam, J.-L.; Zhang, S. [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.fr [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-07-31

    Amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Prepared films were characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties. Multilayered thin film stacks for reflectors and vertical microcavities were designed for telecommunication wavelength and the window of atmosphere transparency (band II) at 1.54 μm and 4.65 μm, respectively. Bearing in mind the benefit coming from the opportunity of an efficient wavelength tuning or, conversely, to stabilize the photoinduced effects in chalcogenide films as well as to improve their mechanical properties and/or their chemical durability, several pairs of materials from pure chalcogenide layers to chalcogenide/oxide layers were investigated. Different layer stacks were fabricated in order to check the compatibility between dissimilar materials which can have a strong influence on the interface roughness, adhesion, density, and homogeneity, for instance. Three different reflector designs were formulated and tested including all-chalcogenide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70}) and mixed chalcogenide-oxide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate and Ga{sub 10}Ge{sub 15}Te{sub 75}/alumino-silicate). Prepared multilayers showed good compatibility between different material pairs deposited by laser ablation despite the diversity of chemical compositions. As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate reflector showed the best parameters; its stop band (R > 97% at 8° off-normal incidence) has a bandwidth of ∼ 100 nm and it is centered at 1490 nm. The quality of the different mirrors developed was good enough to try to obtain a microcavity structure for the 1.5 μm telecommunication wavelength made of chalcogenide layers. The microcavity structure consists of Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} (doped with 5000 ppm of Er{sup 3+}) spacer surrounded by two 10-layer As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70

  5. Prediction of free-volume-type correlations in glassy chalcogenides from positron annihilation lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Filipecki, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decisive role of specific chemical environment in free-volume correlations in glass. • Realistic free volumes in As–S/Se glass are defined by newly modified τ 2 -R formula. • Overestimated void sizes in chalcogenide glass as compared with molecular polymers. - Abstract: A newly modified correlation equation between defect-related positron lifetime determined within two-state trapping model and radius of corresponding free-volume-type defects was proposed to describe compositional variations in atomic-deficient structure of covalent-bonded chalcogenides like binary As–S/Se glasses. Specific chemical environment of free-volume voids around neighboring network-forming polyhedrons was shown to play a decisive role in this correlation, leading to systematically enhanced volumes in comparison with typical molecular substrates, such as polymers

  6. Prediction of free-volume-type correlations in glassy chalcogenides from positron annihilation lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat”, 212 Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestcochowa 42200 (Poland); Ingram, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75 Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, M. [Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat”, 212 Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandery Str., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Filipecki, J. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestcochowa 42200 (Poland)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Decisive role of specific chemical environment in free-volume correlations in glass. • Realistic free volumes in As–S/Se glass are defined by newly modified τ{sub 2}-R formula. • Overestimated void sizes in chalcogenide glass as compared with molecular polymers. - Abstract: A newly modified correlation equation between defect-related positron lifetime determined within two-state trapping model and radius of corresponding free-volume-type defects was proposed to describe compositional variations in atomic-deficient structure of covalent-bonded chalcogenides like binary As–S/Se glasses. Specific chemical environment of free-volume voids around neighboring network-forming polyhedrons was shown to play a decisive role in this correlation, leading to systematically enhanced volumes in comparison with typical molecular substrates, such as polymers.

  7. Photoinduced Operation by Absorption of the Chalcogenide Nanocrystallite Containing Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaggar A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that for the solar cells containing chalcogenide nanocrystallites using external laser light, one can achieve some enhancement of the photovoltaic efficiency. Photoinduced treatment was carried out using two beams of splitted Er: glass laser operating at 1.54 μm. The light of the laser was incident at different angles and the angles between the beams also were varied. Also, the studies of nanocomposite effective structures have shown enhancement of effective nanocrystalline sizes during the laser treatment. Nanocrystallites of CuInS2 and CuZnSnS4 (CZTS were used as chalcogenide materials. The optimization of the laser beam intensities and nanoparticle sizes were explored.

  8. Selenopentathionic and Telluropentathionic Acids as Precursors for Formation of Semiconducting Layers on the Surface of Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirma Zalenkiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of copper chalcogenides, which were formed on the surface of semihydrophilic polymer—polyamide 6 (PA using monoselenopentathionic H2SeS4O6 and monotelluropentathionic H2TeS4O6 acids as precursors of chalcogens, were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV spectroscopy were used to monitor the effect of chalcogens on the changes in structure of PA corresponding to the concentration of the precursor's solution and an exposure time. The IR spectra of modified PA were completely different from that of the initial PA. Further interaction of chalcogenized PA with copper (II/I salt solution leads to the formation of CuxS, CuxSe, CuxTe, and mixed –CuxS–CuySe and CuxS–CuyTe layers which have different electric transport properties. The surface properties of PA after treatment are studied using AFM and XRD. The electrical resistances of layers with various composition formed over a wide concentration range 0.01–0.5 mol⋅dm−3 of precursor's solution were measured. Variation in the conductivity of layers of Cu–Se–S and Cu–Te–S on the surface of PA shows an evident increase with the increasing of the mass fraction of selenium or tellurium.

  9. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berruet, M.; Di Iorio, Y.; Troviano, M.; Vázquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S) 2 heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe 2 (CISe) and CuInSe 2−x S x (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO 2 into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe 2 or CuInSe 0.4 S 1.6 . • A TiO 2 buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction

  10. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H.; Golovchak, R.; Zurawska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of γ-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge 23.5 Sb 11.8 S 64.7 glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Pedagogical University, Czestochowa (Poland)]|[Institute of Materials, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author). 16 refs, 1 tab.

  12. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailavajhala, M.S.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Poweleit, C.D.; Barnaby, H.J.; Kozicki, M.N.; Butt, D.P.; Mitkova, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of thin film chalcogenide glasses under gamma radiation and a proposed radiation sensor design. • Structural changes were observed at various radiation doses. • Formation of Ag 2 Se in Se depleted glasses with sufficient radiation dose. • In conventional semiconductor chip environment, the proposed sensor has a linear current vs. dose behavior up to 600 J/cm 2 . - Abstract: Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge 40 Se 60 chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I–V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge 40 Se 60 glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag 2 Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I–V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films

  13. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailavajhala, M.S., E-mail: m.ailavajhala@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Gonzalez-Velo, Y. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Poweleit, C.D. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Barnaby, H.J.; Kozicki, M.N. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Butt, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Mitkova, M., E-mail: maheshailavajhala@u.boisestate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Study of thin film chalcogenide glasses under gamma radiation and a proposed radiation sensor design. • Structural changes were observed at various radiation doses. • Formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in Se depleted glasses with sufficient radiation dose. • In conventional semiconductor chip environment, the proposed sensor has a linear current vs. dose behavior up to 600 J/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge{sub 40}Se{sub 60} chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I–V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag{sub 2}Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I–V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films.

  14. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruet, M., E-mail: berruetm@gmail.com [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Di Iorio, Y. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Troviano, M. [Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, CONICET-UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, Q8300IBX Neuquén (Argentina); Vázquez, M. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S){sub 2} heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) and CuInSe{sub 2−x}S{sub x} (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO{sub 2} into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe{sub 2} or CuInSe{sub 0.4}S{sub 1.6}. • A TiO{sub 2} buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction.

  15. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  16. Large magnetoresistance in non-magnetic silver chalcogenides and new class of magnetoresistive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louis; Price, David C. L.; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.; Xu, Rong; Husmann, Anke

    2001-01-01

    The heavily-doped silver chalcogenides, Ag.sub.2+.delta. Se and Ag.sub.2+.delta. Te, show magnetoresistance effects on a scale comparable to the "colossal" magnetoresistance (CMR) compounds. Hall coefficient, magnetoconductivity, and hydrostatic pressure experiments establish that elements of narrow-gap semiconductor physics apply, but both the size of the effects at room temperature and the linear field dependence down to fields of a few Oersteds are surprising new features.

  17. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailavajhala, M S; Gonzalez-Velo, Y; Poweleit, C D; Barnaby, H J; Kozicki, M N; Butt, D P; Mitkova, M

    2014-03-30

    Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge40Se60 chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I-V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge40Se60 glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag2Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I-V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide thin films using third harmonic generation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kumar, Manish; Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Third order nonlinear susceptibility of (GeSe3.5)100-xBix (x = 0, 10, 14) and ZnxSySe100-x-y (x = 2, y = 28; x = 4, y = 20; x = 6, y = 12; x = 8, y = 4) amorphous chalcogenide thin films prepared using thermal evaporation technique is estimated. The dielectric constant at incident and third harmonic wavelength is calculated using "PARAV" computer program. 1064 nm wavelength of Nd: YAG laser is incident on thin film and third harmonic signal at 355 nm wavelength alongwith fundamental light is obtained in reflection that is separated from 1064 nm using suitable optical filter. Reflected third harmonic signal is measured to trace the influence of Bi and Zn on third order nonlinear susceptibility and is found to increase with increase in Bi and Zn content in (GeSe3.5)100-xBix, and ZnxSySe100-x-y chalcogenide thin films respectively. The excellent optical nonlinear property shows the use of chalcogenide thin films in photonics for wavelength conversion and optical data processing.

  19. Theoretical study of phonon dispersion, elastic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of barium chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musari, A. A.; Orukombo, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Barium chalcogenides are known for their high-technological importance and great scientific interest. Detailed studies of their elastic, mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties were carried out using density functional theory and plane-wave pseudo potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The optimized lattice constants were in good agreement when compared with experimental data. The independent elastic constants, calculated from a linear fit of the computed stress-strain function, were used to determine the Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Poisson’s ratio (σ) and Zener’s anisotropy factor (A). Also, the Debye temperature and sound velocities for barium chalcogenides were estimated from the three independent elastic constants. The calculations of phonon dispersion showed that there are no negative frequencies throughout the Brillouin zone. Hence barium chalcogenides have dynamically stable NaCl-type crystal structure. Finally, their thermodynamic properties were calculated in the temperature range of 0-1000 K and their constant-volume specific heat capacities at room-temperature were reported.

  20. Limiting of photo induced changes in amorphous chalcogenide/alumino-silicate nanomultilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnovych, S.; Nemec, P.; Nazabal, V.; Csik, A.; Allix, M.; Matzen, G.; Kokenyesi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Amorphous chalcogenides were investigated in this work. → Photo-induced effects were investigated in the created thin films. → Limiting of photo induced changes in amorphous chalcogenide/alumino-silicate nanomultilayers have been studied. - Abstract: Photo induced changes in amorphous As 20 Se 80 /alumino-silicate nanomultilayers (NML) produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method have been studied in this work. The aim was to investigate the photo induced optical and surface relief changes due to the band gap illumination under the size- and hard cover limited conditions. It was observed that the hard cover layer on the surface of the uniform film or alumino-silicate sub-layers in the NML structure influences the photo darkening and restricts surface relief formations in As 20 Se 80 film or in the related NML compared with this effect in a pure chalcogenide layer. The influence of hard layers is supposed to be connected with limiting the free volume formation at the initial stage of the transformation process, which in turn limits the atomic movement and so the surface relief formation.

  1. Investigation of Non-Vacuum Deposition Techniques in Fabrication of Chalcogenide-Based Solar Cell Absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaggaf, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The environmental challenges are increasing, and so is the need for renewable energy. For photovoltaic applications, thin film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) and CuIn(S,Se)2 (CIS) solar cells are attractive with conversion efficiencies of more than 20%. However, the high-efficiency cells are fabricated using vacuum technologies such as sputtering or thermal co-evaporation, which are very costly and unfeasible at industrial level. The fabrication involves the uses of highly toxic gases such as H2Se, adding complexity to the fabrication process. The work described here focused on non-vacuum deposition methods such as printing. Special attention has been given to printing designed in a moving Roll-to-Roll (R2R) fashion. The results show potential of such technology to replace the vacuum processes. Conversion efficiencies for such non-vacuum deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells have exceeded 15% using hazardous chemicals such as hydrazine, which is unsuitable for industrial scale up. In an effort to simplify the process, non-toxic suspensions of Cu(In,Ga)S2 molecular-based precursors achieved efficiencies of ~7-15%. Attempts to further simplify the selenization step, deposition of CuIn(S,Se)2 particulate solutions without the Ga doping and non-toxic suspensions of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 quaternary precursors achieved efficiencies (~1-8%). The contribution of this research was to provide a new method to monitor printed structures through spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT in a moving fashion simulating R2R process design at speeds up to 1.05 m/min. The research clarified morphological and compositional impacts of Nd:YAG laser heat-treatment on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layer to simplify the annealing step in non-vacuum environment compatible to R2R. Finally, the research further simplified development methods for CIGS solar cells based on suspensions of quaternary Cu(In,Ga)Se2 precursors and ternary CuInS2 precursors. The methods consisted of post deposition reactive

  2. Toward a theory of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben; Giddings, Steven B.; Lippert, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the possible breakdown of locality in quantum gravitational systems, we pursue the identity of precursors in the context of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. Holography implies a breakdown of standard bulk locality which we expect to occur only at extremely high energy. We consider precursors that encode bulk information causally disconnected from the boundary and whose measurement involves nonlocal bulk processes. We construct a toy model of holography which encapsulates the expected properties of precursors and compare it with previous such discussions. If these precursors can be identified in the gauge theory, they are almost certainly Wilson loops, perhaps with decorations, but the relevant information is encoded in the high-energy sector of the theory and should not be observable by low energy measurements. This would be in accord with the locality bound, which serves as a criterion for situations where breakdown of bulk locality is expected

  3. Combined hybrid functional and DFT+U calculations for metal chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, Çetin, E-mail: cetin-kilic@gyte.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2014-07-28

    In the density-functional studies of materials with localized electronic states, the local/semilocal exchange-correlation functionals are often either combined with a Hubbard parameter U as in the LDA+U method or mixed with a fraction of exactly computed (Fock) exchange energy yielding a hybrid functional. Although some inaccuracies of the semilocal density approximations are thus fixed to a certain extent, the improvements are not sufficient to make the predictions agree with the experimental data. Here, we put forward the perspective that the hybrid functional scheme and the LDA+U method should be treated as complementary, and propose to combine the range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional with the Hubbard U. We thus present a variety of HSE+U calculations for a set of II-VI semiconductors, consisting of zinc and cadmium monochalcogenides, along with comparison to the experimental data. Our findings imply that an optimal value U{sup *} of the Hubbard parameter could be determined, which ensures that the HSE+U{sup *} calculation reproduces the experimental band gap. It is shown that an improved description not only of the electronic structure but also of the crystal structure and energetics is obtained by adding the U{sup *} term to the HSE functional, proving the utility of HSE+U{sup *} approach in modeling semiconductors with localized electronic states.

  4. Properties of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals for tunable IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Cr 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ -doped single crystals of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe have been investigated to understand their potential application as mid-IR tunable solid-state laser media. The spectroscopy indicated divalent Cr was the most favorable candidate for efficient room temperature lasing, and accordingly, a laser-pumped laser demonstration of Cr:ZnS and Cr:ZnSe has been performed. The lasers' output were peaked at ∼ 2.35 μm and the highest measured slope efficiencies were ∼ 20% in both cases

  5. Density measurements as a means for detection of semiconductor - metal transitions in melts of chalcogenide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurn, H.; Ruska, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is reported on density measurements from liquidus temperature up to 900 or 1,000 0 C of a number of Se- or Te-containing liquid alloys. Anomalous density variations with temperature were found in many cases. The density measurements have been performed by a γ-ray absorption method. (orig./HK) [de

  6. Preparation and physical properties of rare earth, alkaline earth, and transition metal ternary chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgobiani, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made on current-voltage characteristics, temperature dependences of electric conductivity and currents of thermoinduced depolarization of monocrystals, including EuGa 2 S 4 and (Ga 2 S 3 ) 1-x (Eu 2 O 3 ) x solid solutions. It is shown that these compounds, activated by europium, cerium, neodymium and other rare earths, manifest effective luminescence under the effect of ultraviolet and X-radiation, as well as under the effect of electron beams and electric field

  7. All-optical tuning of EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces by means of chalcogenide phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, E; Sibilia, C

    2016-12-26

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a pump-induced narrowband transparency window within an absorption line of the probe beam spectrum in an atomic system. In this paper we propose a way to bring together the all-dielectric metamaterials to have EIT-like effects and to optically tune the response by hybridizing them with a layer of a phase change material. We propose a design of the metamaterial based on Si nanoresonators that can support an EIT-like resonant response. On the top of the resonators we consider a thin layer of a chalcogenide phase change material, which we will use to tune the optical response. Our choice is Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), since it has two stable phases at room temperature, namely amorphous and crystalline, between which it can be switched quickly, nonvolatively and reversibly, sustaining a large number of switching cycles. They differ in optical properties, while still having moderately low losses in telecom range. Since such dielectric resonators do not have non-radiative losses of metals around 1550nm, they can lead to a high-Q factor of the EIT-like response in this range. Firstly, we optimize the starting structure so that it gives an EIT-like response at 1550 nm when the GST layer is in the amorphous state. Our starting design uses glass as a substrate, but we also consider implementation in SOI technology. If we then switch the thin layer of GST to its crystalline phase, which has higher losses, the EIT-like response is red shifted, providing around 10:1 contrast at 1550nm. This reversible tuning can be done with an ns visible pulsed laser. We discuss the results of the simulation of the dielectric metasurface for different configurations and the tuning possibility.

  8. The effect of oxygen impurity on the electronic and optical properties of calcium, strontium and barium chalcogenide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadsetani, M.; Beiranvand, R.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of calcium, strontium and barium chalcogenide compounds in NaCl structure are studied using the band structure results obtained through the full potential linearized augmented palne wave method. Different linear relationships are observed between theoretical band gap and 1/a 2 (where a is lattice constant) for calcium, strontium and barium chalcogenide compounds with and without oxygen, respectively. An abnormal behavior of electronic and optical properties are found for compounds containing oxygen. These effects are ascribed to the special properties of Ca-O, Sr-O and Ba-O bonds, which are different from chemical bonds between Ca, Sr and Ba and other chalcogen atoms.

  9. Iron based pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors studied by muon spin spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shermadini, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    In the present thesis the superconducting properties of the Iron-based Ba 1-x Rb x Fe 2 As 2 arsenides, and A x Fe 2-y Se 2 (A=Cs,Rb,K) chalcogenides are investigated by means of Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy. The temperature and pressure dependence of the magnetic penetration depth is obtained form μSR experiments and analyzed to probe the superconducting gap-symmetries for each samples. The Ba 1-x Rb x Fe 2 As 2 system is described within the multi-gap s+s-wave scenario and results are discussed in the light of the suppression of inter-band processes upon hole doping. Due to the lowered upper critical field B c2 and reduced T c , a large section of B-T-p phase diagram is studied for the hole-overdoped x=1 case. By applying hydrostatic pressure, the RbFe 2 As 2 system exhibits a classical BCS superconducting characteristics. The A x Fe 2-y Se 2 chalcogenide represents a system containing magnetically ordered and superconducting phases simultaneously. In all investigated chalcogenide samples, about 90% of the total volume show the strong antiferromagnetic phase and 10% exhibit a paramagnetic behavior. Magnetization measurements reveal a 100% Meissner effect, while μSR clearly indicates that the paramagnetic phase is a perfect superconductor. Up to now, there is no clear evidence whether the antiferromagnetic phase is also superconducting. The microscopic coexistence and/or phase separation of superconductivity and magnetism is discussed. Moreover, a new hydrostatic double-wall pressure cell is developed and produced, satisfying the demands of μSR experiments. The designs and characteristics of the new pressure cell are reviewed in the present thesis.

  10. Structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shamshad A.; Khan, Zishan H.; El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Marzouki, F.M.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    (PbSe) 100-x Cd x thin films of thickness 3000 A with variable concentrations of Cd (x=5, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature at a base pressure of 10 -6 Torr. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to determine the crystal structure of the films. Films were of polycrystalline texture over the whole range of study. Optical constants of all films were determined by absorbance and reflection measurements in a wavelength range 400-1200 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data showed that the rule of direct transitions predominates. The values of the absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k) and imaginary part of the dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing Cd content in lead chalcogenides while the refractive index (n) and real part of dielectric constant were increased with increasing Cd concentration up to 15% and then they decreased with 20% of Cd content in PbSe. These results were interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities and activation energies of the films were measured in the temperature range 298-398 K. It was observed that the dc conductivity increases at all temperatures with the increase of Cd content in lead chalcogenide system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to the thermally assisted tunneling of the carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap were found to decrease with increasing Cd concentration in lead chalcogenide.

  11. A feasibility study of unconventional planar ligand spacers in chalcogenide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Binit; Clancy, Paulette

    2016-05-18

    The solar cell efficiency of chalcogenide nanocrystals (quantum dots) has been limited in the past by the insulation between neighboring quantum dots caused by intervening, often long-chain, aliphatic ligands. We have conducted a computationally based feasibility study to investigate the use of ultra-thin, planar, charge-conducting ligands as an alternative to traditional long passive ligands. Not only might these radically unconventional ligands decrease the mean distance between adjacent quantum dots, but, since they are charge-conducting, they have the potential to actively enhance charge migration. Our ab initio studies compare the binding energies, electronic energy gaps, and absorption characteristics for both conventional and unconventional ligands, such as phthalocyanines, porphyrins and coronene. This comparison identified these unconventional ligands with the exception of titanyl phthalocyanine, that bind to themselves more strongly than to the surface of the quantum dot, which is likely to be less desirable for enhancing charge transport. The distribution of finite energy levels of the bound system is sensitive to the ligand's binding site and the levels correspond to delocalized states. We also observed a trap state localized on a single Pb atom when a sulfur-containing phenyldithiocarbamate (PTC) ligand is attached to a slightly off-stoichiometric dot in a manner that the sulfur of the ligand completes stoichiometry of the bound system. Hence, this is indicative of the source of trap state when thio-based ligands are bound to chalcogenide nanocrystals. We also predict that titanyl phthalocyanine in a mix with chalcogenide dots of diameter ∼1.5 Å can form a donor-acceptor system.

  12. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P. [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Watson, Graeme W., E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-05-01

    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb{sup III} cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have indirect band gaps, while Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The optical band gap for Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb{sup III} cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps.

  13. Origin of the frequency shift of Raman scattering in chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, X.C.; Tao, H.Z.; Gong, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    of the shift is associated with the topological connectivity of global network and/or the local environment of structural units, (e.g., tetrahedral GeSe4). Here we show the compositional evolution of the main Raman scattering frequency in Ge(SxSe1−x)2 glasses, and then clarify its structural origin. We keep...... units such as GeS4 tetrahedra. The ab-initio calculations of normal Raman mode combined with group theory analysis provide insight into the structural evolution of chalcogenide glasses with varying composition....

  14. Ageing effects in As10Se90 chalcogenide glasses induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Shpotyuk, M.; Gorecki, Cz.; Kozdras, A.

    2005-01-01

    The peculiarities of gamma-induced (Co 60 source, 1.85 MGy absorbed dose) ageing phenomena in As 10 Se 90 chalcogenide glasses are investigated for the first time. The analogy between the observed radiation-induced ageing and the thermally induced one in vitreous selenium is emphasized. Like to thermal treatment, gamma-irradiation leads to an increase in the glass transition temperature and the relaxation rate towards a thermodynamic equilibrium of supercooled liquid, the value of this increase being greater in the case of radiation influence

  15. Structural modification of covalent-bonded networks: on some methodological resolutions for binary chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, Ya; Shpotyuk, O, E-mail: shpotyukmy@yahoo.com [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 212, Stryjska str., Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine)

    2011-04-01

    New methodology to estimate efficiency of externally-induced structural modification in chalcogenide glasses is developed. This approach is grounded on the assumption that externally-induced structural modification is fully associated with destruction-polymerization transformations, which reveal themselves as local misbalances in covalent bond distribution, normal atomic coordination and intrinsic electrical fields. The input of each of these components into the total value of structural modification efficiency was probed for quasibinary (As{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 100-x}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} ChG.

  16. Structural modification of covalent-bonded networks: on some methodological resolutions for binary chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, Ya; Shpotyuk, O

    2011-01-01

    New methodology to estimate efficiency of externally-induced structural modification in chalcogenide glasses is developed. This approach is grounded on the assumption that externally-induced structural modification is fully associated with destruction-polymerization transformations, which reveal themselves as local misbalances in covalent bond distribution, normal atomic coordination and intrinsic electrical fields. The input of each of these components into the total value of structural modification efficiency was probed for quasibinary (As 2 S 3 ) 100-x (Sb 2 S 3 ) x ChG.

  17. Charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors studied with combined Raman scattering and PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Vakiv, M.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of Raman scattering and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) techniques to study charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVSs) was applied for the first time in this study. In the case of Ge 15.8 As 21 S 63.2 glass, it is found that the main radiation-induced switching of heteropolar Ge-S bonds into heteropolar As-S ones, previously detected by IR fast Fourier transform spectroscopy, can also be identified by Raman spectroscopy in the depolarized configuration. Results obtained by Raman scattering are in good agreement with PALS data for the investigated glass composition

  18. Charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors studied with combined Raman scattering and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Vakiv, M. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)], E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2007-04-15

    A combination of Raman scattering and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) techniques to study charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVSs) was applied for the first time in this study. In the case of Ge{sub 15.8}As{sub 21}S{sub 63.2} glass, it is found that the main radiation-induced switching of heteropolar Ge-S bonds into heteropolar As-S ones, previously detected by IR fast Fourier transform spectroscopy, can also be identified by Raman spectroscopy in the depolarized configuration. Results obtained by Raman scattering are in good agreement with PALS data for the investigated glass composition.

  19. Radiation-induced defects formation in Bi-containing vitreous chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Vakiv, M.; Balitska, V.; Kovalskiy, A.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of formation and annihilation of coordination defects in As 2 Se 3 Bi y and (As 2 Se 3 )(Bi 2 Se 3 ) y amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors induced by influence of Co 60 gamma-irradiation are investigated by photoelectric spectroscopy method. It is obtained that radiation-induced changes of photoelectrical properties on bioconcentration of As 2 Se 3 Bi y glasses are characterized by anomalous concentration dependence. The nature of this effect is associated with diamagnetic coordination defects formation. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs

  20. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Radiation-induced defects formation in Bi-containing vitreous chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Vakiv, M.; Balitska, V.; Kovalskiy, A. [Institute of Materials, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-01

    Processes of formation and annihilation of coordination defects in As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Bi{sub y} and (As{sub 2}Se{sub 3})(Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}){sub y} amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors induced by influence of Co{sup 60} gamma-irradiation are investigated by photoelectric spectroscopy method. It is obtained that radiation-induced changes of photoelectrical properties on bioconcentration of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Bi{sub y} glasses are characterized by anomalous concentration dependence. The nature of this effect is associated with diamagnetic coordination defects formation. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs.

  2. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Golovchak, R. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Zurawska, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of {gamma}-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge{sub 23.5}Sb{sub 11.8}S{sub 64.7} glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. CW all optical self switching in nonlinear chalcogenide nano plasmonic directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Leila; Hatami, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we obtain the coupling coefficient of plasmonic directional coupler (PDC) made up of two parallel monolayer waveguides filled with high nonlinear chalcogenide material for TM mode in continues wave (CW) regime. In addition, we assume each waveguides acts as a perturbation to other waveguide. Four nonlinear-coupled equations are derived. Transfer distances are numerically calculated and used for deriving length of all optical switch. The length of designed switch is in the range of 10-1000 μm, and the switching power is in the range of 1-100 W/m. Obtained values are suitable for designing all optical elements in the integrated optical circuits.

  4. Theory of Two-Magnon Raman Scattering in Iron Pnictides and Chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. C.

    2011-08-15

    Although the parent iron-based pnictides and chalcogenides are itinerant antiferromagnets, the use of local moment picture to understand their magnetic properties is still widespread. We study magnetic Raman scattering from a local moment perspective for various quantum spin models proposed for this new class of superconductors. These models vary greatly in the level of magnetic frustration and show a vastly different two-magnon Raman response. Light scattering by two-magnon excitations thus provides a robust and independent measure of the underlying spin interactions. In accord with other recent experiments, our results indicate that the amount of magnetic frustration in these systems may be small.

  5. Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Orava, J.; Krbal, M.; Fejfar, Antonín; Mates, Tomáš; Kasap, S. O.; Frumar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 353, - (2007), s. 1437-1440 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010316; GA AV ČR IAA1010413 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0524; GAMŠk(CZ) LC523 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : chemical properties * spin coating * infrared glasses * chalcogenides * atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2007

  6. Reactive ion etching of tellurite and chalcogenide waveguides using hydrogen, methane, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, K. T.; Madden, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report in detail on the reactive plasma etching properties of tellurium and demonstrate a high quality etching process using hydrogen, methane, and argon. Very low loss planar ridge waveguides are demonstrated. Optical losses in tellurium dioxide waveguides below 0.1 dB/cm in most of the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and at 1550 nm have been achieved--the lowest ever reported by more than an order of magnitude and clearly suitable for planar integrated devices. The etch process is also shown to be suitable for chalcogenide glasses which may be of importance in applications such as phase change memory devices and nonlinear integrated optics.

  7. Advances in Mid-IR Fiber Lasers: Tellurite, Fluoride and Chalcogenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Christian Falconi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A review on the recent progress in modeling and fabrication of medium infrared (Mid-IR fiber lasers is reported. The main objective is to illustrate some recent examples of continuous wave optical sources at wavelengths longer than those commonly employed in telecom applications and allowing high beam quality. A small number of Mid-IR lasers, among the large variety of schemes, glasses, dopants and pumping schemes reported in literature, is selected on the basis of their slope efficiency and threshold pump power. In particular, tellurite, fluoride and chalcogenide fiber lasers are considered. More details are given with reference to the novel pumping schemes.

  8. Functions of chalcogenide electrodes in solutions of complexing reagents and interfering ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanskij, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility to modify chalcogenide electrodes and their behaviour in solutions of complexing reagents for the development of new methods of potentiometric titration has been studied. It is shown that complexing reagents (EDTA, cupferron, 8-hydroxyquinoline, sodium dithiocarbaminate) and Cu(2), Hg(2) produce a strong effect on the functions of Ag, Cu, Cd, Pb - selective electrodes, which is used for titration of potential-determining and non-potential-determining ions ions (Sr 2+ , La 3+ etc.) and also for modification of sulfide-selecting electrode. A method of potentiometric titration of sulfates and chlorides with modified Cd- and Ag-selective electrodes is suggested

  9. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  10. Progress towards marketable earth-abundant chalcogenide solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Teodor; Gunawan, Oki; Chey, S Jay; Goislard de Monsabert, Thomas; Prabhakar, Aparna; Mitzi, David B., E-mail: dmitzi@us.ibm.com

    2011-08-31

    Kesterite-related photovoltaic materials are considered a promising alternative to CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorbers, primarily because they are not reliant on scarce elements such as indium and tellurium or the heavy metal cadmium. Recently, we reported a performance breakthrough for this materials class, reaching by a simple hydrazine-based deposition technique 9.6% power conversion efficiency for Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} devices (40% improvement over vacuum-based methods). Here, more detailed characterization for a hydrazine-prepared device shows the potential of this technology for further efficiency improvement. We also present initial device results for Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} films deposited using a mixed water-hydrazine-based solvent, yielding devices with 8.1% efficiency.

  11. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  12. Structural phase transition and electronic properties in samarium chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Y. S., E-mail: yspanwar2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. New Science College Dewas-455001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C.S.A. Govt. P.G. College, Sehore, 466001 (India); Pataiya, J.; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The electronic structure and high pressure properties of samarium monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe have been reported by using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The total energy as a function of volume is evaluated. It is found that these monochalcogenides are stable in NaCl-type structure under ambient pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-type) structure for these compounds. Phase transition pressures were found to be 1.7, 4.4 and 6.6 GPa, for SmS, SmSe and SmTe respectively. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed that these compounds exhibit metallic character. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and phase transition pressure are in general good agreement with available data.

  13. Ab-initio electronic band structure calculations for beryllium chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpana, G.; Pari, G.; Yousuf, Mohammad

    1997-01-01

    The first principle tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method within the local density approximation (LDA) has been used to calculate the ground state properties, structural phase transition and pressure dependence of band gap of BeS, BeSe and BeTe. We have calculated the energy-volume relations for these compounds in the B3 and B8 phases. The calculated lattice parameters, bulk modulus and the pressure-volume relation were found to be in good agreement with the recent experimental results. The calculated B3→B8 structural transition pressure for BeS, BeSe and BeTe agree well with the recent experimental results. Our calculations show that these compounds are indirect band gap (Γ-X) semiconductors at ambient conditions. The calculated band gap values are found to be underestimated by 20-30% which is due to the usage of LDA. After the structural transition to the B8 phase, BeS continues to be indirect band gap semiconductors and ultimately above 100 GPa it metallises, BeSe and BeTe are metallic at the B3→B8 structural transition. (author)

  14. Role of hydrogen in Sb film deposition and characterization of Sb and GexSby films deposited by cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using metal-organic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Keun; Jung, Jin Hwan; Choi, Doo Jin

    2012-01-01

    To meet increasing demands for chemical vapor deposition methods for high performance phase-change memory, cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Sb and Ge x Sb y phase-change films and characterization of their properties were performed. Two cycle sequences were designed to investigate the role of hydrogen gas as a reduction gas during Sb film deposition. Hydrogen gas was not introduced into the reaction chamber during the purge step in cycle sequence A and was introduced during the purge step for cycle sequence B. The role of hydrogen gas was investigated by comparing the results obtained from these two cycle sequences and was concluded to exert an effect by a combination of precursor decomposition, surface maintenance as a hydrogen termination agent, and surface etching. These roles of hydrogen gas are discussed through consideration of changes in deposition rates, the oxygen concentration on the surface of the Sb film, and observations of film surface morphology. Based on these results, Ge x Sb y phase-change films were deposited with an adequate flow rate of hydrogen gas. The Ge and Sb composition of the film was controlled with the designed cycle sequences. A strong oxygen affinity for Ge was observed during the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of Sb 3d, Sb 4d, and Ge 3d orbitals. Based on the XPS results, the ratios of Ge to Sb were calculated to be Ge 0.32 Sb 0.68 , Ge 0.38 Sb 0.62 , Ge 0.44 Sb 0.56 , Ge 0.51 Sb 0.49 and Ge 0.67 Sb 0.33 for the G1S7, G1S3, G1S2, G1S1, and G2S1 cycles, respectively. Crystal structures of Sb, Ge, and the GeSb metastable phase were observed with various Ge x Sb y film compositions. Sb crystallinity decreased with respect to Ge crystallinity by increasing the Ge fraction. A current–voltage curve was introduced, and an electro-switching phenomenon was clearly generated at a typical voltage, V th . V th values increased in conjunction with an increased proportion of Ge. The Sb crystallinity decrease and V

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-11-05

    Metal and semiconducting nanocrystals have received a great deal of attention from fundamental scientists and application-oriented researchers due to their physical and chemical properties, which differ from those of bulk materials. Nanocrystals are essential building blocks in the development of nanostructured devices for energy conversion. Colloidal metals and metal chalcogenides have been developed for use as nanocrystal inks to produce efficient solar cells with lower costs. All high-performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a major challenge for the inorganic semiconductor-based solar field. This dissertation, divided into two parts, addresses several aspects of these emerging challenges. The first portion of the thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals of antimony sulfide, which is composed of non-scarce and non-toxic elements, and examines their performance in photovoltaic devices. The effect of various synthetic parameters on the final morphology is explored. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the nanocrystals were investigated, and Sb2S3 nanocrystal-based solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using different deposition processes. We achieved promising power conversion efficiencies of 1.48%. The second part of the thesis demonstrates a novel method for the in situ synthesis and patterning of nanocrystals via reactive inkjet printing. The use of low-cost manufacturing approaches for the synthesis of nanocrystals is critical for many applications, including photonics and electronics. In this work, a simple, low-cost method for the synthesis of nanocrystals with minimum size variation and waste using reactive inkjet printing is introduced. As a proof of concept, the

  16. The electronic band structures of gadolinium chalcogenides: a first-principles prediction for neutron detecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexue; Liu, Lei; Yu, Peter Y; Chen, Xiaobo; Shen, D Z

    2016-05-11

    By converting the energy of nuclear radiation to excited electrons and holes, semiconductor detectors have provided a highly efficient way for detecting them, such as photons or charged particles. However, for detecting the radiated neutrons, those conventional semiconductors hardly behave well, as few of them possess enough capability for capturing these neutral particles. While the element Gd has the highest nuclear cross section, here for searching proper neutron-detecting semiconductors, we investigate theoretically the Gd chalcogenides whose electronic band structures have never been characterized clearly. Among them, we identify that γ-phase Gd2Se3 should be the best candidate for neutron detecting since it possesses not only the right bandgap of 1.76 eV for devices working under room temperature but also the desired indirect gap nature for charge carriers surviving longer. We propose further that semiconductor neutron detectors with single-neutron sensitivity can be realized with such a Gd-chalcogenide on the condition that their crystals can be grown with good quality.

  17. Silicon-based thin films as bottom electrodes in chalcogenide nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yun [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungyun@etri.re.kr; Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Park, Young-Sam; Ryu, Sang-Ouk; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heung [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-31

    The effect of the electrical resistivity of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin film on the phase transition in a GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide alloy and the manufacturing aspect of the fabrication process of a chalcogenide memory device employing the SiGe film as bottom electrodes were investigated. While p-type SiGe bottom electrodes were formed using in situ doping techniques, n-type ones could be made in a different manner where phosphorus atoms diffused from highly doped silicon underlayers to undoped SiGe films. The p-n heterojunction did not form between the p-type GST and n-type SiGe layers, and the semiconduction type of the SiGe alloys did not influence the memory device switching. It was confirmed that an optimum resistivity value existed for memory operation in spite of proportionality of Joule heating to electrical resistivity. The very high resistivity of the SiGe film had no effect on the reduction of reset current, which might result from the resistance decrease of the SiGe alloy at high temperatures.

  18. Hydrogen treatment as a detergent of electronic trap states in lead chalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Marton; Brawand, Nicholas; Galli, Giulia

    Lead chalcogenide (PbX) nanoparticles are promising materials for solar energy conversion. However, the presence of trap states in their electronic gap limits their usability, and developing a universal strategy to remove trap states is a persistent challenge. Using calculations based on density functional theory, we show that hydrogen acts as an amphoteric impurity on PbX nanoparticle surfaces; hydrogen atoms may passivate defects arising from ligand imbalance or off-stoichiometric surface terminations, irrespective of whether they originate from cation or anion excess. In addition, we show, using constrained density functional theory calculations, that hydrogen treatment of defective nanoparticles is also beneficial for charge transport in films. We also find that hydrogen adsorption on stoichiometric nanoparticles leads to electronic doping, preferentially n-type. Our findings suggest that post-synthesis hydrogen treatment of lead chalcogenide nanoparticle films is a viable approach to reduce electronic trap states or to dope well-passivated films. Work supported by the Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (NB) and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (MV).

  19. Formation of surface nanolayers in chalcogenide crystals using coherent laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, K.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Kityk, V.

    2018-03-01

    We have shown a possibility to form laser modified surface nanolayers with thickness up to 60 nm in some ternary chalcogenide crystals (Ag3AsS3, Ag3SbS3, Tl3SbS3) The laser treatment was performed by two coherent laser beams split in a space. As the inducing lasers we have applied continuous wave (cw) Hesbnd Cd laser at wavelength 441 nm and doubled frequency cw Nd: YAG laser at 532 nm. The spectral energies of these lasers were higher with respect to the energy gaps of the studied crystals. The optical anisotropy was appeared and defected by monitoring of birefringence at probing wavelength of cw Hesbnd Ne laser at λ = 3390 nm. The changes of the laser stimulated near the surface layer morphology was monitored by TEM and AFM methods as well as by the reflected optical second harmonic generation at fundamental wavelength of microsecond CO2 laser generating at wavelength 10600 nm. This technique may open a new approach for the formation of the near the surface nanolayers in chalcogenides using external cw laser illumination.

  20. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 system. → Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 glasses. → Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. → Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T g ), crystallisation (T x ), and melting (T m ) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their ΔT = T x - T g and their Hruby, H r = (T x - T g )/(T m - T x ), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity σ and the room temperature conductivity σ 298 was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm -1 region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  1. Temperature and frequency response of conductivity in Ag2S doped chalcogenide glassy semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Swarupa; Das, Anindya Sundar; Roy, Madhab; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2018-06-01

    The electric conductivity of chalcogenide glassy semiconductor xAg2S-(1-x)(0.5S-0.5Te) has been presented here as a function of temperature and frequency. Formation of different nanocrystallites has been confirmed from X-ray diffraction study. It is also noteworthy that average size of nanocrystallites decreases with the increase of dislocation density. Dc conductivity data have been interpreted using Mott's model and Greaves's model in low and high temperature regions respectively. Ac conductivity above the room temperature has been analyzed using Meyer-Neldel (MN) conduction rule. It is interestingly noted that Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model is the most appropriate conduction mechanism for x = 0.35, where pairs of charge carrier are considered to hop over the potential barrier between the sites via thermal activation. To interpret experimental data for x = 0.45, modified non-overlapping small polaron tunnelling (NSPT) model is supposed to be appropriate model due to tunnelling through grain boundary. The conductivity spectra at various temperatures have been analyzed using Almond-West Formalism (power law model). Scaling of conductivity spectra reveals that electrical relaxation process of charge carriers (polaron) is temperature independent but depends upon the composition of the present chalcogenide glassy system.

  2. Structural and electronic properties of high pressure phases of lead chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John; Scolfaro, Luisa; Myers, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Lead chalcogenides, most notably PbTe and PbSe, have become an active area of research due to their thermoelectric properties. The high figure of merit (ZT) of these materials has brought much attention to them, due to their ability to convert waste heat into electricity. Variation in synthesis conditions gives rise to a need for analysis of structural and thermoelectric properties of these materials at different pressures. In addition to the NaCl structure at ambient conditions, lead chalcogenides have a dynamic orthorhombic (Pnma) intermediate phase and a higher pressure yet stable CsCl phase. By altering the lattice constant, we simulate the application of external pressure; this has notable effects on ground state total energy, band gap, and structural phase. Using the General Gradient Approximation (GGA) in Density Functional Theory (DFT), we calculate the phase transition pressures by finding the differences in enthalpy from total energy calculations. For each phase, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and hardness are calculated, using two different approaches. In addition to structural properties, we analyze the band structure and density of states at varying pressures, paying special note to thermoelectric implications.

  3. Characterization and modeling of microstructured chalcogenide fibers for efficient mid-infrared wavelength conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sida; Grassani, Davide; Kharitonov, Svyatoslav; Billat, Adrien; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2016-05-02

    We experimentally demonstrate wavelength conversion in the 2 µm region by four-wave mixing in an AsSe and a GeAsSe chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers. A maximum conversion efficiency of -25.4 dB is measured for 112 mW of coupled continuous wave pump in a 27 cm long fiber. We estimate the dispersion parameters and the nonlinear refractive indexes of the chalcogenide PCFs, establishing a good agreement with the values expected from simulations. The different fiber geometries and glass compositions are compared in terms of performance, showing that GeAsSe is a more suited candidate for nonlinear optics at 2 µm. Building from the fitted parameters we then propose a new tapered GeAsSe PCF geometry to tailor the waveguide dispersion and lower the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) closer to the 2 µm pump wavelength. Numerical simulations shows that the new design allows both an increased conversion efficiency and bandwidth, and the generation of idler waves further in the mid-IR regions, by tuning the pump wavelength in the vicinity of the fiber ZDW.

  4. Electrical properties and figures of merit for new chalcogenide-based thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J L; Hogan, T P; Brazis, P W; Kannewurf, C R; Chung, D Y; Kanatzidis, M G

    1997-07-01

    New Bi-based chalcogenide compounds have been prepared using the polychalcogenide flux technique for crystal growth. These materials exhibit characteristics of good thermoelectric materials. Single crystals of the compound CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} have shown conductivity as high as 2440 S/cm with a p-type thermoelectric power of {approx}+110 {micro}V/K at room temperature. A second compound, {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} shows lower conductivity {approx}240 S/cm, but a larger n-type thermopower {approx}{minus}200 {micro}V/K. Thermal transport measurements have been performed on hot-pressed pellets of these materials and the results show comparable or lower thermal conductivities than Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. This improvement may reflect the reduced lattice symmetry of the new chalcogenide thermoelectrics. The thermoelectric figure of merit for CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} reaches ZT {approx} 0.32 at 260 K and for {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} ZT {approx} 0.32 at room temperature, indicating that these compounds are viable candidates for thermoelectric refrigeration applications.

  5. Efficiency simulations of thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells for different indoor lighting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaert, B.; Veelaert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is an efficient natural energy source for outdoor applications. However, for indoor applications, the efficiency of PV cells is much lower. Typically, the light intensity under artificial lighting conditions is less than 10 W/m 2 as compared to 100-1000 W/m 2 under outdoor conditions. Moreover, the spectrum is different from the outdoor solar spectrum. In this context, the question arises whether thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells are suitable for indoor use. This paper contributes to answering that question by comparing the power output of different thin film chalcogenide solar cells with the classical crystalline silicon cell as reference. The comparisons are done by efficiency simulation based on the quantum efficiencies of the solar cells and the light spectra of typical artificial light sources i.e. an LED lamp, a 'warm' and a 'cool' fluorescent tube and a common incandescent and halogen lamp, which are compared to the outdoor AM 1.5 spectrum as reference.

  6. Hydrazine-hydrothermal method to synthesize three-dimensional chalcogenide framework for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Kanhere, Pushkar D.; Wong, Chui Ling; Tian Yuefeng; Feng Yuhua; Boey, Freddy; Wu, Tom; Chen Hongyu; White, Tim J.; Chen Zhong; Zhang Qichun

    2010-01-01

    A novel chalcogenide, [Mn 2 Sb 2 S 5 (N 2 H 4 ) 3 ] (1), has been synthesized by the hydrazine-hydrothermal method. X-ray crystallography study reveals that the new compound 1 crystallizes in space group P1-bar (no. 2) of the triclinic system. The structure features an open neutral three-dimensional framework, where two-dimensional mesh-like inorganic layers are bridged by intra- and inter-layer hydrazine ligands. Both two Mn1 and Mn2 sites adopt distorted octahedral coordination. While two Sb1 and Sb2 sites exhibit two different coordination geometries, the Sb1 site is coordinated with three S atoms to generate a SbS 3 trigonal-pyramidal geometry, and the Sb2 site adopts a SbS 4 trigonal bipyramidal coordination geometry. It has an optical band gap of about ∼2.09 eV, which was deduced from the diffuse reflectance spectrum, and displays photocatalytic behaviors under visible light irradiation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show compound 1 obeys the Curie-Weiss law in the range of 50-300 K. -- Graphical abstract: A novel chalcogenide, [Mn 2 Sb 2 S 5 (N 2 H 4 ) 3 ] (1), synthesized by hydrazine-hydrothermal method, has a band gap of about ∼2.09 eV and displays photocatalytic behaviors under visible light irradiation. Display Omitted

  7. Towards efficient solar-to-hydrogen conversion: Fundamentals and recent progress in copper-based chalcogenide photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yubin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting for hydrogen generation has been considered as a promising route to convert and store solar energy into chemical fuels. In terms of its large-scale application, seeking semiconductor photoelectrodes with high efficiency and good stability should be essential. Although an enormous number of materials have been explored for solar water splitting in the last several decades, challenges still remain for the practical application. P-type copper-based chalcogenides, such as Cu(In, GaSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have shown impressive performance in photovoltaics due to narrow bandgaps, high absorption coefficients, and good carrier transport properties. The obtained high efficiencies in photovoltaics have promoted the utilization of these materials into the field of PEC water splitting. A comprehensive review on copper-based chalcogenides for solar-to-hydrogen conversion would help advance the research in this expanding area. This review will cover the physicochemical properties of copper-based chalco-genides, developments of various photocathodes, strategies to enhance the PEC activity and stability, introductions of tandem PEC cells, and finally, prospects on their potential for the practical solar-to-hydrogen conversion. We believe this review article can provide some insights of fundamentals and applications of copper-based chalco-genide thin films for PEC water splitting.

  8. Nonlinear optical response of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in the IR and THz ranges studied with the femtosecond resolution in time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanova, E.; Guizard, S.; Wang, Tianwu

    2017-01-01

    Two time-resolved experimental methods have been used for characterization of the non-linear optical response of chalcogenide glasses of the system As-S-Se-Te in IR and THz ranges upon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Photoinduced conductivity and refractivity were stu...

  9. Chemical sensors in natural water: peculiarities of behaviour of chalcogenide glass electrodes for determination of copper, lead and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, B.L.; Legin, A.V.; Vlasov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Specific features of chemical sensors (chalcogenide glass and crystal ion-selective electrodes) behaviour have been studied to determine copper (2), lead, cadmium and fluorine in the course of in situ measurements, including long-term uninterrupted testing, for solving the problem of inspection over natural water contamination. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  11. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  12. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  13. Process for the enhanced capture of heavy metal emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pratim; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent-metal complex. The process includes oxidizing a sorbent precursor and contacting the sorbent precursor with a metallic species. The process further includes chemically reacting the sorbent precursor and the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. In one particular aspect of the invention, at least a portion of the sorbent precursor is transformed into sorbent particles during the oxidation step. These sorbent particles then are contacted with the metallic species and chemically reacted with the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. Another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent metal complex in a combustion system. The process includes introducing a sorbent precursor into a combustion system and subjecting the sorbent precursor to an elevated temperature sufficient to oxidize the sorbent precursor and transform the sorbent precursor into sorbent particles. The process further includes contacting the sorbent particles with a metallic species and exposing the sorbent particles and the metallic species to a complex-forming temperature whereby the metallic species reacts with the sorbent particles thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex under UV irradiation.

  14. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  15. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  16. Enhancement in CO2 Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity in the Chalcogenide Aerogel CuSb2S4 by Post-synthetic Modification with LiCl

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-09-11

    The new chalcogel CuSb2S4 was obtained by reacting Cu(OAc)2·H2O with KSbS2 in a water/formamide mixture at room temperature. In order to modify the gas adsorption capacity the synthesized CuSb2S4 aerogel was loaded with different amounts of LiCl. CO2 adsorption measurements on the CuSb2S4 aerogel before and after treatment with LiCl showed more than three times increased uptake of the LiCl-modified chalcogel. The selectivities of the gas pairs CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 in the LiCl-treated chalcogel are 235 and 105 respectively and amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. In comparison with other porous materials like zeolites, activated carbon and most of the Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) or Porous Organic Frameworks (POFs), our synthesized aerogels show good air and moisture stability. Although, the CO2 storage capacity of our aerogels is relatively low, however the selectivity of CO2 over H2 or CH4 in LiCl-loaded aerogels are higher than in zeolites, activated carbon as well as some MOFs like Cu-BTC and MOF-5 etc.

  17. Pr4N2S3 and Pr4N2Se3: two non-isostructural praseodymium(iii) nitride chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, Falk; Schleid, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The non-isostructural nitride chalcogenides of praseodymium, Pr 4 N 2 S 3 and Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 , are formed by the reaction of the praseodymium metal with sodium azide (NaN 3 ), praseodymium trihalide (PrX 3 ; X = Cl, Br, I) and the respective chalcogen (sulfur or selenium) at 900 C in evacuated silica ampoules after seven days. Both crystallize monoclinically in space group C2/c (Pr 4 N 2 S 3 : a = 1788.57(9), b = 986.04(5), c = 1266.49(6) pm, β = 134.546(7) , Z = 8; Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 : a = 1311.76(7), b = 1017.03(5), c = 650.42(3) pm, β = 90.114(6) , Z = 4). The crystal structures of both compounds show a layered construction, dominated by N 3- -centred (Pr 3+ ) 4 tetrahedra which share a common edge first. Continuing linkage of the so resulting bitetrahedral [N 2 Pr 6 ] 12+ units via the non-connected vertices to layers according to [stack ∞ 2 ]{[N(Pr) 2/2 e (Pr') 2/2 v ] 3+ } forms different kinds of tetrahedral nets which can be described as layers consisting of ''four- and eight-rings'' for Pr 4 N 2 S 3 and as layers of ''six-rings'' for Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 . Whereas the crystal structure of Pr 4 N 2 S 3 exhibits four different Pr 3+ cations with coordination numbers of six (2 x) and seven (2 x) against N 3- and S 2- , the number of cations in the nitride selenide (Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 ) is reduced to half (Pr1 and Pr2) also having six- and sevenfold anionic coordination spheres. Further motifs for the connection of [NM 4 ] 9+ tetrahedra in crystal structures of nitride chalcogenides and halides of the rare-earth elements with ratios of N: M = 1: 2 are presented and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  18. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Ag doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A., E-mail: aghamdi90@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Heniti, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics, St. Andrew' s College, Gorakhpur, UP (India)

    2013-03-15

    Research and development efforts are currently underway to fabricate a variety of solid state devices. A good deal of information regarding the synthesis, structural, optical and electrical properties of Ag doped lead chalcogenides have been revealed. The bulk polycrystalline (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} ternary chalcogenides are prepared by diffusion technique. The XRD patterns recorded for the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films prepared by vacuum deposition technique, show that these films are polycrystalline in nature. The optical measurements reveal that the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films possess direct band gap and the band gap energy decreases with an increase of Ag concentration. The extinction coefficient (k) and refractive index (n) are found to be changing by increasing Ag concentration in PbSe. These results are interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities of (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films are measured in temperature range 303-403 K. It is observed that the dc conductivity increases at all the temperatures with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to thermally assisted tunneling of the charge carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap are found to decrease with increasing Ag concentration in lead chalcogenide and there are good agreements between these two values. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline nature has been verified by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption data showed the rules of direct transitions predominate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dc conductivity increases with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of Ag concentration causes a decrease in E{sub g

  19. Activity, Performance, and Durability for the Reduction of Oxygen in PEM Fuel Cells, of Fe/N/C Electrocatalysts Obtained from the Pyrolysis of Metal-Organic-Framework and Iron Porphyrin Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lijun; Larouche, Nicholas; Chenitz, Régis; Zhang, Gaixia; Lefèvre, Michel; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TOC After a first decay common to all electrocatalysts, only NC Por-0.8 -1150 Ar + NH3 shows an improvement in durability attributable to a decrease in water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly those located in micropores. - Abstract: Fe/N/C type catalysts have been produced by ballmilling ZIF-8 (a metal-organic-framework) and a chloroiron-tetramethoxyporphyrin (ClFeTMPP). The resulting material was first pyrolyzed in Ar at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 °C, then in NH 3 at 950 °C in order to produce two series of catalysts: the Ar and the Ar + NH 3 ones. They were labeled NC Por-x-T Ar or NC Por-x-T Ar + NH 3 , where x is the nominal Fe loading in wt% and T is the temperature of the first pyrolysis in Ar. At 80 °C in H 2 /O 2 fuel cell, the most active and performing catalyst is NC Por-0.8-1050 Ar + NH 3 . All NC Por-0.8-T Ar + NH 3 catalysts with T comprised between 850 and 1050 °C display the same instability behavior. The only catalyst showing an improvement in durability is NC Por-0.8-1150 Ar + NH 3 . It is proposed that the drastic change in durability upon increasing the first pyrolysis temperature, from 1050 to 1150 °C in Ar, is attributable to an important decrease in the heteroatom content (a drop of 32% for both N and O atoms) of the catalyst upon graphitization, reducing the hydrophilic character of its carbonaceous support and decreasing the possibility of water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly the sites located in micropores

  20. Enhanced Selectivity and Uptake Capacity of CO2 and Toluene Adsorption in Co0.5 M0.33 MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) Chalcogels by Impregnated Metal Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5M0.33MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2− chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3+) or (Y3+) salts in nonaqueous solvents forming amorphous networks

  1. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  2. Low-phonon-frequency chalcogenide crystalline hosts for rare earth lasers operating beyond three microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Nostrand, Michael C.; Krupke, William F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a RE-doped MA.sub.2 X.sub.4 crystalline gain medium, where M includes a divalent ion such as Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Eu, or Yb; A is selected from trivalent ions including Al, Ga, and In; X is one of the chalcogenide ions S, Se, and Te; and RE represents the trivalent rare earth ions. The MA.sub.2 X.sub.4 gain medium can be employed in a laser oscillator or a laser amplifier. Possible pump sources include diode lasers, as well as other laser pump sources. The laser wavelengths generated are greater than 3 microns, as becomes possible because of the low phonon frequency of this host medium. The invention may be used to seed optical devices such as optical parametric oscillators and other lasers.

  3. Electron irradiation induced reduction of the permittivity in chalcogenide glass (As2S3) thin film

    KAUST Repository

    San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Xiaoming; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the dielectric properties of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass. By means of low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy, we derive the permittivity function, its dispersive relation, and calculate the refractive index and absorption coefficients under the constant permeability approximation. The measured and calculated results show a heretofore unseen phenomenon: a reduction in the permittivity of ? 40 %. Consequently a reduction of the refractive index of 20%, hence, suggests a conspicuous change in the optical properties of the material under irradiation with a 300 keV electron beam. The plausible physical phenomena leading to these observations are discussed in terms of the homopolar and heteropolar bond dynamics under high energy absorption. The reported phenomena, exhibited by As 2 S 3-thin film, can be crucial for the development of photonics integrated circuits using electron beam irradiation method. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyukhin, S.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Jain, H.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As x Se 100−x , As x S 100−x , Ge x Se 100−x and Ge x S 100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  5. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  6. Power-efficient production of photon pairs in a tapered chalcogenide microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Scott, Evan, E-mail: emeyersc@uwaterloo.ca; Dot, Audrey [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ahmad, Raja; Li, Lizhu; Rochette, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montréal, Québec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Quantum Information Science Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2015-02-23

    Using tapered fibers of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of 2.13 ± 0.07 for degenerate pumping with 3.2 μW average power, and 1.33 ± 0.03 for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 μW and 1.5 μW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.

  7. Modeling of Mid-IR Amplifier Based on an Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Microsphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical amplifier based on a tapered fiber and an Er3+-doped chalcogenide microsphere is designed and optimized. A dedicated 3D numerical model, which exploits the coupled mode theory and the rate equations, is used. The main transitions among the erbium energy levels, the amplified spontaneous emission, and the most important secondary transitions pertaining to the ion-ion interactions have been considered. Both the pump and signal beams are efficiently injected and obtained by a suitable design of the taper angle and the fiber-microsphere gap. Moreover, a good overlapping between the optical signals and the rare-earth-doped region is also obtained. In order to evaluate the amplifier performance in reduced computational time, the doped area is partitioned in sectors. The obtained simulation results highlight that a high-efficiency midinfrared amplification can be obtained by using a quite small microsphere.

  8. Ultrabroadband, Midinfrared Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion Engineered As2Se3-Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small core As2Se3-based photonic crystal fibers (PCFs are accurately characterized for compact, high power, ultrabroadband, and coherent supercontinuum generation within few millimeters fiber length. Bandwidths of ~5.3 μm, 5 μm, and 3.2 μm were calculated for hole-to-hole spacings Λ= 3.5 μm, 4.5 μm, and 5.5 μm, respectively. The spectral broadening in the chalcogenide PCF is mainly caused by self-phase modulation and Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift. The results show that small core As2Se3 PCFs are a promising candidate for mid-IR SCG up to ~8 μm.

  9. Estimating optical feedback from a chalcogenide fiber in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jumpertz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of optical feedback originating from a chalcogenide fiber used to couple light from a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser is evaluated experimentally. Threshold reduction measurements on the fibered laser, combined with an analytical study of a rate equations model of the laser under optical feedback, allow estimating the feedback strength between 11% and 15% depending on the fiber cleavage quality. While this remains below the frontier of the chaotic regime, it is sufficient to deeply modify the optical spectrum of a quantum cascade laser. Hence for applications such as gas spectroscopy, where the shape of the optical spectrum is of prime importance, the use of mid-infrared optical isolators may be necessary for fibered quantum cascade lasers to be fully exploited.

  10. The influence of Ge on optical and thermo- mechanical properties of S-Se chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Kavitha; Babu Devarasetty, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    S-Se-Ge glasses were prepared by melt quenching method to investigate the effect of Germanium on thermo-mechanical and optical properties of chalcogenide glasses. The glassy nature of the samples has been verified by x-ray diffraction and DSC studies that the samples are glassy in nature. The optical band gap of the samples was estimated by the absorption spectrum fitting method. The optical band gap increased from 1.61 ev for x = 0 sample to 1.90 ev for x = 40 sample and is explained in terms of cohesive energies. The basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, Volume (Vh) and formation energy (Eh) of micro voids in the glassy network, as well as the modulus of Elasticity (E) have been calculated for prepared glasses.in present glasses. The variation in these parameters with Ge content correlated with heat of atomization of alloys.

  11. Mid-infrared fiber-coupled supercontinuum spectroscopic imaging using a tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg Petersen, Christian; Prtljaga, Nikola; Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Napier, Bruce; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Bang, Ole

    2018-02-01

    We present the first demonstration of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of human tissue using a fiber-coupled supercontinuum source spanning from 2-7.5 μm. The supercontinuum was generated in a tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber in order to obtain broad bandwidth, high average power, and single-mode output for good imaging properties. Tissue imaging was demonstrated in transmission by raster scanning over a sub-mm region of paraffinized colon tissue on CaF2 substrate, and the signal was measured using a fiber-coupled grating spectrometer. This demonstration has shown that we can distinguish between epithelial and surrounding connective tissues within a paraffinized section of colon tissue by imaging at discrete wavelengths related to distinct chemical absorption features.

  12. Preparation and intercalation study of ternary transition elements chalcogenides AxMXn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.

    1999-01-01

    The crystalline powders of transition elements chalcogenides have been prepared by solid-solid reaction method starting from elemental powders in evacuated and sealed quartz tubes heated at various temperatures depending on the compound to be prepared. The structures and composition of the obtained compounds have been studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence techniques. Intercalation compounds Co x MX 2 have been obtained by heating the powder with elemental cobalt at 500 Centigrade. The results of the structural studies show that the intercalation of cobalt is a regular phenomena and the cobalt atoms play the role of staples for the layers constructing the crystalline structure of starting materials. This stapling phenomena is accompanied by changes in distance between the layers and therefore changes in the length of bonds between the elements of compound. The changes in the length of bonds have been confirmed by the results of FTIR studies.(author)

  13. Thermal Stability and Optical Activity of Erbium Doped Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, D.; Koughia, K.; Kasap, S. O.; Maeda, K.; Sakai, T.; Ikuta, J.; Ivanova, Z. G.

    The glass transition and crystallization temperatures (T g , T c ), heat capacity, thermal stability and glass uniformity of GeSGa, GeSeGa, Ge(SeTe)Ga chalcogenide glasses doped with Er3+ by the addition of Er2S3 have been investigated by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Temperature-Modulated DSC (TMDSC). While some of the glasses have two crystallization peaks, these glasses were nonetheless optically actively and uniform. Essential optical properties have been evaluated, such as the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and lifetime as a function of the glass composition. We present typical results to emphasize some of the important characteristics of these systems and discuss trends within a glass system; and also highlight differences between glass systems.

  14. High pressure and temperature induced structural and elastic properties of lutetium chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriya, S.; Kinge, R.; Khenata, R.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    The high-pressure structural phase transition and pressure as well temperature induced elastic properties of rock salt to CsCl structures in semiconducting LuX (X = S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides compound have been performed using effective interionic interaction potential with emphasis on charge transfer interactions and covalent contribution. Estimated values of phase transition pressure and the volume discontinuity in pressure-volume phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from ZnS to NaCl structure. From the investigations of elastic constants the pressure (temperature) dependent volume collapse/expansion, melting temperature TM, Hardness (HV), and young modulus (E) the LuX lattice infers mechanical stiffening, and thermal softening.

  15. Structural and optical investigation of Te-based chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rita, E-mail: reetasharma2012@gmail.com; Sharma, Shaveta; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M. [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar (India); Chander, Ravi [Applied Science Deptt. Govt. Polytechnic College Amritsar (India); Kumar, Praveen [Department of Physics, DAV University, Sarmastipur, Jalandhar-144012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InBiTe{sub 3} films by using X-ray diffraction, optical and Raman Spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared thin films were found to be Semi-crystalline by X-ray diffraction. Particle Size and Strain has been calculated from XRD data. The optical constants, film thickness, refractive index and optical band gap (E{sub g}) has been reported for In{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, InBiTe{sub 3} films. Raman Spectroscopy was performed to investigate the effect of Bi, In, on lattice vibration and chemical bonding in Te based chalcogenide glassy alloys.

  16. Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Helen L.; MacLachlan, David G.; Lee, David; Brownsword, Richard A.; Thomson, Robert R.; Weidmann, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

  17. Thermoelectric performance of tellurium-reduced quaternary p-type lead–chalcogenide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima; Wang, Heng; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Pei, Yanzhong; Mitchell, David R.G.; Dou, Shi Xue; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A long-standing technological challenge to the widespread application of thermoelectric generators is obtaining high-performance thermoelectric materials from abundant elements. Intensive study on PbTe alloys has resulted in a high figure of merit for the single-phase ternary PbTe–PbSe system through band structure engineering, and the low thermal conductivity achieved due to nanostructuring leads to high thermoelectric performance for ternary PbTe–PbS compounds. Recently, the single-phase p-type quaternary PbTe–PbSe–PbS alloys have been shown to provide thermoelectric performance superior to the binary and ternary lead chalcogenides. This occurs via tuning of the band structure and from an extraordinary low thermal conductivity resulting from high-contrast atomic mass solute atoms. Here, we present the thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured p-type quaternary PbTe–PbSe–PbS composites and compare the results with corresponding single-phase quaternary lead chalcogenide alloys. We demonstrate that the very low lattice thermal conductivity achieved is attributed to phonon scattering at high-contrast atomic mass solute atoms rather than from the contribution of secondary phases. This results in a thermoelectric efficiency of ∼1.4 over a wide temperature range (650–850 K) in a p-type quaternary (PbTe) 0.65 (PbSe) 0.1 (PbS) 0.25 composite that is lower than that of single-phase (PbTe) 0.85 (PbSe) 0.1 (PbS) 0.05 alloy without secondary phases

  18. Study of film semiconductor glass-metal interfaces by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehr, Muryel.

    1979-01-01

    The use of nuclear method analysis, particularly α particles and Li + ions elastic backscattering permitted to study the glass chalcogenide-metal interdiffusion submitted to thermal and electric stresses. The 8 MeV alpha particles are of a great interest, they increase five times the depth of the gold analysis in glasses compared with the 3,5 MeV alpha particles [fr

  19. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  20. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  1. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  2. Green methods for preparing highly co2 selective and h2s tolerant metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-12-23

    A green route for preparing a metal organic framework include mixing metal precursor with a ligand precursor to form a solvent-free mixture; adding droplets of water to the mixture; heating the mixture at a first temperature after adding the water; and isolating the metal organic framework material including the metal and the ligand.

  3. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning more than 11 μm in a chalcogenide step-index fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation covering an ultra-broad spectrum from 1.5-11.7μm and 1.4-13.3μm is experimentally demonstrated by pumping an 85mm chalcogenide step-index fiber with 100fs pulses at a wavelength of 4.5μm and 6.3μm, respectively.......Supercontinuum generation covering an ultra-broad spectrum from 1.5-11.7μm and 1.4-13.3μm is experimentally demonstrated by pumping an 85mm chalcogenide step-index fiber with 100fs pulses at a wavelength of 4.5μm and 6.3μm, respectively....

  4. Effect of the Copper on Thermo - Mechanical and Optical Properties of S-Se-Cu Chalcogenide Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Kavitha; Babu Devarasetty, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The S15Se85-xCux (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) chalcogenide glasses are synthesized using melt quenching technique and the effect of Copper on thermal, mechanical and optical properties of chalcogenide glasses are investigated. The glassy natures of the prepared samples were verified by X-ray diffraction and DSC studies. The optical band gap of the samples is estimated and it is observed that optical band gap is decreased with increasing of the copper content and is discussed in terms of cohesive energy and coordination number. The basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, Volume (Vh) and formation energy (Eh) of micro voids in the glassy network and the modulus of Elasticity (E) are calculated in present glasses. The composition dependence of micro hardness is discussed in terms of heat of atomization energy.

  5. Pinning down high-performance Cu-chalcogenides as thin-film solar cell absorbers: A successive screening approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Jiawei; Xi, Lili [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Photovoltaic performances of Cu-chalcogenides solar cells are strongly correlated with the absorber fundamental properties such as optimal bandgap, desired band alignment with window material, and high photon absorption ability. According to these criteria, we carry out a successive screening for 90 Cu-chalcogenides using efficient theoretical approaches. Besides the well-recognized CuInSe{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} materials, several novel candidates are identified to have optimal bandgaps of around 1.0–1.5 eV, spike-like band alignments with CdS window layer, sharp photon absorption edges, and high absorption coefficients. These new systems have great potential to be superior absorbers for photovolatic applications if their carrrier transport and defect properties are properly optimized.

  6. Optoelectronic behavior of Quaternary Uranium Chalcogenides Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se): A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Haleem Ud [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The Fermi surface and optoelectronic properties for Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se) compounds are investigated for the first time. • The electronic band structure calculations reveal a metallic nature for the herein studied compounds. • The bonding nature between different atoms is discussed. • Considerable anisotropy was found between the principal complex tensor components for the two compounds. - Abstract: First principle calculations of electronic, Fermi surface, electronic charge density and optical properties of Quaternary Uranium Chalcogenides Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se) are performed using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the frame work of density functional theory. Using mBJ method, the electronic band curves overlap at Fermi level and show metallic band structure for both compounds. The calculated densities of states (DOS) spectra show that the valence band is mainly attributed to Rb-p, Pd-d and S-s/p or Se-s/p states; conduction band is mainly attributed to Pd-d, U-f and S-p or Se-p/d states. From the electronic charge density spectrum, it is revealed that a strong covalent bond exists between Pd and S, and Pd or Se while charge transfer between U and S, U and Se, Rb and S, and Rb and Se atoms results in ionic bond nature. It is noted from Fermi surface calculations that both compounds comprise same number of fast velocity electrons but differs in slow or intermediate velocity of electrons. The calculated frequency dependent dielectric function, energy loss function and reflectivity show a considerable anisotropy for both compounds.

  7. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  8. Short and medium range structures of 80GeSe2–20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracovschi, Elena; Calvez, Laurent; Cormier, Laurent; Le Coq, David; Du, Jincheng

    2018-05-01

    The short and medium range structures of 80GeSe2–20Ga2Se3 (or Ge23.5Ga11.8Se64.7) chalcogenide glasses have been studied by combining ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and experimental neutron diffraction studies. The structure factor and total correlation function were calculated from glass structures generated from AIMD simulations and compared with neutron diffraction experiments showing reasonable agreement. The atomic structures of ternary chalcogenide glasses were analyzed in detail, and it was found that gallium atoms are four-fold coordinated by selenium (Se) and form [GaSe4] tetrahedra. Germanium atoms on average also have four-fold coordination, among which Se is 3.5 with the remaining being Ge–Ge homo-nuclear bonds. Ga and Ge tetrahedra link together mainly through corner-sharing and some edge-sharing of Se. No homo-nuclear bonds were observed among Ga atoms or between Ge and Ga. In addition, Se–Se homo-nuclear bonds and Se chains with various lengths were observed. A small fraction of Se atom triclusters that bond to three cations of Ge and Ga were also observed, confirming earlier proposals from 77Se solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Furthermore, the electronic structures of ternary chalcogenide glasses were studied in terms of atomic charge and electronic density of states in order to gain insights into the chemical bonding and electronic properties, as well as to provide an explanation of the observed atomic structures in these ternary chalcogenide glasses.

  9. Thermally controlled mid-IR band-gap engineering in all-glass chalcogenide microstructured fibers: a numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-glass low refractive index (RI) contrast chalcogenide (Ch) microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is investigated numerically. The effect of external temperature on the position of band-gap is explored to realize potential fiber-based wavelength filters....... Then the temperature sensitivity of band-gaps is investigated to design fiber-based mid-IR wavelength filters/sensors....

  10. Deposition of Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} chalcogenide glass films by electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Spencer, E-mail: spencen@g.clemson.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL, University of Central FL (United States); Johnston, Danvers E.; Li, Cheng; Deng, Weiwei [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central FL (United States); Richardson, Kathleen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL, University of Central FL (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Solution-based chalcogenide glass films, traditionally deposited by spin-coating, are attractive for their potential use in chip-based devices operating in the mid-infrared and for ease of nanostructure incorporation. To overcome limitations of spin-coating such as excessive material waste and difficulty for scale-up, this paper introduces electrospray as a film deposition technique for solution-based chalcogenide glasses. Electrospray is shown to produce Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} films with similar surface quality and optical properties as films deposited by spin-coating. The advantages of electrospray deposition for nanoparticle dispersion, scalable and continuous manufacturing with little material waste, and comparable film quality to spin-coating make electrospray a promising deposition method for practical applications of chalcogenide glass films. - Highlights: • Electrospray film deposition processing of Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} films was developed. • Traditional spin-coated films were also fabricated in parallel. • Optical properties and surface quality found to be similar between two approaches.

  11. Ion beam assisted synthesis of nano-crystals in glasses (silver and lead chalcogenides); Synthese assistee par faisceau d'ions d'agregats dans les verres (argent et chalcogenures de plomb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R

    2005-04-15

    This work deals with the interest in ion beams for controlling nano-crystals synthesis in glasses. We show two different ways to reach this aim, insisting on importance of redox phenomena induced by the penetration and implantation of ions in glasses. We first show that we can use the great energy density deposited by the ions to tailor reducing conditions, favorable to metallic nano-crystal precipitation. In particular, we show that microscopic mechanism of radiation induced silver precipitation in glasses are analogous to the ones of classical photography. Ion beams can also be used to overcome supersaturation of elements in a given matrix. In this work, we synthesized lead chalcogenide nano-crystals (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) whose optical properties are interesting for telecommunication applications. We demonstrate the influence of complex chalcogenide chemistry in oxide glasses, and its relationship with the observed loss of growth control when nano-crystals are synthesized by sequential implantation of Pb and S in pure silica. As a consequence of this understanding, we demonstrate a novel and controlled synthesis of PbS nano-crystals, consisting in implanting sulfur into a Pb-containing glass, before annealing. Choice of glass composition provides a better control of precipitation physico-chemistry, whereas the use of implantation allows high nano-crystal volume fractions to be reached. Our study of IR emission properties of these nano-crystals shows a very high excitation cross section, and evidence for a 'dark exciton' emitting level. (author)

  12. Effect of Chlorine precursor in surface and cataytic properties of Fe/TiO2 Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    López, Tessi; Pecchi, Gina; Moreno, Abel; García Fierro, José Luis; Gómez, R.; Reyes, P.

    2002-01-01

    Titania-supported iron (1wt%) catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method using different gelation pH (3 and 9), metal precursors (FeCl2 and FeCl3) and calcination temperatures (873 and 1073K). Characterization data of calcined catalysts revealed that in all samples the dominant iron species is Fe3+ and the crystalline phase of the TiO2 substrate depends on the gelation pH and the metal precursor used. It was found that in the Fe/TiO2 ex-FeCl3 samples an important part of the iron ions beca...

  13. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  14. MOCVD and ALD of rare earth containing multifunctional materials. From precursor chemistry to thin film deposition and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, Andrian Petrov

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the development of metal-organic complexes of rare elements. They should be used as novel precursors for the production of rare earth thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Within the work two precursor classes were examined, the tris-Malonato-complexes as well as the tris-Guanidinato-complexes of a series of rare earth metals. The latter showed excellent properties regarding to their volatility, their thermal stability, the defined decomposition and high reactivity towards water. They have been successfully used as precursors for the MOCVD of rare earth oxide layers. By using of a gadolinium guanidinate it could also be shown that the rare earth guanidinates are promising precursors for ALD of rare earth oxide and MOCVD of rare earth nitride layers. [de

  15. Nanoscale structure and atomic disorder in the iron-based chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naurang Lal Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiband iron-based superconductors have layered structure with a phase diagram characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin and lattice excitations, with nanoscale atomic structure playing a key role in their fundamental electronic properties. In this paper, we briefly review nanoscale structure and atomic disorder in iron-based chalcogenide superconductors. We focus on the Fe(Se,S1−xTex (11-type and K0.8Fe1.6Se2 (122-type systems, discussing their local structure obtained by extended x-ray absorption fine structure. Local structure studies on the Fe(Se,S1−xTex system reveal clear nanoscale phase separation characterized by coexisting components of different atomic configurations, similar to the case of random alloys. In fact, the Fe–Se/S and Fe–Te distances in the ternary Fe(Se,S1−xTex are found to be closer to the respective distances in the binary FeSe/FeS and FeTe systems, showing significant divergence of the local structure from the average one. The observed features are characteristic of ternary random alloys, indicating breaking of the local symmetry in these materials. On the other hand, K0.8Fe1.6Se2 is known for phase separation in an iron-vacancy ordered phase and an in-plane compressed lattice phase. The local structure of these 122-type chalcogenides shows that this system is characterized by a large local disorder. Indeed, the experiments suggest a nanoscale glassy phase in K0.8Fe1.6Se2, with the superconductivity being similar to the granular materials. While the 11-type structure has no spacer layer, the 122-type structure contains intercalated atoms unlike the 1111-type REFeAsO (RE = rare earth oxypnictides, having well-defined REO spacer layers. It is clear that the interlayer atomic correlations in these iron-based superconducting structures play an important role in structural stability as well as superconductivity and magnetism.

  16. Mesostructured metal germanium sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, M.J.; Coombs, N.; Bedard, R.L.; White, S.; Thompson, L.K.; Ozin, G.A.

    1999-12-29

    A new class of mesostructured metal germanium sulfide materials has been prepared and characterized. The synthesis, via supramolecular assembly of well-defined germanium sulfide anionic cluster precursors and transition-metal cations in formamide, represents a new strategy for the formation of this class of solids. A variety of techniques were employed to examine the structure and composition of the materials. Structurally, the material is best described as a periodic mesostructured metal sulfide-based coordination framework akin to periodic hexagonal mesoporous silica, MCM-41. At the molecular scale, the materials strongly resemble microstructured metal germanium sulfides, in which the structure of the [Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10}]{sup 4{minus}} cluster building-blocks are intact and linked via {mu}-S-M-S bonds. Evidence for a metal-metal bond in mesostructured Cu/Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10} is also provided.

  17. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  19. Interaction between titanium and sulfuric acid in the electrodeposition of chalcogenide semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.

    1992-01-01

    Some chalcogenide electrodeposition problems in the cathodic potential range from -0.30 V to-0.65 V vs SCE may be related to the Titanium corrosion-passivation process in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid. This feature was discovered accidentally when it was attempted to electrodeposit Cd-Hg-Te compounds from a ternary plating bath; an anodic current of about 10 m/cm 2 was produced in the Titanium cathode at -0.50 V vs SCE, while at -0.40 and -0.60 V vs SCE the current was cathodic. In order to explain this feature, a first study has been carried out to determine the influence of the temperature and sulfuric acid concentration on the passivation current density, passivation potential and Flade potential for passivation. From Arrhenius plots of the passivation currents an apparent activation energy of 63.8 kJ/mole for Titanium passivation in sulfuric acid at -0.50 V vs SCE was obtained. The electrochemical stability of passivated Titanium was explained by assuming that the oxide film formed exhibits n-type semiconducting character, since passivation data was in good agreement with interfacial energetics for n-TiO 2 in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid.(Author)

  20. Effect of Se addition on optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, A. S.; Akl, Alaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Compositional dependence of optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSxSe1-x (0.4 ≥ x ≥ 0.0 at. %) thin films was studied. Cadmium sulphoselenide films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique at vacuum (8.2 × 10-4 Pa) onto preheated glass substrates (523 K). The evaporation rate and film thickness were kept constant at 2.50 nm/s and 375 ± 5 nm, respectively. X-ray diffractograms showed that, the deposited films have the low crystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) was used to check the compositional elements of deposited films. The absorption coefficient was determined from transmission and reflection measurements at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm. Optical density, skin depth, optical energy gap and Urbach's parameters of CdSSe thin films have also been estimated. The direct optical energy gap decreased from 2.248 eV to 1.749 eV when the ratio of Se-content was increased from 0.60 to 1.00 . Conduction band and valance band positions were evaluated. The temperature dependence of dc-electrical resistivity in the temperature range (293-450 K) has been reported. Three conduction regions due to different conduction mechanisms were detected. Electrical sheet resistance, activation energy and pre-exponential parameters were discussed. The estimated values of optical and electrical parameters were strongly dependent upon the Se-content in CdSSe matrix.

  1. Chalcogenide glasses for device application modified by high-energy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Chalcogenide glasses (ChG) or chemical compounds of chalcogen atoms (S, Se or Te, but not O) with some elements from IV-th and V-th groups of the Periodic Table (typically As, Ge, Sb, Bi, etc. ) obtained by melt quenching, are a perspective for application in modern optoelectronics, photonics, telecommunications, acoustic-optics, xerography, lithography, etc. This uniqueness is due to extremely high sensitivity of ChG to external influences, associated, presumably, with high steric flexibility proper to glassy-like network with low average atomic coordination (chalcogen atoms are typically two-fold coordinated in a glassy-like network), relatively large internal free volume and specific lp-character of electronic states localized at a valence-band top. However, at present, the further possibilities for conventional chemical/technological methods to prepare ChG are fully exhausted. One of the steps to resolve this problem is post-technological modification of ChG using possibilities of high-energy irradiation. This work is focused on new advanced radiation-modified ChG for device application in optoelectronics. The attractive practical use of these non-crystalline materials is tightly connected with radiation-induced defect formation processes. For the first time, we consider the possibilities of Raman scattering along with X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to characterize microstructural mechanisms of radiation-induced effects in ChG. (authors)

  2. Strong correlations and the search for high-Tc superconductivity in chromium pnictides and chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, J. M.; Calderón, M. J.; Liu, J.; Muñoz, M. C.; Bascones, E.

    2017-02-01

    Undoped iron superconductors accommodate n =6 electrons in five d orbitals. Experimental and theoretical evidence shows that the strength of correlations increases with hole doping, as the electronic filling approaches half filling with n =5 electrons. This evidence delineates a scenario in which the parent compound of iron superconductors is the half-filled system, in analogy to cuprate superconductors. In cuprates the superconductivity can be induced upon electron or hole doping. In this work we propose to search for high-Tc superconductivity and strong correlations in chromium pnictides and chalcogenides with n slave-spin and multiorbital random-phase-approximation calculations we analyze the strength of the correlations and the superconducting and magnetic instabilities in these systems with the main focus on LaCrAsO. We find that electron-doped LaCrAsO is a strongly correlated system with competing magnetic interactions, with (π ,π ) antiferromagnetism and nodal d -wave pairing being the most plausible magnetic and superconducting instabilities, respectively.

  3. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghua; Korolkov, Ilia; Fan, Bo; Cathelinaud, Michel; Ma, Hongli; Adam, Jean-Luc; Merdrignac, Odile; Calvez, Laurent; Lhermite, Hervé; Brizoual, Laurent Le; Pasquinelli, Marcel; Simon, Jean-Jacques

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2-Sb2Se3-CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  4. Pressure induced structural transitions in Lead Chalcogenides and its influence on thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John; Spinks, Michael; Borges, Pablo; Scolfaro, Luisa

    2012-03-01

    Lead chalcogenides, most notably PbTe and PbSe, have become an active area of research due to their thermoelectric (TE) properties. The high figure of merit (ZT) of these materials has brought much attention to them, due to their ability to convert waste heat into electricity, with a possible application being in engine exhaust. Here, we examine the effects of altering the lattice parameter on total ground state energy and the band gap using first principles calculations performed within Density Functional Theory and the Projector Augmented Wave approach and the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP-PAW) code. Both PbTe and PbSe, in NaCl, orthorhombic, and CsCl structures are considered. It is found that altering the lattice parameter, which is analogous to applying external pressure on the material experimentally, has notable effects on both ground state energy and the band gap. The implications of this behavior in the TE properties of these materials are analyzed.

  5. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2–Sb2Se3–CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy on iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe(Se, Te) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukita, R.; Sugimoto, A.; Ekino, T.

    2011-01-01

    We show scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) results of Fe(Se, Te). STM topography shows square arrangements of spots with the lattice spacing 0.37 nm. Te and Se atoms are randomly distributed in the STM topography. The STM topography of FeTe exhibits clusters of separated iron atoms. We have investigated the iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe(Se, Te) using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) technique. STM topography at 4.9 K shows clear regular square arrangements of spots with the lattice spacing ∼0.37 nm, from which what we observe are attributed to Se or Te atomic plane. In the topography, brighter and darker atomic spots are randomly distributed, which are most probably due to Te and Se atoms, respectively. For the FeTe compound, the topography exhibits clusters of the bright spots probably arising from separated iron atoms distributing over several Te lattice sites. The STS measurements clarify the existence of the large-size gap with 2Δ = 0.4-0.6 eV.

  7. The use of castor oil and ricinoleic acid in lead chalcogenide nanocrystal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph W. M.; Mubofu, Egid B.; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-08-01

    A green solution-based thermolysis method for the synthesis of lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals in castor oil (CSTO) and its isolate ricinoleic acid (RA) is described. The blue shift observed from the optical spectra of CSTO and RA-capped PbE nanocrystals (NCs) confirmed the evidence of quantum confinement. The dimensions of PbE NCs obtained from NIR absorption spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were in good agreement. The particle sizes estimated were in the range of 20, 25, and 130 nm for castor oil-capped PbS, PbSe, and PbTe, respectively. Well-defined close to cubic-shaped particles were observed in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of PbSe and PbTe nanocrystals. The high-resolution TEM and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) micrographs of the as-synthesized crystalline PbE NCs showed distinct lattice fringes with d-spacing distances corroborating with the standard values reported in literature.

  8. A new method to study complex materials in solid state chemistry: application to chalcogenide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippens, P.E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    We show that a combined application of Moessbauer spectroscopy and other experimental tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance provides a coherent picture of the local electronic structure in chalcogenide materials. In order to develop this idea we propose an analysis of the Sn, Sb and Te local electronic structures for three different systems of materials. The first example concerns the In-Sn-S system. We show that Li insertion in In 16 Sn 4 S 32 leads to changes of the Sn oxidation states from Sn(IV) to Sn(II). The second example concerns materials of the Tl-Sb-S system. We show that variations of the 121 Sb Moessbauer isomer shift and surface of the first peak of the X-ray absorption spectra at the Sb L III edge can be linearly correlated because of the main influence of the Sb 5s electrons. This is explained by changes in the local environment of the Sb atoms. The last example concerns the crystalline phases of the Tl-Sn-Te system. The formal oxidation numbers of the Te atoms are determined from 125 Te Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are related to the different types of bonds involving the Te atoms in the Tl-Sn-Te compounds

  9. Direct femtosecond laser writing of buried infrared waveguides in chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coq, D.; Bychkov, E.; Masselin, P.

    2016-02-01

    Direct laser writing technique is now widely used in particular in glass, to produce both passive and active photonic devices. This technique offers a real scientific opportunity to generate three-dimensional optical components and since chalcogenide glasses possess transparency properties from the visible up to mid-infrared range, they are of great interest. Moreover, they also have high optical non-linearity and high photo-sensitivity that make easy the inscription of refractive index modification. The understanding of the fundamental and physical processes induced by the laser pulses is the key to well-control the laser writing and consequently to realize integrated photonic devices. In this paper, we will focus on two different ways allowing infrared buried waveguide to be obtained. The first part will be devoted to a very original writing process based on a helical translation of the sample through the laser beam. In the second part, we will report on another original method based on both a filamentation phenomenon and a point by point technique. Finally, we will demonstrate that these two writing techniques are suitable for the design of single mode waveguide for wavelength ranging from the visible up to the infrared but also to fabricate optical components.

  10. Thermogravimetric evaluation of the suitability of precursors for MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, G V; Shivashankar, S A; Umarji, A M

    2008-01-01

    A method based on the Langmuir equation for the estimation of vapour pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of subliming compounds is described. The variable temperature thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) curve of benzoic acid is used to arrive at the instrument parameters. Employing these parameters, the vapour pressure–temperature curves are derived for salicylic acid and camphor from their TG/DTG curves. The values match well with vapour pressure data in the literature, obtained by effusion methods. By employing the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, the enthalpy of sublimation could be calculated. Extending the method further, two precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of titanium oxide bis-isopropyl bis tert-butyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 , and bis-oxo-bis-tertbutyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, [TiO(tbob) 2 ] 2 , have been evaluated. The complex Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 is found to be a more suitable precursor. This approach can be helpful in quickly screening for the suitability of a compound as a CVD precursor

  11. Rapid synthesis of macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Magnus; Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    A method for the formation of synthetic macrocycles with different ring sizes from diols is presented. Reacting a simple diol precursor with electrophilic reagents leads to a cyclic carbonate, sulfite or phosphate in a single step in 25-60% yield. Converting the cyclization precursor to a bis-ele...

  12. Precursors in photonic crystals - art. no. 618218

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.; DeLaRue, RM; Viktorovitch, P; Lopez, C; Midrio, M

    2006-01-01

    We derive the Sommerfeld precursor and present the first calculations for the Brillouin precursor that result from the transmission of a pulse through a photonic crystal. The photonic crystal is modelled by a one-dimensional N-layer medium and the pulse is a generic electromagnetic plane wave packet

  13. The Sommerfeld precursor in photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R; Hoenders, BJ

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the Sommerfeld precursor that results after transmission of a generic electromagnetic plane wave pulse with transverse electric polarization, through a one-dimensional rectangular N-layer photonic crystal with two slabs per layer. The shape of this precursor equals the shape of the

  14. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  15. The interrelationships of mathematical precursors in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors from each domain was established for small sums addition. Results showed a five-factor structure for the quantity precursors, with the major distinction being between nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks. The overall model demonstrated good fit and strong predictive power (R(2)=55%) for addition number combinations. Linguistic and spatial attention domains showed indirect relationships with outcomes, with their effects mediated by symbolic quantity measures. These results have implications for the measurement of mathematical precursors and yield promise for predicting future math performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uniform deposition of ternary chalcogenide nanoparticles onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film using liquid carbon dioxide-based coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nursanto, Eduardus Budi [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se Jin [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyo Sang; Hwang, Yun Jeong [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon, E-mail: jaehoonkim@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, GyeongGi-Do 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, GyeongGi-Do 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung Koun, E-mail: bkmin@kist.re.kr [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Green School, Korea University, 145,Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-28

    We report the simultaneous deposition of two different metal precursors dissolved in liquid carbon dioxide (l-CO{sub 2}), aiming to the synthesis of ternary chalcopyrite (e.g. CuInS{sub 2}) nanoparticles on a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. The l-CO{sub 2}-based deposition of Cu and In precursors and subsequent reaction with a dilute H{sub 2}S gas resulted in Cu{sub x}In{sub y}S{sub z} nanoparticles uniformly deposited across the entire thickness of a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. Further heat treatment (air annealing and sulfurization) led to the formation of more stoichiometric CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles. The formation of CuInS{sub 2} on TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal growth of CuInS{sub 2} was also found to be controllable by adjusting the number of coating cycles of the l-CO{sub 2}-based deposition. - Highlights: • Simultaneous deposition of two different metal precursors dissolved in l-CO{sub 2}. • Uniform deposition of CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles across mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. • Highly crystalline CuInS{sub 2} formed on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. • Nearly stoichiometric ratio of Cu:In:S was obtained.

  17. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Knudsen, Kristian; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    - pair. The two nanocrystal precursors can be uti-lized independently and can control the size with a trend of Pt(acac)2metal (copper or nickel). These results open up avenues to understand

  18. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Knudsen, Kristian; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape

  19. Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Fast-Response and Highly Sensitive Luminescent Sensing of Fe3+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    of graphene, Since the discovery of graphene, series of two-dimensional (2-D) nanosheets materials such as metal oxides, metal hydroxides, transition metal chalcogenides (TMDs), boron nitride (BN) and black phosphorus have been of great interests, and have been extensively investigated for applications...... in electronics, lithium-ion batteries, catalysis and mechanical properties, etc. 2-D MOF nanosheets materials, as a new member of the 2-D nanomaterials family, are still at the very early stage. However, to the best of our knowledge, the 2-D MOF nanosheets materials for luminescent sensing have been rarely...

  20. Fabrication of superconducting wire using organometallic precursors and infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Organometallic precursors from naphthenic acid and metal nitrates were used for the synthesis of YBCO oxide superconducting compounds. The characteristics of metal naphthenates as organometallic precursors were investigated by IR spectra, viscosity measurements, and infiltration. 123 superconducting compound obtained from 123 naphthenate showed a Tc of 90 degree K and a rather dense and elongated microstructure. Also, the melting behavior of Ba-cuprates which were used for 123 making was studied. A low-temperature melting process was developed to fabricate silver-sheathed superconducting wire with the powder-in-tube method; flowing argon gas is introduced to the system at 930-945 degree C to reduce the melting temperature of the 123 compound without silver sheath melting. It resulted in a 90 degree K Tc superconducting core with dense and locally aligned microstructure. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, 4-probe resistance and Jc measurements, and carbon-content determinations were carried out to characterize the microstructure, grain alignment, and superconducting properties of the samples

  1. A first principles study of phase stability, bonding, electronic and lattice dynamical properties of beryllium chalcogenides at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabhi, Shweta; Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First principles calculations are performed for BeS, BeSe and BeTe in B3, B8 and B1 phases. • They are indirect wide band gap semiconductors stable in B3 phase at ambient condition. • Phonon calculations at ambient and high pressure are reported. • The NiAs phase is dynamically stable at high pressure. - Abstract: The present paper reports a detailed and systematic theoretical study of structural, mechanical, electronic, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of three beryllium chalcogenides BeS, BeSe and BeTe in zinc blende, NiAs and rock salt phases by performing ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory. The calculated value of lattice constants and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and found to agree reasonably well. These compounds are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with a partially ionic contribution in all considered three phases. The zinc blende phase of these chalcogenides is found stable at ambient condition and phase transition from zinc blende to NiAs structure is found to occur. The bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, anisotropic factor, Poission’s ratio, Young’s modulus for these are also calculated and discussed. The phonon dispersion curves of these beryllium chalcogenides in zinc blende phase depict their dynamical stability in this phase at ambient condition. We have also estimated the temperature variation of specific heat at constant volume, entropy and Debye temperature for these compounds in zinc blende phase. The variation of lattice-specific heat with temperature obeys the classical Dulong–Petit’s law at high temperature, while at low-temperature it obeys the Debye’s T 3 law

  2. Investigation of the dynamics of a nonlinear optical response in glassy chalcogenide semiconductors by the pump–probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, E. A.; Kuzyutkina, Yu S.; Shiryaev, V. S.; Guizard, S.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of the results of measurements by using the pump–probe method with a femtosecond resolution in time and computer simulation of the charge carrier kinetics have revealed two types of a nonlinear optical response in samples of chalcogenide glasses belonging to the As – S – Se system, irradiated by 50-fs laser pulses with a wavelength of 0.79 μm. The difference in the nonlinear dynamics is due to the difference in the photoexcitation character, because laser radiation can be absorbed either through bound states in the band gap or without their participation, depending on the ratio of the pump photon energy to the bandgap energy.

  3. Analysis of thermal treatment effects upon optico-luminescent and scintillation characteristics of oxide and chalcogenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Pirogov, Evgeniy N.; Galkin, Sergey N.; Nagornaya, Lyudmila L.; Bondar, Vladimir G.; Babiychuk, Inna P.; Krivoshein, Vadim I.; Silin, Vitaliy I.; Lalayants, Alexandr I.; Voronkin, Evgeniy F.; Katrunov, Konstantin A.; Onishchenko, Gennadiy M.; Vostretsov, Yuriy Ya.; Malyi, Pavel Yu.; Lisetskaya, Elena K.; Lisetskii, Longin N.

    2005-01-01

    This work has been aimed at analyzing the effects of various thermal treatment factors upon optical-luminescent, scintillation and other functional characteristics of complex oxide and chalcogenide crystals. The crystals considered in this work are scintillators with intrinsic (PWO, CWO, BGO), activator (GSO:Ce) or complex-defect ZnSe(Te) type of luminescence. Important factors of thermal treatment are not only the temperature and its variation with time, but also the chemical composition of the annealing medium, its oxidation-reduction properties

  4. The role of low-energy electrons in focused electron beam induced deposition: four case studies of representative precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Thorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a single-step, direct-write nanofabrication technique capable of writing three-dimensional metal-containing nanoscale structures on surfaces using electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors. Currently FEBID is, however, limited in resolution due to deposition outside the area of the primary electron beam and in metal purity due to incomplete precursor decomposition. Both limitations are likely in part caused by reactions of precursor molecules with low-energy (3, Pt(PF34, Co(CO3NO, and W(CO6. Through these case studies, it is evident that this combination of studies can provide valuable insight into potential mechanisms governing deposit formation in FEBID. Although further experiments and new approaches are needed, these studies are an important stepping-stone toward better understanding the fundamental physics behind the deposition process and establishing design criteria for optimized FEBID precursors.

  5. Same Precursor, Two Different Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Suzannah R.; Woods, Keenan N.; Plassmeyer, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    with significantly larger coherence lengths. This amorphous β-Ga2O3 phase could not be identified using the conventional Bragg diffraction techniques traditionally used to study crystalline metal oxide thin films. The combination of Bragg diffraction and tfPDF provides a much more complete description of film...... with temperature, forming mixtures of Ga-substituted In2O3 and In-substituted β-Ga2O3 with different degrees of substitution. X-ray total scattering and PDF analysis indicate that the majority phase for both the powders and films is an amorphous/nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3 phase, with a minor constituent of In2O3...

  6. From chelating precursors to La0.05Sr0.95CoO3-y oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Guo, F.; Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several La 0.05 Sr 0.95 CoO 3-y (LSCO-95) powders were synthesized by means of a chelated complex-based precursor approach, which involved pyrolysis of chelating precursors and subsequent calcination of the resulting oxides. This paper focuses on the coordination effects of the precursors on the formation of the crystalline phases of the LSCO-95 oxide, showing that when the precursor is composed of EDTA-metal complexes, the perovskite-type oxide LSCO-95, an electronic-ionic mixed conducting ceramic material, can be achieved. In contrast, those LSCO-95 powders obtained initially from the pyrolysis of the precursors containing other coordination ligands possess only the undesirable hexagonal structure

  7. Spinel formation for stabilizing simulated nickel-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O

    2006-08-15

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge from commonly available Al-rich ceramic precursors was investigated and accomplished with high nickel incorporation efficiency. To simulate the process, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, corundum, kaolinite, and mullite and was sintered from 800 to 1480 degrees C. The nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O4) was confirmed as the stabilization phase for nickel and crystallized with efficiencies greater than 90% for all precursors above 1250 degrees C and 3-h sintering. The nickel-incorporation reaction pathways with these precursors were identified, and the microstructure and spinel yield were investigated as a function of sintering temperature with fixed sintering time. This study has demonstrated a promising process for forming nickel spinel to stabilize nickel-laden sludge from a wide range of inexpensive ceramic precursors, which may provide an avenue for economically blending waste metal sludges via the building industry processes to reduce the environmental hazards of toxic metals. The correlation of product textures and nickel incorporation efficiencies through selection of different precursors also provides the option of tailoring property-specific products.

  8. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  9. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  10. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  11. Probabilistic precursor analysis - an application of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Gopika, V.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Incidents are inevitably part of the operational life of any complex industrial facility, and it is hard to predict how various contributing factors combine to cause the outcome. However, it should be possible to detect the existence of latent conditions that, together with the triggering failure(s), result in abnormal events. These incidents are called precursors. Precursor study, by definition, focuses on how a particular event might have adversely developed. This paper focuses on the events which can be analyzed to assess their potential to develop into core damage situation and looks into extending Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to precursor studies and explains the benefits through a typical case study. A preliminary probabilistic precursor analysis has been carried out for a typical NPP. The major advantages of this approach are the strong potential for augmenting event analysis which is currently carried out purely on deterministic basis. (author)

  12. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  13. Plasma-assisted MOCVD growth of superconducting NbN thin films using Nb dialkylamide and Nb alkylimide precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Ott, A.W.; Chang, R.P.H.; Babcok, J.R.; Belot, J.A.; Metz, M.V.; Marks, T.J.; Lane, M.A.; Kannewurf, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    The first example of the use of metal-organic precursors for depositing NbN superconducting thin films is described. The study, which employed niobium(IV) and niobium(V) pulsed source precursors and hydrazine plasma as the nitrogen source, indicates that T c is highly dependent on the lattice parameters and level of oxygen impurities, which are in turn governed by growth and post-deposition annealing temperatures. (orig.)

  14. Planar half-cell shaped precursor body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a half-cell shaped precursor body of either anode type or cathode type, the half-cell shaped precursor body being prepared to be free sintered to form a sintered or pre-sintered half-cell being adapted to be stacked in a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The obtained half......-cell has an improved planar shape, which remains planar also after a sintering process and during temperature fluctuations....

  15. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  16. ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescen...

  17. Local probe investigations of the electronic phase diagrams of iron pnictides and chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materne, Philipp

    2015-09-24

    In this work, the electronic phase diagrams of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and Fe{sub 1+y}Te were investigated using muon spin relaxation and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Single crystals of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} with x = 0.00, 0.35, 0.50, and 0.67 were examined. The undoped 122 parent compound CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is a semi metal and shows antiferromagnetic commensurate spin density wave order below 167 K. By hole doping via Na substitution, the magnetic order is suppressed and superconductivity emerges including a Na-substitution level region, where both phases coexist. Upon Na substitution, a tilting of the magnetic moments out of the ab-plane is found. The interaction of the magnetic and superconducting order parameter in this coexistence region was studied and a nanoscopic coexistence of both order parameters is found. This is proven by a reduction of the magnetic order parameter of 7 % in x = 0.50 below the superconducting transition temperature. This reduction was analysed using Landau theory and a systematic correlation between the reduction of the magnetic order parameter and the ratio of the transition temperatures, T{sub c}/T{sub N}, for the 122 family of the iron pnictides is presented. The magnetic phase transition is accompanied by a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition. The lattice dynamics at temperatures above and below this magneto-structural phase transition were studied and no change in the lattice dynamics were found. However, the lattice for finite x is softer than for the undoped compound. For x = 0.67, diluted magnetic order is found. Therefore, the magnetism in Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is persistent even at optimal doping. The superconducting state is investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth, where two superconducting gaps with a weighting of nearly 50:50 are obtained. A temperature independent anisotropy of the magnetic penetration depth γ{sub

  18. Local probe investigations of the electronic phase diagrams of iron pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materne, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the electronic phase diagrams of Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 and Fe 1+y Te were investigated using muon spin relaxation and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Single crystals of Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 with x = 0.00, 0.35, 0.50, and 0.67 were examined. The undoped 122 parent compound CaFe 2 As 2 is a semi metal and shows antiferromagnetic commensurate spin density wave order below 167 K. By hole doping via Na substitution, the magnetic order is suppressed and superconductivity emerges including a Na-substitution level region, where both phases coexist. Upon Na substitution, a tilting of the magnetic moments out of the ab-plane is found. The interaction of the magnetic and superconducting order parameter in this coexistence region was studied and a nanoscopic coexistence of both order parameters is found. This is proven by a reduction of the magnetic order parameter of 7 % in x = 0.50 below the superconducting transition temperature. This reduction was analysed using Landau theory and a systematic correlation between the reduction of the magnetic order parameter and the ratio of the transition temperatures, T c /T N , for the 122 family of the iron pnictides is presented. The magnetic phase transition is accompanied by a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition. The lattice dynamics at temperatures above and below this magneto-structural phase transition were studied and no change in the lattice dynamics were found. However, the lattice for finite x is softer than for the undoped compound. For x = 0.67, diluted magnetic order is found. Therefore, the magnetism in Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 is persistent even at optimal doping. The superconducting state is investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth, where two superconducting gaps with a weighting of nearly 50:50 are obtained. A temperature independent anisotropy of the magnetic penetration depth γ λ = 1.5(4) is obtained, which is much smaller compared to other 122 compounds

  19. Synthesis and crystal chemistry of transuranium element chalcogenides. Contribution to the study of the 5f electron localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, Daniel.

    1976-09-01

    The synthesis and crystal chemistry of Np, Pu, Am and Cm transuranium element chalcogenides are described. From plutonium, transuranium element chalcogenides exhibit the same crystal structure as their rare-earth homologues. The variations of the lattice constants of these compounds in terms of the atomic number are characterized by the lack of the 5f contraction and are interpreted by a localization of the 5f electrons depending upon the considered transuranium element, the nature of the ligand and the crystal structure. To compare the degree of magnitude of the 5f electron delocalization in various compounds, a delocalization scale is proposed based on a comparison between the molar volumes of actinide and isostructural lanthanide compounds. This scale provides a delocalization coefficient for each compound under study. Examination of these coefficients shows that the 5f electrons, in series of actinide compounds, become localized when going from neptunium to curium and that the delocalization process does not only depend upon overlaps between 5f-6d orbitals of neighbouring actinide atoms; the delocalization coefficients show the existence of a secondary delocalization effect due to overlaps between the p anion and f actinide orbitals which are more important for the Vb anion group (N, P, As, Sb) than for the Vib one (S,Se,Te) [fr

  20. Structural features of spin-coated thin films of binary AsxS100−x chalcogenide glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Slang, S.; Golovchak, R.; Jain, H.; Vlcek, M.; Kovalskiy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating technology offers a convenient method for fabricating photostable chalcogenide glass thin films that are especially attractive for applications in IR optics. In this paper we report the structure of spin-coated As x S 100−x (x = 30, 35, 40) thin films as determined using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, especially in relation to composition (i.e. As/S ratio) and preparation process variables. It was observed that As atoms during preparation have a tendency to precipitate out in close to stoichiometric compositions. The mechanism of bonding between the inorganic matrix and organic residuals is discussed based on the experimental data. A weak interaction between S ions and amine-based clusters is proposed as the basis of structural organization of the organic–inorganic interface. - Highlights: • As–S spin-coated chalcogenide thin films with different As/S were fabricated. • XPS measurements support the cluster-like structure of spin-coated films. • As 2 O 3 was confirmed as the composition of precipitate formed during dissolution. • Lack of As–As bonds explains the observed photostability of the thin films

  1. Bismuth chalcogenide compounds Bi 2 × 3 (X=O, S, Se): Applications in electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jiangfeng; Bi, Xuanxuan; Jiang, Yu; Li, Liang; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides Bi2×3 (X=O, S, Se) represent a unique type of materials in diverse polymorphs and configurations. Multiple intrinsic features of Bi2×3 such as narrow bandgap, ion conductivity, and environmental friendliness, have render them attractive materials for a wide array of energy applications. In particular, their rich structural voids and the alloying capability of Bi enable the chalcogenides to be alternative electrodes for energy storage such as hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), sodium (Na) storage and supercapacitors. However, the low conductivity and poor electrochemical cycling are two key challenges for the practical utilization of Bi2×3 electrodes. Great efforts have been devoted to mitigate these challenges and remarkable progresses have been achieved, mainly taking profit of nanotechnology and material compositing engineering. In this short review, we summarize state-of-the-art research advances in the rational design of diverse Bi2×3 electrodes and their electrochemical energy storage performance for H, Li, and Na and supercapacitors. We also highlight the key technical issues at present and provide insights for the future development of bismuth based materials in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  2. Destruction-polymerization transformations as a source of radiation-induced extended defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Filipecki, Jacek; Shpotyuk, Mykhaylo

    2013-01-01

    Long-wave shift of the optical transmission spectrum in the region of fundamental optical absorption edge is registered for As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glassy semiconductors after γ-irradiation. This effect is explained in the frameworks of the destruction-polymerization transformations concept by accepting the switching of the heteropolar As-S covalent bonds into homopolar As-As ones. It is assumed that (As 4 + ; S 1 - ) defect pairs are created under such switching. Formula to calculate content of the induced defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors is proposed. It is assumed that defects concentration depends on energy of broken covalent bond, bond-switching energy balance, correlation energy, optical band-gap and energy of excitation light. It is shown that theoretically calculated maximally possible content of radiation-induced defects in As 2 S 3 is about 1.6% while concentration of native defects is negligible. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Effect of temperature and pressure on non-linear conduction in GeTeSe chalcogenide glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mansy, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    The I-V characteristic curves were studied in the temperature range 301-359 K and pressure range up to 7.15 x 10 9 Pa which illustrate a non-linear behaviour below (high-resistance region) and beyond (negative-resistance region) a breakdown point characterising Ge 27 Te 62 Se 11 chalcogenide glasses. The general behaviour is shifted towards lower voltage and higher current when the ambient temperature and/or the applied pressure were increased. The non-linear behaviour in the pre breakdown region is discussed according to the Poole-Frenkel field emission of electrons from deep traps located at a depth equal to 0.372eV. The analysis of the effect of field on the non-linear conduction in Ge 27 Te 62 Se 11 chalcogenide glass suggests a modification of the energy difference between filled and empty sites, where the effect of pressure suggests a reduction of the energy gap width. The analysis based on simple thermal effects in the region closer to the breakdown point implies the electrothermal process initiating the negative resistance region. The results of post breakdown region (negative-resistance region) imply the electron hopping between filled and empty localised states at Fermi level. The density of localised states is estimated which lies in the range 5.7 x 10 16 -1.84 x 10 18 cm -3 /eV

  4. Enhanced complete photonic bandgap in a moderate refractive index contrast chalcogenide-air system with connected-annular-rods photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin; Yang, Chunyong; Li, Xiaohang; Cao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Shaoping

    2018-01-01

    . For the typical chalcogenide-glass–air system with an index contrast of 2.8:1, the optimized square lattice CARPC exhibits a significantly larger normalized CPBG of about 13.50%, though the use of triangular lattice CARPC is unable to enhance the CPBG

  5. Nonlinear Label-Free Biosensing With High Sensitivity Using As2S3 Chalcogenide Tapered Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an experimentally feasible fiber design, which can act as a highly sensitive, label-free, and selective biosensor using the inherent high nonlinearity of an As2S3 chalcogenide tapered fiber. The surface immobilization of the fiber with an antigen layer can provide the possibility t......, this high sensitivity can be obtained using a low-power 1064-nm microchip laser....

  6. Selective ultrafast probing of transient hot chemisorbed and precursor states of CO on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beye, M.; Anniyev, T.; Coffee, R.

    2013-01-01

    to hot-electron-driven vibrational excitations. This process is faster than, but occurs in parallel with, the transition into the precursor state. With resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, we probe each of these states selectively and determine the respective transient populations depending on optical...... (2013)SCIEAS0036-8075] a phonon-mediated transition into a weakly adsorbed precursor state occurring on a time scale of >2 ps prior to desorption. Here we focus on processes within the first picosecond after laser excitation and show that the metal-adsorbate coordination is initially increased due...

  7. A further step towards tuning the properties of metal-chalcogenide nanocapsules by replacing skeletal oxide by sulphide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Christian; Todea, Ana Maria; Bögge, Hartmut; Floquet, Sébastien; Cadot, Emmanuel; Korenev, Vladimir S; Fedin, Vladimir P; Gouzerh, Pierre; Müller, Achim

    2013-01-14

    Addition of [Mo(2)(V)O(2)(μ-O)(μ-S)(aq)](2+) linker-type units to a solution/dynamic library containing tungstates results via the formation of the complementary pentagonal {(W)W(5)} units logically in the self-assembly of a mixed oxide/sulphide {W(VI)(72)Mo(V)(60)}-type Keplerate, thereby demonstrating the ability to tune the capsule's skeletal softness (the (μ-O)(2) and (μ-S)(2) scenarios are known) and providing options to influence differently important capsule-substrate interactions.

  8. Enhanced interfacial thermal transport in pnictogen tellurides metallized with a lead-free solder alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devender,; Ramanath, Ganpati, E-mail: Ramanath@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lofgreen, Kelly; Devasenathipathy, Shankar; Swan, Johanna; Mahajan, Ravi [Intel Corporation, Assembly Test and Technology Development, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian [Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Controlling thermal transport across metal–thermoelectric interfaces is essential for realizing high efficiency solid-state refrigeration and waste-heat harvesting power generation devices. Here, the authors report that pnictogen chalcogenides metallized with bilayers of Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5} solder and Ni barrier exhibit tenfold higher interfacial thermal conductance Γ{sub c} than that obtained with In/Ni bilayer metallization. X-ray diffraction and x-ray spectroscopy indicate that reduced interdiffusion and diminution of interfacial SnTe formation due to Ni layer correlates with the higher Γ{sub c}. Finite element modeling of thermoelectric coolers metallized with Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}/Ni bilayers presages a temperature drop ΔT ∼ 22 K that is 40% higher than that obtained with In/Ni metallization. Our results underscore the importance of controlling chemical intermixing at solder–metal–thermoelectric interfaces to increase the effective figure of merit, and hence, the thermoelectric cooling efficiency. These findings should facilitate the design and development of lead-free metallization for pnictogen chalcogenide-based thermoelectrics.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of the tetrahedral quaternary chalcogenides CuM{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} (M=Zn, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Hassan, M. Shafiq; Dong, Yongkwan [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Martin, Joshua [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Quaternary chalcogenides form a large class of materials that continue to be of interest for energy-related applications. Certain compositions have recently been identified as possessing good thermoelectric properties however these materials typically have the kesterite structure type with limited variation in composition. In this study we report on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the quaternary chalcogenides CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} which crystallize in the modified zinc-blende crystal structure, and compare their properties with that of CuZn{sub 2}InSe{sub 4}. These p-type semiconductors have direct band gaps of about 1 eV resulting in relatively high Seebeck coefficient and resistivity values. This work expands on the research into quaternary chalcogenides with new compositions and structure types in order to further the fundamental investigation of multinary chalcogenides for potential thermoelectrics applications. - Graphical abstract: The structural, optical and electrical properties of the quaternary chalcogenides CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} are reported for the first time. The unique crystal structure allows for relatively good electrical transports and therefore potential for thermoelectric applications. - Highlights: • The physical properties of CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} are reported for the first time. • These materials have potential for thermoelectric applications. • Their direct band gaps also suggest potential for photovoltaics applications.

  10. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  11. Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenlong Yao

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M 2 S + (0.1 Ga 2 S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2 ) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga 2 S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M 2 S + (0.1Ga 2 S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2 ) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na 2 S + B 2 S 3 (x (le) 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments. The results provide direct

  12. Structure, ionic conductivity and mobile carrier density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wenlong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M2S + (0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M2S + (0.1Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na2S + B2S3 (x ≤ 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

  13. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  14. Carbon fibre as a composites materials precursor-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.F.; Yusof, N.; Mustafa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon fibers are widely used as reinforcement in composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fiber reinforced ceramics, carbon-carbon composites and carbon fiber reinforced metals, due to their high specific strength and modulus. Carbon fiber composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. Generally, there are two main sectors of carbon fiber applications. Application of carbon fiber in high technology sectors includes aerospace and nuclear engineering whereby the use of carbon fiber is driven by maximum performance and not significantly influenced by cost factors. Meanwhile, the application in general engineering and transportations sector is dominated by cost constraints. Carbon fibers used in composites are often coated or surface treated to improve interaction between the fiber surface and the matrix. PAN/ CNT composite fibers are good candidates for the development of next generation carbon fibers with improved tensile strength and modulus while retaining its compressive strength. This paper aims at reviewing and critically discussing the fabrication aspects of carbon fiber for composites which can be divided into several sections: precursor selection, spinning process, pretreatment of the precursor, pyrolysis process, and also surface treatment of the carbon fiber. The future direction of carbon fiber for composite is also briefly identified to further extend the boundary of science and technology in order to fully exploit its potential. (author)

  15. Elastic precursor wave decay in shock-compressed aluminum over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dynamic flow behavior of aluminum is considered in the context of precursor wave decay measurements and simulations. In this regard, a dislocation-based model of high-rate metal plasticity is brought into agreement with previous measurements of evolving wave profiles at 300 to 933 K, wherein the amplification of the precursor structure with temperature arises naturally from the dislocation mechanics treatment. The model suggests that the kinetics of inelastic flow and stress relaxation are governed primarily by phonon scattering and radiative damping (sound wave emission from dislocation cores), both of which intensify with temperature. The manifestation of these drag effects is linked to low dislocation density ahead of the precursor wave and the high mobility of dislocations in the face-centered cubic lattice. Simulations performed using other typical models of shock wave plasticity do not reproduce the observed temperature-dependence of elastic/plastic wave structure.

  16. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  17. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot-atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope-separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  18. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ☉} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ≳ 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  19. Modeling of dispersion engineered chalcogenide rib waveguide for ultraflat mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Karim, M. R.; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A rigorous numerical investigation has been carried out through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide rib waveguide for near-infrared to mid-infrared ultraflat broadband supercontinuum generation in all-normal group-velocity dispersion regime. We propose a novel design of a 1-cm-long air-clad rib waveguide which is made from {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {Se}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as the core with either silica or {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {S}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as a lower cladding separately. A broadband ultraflat supercontinuum spanning from 1300 to 1900 nm could be generated when pumped at 1.55 μ {m} with a low input peak power of 100 W. Shifting the pump to 2 μ {m}, the supercontinuum spectra extended in the mid-infrared region up to 3400 nm with a moderate-input peak power of 500 W. To achieve further extension in mid-infrared, we excite our optimized rib waveguide in both the anomalous and all-normal dispersion pumping regions at 3.1 μ {m} with a largest input peak power of 3 kW. In the case of anomalous dispersion region pumping, numerical analysis shows that supercontinuum spectrum can be extended in the mid-infrared up to 10 μ {m}, although this contains high spectral amplitude fluctuations over the entire bandwidth which limits the supercontinuum sources in the field of high precision measurement applications. On the other hand, by optimizing a rib waveguide geometry for pumping in all-normal dispersion region, we are able to generate a smooth and flat-top coherent supercontinuum spectrum with a moderate bandwidth spanning the wavelength range 2-5.5 μ {m} with less than 5 dB spectral fluctuation over the entire output bandwidth. Our proposed design is highly suitable for making on-chip SC light sources for a variety of applications such as biomedical imaging, and environmental and industrial sensing in the mid-infrared region.

  20. Report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The main questions to be answered by this report were: The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, could it have been prevented? If there is a next severe accident, may it be prevented? To answer the first question, the report addressed several aspects. First, the report investigated whether precursors to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident existed in the operating experience; second, the reasons why these precursors did not evolve into a severe accident. Third, whether lessons learned from these precursor events were adequately considered by member countries; and finally, if the operating experience feedback system needs to be improved, based on the previous analysis. To address the second question which is much more challenging, the report considered precursor events identified through a search and analysis of the IRS database and also precursors events based on risk significance. Both methods can point out areas where further work may be needed, even if it depends heavily on design and site-specific factors. From the operating experience side, more efforts are needed to ensure timely and full implementation of lessons learnt from precursor events. Concerning risk considerations, a combined use of risk precursors and operating experience may drive to effective changes to plants to reduce risk. The report also contains a short description and evaluation of selected precursors that are related to the course of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report addresses the question whether operating experience feedback can be effectively used to identify plant vulnerabilities and minimize potential for severe core damage accidents. Based on several of the precursor events national or international in-depth evaluations were started. The vulnerability of NPPs due to external and internal flooding has clearly been addressed. In addition to the IRS based investigation, the WGRISK was asked to identify important precursor events based on risk significance. These precursors have

  1. Glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Cu0.3(SSe20)0.7 chalcogenide glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Cu 0.3 (SSe 20 ) 0.7 chalcogenide glass were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two crystalline phases (SSe 20 and Cu 2 Se) were identified after annealing the glass at 773 K for 24 h. The activation energy of the glass transition (E g ), the activation energy of crystallization (E c ), the Avrami exponent (n) and the dimensionality of growth (m) were determined. Results indicate that this glass crystallizes by a two-stage bulk crystallization process upon heating. The first transformation, in which SSe 20 precipitates from the amorphous matrix with a three-dimensional crystal growth. The second transformation, in which the residual amorphous phase transforms into Cu 2 Se compound with a two-dimensional crystal growth

  2. Mid-IR supercontinuum generation beyond 7 μm using a silica-fluoride-chalcogenide fiber cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    and fluoride fibers by an amplified 1.55 μm nanosecond diode laser. By pumping a commercial Ge10As22Se68 single-material photonic crystal fiber with 135.7 mW of the pump continuum from 3.5- 4.4 μm, we obtained a continuum up to 7.2 μm with a total output power after the collimating lens of 54.5 mW, and 3.7 m......We report on an experimental demonstration of mid-infrared cascaded supercontinuum generation in commercial silica, fluoride, and chalcogenide fibers as a potentially cheap and practical alternative to direct pumping schemes. A pump continuum up to 4.4 μm was generated in cascaded silica...

  3. Alkali-templated surface nanopatterning of chalcogenide thin films: a novel approach toward solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Patrick; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Hagendorfer, Harald; Sozzi, Giovanna; Menozzi, Roberto; Gretener, Christina; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-05-13

    Concepts of localized contacts and junctions through surface passivation layers are already advantageously applied in Si wafer-based photovoltaic technologies. For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, such concepts are generally not applied, especially at the heterojunction, because of the lack of a simple method yielding features with the required size and distribution. Here, we show a novel, innovative surface nanopatterning approach to form homogeneously distributed nanostructures (<30 nm) on the faceted, rough surface of polycrystalline chalcogenide thin films. The method, based on selective dissolution of self-assembled and well-defined alkali condensates in water, opens up new research opportunities toward development of thin film solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  4. Wild Band Edges: The Role of Bandgap Grading and Band-Edge Fluctuations in High-Efficiency Chalcogenide Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repins, Ingrid; Mansfield, Lorelle; Kanevce, Ana; Jensen, Soren A.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Glynn, Stephen; Barnes, Teresa; Metzger, Wyatt; Burst, James; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Dippo, Patricia; Harvey, Steve; Teeter, Glenn; Perkins, Craig; Egaas, Brian; Zakutayev, Andriy; Alsmeier, J.-H.; Lussky, T.; Korte, L.; Wilks, R. G.; Bar, M.; Yan, Y.; Lany, Stephan; Zawadzki, Pawel; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Suhuai

    2016-06-16

    Band-edge effects -- including grading, electrostatic fluctuations, bandgap fluctuations, and band tails -- affect chalcogenide device efficiency. These effects now require more careful consideration as efficiencies increase beyond 20%. Several aspects of the relationships between band-edge phenomena and device performance for NREL absorbers are examined. For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices, recent increases in diffusion length imply changes to optimum bandgap profile. The origin, impact, and modification of electrostatic and bandgap fluctuations are also discussed. The application of the same principles to devices based on CdTe, kesterites, and emerging absorbers (Cu2SnS3, CuSbS2), considering differences in materials properties and defect formation energies, is examined.

  5. KFeSbTe3: A quaternary chalcogenide aerogel for preferential adsorption of polarizable hydrocarbons and gases

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-01-01

    The first telluride-based quaternary aerogel KFeSbTe3 is synthesized by a sol-gel metathesis reaction between Fe(OAc)2 and K3SbTe3 in dimethyl formamide. The aerogel has an exceptionally large surface area 652 m2 g-1 which is amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. This predominantly mesoporous material shows preferential adsorption for toluene vapors over cyclohexane or cyclopentane and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The remarkably high adsorption capacity for toluene (9.31 mmol g-1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 121 and CO2/CH4: 75) suggest a potential use of such materials in adsorption-based separation processes for the effective purification of hydrocarbons and gases. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  6. Surface relief and refractive index gratings patterned in chalcogenide glasses and studied by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazac, V; Meshalkin, A; Achimova, E; Abashkin, V; Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I; Claus, D; Pedrini, G

    2018-01-20

    Surface relief gratings and refractive index gratings are formed by direct holographic recording in amorphous chalcogenide nanomultilayer structures As 2 S 3 -Se and thin films As 2 S 3 . The evolution of the grating parameters, such as the modulation of refractive index and relief depth in dependence of the holographic exposure, is investigated. Off-axis digital holographic microscopy is applied for the measurement of the photoinduced phase gratings. For the high-accuracy reconstruction of the wavefront (amplitude and phase) transmitted by the fabricated gratings, we used a computational technique based on the sparse modeling of phase and amplitude. Both topography and refractive index maps of recorded gratings are revealed. Their separated contribution in diffraction efficiency is estimated.

  7. Propagation of evanescent waves in multimode chalcogenide fiber immersed in an aqueous acetone solution: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, S. V.; Romanova, E. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Kotereva, T. V.; Sukhanov, M. V.; Shiryaev, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    Chalcogenide fibers are considered as a base for creation of a fiber-optical platform for the mid-IR evanescent wave spectroscopy. In this work, transmittance of a multimode fiber made of Ge26As17Se25Te32 glass, immersed into an aqueous acetone solution was measured in the range of wavelengths 5 - 9 microns at various concentrations of the solution. A theoretical approach based on electromagnetic theory of optical fibers has been applied for analysis of evanescent modes propagation in the fiber. Attenuation coefficients calculated for each HE1m evanescent mode increase with the mode radial order m. This effect can be used for optimisation of the fiber-optic sensing elements for the mid-IR spectroscopy.

  8. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  9. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  10. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  11. Precursor Dependent Structural Properties and Antibacterial Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30 ... absorption spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zeta ... The antibacterial activity of the synthesized CuO were studied against human .... Sample d : Copper oxide synthesized with cupric sulphate as precursor ...... Chem.4 86.

  12. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  13. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Le Coq, D., E-mail: david.lecoq@univ-littoral.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. {yields} Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. {yields} Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. {yields} Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallisation (T{sub x}), and melting (T{sub m}) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} and their Hruby, H{sub r} = (T{sub x} - T{sub g})/(T{sub m} - T{sub x}), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity {sigma} and the room temperature conductivity {sigma}{sub 298} was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm{sup -1} region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  14. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse pr...... producing specifically a wide range of spherical, anisotropic, metallic, semi - conductor and core-shell nanostructures....

  15. Synthesis of poly(dimethylsilylene-co-diphenylsilylene) polymers as precursors for SiC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell-Watson, S.M.; Emsley, R.J.P.; Morris, M.J.; Sharp, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics, especially fibres, are being fabricated via polymeric precursors. Although such fibres are commercially available, there is a demand for improved performance particularly at elevated temperatures. A range of copolymers has been synthesized from the monomers, dimethyldichlorosilane and diphenyldichlorosilane, by a Wurtz reaction involving dechlorination using sodium metal in xylene. The products of reaction were characterised by a range of techniques, including gel permeation chromatography (GPC), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). (orig.)

  16. In-situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defect Kinetics in Chalcogenide Solar Cell Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoni, Mariana [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lai, Barry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Masser, Jorg [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    ) correlate positively, and In negatively with charge collection efficiency for cells with low Ga content, both at grain boundaries and in grain cores. For cells with high Ga content, the charge collection efficiency depends to much lesser extent on the elemental distribution. The objective is three folded: (1) develop an x-ray in-situ microscopy capability to simulate growth and processing conditions, (2) apply it to elucidate performance-governing defect kinetics in chalcogenide solar cell materials, and (3) to study approaches to engineer materials from the nanoscale up. The development of these capabilities will enable experimental characterization to take place under actual processing and operating conditions and it will have impact well beyond the proposed research, enabling future studies on a large variety of materials system where electronic properties depend on underlying structural or chemical inhomogeneities.

  17. Green methods for preparing highly co2 selective and h2s tolerant metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    A green route for preparing a metal organic framework include mixing metal precursor with a ligand precursor to form a solvent-free mixture; adding droplets of water to the mixture; heating the mixture at a first temperature after adding the water

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological assay of Salicylaldehyde Schiff base Cu(II) complexes and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Bushra; Javed, Kanwal; Khan, Muhammad Saif Ullah; Akhter, Zareen; Mirza, Bushra; Mckee, Vickie

    2018-03-01

    Three new Schiff base ligands were synthesized by the reaction of Salicylaldehyde with semi-aromatic diamines, prepared by the reduction of corresponding dinitro-compounds, and were further used for the formation of complexes with Cu(II) metal ion. The structural features of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by their physical properties and infrared, electronic and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The studies revealed that the synthesized Schiff bases existed as tetradentate ligands and bonded to the metal ion through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. One of the dinitro precursors was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray crystallography, which showed that it crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P2/n. The thermal behavior of the Cu(II) complexes was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the data. Schiff base ligands, their precursors and metal complexes were also screened for antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, Brine shrimp lethality, DPPH free radical scavenging and DNA damage assays. The results of these analyses indicated the substantial potential of the synthesized Schiff bases, their precursors and Cu(II) complexes in biological field as future drugs.

  19. Enzyme-Free Electrochemical Glucose Sensors Prepared by Dealloying Pd-Ni-P Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the formation of enzyme-free electrochemical glucose sensors by electrochemical dealloying palladium-containing Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses. When metallic glasses with different Pd contents are used as the dealloying precursor alloys, palladium-based nanoporous metals with different ligament and pore sizes can be obtained. The chemical compositions of the nanoporous metals also vary according to the different precursor compositions. All the as-obtained nanoporous metals exhibit electrochemical catalytic activity towards the oxidation of d-glucose, indicating that the nanoporous metals prepared by dealloying the Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses are promising materials for enzyme-free electrochemical glucose sensor.

  20. Fe-Cluster Compounds of Chalcogenides: Candidates for Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnet and Magnetic Nodal-Line Topological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2017-12-04

    Fe-cluster-based crystal structures are predicted for chalcogenides Fe 3 X 4 (X = S, Se, Te) using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Topologically different from the well-studied layered structures of iron chalcogenides, the newly predicted structures consist of Fe clusters that are either separated by the chalcogen atoms or connected via sharing of the vertex Fe atoms. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these structures have competitive or even lower formation energies than the experimentally synthesized Fe 3 X 4 compounds and exhibit interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In particular, we show that Fe 3 Te 4 can be a good candidate as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet and Fe 3 S 4 can be a magnetic nodal-line topological material.

  1. Enhanced complete photonic bandgap in a moderate refractive index contrast chalcogenide-air system with connected-annular-rods photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin

    2018-03-27

    Connected-annular-rods photonic crystals (CARPCs) in both triangular and square lattices are proposed to enhance the two-dimensional complete photonic bandgap (CPBG) for chalcogenide material systems with moderate refractive index contrast. For the typical chalcogenide-glass–air system with an index contrast of 2.8:1, the optimized square lattice CARPC exhibits a significantly larger normalized CPBG of about 13.50%, though the use of triangular lattice CARPC is unable to enhance the CPBG. It is almost twice as large as our previously reported result [IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4900108 (2016) [CrossRef] ]. Moreover, the CPBG of the square-lattice CARPC could remain until an index contrast as low as 2.24:1. The result not only favors wideband CPBG applications for index contrast systems near 2.8:1, but also makes various optical applications that are dependent on CPBG possible for more widely refractive index contrast systems.

  2. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Agger, Christian; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2014-01-01

    We present numerical modeling of mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum generation (SCG) in dispersion-optimized chalcogenide (CHALC) step-index fibres (SIFs) with exceptionally high numerical aperture (NA) around one, pumped with mode-locked praseodymium-doped (Pr3+) chalcogenide fibre lasers. The 4...... for the highest NA considered but required pumping at 4.7kW as well as up to 3m of fibre to compensate for the lower nonlinearities. The amount of power converted into the 8-10 μm band was 7.5 and 8.8mW for the 8 and 10μm fibres, respectively. For the 20μm core fibres up to 46mW was converted....

  3. A structural study of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 at high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlenko, D P; Hull, S; Knorr, K; Savenko, B N; Shchennikov, V V; Voronin, V I

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 has been studied by means of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressure up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P approx 1 GPa. The obtained structural parameters were used for the analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases. The zinc blende-cinnabar phase transition is discussed in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. It was found that the possible order parameter for the structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e sub 4. This assignment agrees with previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of other mercury chalcogenides

  4. A Structural Study of the Pseudo-Binary Mercury Chalcogenide Alloy HgSe_{0.7}S_{0.3} at High Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlenko, D P; Ehm, L; Knorr, K; Hull, S; Shchennikov, V V; Voronin, V I

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe_{0.7}S_{0.3} has been studied by means of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressure up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P{\\sim}1 GPa. The obtained structural parameters were used for the analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases. The zinc blende-cinnabar phase transition is discussed in the framework of Landau theory of the phase transitions. It was found that the possible order parameter for the structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e_{4}. This assignment agrees with previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of other mercury chalcogenides.

  5. A structural study of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe0.7S0.3 at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlenko, D.P.; Savenko, B.N.; Ehm, L.; Knorr, K.; Hull, S.; Shchennikov, V.V.; Voronin, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe 0.7 S 0.3 has been studied by means of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressure up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P∼1 GPa. The obtained structural parameters were used for the analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases. The zinc blende-cinnabar phase transition is discussed in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. It was found that the possible order parameter for the structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e 4 . This assignment agrees with previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of other mercury chalcogenides

  6. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  7. Synthesis of organometallic hydroxides of titanium, vanadium, cobalt and chromium as precursors of thin films type MaOb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Villalobos, Mavis

    2001-01-01

    This study shows the results obtained from a general objective that was the synthesis and characterization of precursors of thin films of metallic oxides, two different routes of synthesis have been practiced: route molecular precursors and route Sol-Gel technic. In the first route one of the objectives of the investigation is to obtain a molecular precursor of material type M a O b a route of synthesis have been tried proved that involves anhydrous chlorides of the transition metals and linked R that are alcoxides of metal such as silicon, titanium and zirconium. In the second route the general objective to create thin films of metallic oxide has been maintained but the way to resolve the problem has changed, not giving so much emphasis to the molecular precursors as it was originally presented (this due mainly to its instability and difficulty of synthesis), but being supported in the sun-gel chemistry. It was started a new synthesis line through the sun-gel chemistry that is more versatile and simplifies the process in the film formation [es

  8. Thulium pumped mid-infrared 0.9–9μm supercontinuum generation in concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2014-01-01

    of ZBLAN spanning the 0.9–4.1μm SC at the −30dB level. The ZBLAN fiber SC is then coupled into 10cm of As2Se3 chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fiber (MOF) designed to have a zero-dispersion wavelength (λZDW) significantly below the 4.1μm InfraRed (IR) edge of the ZBLAN fiber SC, here 3.55μm...

  9. Metabolic Precursors to Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, J D

    1993-12-01

    Analysis and interpretation of amphetamine results is a challenging process made difficult by a number of factors. One of the complications comes from determination of the origin of amphetamine or methamphetamine in a sample. Given the relatively rare occasions that either of these two drugs are prescribed, legal prescription of one of these drugs is seldom a reason for positive findings. A number of other precursor compounds are metabolized by the body to amphetamine or methamphetamine, many of which could be used for legitimate reasons. Fourteen different metabolic precursors of amphetamine or methamphetamine are included in this review. They are amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Medical use, metabolism, analysis, and interpretation are described to afford sufficient information to evaluate the possible involvement of these drugs in positive amphetamine or methamphetamine results. Copyright © 1993 Central Police University.

  10. Investigations on precursor measures for aeroelastic flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, J.; Sarkar, Sunetra; Gupta, Sayan

    2018-04-01

    Wind tunnel experiments carried out on a pitch-plunge aeroelastic system in the presence of fluctuating flows reveal that flutter instability is presaged by a regime of intermittency. It is observed that as the flow speed gradually increases towards the flutter speed, there appears intermittent bursts of periodic oscillations which become more frequent as the wind speed increases and eventually the dynamics transition into fully developed limit cycle oscillations, marking the onset of flutter. The signature from these intermittent oscillations are exploited to develop measures that forewarn a transition to flutter and can serve as precursors. This study investigates a suite of measures that are obtained directly from the time history of measurements and are hence model independent. The dependence of these precursors on the size of the measured data set and the time required for their computation is investigated. These measures can be useful in structural health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

  11. Comparison exercise of probabilistic precursor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchille, V.; Babst, S.

    2004-01-01

    From 2000 up to 2003, a comparison exercise concerning accident precursor programs was performed by IRSN, GRS, and NUPEC (Japan). The objective of this exercise was to compare the methodologies used to quantify conditional core damage probability related to incidents which can be considered as accident precursors. This exercise provided interesting results concerning the interpretation of such events. Generally, the participants identified similar scenarios of potential degradation. However, for several dominant sequences, differences in the results were noticed. The differences can be attributed to variations in the plant design, the strategy of management and in the methodological approach. For many reasons, comparison of human reliability analysis was difficult and perhaps another exercise in the future could provide more information about this subject. On the other hand, interesting outcomes have been obtained from the quantification of both common cause failures and potential common cause failures. (orig.)

  12. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  13. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  14. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  15. Lunar Robotic Precursor Missions Using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winski, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    A trade study is carried out for the design of electric propulsion based lunar robotic precursor missions. The focus is to understand the relationships between payload mass delivered, electric propulsion power, and trip time. The results are compared against a baseline system using chemical propulsion with LOX/H2. The major differences between the chemical propulsion based and electric propulsion based systems are presented in terms of the payload mass and trip time. It is shown that solar e...

  16. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2015-05-12

    The characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are dictated by their size, shape and elemental distribution. Solution synthesis is widely utilized to form nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles, with controlled size and shape. However, the effects of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape-controlled synthesis on the final shape of the nanomaterials and the elemental distribution within the alloy. We demonstrate that this strategy can tune the size of monodisperse PtM (M=Ni or Cu) alloy nanocrystals ranging from 3 to 16 nm with an octahedral shape using acetylacetonate or halide precursors of Pt(II), Pt(IV) and Ni or Cu (II). The nanoparticles formed from halide precursors showed an enrichment of platinum on their surfaces, and the bromides could oxidatively etch the nanoparticles during synthesis with the O2/Br- pair. The two nanocrystal precursors can be uti-lized independently and can control the size with a trend of Pt(acac)2metal (copper or nickel). These results open up avenues to understand the effect of the ligand shell of a precursor during the synthesis of alloy nanoparticles as well as to control, in a scalable manner, the nanomaterial size and surface chemistry.

  17. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  18. Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Minerals Simulating Soils from the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Gavira-Gallardo, Jose-Antonio; Hourlier-Bahloul, Djamila

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report some preliminary results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in Martian or Lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and A12O3 in both Martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and Lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from Lunar and Martian simulant soils. Clear sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from Lunar simulant soil in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Thermogravimetric Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to characterize the elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors. In the second set of experiments, we used the same starting materials to synthesize silicate esters in acidified alcohol mixtures. Preliminary results indicate the presence of silicon alkoxides in the product of distillation.

  19. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2,7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil simular in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. The elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules were characterized. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  20. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  1. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  2. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  3. High-precision measurements of the compressibility of chalcogenide glasses at a hydrostatic pressure up to 9 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhkin, V. V., E-mail: brazhkin@hppi.troitsk.ru [Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics (Russian Federation); Bychkov, E. [Universite du Littoral, LPCA, UMR 8101 CNRS (France); Tsiok, O. B. [Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The volumes of glassy germanium chalcogenides GeSe{sub 2}, GeS{sub 2}, Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 83}, and Ge{sub 8}Se{sub 92} are precisely measured at a hydrostatic pressure up to 8.5 GPa. The stoichiometric GeSe{sub 2} and GeS{sub 2} glasses exhibit elastic behavior in the pressure range up to 3 GPa, and their bulk modulus decreases at pressures higher than 2–2.5 GPa. At higher pressures, inelastic relaxation processes begin and their intensity is proportional to the logarithm of time. The relaxation rate for the GeSe{sub 2} glasses has a pronounced maximum at 3.5–4.5 GPa, which indicates the existence of several parallel structural transformation mechanisms. The nonstoichiometric glasses exhibit a diffuse transformation and inelastic behavior at pressures above 1–2 GPa. The maximum relaxation rate in these glasses is significantly lower than that in the stoichiometric GeSe{sub 2} glasses. All glasses are characterized by the “loss of memory” of history: after relaxation at a fixed pressure, the further increase in the pressure returns the volume to the compression curve obtained without a stop for relaxation. After pressure release, the residual densification in the stoichiometric glasses is about 7% and that in the Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 83} glasses is 1.5%. The volume of the Ge{sub 8}Se{sub 92} glass returns to its initial value within the limits of experimental error. As the pressure decreases, the effective bulk moduli of the Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 83} and Ge{sub 8}Se{sub 92} glasses coincide with the moduli after isobaric relaxation at the stage of increasing pressure, and the bulk modulus of the stoichiometric GeSe{sub 2} glass upon decreasing pressure noticeably exceeds the bulk modulus after isobaric relaxation at the stage of increasing pressure. Along with the reported data, our results can be used to draw conclusions regarding the diffuse transformations in glassy germanium chalcogenides during compression.

  4. Laser damage in optical components: metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, L.

    2002-11-01

    This thesis deals with laser damage phenomena for nanosecond pulses, in optical components such as glasses, dielectric and metallic thin films. Firstly, a work is done on the laser damage metrology, in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of laser-induced damage probabilities, with a rigorous control of test parameters. Then, with the use of a specific model, we find densities of laser damage precursors in the case of bulk glasses (few tens by (100μm) 3 ) and in the case of glass surfaces (one precursor by μm 3 ). Our analysis is associated to morphology studies by Atomic Force Microscope to discuss about precursor nature and damage process. Influence of wavelength (from 355 to 1064 nm) and cumulated shots is also studied. Simulations are performed to study initiation mechanisms on these inclusions. This work gives an estimation of complex index and size of the precursor, which permits to discuss about possible detection by non-destructive tools. (author)

  5. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non radioactive precursor import into chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, V.A.; Ottado, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eukaryotic cells have a subcellular organization based on organelles. Protein transport to these organelles is quantitatively important because the majority of cellular proteins are codified in nuclear genes and then delivered to their final destination. Most of the chloroplast proteins are translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes as larger precursors with an amino terminal transit peptide that is necessary and sufficient to direct the precursor to the chloroplast. Once inside the organelle the transit peptide is cleaved and the mature protein adopts its folded form. In this work we developed a system for the expression and purification of the pea ferredoxin-NADP + reductase precursor (preFNR) for its import into chloroplasts in non radioactive conditions. We constructed a preFNR fused in its carboxy terminus to a 6 histidines peptide (preFNR-6xHis) that allows its identification using a commercial specific antibody. The construction was expressed, purified, processed and precipitated, rendering a soluble and active preFNR-6xHis that was used in binding and import into chloroplasts experiments. The reisolated chloroplasts were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, electro-blotting and revealed by immuno-detection using either colorimetric or chemiluminescent reactive. We performed also import experiments labeling preFNR and preFNR-6xHis with radioactive methionine as controls. We conclude that preFNR-6xHis is bound and imported into chloroplasts as the wild type preFNR and that both colorimetric or chemiluminescent detection methods are useful to avoid the manipulation of radioactive material. (author)

  7. NOx emissions trading: Precursor to future growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, A.

    1993-01-01

    Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 specified the framework for enhanced regulation in ozone non-attainment areas with increasingly stringent requirements dependent on the area classification - marginal, moderate, serious, severe or extreme. Before the CAAA were passed, only volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were regulated as precursors to ozone formation, Now, by statute, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are also regulated as ozone precursor. Under the CAAA, new sources and modifications of existing sources are subject to Title I permitting requirements in ozone non-attainment areas if emissions of NO x and/or VOCs exceed certain triggering levels. For many new or facility expansion projects, especially power generation, the NO x thresholds are easily exceeded thus triggering Title I non-attainment new source review which requires application of control technology to new equipment which results in the Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), and securing emission reductions either internally or from other major sources to offset the increased emission from the new or modified source. The selection of a LAER technology is generally within an applicant's control. An applicant can determine up-front the engineering and cost considerations associated with LAER technology is assessing a project's viability. However, without a clear source of emission offsets of a means to secure them, assessing project viability could be difficult if not impossible. No available emission offsets means no industrial growth. For sources of NO x undergoing Title I new source review, a regional or state banking system that facilitates NO x emissions trading is needed as a precursor to future growth. This paper presents an overview of EPA's Emissions Trading Policy and Title I new source review offset provisions. Industry's concerns about emissions trading and recommendations for future trading programs are presented

  8. Direct nanoimprint lithography of Al2O3 using a chelated monomer-based precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Ramakrishnan; Dinachali, Saman Safari; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, M S M; He, Chaobin; Low, Hong Yee; Chong, Wee Tit; Lim, Andrew H H; Yong, Jin Jie; Thian, Eng San

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructuring of Al 2 O 3 is predominantly achieved by the anodization of aluminum film and is limited to obtaining porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). One of the main restrictions in developing approaches for direct fabrication of various types of Al 2 O 3 patterns, such as lines, pillars, holes, etc, is the lack of a processable aluminum-containing resist. In this paper, we demonstrate a stable precursor prepared by reacting aluminum tri-sec-butoxide with 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl acetoacetate, a chelating monomer, which can be used for large area direct nanoimprint lithography of Al 2 O 3 . Chelation in the precursor makes it stable against hydrolysis whilst the presence of a reactive methacrylate group renders it polymerizable. The precursor was mixed with a cross-linker and their in situ thermal free-radical co-polymerization during nanoimprinting rigidly shaped the patterns, trapped the metal atoms, reduced the surface energy and strengthened the structures, thereby giving a ∼100% yield after demolding. The imprinted structures were heat-treated, leading to the loss of organics and their subsequent shrinkage. Amorphous Al 2 O 3 patterns with line-widths as small as 17 nm were obtained. Our process utilizes the advantages of sol–gel and methacrylate routes for imprinting and at the same time alleviates the disadvantages associated with both these methods. With these benefits, the chelating monomer route may be the harbinger of the universal scheme for direct nanoimprinting of metal oxides. (paper)

  9. Amorphous Alloy: Promising Precursor to Form Nanoflowerpot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous copper is fabricated by dealloying the amorphous Ti2Cu alloy in 0.03 M HF electrolyte. The pore and ligament sizes of the nanoporous copper can be readily tailored by controlling the dealloying time. The as-prepared nanoporous copper provides fine and uniform nanoflowerpots to grow highly dispersed Au nanoflowers. The blooming Au nanoflowers in the nanoporous copper flowerpots exhibit both high catalytic activity and stability towards the oxidation of glucose, indicating that the amorphous alloys are ideal precursors to form nanoflowerpot which can grow functional nanoflowers.

  10. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  11. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  12. A Novel Effect of CO2 Laser Induced Piezoelectricity in Ag2Ga2SiS6 Chalcogenide Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Parasyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have discovered a substantial enhancement of the piezoelectric coefficients (from 10 to 78 pm/V in the chalcogenide Ag2Ga2SiS6 single crystals. The piezoelectric studies were done under the influence of a CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 μm, time duration 200 ns, lasers with power densities varying up to 700 MW/cm2. Contrary to the earlier studies where the photoinduced piezoelectricity was done under the influence of the near IR lasers, the effect is higher by at least one order, which is a consequence of the phonon anharmonic contributions and photopolarizations. Such a discovery allows one to build infrared piezotronic devices, which may be used for the production of the IR laser tunable optoelectronic triggers and memories. This is additionally confirmed by the fact that analogous photoillumination by the near IR laser (Nd:YAG (1064 nm and Er:glass laser (1540 nm gives the obtained values of the effective piezoelectricity at of least one order less. The effect is completely reversible with a relaxation time up to several milliseconds. In order to clarify the role of free carriers, additional studies of photoelectrical spectra were done.

  13. Thallous chalcogenide (Tl 6I 4Se) for radiation detection at X-ray and γ-ray energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Peters, John A.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Johnsen, Simon; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-12-01

    The optical and charge transport properties of the thallous chalcogenide compound Tl6I4Se were characterized. The semiconductor crystals are grown by the modified Bridgman method. We have measured the refractive index, and absorption coefficient of the compound ranging from 300 to 1500 nm by analysis of the UV-vis-near IR transmission and reflection spectra. The band gap is 1.8 eV. For the evaluation of detector performance, the mobility-lifetime products for both the electron and hole carriers were measured. Tl6I4Se has mobility-lifetime products of 7.1×10-3 and 5.9×10-4 cm2/V for electron and hole carriers, respectively, which are comparable to those of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te. The γ-ray spectrum for a Tl6I4Se detector was measured. Its response to the 122 keV of 57Co source is comparable to that of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te.

  14. Phase change and optical band gap behavior of Se0.8S0.2 chalcogenide glass films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rafea, M.; Farid, Huda

    2009-01-01

    Se 0.8 S 0.2 chalcogenide glass films have been prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation technique with thickness 583 nm. Annealing process at T ≥ 333 K crystallizes the films and nanostructured films are formed. The crystallite size was increased to 24 nm as the annealing temperature increased to 373 K. Orthorhombic crystalline system was identified for the annealed films. SEM micrographs show that films consist of two parallel surfaces and the thickness was determined by cross section imaging. The optical transmittance is characterized by interference patterns as a result of these two parallel surfaces, besides their average value at longer wavelength decreases as a result of annealing process. The band gap, E g is red shifted due to crystallization by annealing. As the phase of the films changes from amorphous to crystalline in the annealing temperature range 333-363 K, a non sharp change of the band gap (E g ) is observed. This change was explained by Brus's model of the energy gap confinement behavior of the nanostructured films. The optical refractive index increases suddenly when the system starts to be crystallized by annealing

  15. Phase change cellular automata modeling of GeTe, GaSb and SnSe stacked chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, C.; Velea, A.

    2018-06-01

    Data storage needs are increasing at a rapid pace across all economic sectors, so the need for new memory technologies with adequate capabilities is also high. Phase change memories (PCMs) are a leading contender in the emerging race for non-volatile memories due to their fast operation speed, high scalability, good reliability and low power consumption. However, in order to meet the present and future storage demands, PCM technologies must further increase the storage density. Here, we employ a probabilistic cellular automata approach to explore the multi-step threshold switching from the reset (off) to the set (on) state in chalcogenide stacked structures. Simulations have shown that in order to obtain multi-step switching with high contrast among different resistance states, the stacked structure needs to contain materials with a large difference among their crystallization temperatures and careful tuning of strata thicknesses. The crystallization dynamics can be controlled through the external energy pulses applied to the system, in such a way that a balance between nucleation and growth in phase change behavior can be achieved, optimized for PCMs.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides for telecommunication wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Shen, Xiang; Sun, Junqiang; Vu, Khu; Choi, Duk-Yong; Wang, Rongping; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of Ge 20 Sb 15 Se 65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides on a single photonic chip. Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method is employed to deposit 1.36-μm-thick films and reactive ion etching with CHF 3 is used to pattern 0.76-μm-deep rib waveguides of 1–4 μm wide with low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls. Using lensed fibers, the insertion losses for rib waveguides of different widths are measured and propagation losses are estimated to be lower than 1 dB/cm. Finite difference method simulations and refractive index/curve fitting are used to observe a moderate normal dispersion of the waveguides at 1550 nm. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit uniform Ge 20 Sb 15 Se 65 thin films. • CHF 3 reactive ion etching of rib waveguides vertical profile and smooth sidewall. • Insertion losses at 1550 nm measured and low propagation losses estimated. • Dispersion engineered by finite difference methods and refractive curve fitting

  17. ac conductivity and dielectric properties of amorphous Se80Te20-xGex chalcogenide glass film compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegab, N.A.; Afifi, M.A.; Atyia, H.E.; Farid, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of the prepared Se 80 Te 20-x Ge x (x = 5, 7 and 10 at.%) were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films were in amorphous state. The ac conductivity and dielectric properties of the investigated film compositions were studied in the frequency range 0.1-100 kHz and in temperature range (303-373 K). The experimental results indicated that the ac conductivity and the dielectric properties depended on the temperature and frequency. The ac conductivity is found to obey the ω s law, in accordance with the hopping model, s is found to be temperature dependent (s 1 and dielectric loss ε 2 were found to decrease with frequency and increase with temperature. The maximum barrier height W m , calculated from dielectric measurements according to Guintini equation, agrees with that proposed by the theory of hopping over potential barrier as suggested by Elliott in case of chalcogenide glasses. The density of localized states was estimated for the studied film compositions. The variation of the studied properties with Ge content was also investigated.

  18. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers.

  19. Fluorinated Phenylalanine Precursor Resistance in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Murdoch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a counter-selection method for phenylalanine auxotrophy could be a useful tool in the repertoire of yeast genetics. Fluorinated and sulfurated precursors of phenylalanine were tested for toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such precursor, 4-fluorophenylpyruvate (FPP, was found to be toxic to several strains from the Saccharomyces and Candida genera. Toxicity was partially dependent on ARO8 and ARO9, and correlated with a strain’s ability to convert FPP into 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPA. Thus, strains with deletions in ARO8 and ARO9, having a mild phenylalanine auxotrophy, could be separated from a culture of wild-type strains using FPP. Tetrad analysis suggests FPP resistance in one strain is due to two genes. Strains resistant to FPA have previously been shown to exhibit increased phenylethanol production. However, FPP resistant isolates did not follow this trend. These results suggest that FPP could effectively be used for counter-selection but not for enhanced phenylethanol production.

  20. Efficient photovoltaic conversion of graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid films grown from solid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao; Bai, Junfei; Zhang, Zexia; Wei, Jinquan; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Zhu, Hongwei; Kang, Feiyu; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Large-area (e.g. centimeter size) graphene sheets are usually synthesized via pyrolysis of gaseous carbon precursors (e.g. methane) on metal substrates like Cu using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but the presence of grain boundaries and the residual polymers during transfer deteriorates significantly the properties of the CVD graphene. If carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be covalently bonded to graphene, the hybrid system could possess excellent electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical strength. In this work, conducting and transparent CNT–graphene hybrid films were synthesized by a facile solid precursor pyrolysis method. Furthermore, the synthesized CNT–graphene hybrid films display enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiency when compared to devices based on CNT membranes or graphene sheets. Upon chemical doping, the graphene–CNT/Si solar cells reveal power conversion efficiencies up to 8.50%. (paper)

  1. Production of carbon-14 and preparation of some key precursors for labeling organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, T.; Motoishi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Production of carbon-14 on 50 GBq scale has been performed by neutron irradiation of aluminium nitride target in the JMTR. This nuclide is separated in carbon dioxide form by combustion of the irradiated target at 1100degC with oxygen. The [ 14 C] carbon dioxide liberated thus is trapped in caustic solution and finally recovered as [ 14 C] barium carbonate. Some precursors useful for incorporating carbon-14 into a given organic molecule have been prepared. Precursors such as [1- 14 C] sodium acetate, [ 14 C] methanol and [ 14 C] potassium cyanide are prepared by rather conventional methods involving carbonation of methyl magnesium iodine, reduction of carbon dioxide with lithium aluminium hydride and reduction of carbonate with metallic potassium in the presence of ammonium salt, respectively. A catalytic polymerization of acetylene is used to prepare benzene. (author)

  2. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  3. Electrically Conductive Silver Paste Obtained by Use of Silver Neodecanoate as Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Longguang; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Ren, Zhao

    2015-02-01

    An electrically conductive silver paste has been prepared from an organometallic compound, silver neodecanoate, as silver precursor. The precursor was highly soluble in organic solvents and decomposed into metallic silver at low sintering temperatures (writing process, enabling production of silver lines on a substrate. The electrical resistivity of the silver lines was 9 × 10-6 Ω cm after sintering at 115°C for 60 min, 5.8 × 10-6 Ω cm when sintered at 150°C for 60 min, and 3 × 10-6 Ω cm when sintered above 300°C, values which are similar to those of bulk silver. Hence, the prepared paste can be successfully used on flexible substrates such as polymers.

  4. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesemann, Peter; Nguyen, Thy Phung; Hankari, Samir El

    2014-04-11

    The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS) recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA), mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the "anionic templating" strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  5. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  6. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalyst precursors comprising combustible crystallization seeds upon which...... the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  7. Melting and related precursor cooperative phenomena in chemically bonded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2004-09-01

    A number of experimental studies of condensed matter assemblies with different types of chemical bonding will provide the focus of this work. Condensed compounds X(CH 3 ) 4 , with X = C,Si or Ge, are the first of such assemblies; two phase boundaries in the pressure temperature plane being studied: melting and a solid phase boundary heralding orientational disordering of molecules still however on a lattice. Secondly, directionally bonded d-electron transition metals such as Ni, Pd and Nb will be treated. Here, melting is the main focus, but the precursor transition is now the separation of a high-temperature ductile solid from a lower temperature mechanically brittle phase. A dislocation-mediated model of these transitions is discussed, leading into the third area of covalently bonded solids graphite and silicon. Here topological defect models again provide the focus; both dislocations and rotation-dislocations now being invoked. Some qualitative suggestions are made to interpret the melting curve of graphite subjected to high pressure. (author)

  8. Nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Liuting; Li, Juan; Liu, Qiaoling; Qiu, Liping; Tan, Weihong

    2017-03-15

    In clinical diagnostics, as well as food and environmental safety practices, biosensors are powerful tools for monitoring biological or biochemical processes. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal nanomaterials, including transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), are receiving growing interest for their use in biosensing applications based on such unique properties as high surface area and fluorescence quenching abilities. Meanwhile, nucleic acid probes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing rules are also being widely applied in biosensing based on their excellent recognition capability. In particular, the emergence of functional nucleic acids in the 1980s, especially aptamers, has substantially extended the recognition capability of nucleic acids to various targets, ranging from small organic molecules and metal ions to proteins and cells. Based on π-π stacking interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids, biosensing systems can be easily assembled. Therefore, the combination of 2D transition metal nanomaterials and nucleic acids brings intriguing opportunities in bioanalysis and biomedicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets in biosensing applications. The structure and properties of 2D transition metal nanomaterials are first discussed, emphasizing the interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids. Then, the applications of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheet-based biosensors are discussed in the context of different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical and electrochemical approaches. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the current challenges and opportunities in this promising field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Directed assembly of nanomaterials for miniaturized sensors by dip-pen nanolithography using precursor inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming

    The advent of nanomaterials with enhanced properties and the means to pattern them in a controlled fashion have paved the way to construct miniaturized sensors for improved detection. However it remains a challenge for the traditional methods to create such sensors and sensor arrays. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) can form nanostructures on a substrate by controlling the transfer of molecule inks. However, previous DPN can not pattern solid materials on insulating surfaces, which are necessary to form functional electronic devices. In the dissertation, the concept of reactive precursor inks for DPN is developed for the generation of solid functional nanostructures of the following materials: organic molecule, sol-gel material, and conducting polymer. First, the covalent bonding is unnecessary for DPN as shown in the colored ink DPN; therefore the numbers of molecules that can be patterned is extended beyond thiol or thiolated molecules. Subsequently, a reactive precursor strategy (sol) is developed to pattern inorganic or organic/inorganic composite nanostructures on silicon based substrates. The method works by hydrolysis of metal precursors in the water meniscus and allows the preparation of solid structures with controlled geometry beyond the individual molecule level. Then the SnO 2 nanostructures patterned between the gaps of electrodes are tested as gas sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated on miniaturized sensors that show fast response and recovery to certain gases. Furthermore, an eight-unit sensor array is fabricated on a chip using SnO2 sols that are doped with different metals. The multiplexed device can recognize different gases by comparing the response patterns with the reference patterns of known gases generated on the same array. At last, the idea of precursor ink for DPN is extended to construct conducting polymer based devices. By using an acid promoted polymerization approach, conducting polymers are patterned on silicon dioxide

  10. A Simple, General Synthetic Route toward Nanoscale Transition Metal Borides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi, Palani R; Yubuta, Kunio; Fokwa, Boniface P T

    2018-04-01

    Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl 2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl 2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc.). Importantly, this method allows flexibility in the choice of the transition metal, as well as the ability to target several compositions within the same binary phase diagram (e.g., Mo 2 B, α-MoB, MoB 2 , Mo 2 B 4 ). The simplicity and wide applicability of the method should enable the fulfillment of the great potential of this understudied class of materials, which show a variety of excellent chemical, electrochemical, and physical properties at the microscale. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tailored synthesis of nanostructures by laser irradiation of a precursor microdroplet stream in open-air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanco, S.; Marino, S.; Gabás, M.; Ayala, L.; Ramos-Barrado, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A method to synthesize multicomponent nanostructures in open-air is presented. A microdroplet precursor target is irradiated with a nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma. At low droplet dispensing rates, the precursor and solvent are fully atomized without debris to produce nanoparticles and nanofilaments during plasma cooling. More complex structures like nanolayers or nanofoams can be synthetised at kilohertz droplet dispensing rates as additional droplets in the vicinity of the target droplet are subjected to the laser-induced plasma and its associated shockwave. Examples of both low- and fast-rate mechanisms are presented for Mn-Fe bi-metal oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles, nanofilaments and nanofoams. Real-time diagnostics were carried out with time-resolved imaging, atomic emission spectroscopy, light scattering and shadowgraphy. In addition to overcoming some of the difficulties associated with pulsed-laser deposition (PLD), the use of a liquid precursor whose composition can be tailored on a droplet-to-droplet basis opens a number of possibilities.A method to synthesize multicomponent nanostructures in open-air is presented. A microdroplet precursor target is irradiated with a nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma. At low droplet dispensing rates, the precursor and solvent are fully atomized without debris to produce nanoparticles and nanofilaments during plasma cooling. More complex structures like nanolayers or nanofoams can be synthetised at kilohertz droplet dispensing rates as additional droplets in the vicinity of the target droplet are subjected to the laser-induced plasma and its associated shockwave. Examples of both low- and fast-rate mechanisms are presented for Mn-Fe bi-metal oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles, nanofilaments and nanofoams. Real-time diagnostics were carried out with time-resolved imaging, atomic emission spectroscopy, light scattering and shadowgraphy. In addition to overcoming some of the

  12. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  13. Contribution towards ALD and MOCVD of rare earth oxides and hafnium oxide. From precursor evaluation to process development and thin film characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis is consisted of two major parts: precursor development for ALD and MOCVD applications as well as thin film deposition using ALD and MOCVD with self developed precursors. The first part of this work presents the synthesis, characterization and detailed thermal property investigations of different novel group IV and rare earth precursor classes (guandinate, guanidine and ketoiminate). The second part of this work presents the ALD and MOCVD depositions using various guanidinate precursors for forming corresponding metal oxide thin films. The overall motivation of this work is to fulfill the lack of precursors of rare earth and group IV elements for ALD and MOCVD applications that satisfy the stringent requirements for the modern microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies. The aspect of the precursor engineering part is focusing on influence of ligand sphere on precursors' chemical and thermal properties. In this way, we successfully introduced guanidine and ketoiminate as potential ligands for the precursor design. The thin film deposition part of this work is ALD of rare earth oxides and group IV oxides employing literature known compounds which were previously developed in our research group. The main focus was dedicated to the process optimization, the characterization of the structural, morphological, compositional and functional properties of the deposited thin films. Certain film properties were discussed comparatively with the corresponding thin films deposited with literature known precursors. It was already shortly demonstrated in Chapter 6 that the guanidine ligand showed potential interest as suitable ligand for precursor engineering. This titan guanidine precursor [Ti(NC(NMe 2 ) 2 ) 4 ] (GD1) possesses higher thermal stability compared to its parent amide, [Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 ], while reactivity against water is not significantly affected. It could be very interesting to transfer this ligand for the precursor development of rare earth

  14. Lessons learned on probabilistic methodology for precursor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babst, Siegfried; Wielenberg, Andreas; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Based on its experience in precursor assessment of operating experience from German NPP and related international activities in the field, GRS has identified areas for enhancing probabilistic methodology. These are related to improving the completeness of PSA models, to insufficiencies in probabilistic assessment approaches, and to enhancements of precursor assessment methods. Three examples from the recent practice in precursor assessments illustrating relevant methodological insights are provided and discussed in more detail. Our experience reinforces the importance of having full scope, current PSA models up to Level 2 PSA and including hazard scenarios for precursor analysis. Our lessons learned include that PSA models should be regularly updated regarding CCF data and inclusion of newly discovered CCF mechanisms or groups. Moreover, precursor classification schemes should be extended to degradations and unavailabilities of the containment function. Finally, PSA and precursor assessments should put more emphasis on the consideration of passive provisions for safety, e. g. by sensitivity cases.

  15. Lessons learned on probabilistic methodology for precursor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babst, Siegfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wielenberg, Andreas; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Based on its experience in precursor assessment of operating experience from German NPP and related international activities in the field, GRS has identified areas for enhancing probabilistic methodology. These are related to improving the completeness of PSA models, to insufficiencies in probabilistic assessment approaches, and to enhancements of precursor assessment methods. Three examples from the recent practice in precursor assessments illustrating relevant methodological insights are provided and discussed in more detail. Our experience reinforces the importance of having full scope, current PSA models up to Level 2 PSA and including hazard scenarios for precursor analysis. Our lessons learned include that PSA models should be regularly updated regarding CCF data and inclusion of newly discovered CCF mechanisms or groups. Moreover, precursor classification schemes should be extended to degradations and unavailabilities of the containment function. Finally, PSA and precursor assessments should put more emphasis on the consideration of passive provisions for safety, e. g. by sensitivity cases.

  16. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  17. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Harms related...... to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. SETTING: Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers...... that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. RESULTS: A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any...

  18. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  19. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  20. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...