WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal breeder materials

  1. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  2. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Mattas, R.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R ampersand D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns

  3. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  6. Mass-transfer behavior of materials for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor steam-generators, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ohta, Yoshio; Kataoka, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Katsumi; Yagi, Shigeji

    1976-01-01

    To examine the compatibility of structural materials with liquid sodium in the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) steam generator environments, tests were conducted, in a sodium loop facility, on selected steels mainly of ferrite 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo-Nb, high Cr-1Mo, and austenitic AISI type 316. As a result of the above tests, it was found that the decarburization behavior is conditioned by the heat treatment history of steel, and the carbon loss is more rapid in annealed steel than in normalized and tempered steels. Other noteworthy findings were as follows: the carbon concentration immediately beneath the specimen surface increased consistently with the chromium content of steel, and within the range of chromium content of 3 to 5 % weight the decarburization shown by the low-chromium specimens changed to carburization. The tensile strength of annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 500 0 C was markedly reduced by thermal aging rather than by sodium exposure. The influence of sodium exposure on the decrease of tensile strength was slight. The creep rupture strength at 550 0 C was decreased by some 10% by sodium exposure. (auth.)

  7. Selection of engineering materials and fabrication of liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarca, P.

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented graphically and pictorially concerning the need for nuclear power; basic nuclear concepts including BWR, PWR, HTGR, and LMFBR; the fissioning process; nuclear reactor fuel; fabrication of reactor vessels for LMFBR's; fabrication of intermediate heat exchangers for LMFBR's; piping fabrication for LMFBR's; transition welds; steam generators for LMFBR demonstration plants worldwide; stress corrosion cracking of steam generator materials and weldments; post--test examination of the Alco/BLH sodium-heated steam generator; alternate steam generator designs; and alternate structural materials. (DCC)

  8. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  9. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  10. Prospects of ceramic tritium breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Roux, N.; Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the prospects of the main ceramics proposed as breeder materials for fusion reactors, i.e. Li-2O, Li-2ZrO-3, LiAlO-2, Li-4SiO-4. To do so they review terms of reference of contemplated blankets for NET, ITER and DEMO, and the proposed blanket concepts and materials. Issues respective to the use of each breeder material are examined, and from this review it is concluded that ceramics are the most favorable breeder materials whose use can be contemplated as well for a driver blanket for NET or ITER and for a DEMO blanket. Ceramics are then compared between themselves and it is seen that, subject to the confirmation of recent experimental results, lithium zirconate could be used with advantage in any of the present blanket concepts, except in those employing lithium at its natural isotopic abundance, in which case only Li-2O can be used. However in specific cases, or in parts of a blanket, other ceramics may be profitably employed. As a general conclusion suggestions are made to further improve ceramic breeder performances, and it is recommended to intensify also work on problems that have to be solved in order to operate ceramic breeder blankets e.g. tritium extraction and recovery systems and conditions of beryllium use. (author). 37 refs.; 12 tabs

  11. Alternative breeder reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of employing breeder reactors to stretch the world resources of nuclear fuels is briefly discussed, and the various types of breeder concepts are described. General descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder, gas cooled fast breeder, molten salt breeder, thermal breeders, and spectral-shift control reactors are presented. Aspects of safeguarding fissile material connected with breeder operation are examined. 31 references

  12. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  13. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  14. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 ,O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized

  15. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  16. Status of the solid breeder materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1995-01-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material were critically reviewed and evaluated as part of the ITER/CDA design effort (1988-1990). The results have been documented in a detailed technical report. Emphasis was placed on the physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium retention/release, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Materials properties correlations were selected for use in design analysis, and ranges for input parameters (e.g., temperature, porosity, etc.) were established. Also, areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology were highlighted and prioritized. For Li 2 O, the most significant increase in the database has come in the area of tritium retention as a function of operating temperature and purge flow composition. The database for postirradiation inventory from purged in-reactor samples has increased from four points to 20 points. These new data have allowed an improvement in understanding and modeling, as well as better interpretation of the results of laboratory annealing studies on unirradiated and irradiated material. In the case of Li 2 ZrO 3 , relatively little data were available on the sensitivity of the mechanical properties of this ternary ceramic to microstructure and moisture content. The increase in the database for this material has allowed not only better characterization of its properties, but also optimization of fabrication parameters to improve its performance. Some additional data are also available for the other two ternary ceramics to aid in the characterization of their performance. In particular, the thermal performance of these materials, as well as beryllium, in packed-bed form has been measured and characterized

  17. Advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayles, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast Breeder reactor power plants in the 1000-1200 MW(e) range are being built overseas and are being designed in this country. While these reactors have many characteristics in common, a variety of different approaches have been adopted for some of the major features. Some of those alternatives are discussed

  18. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  19. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Research and development status of ceramic breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was also recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated areas in the properties data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on issues such as tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests are underway, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials. 36 refs.

  1. Development of a self-actuated shutdown system for a liquid-metal breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Tupper, R.B.; Bernard, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive development program for a Self-Actuated Shutdown System for a Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor has been completed. The development program included component tests of a temperature sensitive electromagnet, prototype test including the absorber in a sodium loop, accelerated life tests of the high temperature electric coils, and an irradiation test of a miniaturized coil and magnetic circuit materials. The results of these tests have demonstrated that the self-actuated shutdown system is sufficiently developed for application in the next generation Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  2. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, G.

    1980-01-01

    In a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which the reactor core is submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel housed in a concrete vault the core is surrounded by an impermeable barrier bounding an inner or hot region of the pool and an outer or cool region of the pool. The object of the present invention is the provision of a construction in which the complexity of design and manufacture of the barrier for bounding the inner and outer pools of coolant is reduced. (UK)

  3. Alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, Arthur F.; Bleiberg, Melvin L.; Diamond, Sidney; Bajaj, Ram

    1979-01-01

    An essentially gamma-prime precipitation-hardened iron-chromium-nickel alloy has been designed with emphasis on minimum nickel and chromium contents to reduce the swelling tendencies of these alloys when used in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The precipitation-hardening components have been designed for phase stability and such residual elements as silicon and boron, also have been selected to minimize swelling. Using the properties of these alloys in one design would result in an increased breeding ratio over 20% cold worked stainless steel, a reference material, of 1.239 to 1.310 and a reduced doubling time from 15.8 to 11.4 years. The gross stoichiometry of the alloying composition comprises from about 0.04% to about 0.06% carbon, from about 0.05% to about 1.0% silicon, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.5% vanadium, from about 24% to about 31% nickel, from 8% to about 11% chromium, from about 1.7% to about 3.5% titanium, from about 1.0% to about 1.8% aluminum, from about 0.9% to about 3.7% molybdenum, from about 0.04% to about 0.8% boron, and the balance iron with incidental impurities.

  4. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are destined to play a crucial role inthe Indian nuclear power programme in the foreseeable future. FBR technology involves a multi-disciplinary approach to solve the various challenges in the areas of fuel and materials development. Fuels for FBRs have significantly higher concentration of ...

  5. Fabrication of metallic fuel for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Abdulla, K.K.; Kumar, Arbind; Mittal, R.K.; Prasad, R.S.; Mahule, N.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural uranium oxide fuelled PHWRs comprises of first stage of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid metal fast breeder reactors fuelled by Pu (from PHWR's) form the second stage. A shorter reactor doubling time is essential in order to accelerate the nuclear power growth in India. Metallic fuels are known to provide shorter doubling times, necessitating to be used as driver fuel for fast breeder reactors. One of the fabrication routes for metallic fuels having random grain orientation, is injection casting technique. The technique finds its basis in an elementary physical concept - the possibility of supporting a liquid column within a tube, by the application of a pressure difference across the liquid interface inside and outside the tube. At AFD, BARC a facility has been set-up for injection casting of uranium rods in quartz tube moulds, demoulding of cast rods, end-shearing of rods and an automated inspection system for inspection of fuel rods with respect to mass, length, diameter and diameter variation along the length and internal and external porosities/voids. All the above facilities have been set-up in glove boxes and have successfully been used for fabrication of uranium bearing fuel rods. The facility has been designed for fabrication and inspection of Pu-bearing metallic fuels also, if required

  6. Heavy liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. Results in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takatsugu; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Umetsu, Youichirou; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2000-07-01

    Based on the medium and long-term program of JNC, the feasibility study for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) including related nuclear fuel cycles has been started from the 1999 fiscal year. Various options of FBR plant systems have been studied and a concept of Heavy Liquid Metal cooled FBRs is one of these options. The purpose of this paper is to research and evaluate Heavy Liquid Metal cooled FBRs on the basis of literatures. First, we selected four types of plant concepts listed below. Concept 1: Large-scale pond type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 2: Large-scale loop type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 3: Medium-scale module tank type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 4: Small-scale module tank type reactor with Pb-Bi cooled. Concept 1 and 2 are selected to seek for scale merit on economical aspect. In Concept 3 and 4, we tried to reduce the inventory of HLMC and to ease the load conditions on structures and seek for competitiveness with module effect such as mass production and learning effect. Through a preliminary design study, we identified some technical features of each concept and roughly evaluated economical competitiveness based on total weight of the NSSSs. From this study, we concluded. In general, the large-scale type concepts have little economical advantage because of its huge amount of material needed for its severe load conditions. (Concept 1 and 2). Even for the large-scale pond type reactor, the conclusion seems to be the same. Total amount of the thermal shielding material became huge. Aseismatic structure makes the amount of material increase under the Japanese seismic condition. (Concept 1) For the large-scale loop type reactor, we selected side entry and dual walled piping concept with slide-joint inner wall to cope with thermal expansion of piping system. However, there seemed to be difficulty with compatibility between slide-joint and oxide film corrosion prevention measures. (Concept 2) The medium and small modular type seemed to be

  7. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  8. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  9. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  10. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  12. Status of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of the information on the status of fast breeder reactor development. It is intended to provide complete and authoritative information for academic, energy, industrial and planning organizations in the IAEA Member States. The Report also provides extended reference and bibliography lists. A summarized overview of the national programmes of LMFBR development is given in Chapter II. Chapter III on LMFBR experience provides a brief description and purpose of all fast reactors - experimental, demonstration and commercial size - that have been or are planned for construction and operation. Fast reactor physics is dealt with in Chapter IV. Besides the basic facts and definitions of neutronics and the compilation and measurement of nuclear data, a broad range of the calculation methods, codes, and the state of the art is described. In Chapter V, fuels and materials are described. The emphasis is on the design and development experience gained with mixed oxide fuel pins and subassemblies. Structural materials, blanket elements and absorber materials are also discussed. Chaper VI presents a broad overview of the technical and engineering aspects of LMFBR power plants. LMFBR core design is described in detail, followed by the components of the main heat transport system, the refuelling equipment, and auxiliary systems. Chapter VII on safety is a compilation of the current safety design concepts of LMFBRs and new trends in safety criteria and safety goals. The chapter concludes with risk analyses of LMFBR technology. In Chapter VIII, the systems approach has been emphasized in the consideration of the whole LMFBR fuel cycle. Special emphasis is placed on safeguards aspects and the environmental impact of the LMFBR fuel cycle. Chapter IX describes deployment considerations of LMFBRs. Special emphasis is placed on economic aspects of the LMFBR power plant and its related fuel cycle. Finally, Chapter X provides an overall summary and a

  13. Thermodynamics of ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, O.

    1989-05-01

    Based on known or deduced phase relationships in ternary lithium oxygen systems such as Li-Al-O, Li-Si-O and Li-Zr-O, the unknown free enthalpy of formation values of ternary compounds are calculated starting from the known data of the compounds of the binary border systems. Criterion for the data assessment is interconsistency of the data of all the compounds within a given multi-component system. With the help of these data the development of partial pressures during the breeding process can be calculated for all the compounds of interest. In order to facilitate a compatibility assessment the quaternary systems Cr-Li-Si-O, Fe-Li-Si-O and Be-Li-Si-O were also investigated and thermodynamic data of pertinent ternary and quaternary compounds determined. Both the partial pressure development and the compatibility behaviour of a lithium containing compound are criteria for its qualification as a breeder material for a fusion reactor. (orig.) [de

  14. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  15. The DSNP simulation language and its application to liquid-metal fast breeder reactor transient analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphier, D.; Madell, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A new, special purpose block-oriented simulation language, the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants (DSNP), was used to perform a dynamic analysis of several conceptual design studies of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The DSNP being a high level language enables the user to transform a power plant flow chart directly into a simulation program using a small number of DSNP statements. In addition to the language statements, the DSNP system has its own precompiler and an extensive library containing models of power plant components, algorithms of physical processes, material property functions, and various auxiliary functions. The comparative analysis covered oxide-fueled versus metal-fueled core designs and loop- versus pool-type reactors. The question of interest was the rate of change of the temperatures in the components in the upper plenum and the primary loop, in particular the reactor outlet nozzle and the intermediate heat exchanger inlet nozzle during different types of transients. From the simulations performed it can be concluded that metal-fueled cores will have much faster temperature transients than oxide-fueled cores due mainly to the much higher thermal diffusivity of the metal fuel. The transients in the pool-type design (either with oxide fuel or metal fuel) will be much slower than in the loop-type design due to the large heat capacity of the sodium pool. The DSNP language was demonstrated to be well suited to perform many types of transient analysis in nuclear power plants

  16. Study on ceramic breeder and related materials by means of work function measurement under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, G.N.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic breeder materials, Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 4 SiO 4 , under irradiation have been studied using a Kelvin probe that measures work function changes of materials. Surface charging was observed to influence greatly the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively employing a model concerning induction electric field due to external field and free charges on ceramic surface. It is found that the insulating ceramics could not be studied properly with the Kelvin probe. A probable solution is to heat the ceramics, so as to raise their electric conductivities high enough to root out the surface charging. Also briefly discussed is the application of the probe to metals under ion irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    technology for the energy security of India in the 21st century. Keywords. Fast breeder reactor .... The design of the nuclear fuel is an important aspect which has to be optimised for efficient, economic and safe ..... Recycling of plutonium present in the irradiated fuel with minimum delay is important to ensure rapid growth of ...

  18. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment

  19. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  20. Compilation of data and descriptions for United States and foreign liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, E.R.

    1975-08-01

    This document is a compilation of design and engineering information pertaining to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which have operated, are operating, or are currently under construction, in the United States and abroad. All data has been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books

  1. Small liquid metal reactor for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    Safety and burnup characteristics of a 1000 MWth liquid metal reactor have been examined for various fuel types. With metallic Pu/Th fuel containing a small amount of zirconium hydride, low sodium-void reactivity, a high Doppler coefficient, and small burnup reactivity swings can be achieved. A conservative design is considered for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor development and possible modifications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Tritium transport and release from lithium ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an operating fusion reactor,, the tritium breeding blanket will reach a condition in which the tritium release rate equals the production rate. The tritium release rate must be fast enough that the tritium inventory in the blanket does not become excessive. Slow tritium release will result in a large tritium inventory, which is unacceptable from both economic and safety viewpoints As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the tritium release mechanism from ceramic breeders and beryllium neutron multipliers through theoretical, laboratory, and in-reactor studies. This information is being applied to the development of models for predicting tritium release for various blanket operating conditions

  3. Decay heat removal for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanick, P.P.; Brown, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. A statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments is presented. (U.S.)

  4. Some safety considerations of liquid lithium as a fusion breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Test results and conclusions are presented for the reaction of steam with a high temperature lithium pool and for the reaction of high temperature lithium spray with a nitrogen atmosphere. The reactions are characterized and evaluated in regard to the potential for mobilization of radioactive species associated with the liquid breeder under postulated fusion reactor accident conditions. These evaluations include measured lithium temperature responses, atmosphere temperature and pressure responses, gas consumption and generation, aerosol quantities and particle size characterization, and potentially radioactive species releases. Conclusions are made as to the consequences of these safety considerations for the use of lithium as a fusion reactor breeder material

  5. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program: Argonne facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.V.

    1976-09-01

    The objective of the document is to present in one volume an overview of the Argonne National Laboratory test facilities involved in the conduct of the national LMFBR research and development program. Existing facilities and those under construction or authorized as of September 1976 are described. Each profile presents brief descriptions of the overall facility and its test area and data relating to its experimental and testing capability. The volume is divided into two sections: Argonne-East and Argonne-West. Introductory material for each section includes site and facility maps. The profiles are arranged alphabetically by title according to their respective locations at Argonne-East or Argonne-West. A glossary of acronyms and letter designations in common usage to describe organizations, reactor and test facilities, components, etc., involved in the LMFBR program is appended

  6. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program: Argonne facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S. V. [comp.

    1976-09-01

    The objective of the document is to present in one volume an overview of the Argonne National Laboratory test facilities involved in the conduct of the national LMFBR research and development program. Existing facilities and those under construction or authorized as of September 1976 are described. Each profile presents brief descriptions of the overall facility and its test area and data relating to its experimental and testing capability. The volume is divided into two sections: Argonne-East and Argonne-West. Introductory material for each section includes site and facility maps. The profiles are arranged alphabetically by title according to their respective locations at Argonne-East or Argonne-West. A glossary of acronyms and letter designations in common usage to describe organizations, reactor and test facilities, components, etc., involved in the LMFBR program is appended.

  7. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program. Volume IV. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    A broad overview is presented of the many implications of LMFBR program implementation, up to and encompassing a fully developed LMFBR power plant economy, including the secondary impacts, the unavoidable adverse environmental impacts, cumulative environmental impacts, and cost-benefit analyses, and alternative energy strategies. Under the heading of secondary impacts, the national implications of the availability of electricity from LMFBRs, and the specific economic impacts of the LMFBR program are examined. The currently feasible alternatives and potential future alternatives for mitigating adverse environmental impacts of the LMFBR fuel cycle are described. The problems of safeguarding special nuclear material from potential diversion to unauthorized purposes are analyzed. The cumulative environmental effects of LMFBR operation to the Year 2020, the decommissioning of LMFBRs and fuel cycle facilities upon the completion of their useful life, the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that will accompany implementation of an LMFBR economy, and an analysis of the costs and benefits of implementing the LMFBR Program are included. (U.S.)

  8. Cellular Foams: A Potential Innovative Solid Breeder Material for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Williams, B.; Babcock, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic foam and cellular materials are being used in a wide variety of industries and are finding ever growing number of applications. Over the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly uniform interconnected porosities ranging in size from a few μm to several mm. These relatively new ceramic foam materials have a unique set of thermo-mechanical properties, such as excellent thermal shock resistance and high surface to volume ratios. Based on new advances in processing ceramic foams, we suggest the development of ceramic foams or cellular ceramics for solid breeders in fusion reactor blankets. A cellular breeder material has a number of thermo-mechanical advantages over pebble beds, which can enhance blanket performance, improve operational stability, and reduce overall blanket costs

  9. Thermodynamic considerations for the use of vanadium alloys with ceramic breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E.; Johnson, I.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Fusion energy is considered to be an attractive energy form because of its minimal environmental impact. In order to maintain this favorable status, every effort needs to be made to use low activation materials wherever possible. The tritium breeder blanket is a focal point of system design engineers who must design environmentally attractive blankets through the use of low activation materials. Of the several candidate lithium-containing ceramics being considered for use in the breeder blanket, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, are attractive choices because of their low activation. Also, low activation materials like the vanadium alloys are being considered for use as structural materials in the blanket. The suitability of vanadium alloys for containment of lithium ceramics is the subject of this study. Thermodynamic evaluations are being used to estimate the compatibility and stability of candidate ceramic breeder materials (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) with vanadium and vanadium alloys. This thermodynamic evaluation will focus first on solid-solid interactions. As a tritium breeding blanket will use a purge gas for tritium recovery, gas-solid systems will also receive attention.

  10. Thermodynamic considerations for the use of vanadium alloys with ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Johnson, I.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion energy is considered to be an attractive energy form because of its minimal environmental impact. In order to maintain this favorable status, every effort needs to be made to use low activation materials wherever possible. The tritium breeder blanket is a focal point of system design engineers who must design environmentally attractive blankets through the use of low activation materials. Of the several candidate lithium-containing ceramics being considered for use in the breeder blanket, Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , are attractive choices because of their low activation. Also, low activation materials like the vanadium alloys are being considered for use as structural materials in the blanket. The suitability of vanadium alloys for containment of lithium ceramics is the subject of this study. Thermodynamic evaluations are being used to estimate the compatibility and stability of candidate ceramic breeder materials (Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , and Li 2 ZrO 3 ) with vanadium and vanadium alloys. This thermodynamic evaluation will focus first on solid-solid interactions. As a tritium breeding blanket will use a purge gas for tritium recovery, gas-solid systems will also receive attention

  11. Effects of irradiation on four solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The tritium breeding material with the highest lithium atom density, Li 2 O has been observed to incur significant swelling (>4%) under fast reactor irradiation. Such swelling, if unrestrained leads to either unacceptable, induced-strains in adjacent structural material or undesirable design compromises. Fortunately, however, Li 2 O deforms at low temperatures so that swelling strains may be internally accommodated. Laboratory dilational creep experiments were conducted on unirraciated Li 2 O between 500 and 700 0 C in order to provide data for structural analysis of in-reactor experiments and blanket design studies. A densification model agreed with most of the available data. 15 refs

  12. Survey of creep data on structural materials of fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.

    1977-11-01

    The reactor vessels and other components of fast breeder reactor is affected by high neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. However, in this regard, related test data on creep property of component materials and welds at elevated temperatures are a few in Japan, and especially, there are no data available on the irradiation effect. It will take 3 to 7 years before the results of currently planned research and development on prototype fast breeder become available. On the other hand, establishment of design base for prototype fast breeder and other needs call for early solution to such problems. The Committee should, therefore, collect from documents the latest data on experiments on structural materials overseas and in our country, and survey and analyze the problems in order to proceed with the future research and development in the most effective way. It was for this purpose that the Fourth Subcommittee at Technical Research Association for Integrity of Structures at Elevated Service Temperatures was commissioned by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation to conduct the examination and study of related data by establishing Group 41G. This collection of data is the compilation of the above results. (author)

  13. Chemical form of release tritium from solid breeder materials under the various purge gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomohiro Kinjyo; Masabumi Nishikawa; Naoya Yamashita; Takanori Koyama; Takaaki Tanifuji; Mikio Enoeda

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials is necessary to design tritium recovery system from blanket of a fusion reactor because permeation loss of bred tritium in the piping system or type of tritium recovery system depends on the tritium release behavior. Chemical form of released tritium from Li 4 SiO 4 (from FzK), LiAlO 2 (from JAERI), Li 2 TiO 3 (from CEA) and Li 2 ZrO 3 (from MAPI) under various purge gas condition is discussed in this study by using the data obtained from the out-pile tritium release experiment in JAEA. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a little portion of bred tritium is release as the chemical form of HTO even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. It is also confirmed that desorption of surface water together with liberation of water vapor formed by water formation reaction from contact of hydrogen with solid breeder materials at high temperature gives rather high partial pressure of water vapor in the blanket purge gas. Tritium liberation model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials has been developed by the present authors considering tritium migration in bulk of grain, tritium transfer from bulk to surface and surface reactions on grain. Then, competition of such surface reactions as adsorption/desorption, isotope exchange reaction with hydrogen in purge gas and isotope exchange reaction with water vapor in purge gas decides the portion of HTO and HT. Using the tritium release model obtained so far, the portion of HTO or HT released from solid breeder materials is estimated and compared with observed values under various conditions in this study. The tritium release behavior and chemical form of tritium in the test blanket module with solid breeder under the ITER condition is also discussed based on the estimation obtained using the tritium release model formed by the present authors. (author)

  14. The role of materials in the analysis of fast breeder reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Michel; Petrequin, Pierre.

    1982-09-01

    The analysis of fast breeder reactor components involves the knowledge of certain properties of the materials used. The latter consist of the following: - a body of data required for calculations, including allowable stresses and fatigue strength, as well as the rules applicable to these data, - a number of qualitative requirements serving to guarantee that the quality of the material fully justifies the use of the previously established elements. This duality of concerns is illustrated by some recent examples which occured during the construction of the Super Phenix reactor [fr

  15. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor: decision process and issues. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program involves many issues of both a policy and a technical nature that need continuous assessment. A suggested structure is presented for national decision making on the timing of the LMFBR Program, taking into consideration the principal uncertainties and variables. The process examines the key issues that affect current decisions. In summary, an analysis of the issues indicates that the key parameters in the decision process are electricity demand, the availability of uranium, and the availability of a clean coal technology. The predictive uncertainties in these three result in eight possible future energy situations. The analysis indicates that six of these outcomes support the acceleration of the LMFBR and two favor slowing the program

  16. Application of acoustic agglomerators for emergency use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.T.; Rajendran, N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of acoustic agglomerators for the suppression of sodium-fire aerosols in the case of a hypothetical core disruptive accident of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is discussed. The basic principle for the enhancement of agglomeration of airborne particles under the influence of an acoustic field is first discussed, followed by theoretical predictions of the optimum operating conditions for such application. It is found that with an acoustic intensity of 160 dB (approx. 1 W/cm 2 ), acoustic agglomeration is expected to be several hundred times more effective than gravitational agglomeration. For particles with a radius larger than approx. 2 μm, hydrodynamic interaction becomes more important than the inertial capture. For radii between 0.5 and 2 μm, both mechanisms have to included in the theoretical predictions of the acoustic agglomeration rate

  17. Fission and corrosion product behaviour in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    It is intended that this review will be useful not only to scientists but also to those concerned with design, day-to-day operation of plant, with liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), safety and decommissioning. Because of this, the review has been widened to include not only the mass transfer behaviour of the various radionuclides in experimental and operating systems, but also the monitoring of the various species, the methods of measurement and the development of methods to control the build-up of the more important long half-life species in operating plants. The information used in the review has been taken from open literature sources to provide an up-to-date presentation of the behaviour of the various isotopes in LMFBRs. 172 refs, 14 figs, 22 tabs

  18. Acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor from autoregressive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Issa Cherif [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Bose, Tanmoy [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi, E-mail: midzodzi.pekpe@univ-lille1.fr [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Cassar, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Mohanty, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Paumel, Kévin [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The work deals with sodium boiling detection in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. • The authors choose to use acoustic data instead of thermal data. • The method is designed to not to be disturbed by the environment noises. • A real time boiling detection methods are proposed in the paper. - Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) based on auto regressive (AR) models which have low computational complexities. Some authors have used AR models for sodium boiling or sodium–water reaction detection. These works are based on the characterization of the difference between fault free condition and current functioning of the system. However, even in absence of faults, it is possible to observe a change in the AR models due to the change of operating mode of the LMFBR. This sets up the delicate problem of how to distinguish a change in operating mode in absence of faults and a change due to presence of faults. In this paper we propose a new approach for boiling detection based on the estimation of AR models on sliding windows. Afterwards, classification of the models into boiling or non-boiling models is made by comparing their coefficients by two statistical methods, multiple linear regression (LR) and support vectors machines (SVM). The proposed approach takes into account operating mode information in order to avoid false alarms. Experimental data include non-boiling background noise data collected from Phenix power plant (France) and provided by the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France) and boiling condition data generated in laboratory. High boiling detection rates as well as low false alarms rates obtained on these experimental data show that the proposed method is efficient for boiling detection. Most importantly, it shows that the boiling phenomenon introduces a disturbance into the AR models that can be clearly detected.

  19. Comparison of material property specifications of austenitic steels in fast breeder reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborck, Y.; Van Mulders, E.

    1985-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are very widely used in components for European Fast Breeder Reactors. The Activity Group Nr.3 ''Materials'', within Working Group ''Codes and Standards'' of the Fast Reactor Co-Ordination Committee of the European Communities, has decided to initiate a study to compare the material property specifications of the austenitic stainless steel used in the European Fast Breeder Technology. Hence, this study would allow one to view rapidly the designation of a particular steel grade in different European countries and to compare given property values for a same grade. There were dissimilarities, differences or voids appear, it could lead to an attempt to complete and/or to uniformize the nationally given values, so that on a practical level interchangeability, availability and use ease design and construction work. A selection of the materials and of their properties has been made by the Working Group. Materials examined are Stainless Steel AISI 304, 304 L, 304 LN, 316, 316 L, 316 LN, 316''Ti stab.'', 316''Nb stab''., 321, 347

  20. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    ; according to the experience from the old design no major problems are expected concerning stress levels and gap formation in the pebble beds; in fact, the situation should be more favourable due to the reduced dimensions (max. 20 cm) of the beds that should minimise ratcheting and particle flow phenomena. In respect to tritium extraction, the most favourable features of the HCPB concept (e.g. an overall low partial pressure of tritium in the beds that minimise permeation into the main coolant system) can be kept in the new design; a complication could be the necessity to provide each cell with a system of tubes to inlet the purge helium in the front part of the beds or to divide the purge flow for Be and CB. The modular design of the new HCPB blanket, that makes the breeder units almost independent on the structural design of the box, opens interesting possibilities in the development of these units. The present design can be optimised on the basis of the results of the present R and D programme on Be and CB. In addition, new requirements could appear to improve the design performances or manufacturing: i.e. in respect to filling procedures of the beds (use of pre-packed breeder units) or the necessity of insulating layer to thermally decouple the breeder units from the box or the selection of new materials with a better compatibility with Be and CB at high temperatures as protection of the steel structure. (author)

  1. Optimization of material and production to develop fluoroelastomer inflatable seals for sodium cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, N.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Production of thin fluoroelastomer profiles by cold feed extrusion and continuous cure involving microwave and hot air heating. → Use of peroxide curing in air during production. → Use of fluoroelastomers based on advanced polymer architecture (APA) for the production of profiles. → Use of the profiles in inflatable seals for critical application of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. → Tailoring of material formulation by synchronized optimization of material and production technologies to ensure that the produced seal ensures significant gains in terms of performance and safety in reactor under synergistic influences of temperature, radiation, air and sodium aerosol. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing thin-walled fluoroelastomer profiles under continuous, atmospheric-pressure vulcanization conditions in air has been demonstrated by successful manufacture of ∼2 m diameter test inflatable seals for the 500 MWe, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) using a 50/50 blend formulation of Viton GBL-200S/600S based on advanced polymer architecture (APA). A commercial cold feed screw extruder with 90 mm diameter screw was used along with continuous cure by microwave (2.45 GHz) and hot air heating (190 o C) at a line speed of 1 m/min to produce the seals. The blend formulation promises significant improvement in the performance and safety of the seals. This article depicts the relevant characteristics of the original inflatable seal compound that was used as reference to achieve the objectives through synchronized optimization of material and production technologies. The production trials are outlined and the blend formulation used with minor factory modifications to produce the test seals is reported. Progressive refinements of the original, Viton A-401C based compound to the blend formulation is presented along with an assessment of potential performance gains. Possible uses of the reported formulation and production technique for

  2. Optimization of material and production to develop fluoroelastomer inflatable seals for sodium cooled fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.i [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev, E-mail: dir@igcar.gov.i [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: Production of thin fluoroelastomer profiles by cold feed extrusion and continuous cure involving microwave and hot air heating. Use of peroxide curing in air during production. Use of fluoroelastomers based on advanced polymer architecture (APA) for the production of profiles. Use of the profiles in inflatable seals for critical application of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Tailoring of material formulation by synchronized optimization of material and production technologies to ensure that the produced seal ensures significant gains in terms of performance and safety in reactor under synergistic influences of temperature, radiation, air and sodium aerosol. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing thin-walled fluoroelastomer profiles under continuous, atmospheric-pressure vulcanization conditions in air has been demonstrated by successful manufacture of {approx}2 m diameter test inflatable seals for the 500 MWe, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) using a 50/50 blend formulation of Viton GBL-200S/600S based on advanced polymer architecture (APA). A commercial cold feed screw extruder with 90 mm diameter screw was used along with continuous cure by microwave (2.45 GHz) and hot air heating (190 {sup o}C) at a line speed of 1 m/min to produce the seals. The blend formulation promises significant improvement in the performance and safety of the seals. This article depicts the relevant characteristics of the original inflatable seal compound that was used as reference to achieve the objectives through synchronized optimization of material and production technologies. The production trials are outlined and the blend formulation used with minor factory modifications to produce the test seals is reported. Progressive refinements of the original, Viton A-401C based compound to the blend formulation is presented along with an assessment of potential performance gains. Possible uses of the reported formulation and production technique for other large

  3. Mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Jr, W F

    1976-11-01

    An estimation of the mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in two specific liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), has been undertaken. The mixing requirements were represented in terms of the limiting mixing time constants. These constants were determined with the Argonne parametric FCI Computer Model for a range of core involvements. Specifically, fuel masses used ranged from as low as one-seventh of the core to a full core involvement. In general, conservative values for additional FCI input parameters were assumed such that the results would be conservative. With the results in hand, several mechanisms were investigated to determine what limiting effects they could have on the mixing rates of the fuel and coolant during an FCI. The energy requirements for mixing were investigated. The results, however, provided no limiting effects. A solidification limited fragmentation model was also investigated. Although this model provided no absolute limiting effects, it did show that fuel particle sizes of a certain size could indeed limit the fuel-coolant mixing rates. Additionally, the limiting effects were found to be much less significant for UC fuel. The third mechanism that was investigated concerned the limiting effects of the finite fuel release rates as a result of TOP accidents in the FFTF. Equivalent mixing time constants based on the fuel release rates were shown to be greater than the limiting values. Thus, this mechanism was shown to be limiting for the particular accident sequence investigated.

  4. A fuel freezing model for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, F.R.; Erdman, C.; Wayne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed fuel freezing mechanism for molten UO2 fuel penetrating a steel channel was investigated in the course of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptiv accident safety studies. The fuel crust deposited on an underlying melting steel wall was analyzed as being subjected to two stresses one due to the pressure difference between the flowing fuel and the stagnant molten steel layer, and the other resulting from the temperature variation through the crust thickness. Analyses based on the proposed freezing mechanism and comparisons with fuel freezing experiments confirmed that fuel freezing occurs in three modes. For initially low steel wall temperatures, the fuel crust was stable and grew to occlude the channel. At high steel wall temperatures (above 1070 K), instantaneous wall melting leading to steel entrainment was calculated to occur with final penetration depending on the refreezing of the entrained steel. Between these two extremes, the stress developed within the crust at the steel melting front exceeds the critical buckling value, the crust ruptures, and steel is injected into the fuel flow. Freezing is dominated by the fuel/steel mixture. The theoretical penetration distances and freezing times were in good agreement with the experimental results with no more than 20% error involved.

  5. Liquid metal reactor deactivation as applied to the experimental breeder reactor - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, O. K.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Pfannenstiel, D. F.; Wells, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was shutdown in September, 1994. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and by the US Department of Energy (DOE) mandate, was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility (SPF) was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the SPF

  6. Selection of hardfacing material for components of the Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Indira, R.; Albert, S.K.; Rao, B.P.S.; Jain, S.C.; Asokkumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel-base hardfacing alloys have been chosen to replace cobalt-base alloys as hardfacing material for components of the Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, for minimising the dose rate to personnel during maintenance and decommissioning, and to reduce the shielding thickness required for component handling. Induced activity, dose rate and shielding computations showed that replacing cobalt-base alloys with nickel-base alloys for hardfacing of components would result in a marked reduction in both the dose rate from the components and the thickness of lead handling flasks. Long-term ageing studies on the nickel-base hardface deposits on austenitic stainless steel showed that the hardface deposit would retain adequate hardness at the end of the components' design service-life of 40 years of exposure at 823 K

  7. Isotope exchange reactions on ceramic breeder materials and their effect on tritium inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Baba, A.; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Though lithium ceramic materials such as Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 are considered as breeding materials in the blanket of a D-T fusion reactor, the release behavior of the bred tritium in these solid breeder materials has not been fully understood. The isotope exchange reaction rate between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of breeding materials have not been quantified yet, although helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas in the recent blanket designs. The mass transfer coefficient representing the isotope exchange reaction between H 2 and D 2 O or that between D 2 and H 2 O in the ceramic breeding materials bed is experimentally obtained in this study. Effects of isotope exchange reactions on the tritium inventory in the bleeding blanket is discussed based on data obtained in this study where effects of diffusion of tritium in the grain, absorption of water in the bulk of grain, and adsorption of water on the surface of grain, together with two types of isotope exchange reactions are considered. The way to estimate the tritium inventory in a Li 2 ZrO 3 blanket used in this study shows a good agreement with data obtained in such in-situ experiments as MOZART, EXOTIC-5, 6 and TRINE experiments. (author)

  8. Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%

  9. Instrumentation for core and coolant monitoring in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.; Ruppert, E.

    1975-01-01

    The review on core and coolant instrumentation for liquid metal fast breeders aims to give a short survey of measurement methods and the variety of appropriate instrumentation developed and tested for reactor application throughout the world. The introductory part gives a general outline of instrumentation development, partly as the refinement of well-known thermal reactor instrumentation and partly as the special instrumentation demanded for LMFBR safety requirements, some aspects of which are also discussed briefly. The in-core LMFBR instrumentation is surveyed, classifying the measurement or monitoring of coolant properties such as temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic emission and the measurement of core-kinetic quantities such as neutron flux and reactivity. Without considering the fundamentals of the measurements, the state of instrument development is reviewed and, where known, future aspects are indicated. An additional review on fuel failure detection methods and the related instrumentation distinguishes between global or whole-core detection methods and those used for localization of failures. Special attention is paid to the aspect of reactor safety and its reliability as one of the major objectives of these detection methods. A summary of the protective systems and instrumentation already used or foreseen for LMFBR plants forms a transition to a very brief discussion of handling and interpretation of the multitude of data derived from the rather comprehensive LMFBR instrumentation. This state of the art review claims neither to be complete at the time published nor to be a detailed guide to special problems of instrumentation development, the solutions to which are normally part of industrial knowhow. (author)

  10. Isotope exchange reactions on ceramic breeder materials and their effect on tritium inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, M.; Baba, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.

    1998-03-01

    Though lithium ceramic materials such as Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are considered as breeding materials in the blanket of a D-T fusion reactor, the release behavior of the bred tritium in these solid breeder materials has not been fully understood. The isotope exchange reaction rate between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of breeding materials have not been quantified yet, although helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas in the recent blanket designs. The mass transfer coefficient representing the isotope exchange reaction between H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}O or that between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ceramic breeding materials bed is experimentally obtained in this study. Effects of isotope exchange reactions on the tritium inventory in the bleeding blanket is discussed based on data obtained in this study where effects of diffusion of tritium in the grain, absorption of water in the bulk of grain, and adsorption of water on the surface of grain, together with two types of isotope exchange reactions are considered. The way to estimate the tritium inventory in a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} blanket used in this study shows a good agreement with data obtained in such in-situ experiments as MOZART, EXOTIC-5, 6 and TRINE experiments. (author)

  11. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  12. Social and ethical aspects of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of liquid fast breeder reactors not only indirectly entails (through commitments of time and resources that foreclose other options), but also directly entails large-scale centralized electrification. The massive economic commitments of such a policy, wether or not it is a nuclear policy, demand and cause major social changes, bypass traditional market mechanisms, concentrate political and economic power, persistently distort political structures and social priorities, compromise professional ethics, are probably inimical to greater distributional equity within and among nations, enhance vulnerability and the paramilitarization of civilian life, introduce major economic and social risks, and reinforce current trends toward centrifugal politics. Deployment of fission technology produces further social and ethical problems, since attempts to reduce potential hazards from operating accidents, from escape of nuclear wastes, or from nuclear violence and coercion will have socio-political side-effects even if they succeed, not to mention the side-effects if they fail. These side-effects, many of which would be worse with fast than with thermal reactors, include repressiveness, abrogation of civil liberties, social rigidity and homogeneity, elitist technocracy, dirigiste autarchy, and suppression of ethical objections. The inability of modern political institutions to cope with the persistent hazards of toxic and explosive nuclear materials strains the competence and perceived legitimacy of those institutions as they try to compromise between individual liberties and public safety and to subject to democratic decision technically tinged policy questions that turn largely on unknown or unknowable information. There is no scientific basis for calculating the likelihood on the maximum long-term of nuclear mishaps, nor for guaranteeing that the effects will not exceed a particular level; it is only known that all precautions are, for fundamental reasons

  13. Comparison of oxide- and metal-core behavior during CRBRP [Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant] station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkinghorne, S.T.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A resurrected concept that could significantly improve the inherently safe response of Liquid-Metal cooled Reactors (LMRs) during severe undercooling transients is the use of metallic fuel. Analytical studies have been reported on for the transient behavior of metal-fuel cores in innovative, inherently safe LMR designs. This paper reports on an analysis done, instead, for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design with the only innovative change being the incorporation of a metal-fuel core. The SSC-L code was used to simulate a protected station blackout accident in the CRBRP with a 943 MWt Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal-fuel core. The results, compared with those for the oxide-fueled CRBRP, show that the margin to boiling is greater for the IFR core. However, the cooldown transient is more severe due to the faster thermal response time of metallic fuel. Some additional calculations to assess possible LMR design improvements (reduced primary system pressure losses, extended flow coastdown) are also discussed. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Carbon transport in a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Spalaris, C.N.; Roy, P.

    1980-04-01

    Carbon transport data from a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are discussed. The results of bulk carbon analyses after 15,000 hours' exposure indicate a pattern of carburization of Type 304 stainless steel foils which is independent of loop sodium temperature. A model based on carbon activity gradients accounting for this behavior is proposed. Data also indicate that carburization of Type 304 stainless steel is a diffusion-controlled process; however, decarburization of the ferritic 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel is not. It is proposed that the decarburization of the ferritic steel is controlled by the dissolution of carbides in the steel matrix. The differences in the sodium decarburization behavior of electroslag remelted and vacuum-arc remelted 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel are also highlighted

  15. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hot plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, N.; Moriya, S.; Wada, A.

    1984-01-01

    The most important problem in the thermal-hydraulic designs of the pool-type fast breeder reactor is to estimate the thermal conditions affecting the vessel and/or internal structures during both steady and transient operations. The severity of these conditions in the Japanese pool-type reactor, which will be reinforced and equipped with special devices for seismic demands, is apt to be much greater than for other countries. Water tests and thermal-hydraulic analyses have been performed to study such conditions. The effects of the elevations of upper internal structure discharge and intermediate heat exchanger intakes on flow patterns, free surface disturbance, and thermal stratification in the hot plenum have been estimated. From the results of the experiments, suitable elevations could be recommended by comparing some thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The calculations agreed well with the experimental results for the steady-state flow patterns and thermal transients, with the exception of thermal stratification

  16. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  17. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  18. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  19. Creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steels, base and weld metals used in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, during temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsen, M.F.

    1982-07-01

    Creep rupture and deformation during temperature variations have been studied for 316 austenitic steel, base and weld metals. Loaded specimens were heated to 900 0 C or 1000 0 C and maintained at this temperature for different durations. The heating rate to these temperatures was between 5 and 50 0 C h -1 , whilst the cooling rate was between 5 and 20 0 C h -1 . The above tests were coupled with short time creep and tensile tests (straining rate 10 -2 h -1 to 10 3 h -1 ) at constant temperature. These tests were used for predicting the creep behaviour of the materials under changing temperature condition. The predictions were in good agreement with the changing temperature and creep experimental results. In addition, a correlation between certains tensile properties, such as the rupture time as a function of stress was observed at high temperature

  20. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues; La production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire en France, dans le futur a long terme: Le cas des surgenerateurs: Les reacteurs nucleaires surgenerateurs: Les parametres physique et physico-chimiques, la thermodynamique associee des materiaux et de l'ingenierie mecanique: Nouveautes et options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R. [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75270 Paris cedex 06 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The author gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the fifties. Neutron transport theory, thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, heat exchanges...) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. However, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling and security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchangers) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the re-fabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. France was in the forefront of nuclear breeder power generation science, technological research and also in the knowledge base related to breeder reactors. It is in the country's interest to pursue these efforts. (author)

  1. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  2. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  3. Development of a methodology for the quantification of the initiating event frequencies in liquid metal fast breeder reactor PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Hahn, Do Hee

    2001-03-01

    One of the major tasks of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is to identify various sequences of events which could lead to the release of radioactivity. In general, each such sequence of events is the result of an initiating event (IE), followed by the failures of other functions or systems designed to mitigate its effects. Thus one of the first requirements of the PSA is to identify the various initiating events requiring analysis, and later to quantify their frequencies. In general, the IEs to be analyzed in PWR/PHWR PSA are well established . The design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) is much different from that of the water reactors, so the IEs to be analyzed in LMFBR PSA also will be different from them of water reactor PSA. However, due to the limited operating and LMFBR PSA experiences, it will be difficult to derive IEs and to quantify their frequencies for LMFBR PSA. Hence, in this report, we describe the methods that can be used to identify the IEs and quantify their frequencies for LMFBR PSA

  4. Fast breeder project (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Activities performed during the 1st quarter of 1976 at or on behalf of the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project are given a survey. The following project subdivisions are dealt with: Fuel rod development; materials testing and developments; corrosion studies and coolant analyses; physical experiments; reactor theory; safety of fast breeders; instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring; effects on the environment; sodium technology tests; thermodynamic and fluid flow tests in gas. (HR) [de

  5. Final environmental statement, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: LMFBR program options and their compatibility with the major issues affecting commercial development, Proposed Final Environmental Statement for the LMFBR program, December 1974, WASH-1535, supplemental material, and material relating to Proposed Final Environmental Statement review

  6. Economic analysis of fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included

  7. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations

  8. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiu, Kelvin K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations.

  9. An analysis of electron beam welds in a dual coolant liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Riesch-Oppermann, H.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1994-10-01

    Numerical simulation of electron beam welding of blanket segments was performed using non-linear finite element code ABAQUS. The thermal and stress fields were assumed uncoupled, while preserving the temperature dependency of all material parameters. The martensite-austenite and austenite-martensite transformations were taken into account through volume shrinking/expansion effects, which is consistent with available data. The distributions of post welding residual stress in a complex geometry of the first wall are obtained. Also, the effects of preheating and post-welding heat treatment were addressed. Time dependent temperature and stress-strain fields obtained provide good insight into the welding process. They may be used directly to support reliability and life-time studies of blanket structures. On the other hand, they provide useful hints about the feasibility of the geometrical configurations as proposed by different design concepts. (orig.) [de

  10. First results of the post-irradiation examination of the Ceramic Breeder materials from the Pebble Bed Assemblies Irradiation for the HCPB Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeman, J.; Magielsen, A.J.; Peeters, M.; Stijkel, M.P.; Fokkens, J.H.; Laan, J.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of developing the European Helium Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is performed in the HFR Petten. The experiment is focused on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the HCPB type breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. To achieve representative conditions a section of the HCPB is simulated by EUROFER-97 cylinders with a horizontal bed of ceramic breeder pebbles sandwiched between two beryllium beds. Floating Eurofer-97 steel plates separate the pebble-beds. The structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials is an issue for the design of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concept. Therefore the objective of the post irradiation examination is to study deformation of pebbles and the pebble beds and to investigate the microstructure of the ceramic pebbles from the Pebble Bed Assemblies. This paper concentrates on the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the four ceramic pebble beds that have been irradiated in the Pebble Bed Assembly experiment for the HCPB blanket concept. Two assemblies with Li 4 SiO 4 pebble-beds are operated at different maximum temperatures of approximately 600 o C and 800 o C. Post irradiation computational analysis has shown that both have different creep deformation. Two other assemblies have been loaded with a ceramic breeder bed of two types of Li 2 TiO 3 beds having different sintering temperatures and consequently different creep behavior. The irradiation maximum temperature of the Li 2 TiO 3 was 800 o C. To support the first PIE result, the post irradiation thermal analysis will be discussed because thermal gradients have influence on the pebble-bed thermo-mechanical behavior and as a result it may have impact on the structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials. (author)

  11. Novel non-platinum metal catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel non-platinum metal catalyst material for use in low temperature fuel cells and electrolysers and to fuel cells and electrolysers comprising the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material. The present invention also relates to a novel method for synthesizing...... the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material....

  12. Chimera of new nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The current and future needs in materials for light water reactors and liquid metal fast breeder reactors are reviewed. Information and discussions are included on boiling water reactors, pressurized water reactors, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, corrosion of piping systems and steam generators, ferritic steels, stainless steels, Inconel 600, pressure vessels, and radiation damage. (U.S.)

  13. Reactor physics and reactor strategy investigations into the fissionable material economy of the thorium and uranium cycle in fast breeder reactors and high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.M.

    In this work the properties governing the fissionable material economy of the uranium and thorium cycles are investigated for the advanced reactor types currently under development - the fast breeder reactor (FBR) and the high temperature reactor (HTR) - from the point of view of the optimum utilization of the available nuclear fuel reserves and the continuance of supply of these reserves. For this purpose, the two reactor types are first of all considered individually and are subsequently discussed as a complementary overall system

  14. Mesoporous metal oxide graphene nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Kou, Rong; Wang, Donghai

    2016-05-24

    A nanocomposite material formed of graphene and a mesoporous metal oxide having a demonstrated specific capacity of more than 200 F/g with particular utility when employed in supercapacitor applications. A method for making these nanocomposite materials by first forming a mixture of graphene, a surfactant, and a metal oxide precursor, precipitating the metal oxide precursor with the surfactant from the mixture to form a mesoporous metal oxide. The mesoporous metal oxide is then deposited onto a surface of the graphene.

  15. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  16. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  17. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  18. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance

  19. U.S. and foreign breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The running battle between Congress and the Administration over the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project has provoked an increased interest in domestic and foreign breeder reactor programs. Perhaps an understanding of the history of breeders here and abroad will serve to place the CRBRP in perspective and allow some analysis of how the U.S. appears on the global canvas. Breeder reactor technology has, for the most part, settled down to concentration on the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). This is the result of 32 years of experience with reactors employing a fast neutron flux and even longer experience with liquid metal coolants. However, a number of U.S. utilities are sponsoring a gas cooled fast reactor program as an alternative technology to the LMFBR. This development program is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy

  20. A review of fusion breeder blanket technology, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.; Selander, W.N.; Townes, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of fusion breeder blanket technology. It reviews the role of the breeder blanket, the current understanding of the scientific and engineering bases of liquid metal and solid breeder blankets and the programs now underway internationally to resolve the uncertainities in current knowledge. In view of existing national expertise and experience, a solid breeder R and D program for Canada is recommended

  1. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  2. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  3. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  4. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  5. Analysis of mechanical effects caused by plasma disruptions in the European BOT solid breeder blanket design with MANET as structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Ruatto, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Nuclear Center is developing, through design and experimental work, a BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for a DEMO application. One of the crucial problems in the blanket design is to demonstrate the capability of the structure to withstand the mechanical effects of a major plasma disruption as extrapolated to DEMO from the experience of present machines. In this paper the results of the assessment work are presented; the acceptability of the design is discussed on the basis of a stress analysis of the structure under combined thermal and electromagnetic loads. The martensitic steel MANET has been chosen as structural material, because it is able to withstand the high neutron fluence in Demo (70 dpa) without appreciably swelling and has good thermal-mechanical properties - lower thermal expansion and higher strength - in comparison to AISI 316L steel. As far as it concerns the mechanical effects of plasma disruptions, MANET presents two important features which have been carefully investigated in the assessment: the magnetic properties of the material and the degradation of the fracture toughness behavior under irradiation

  6. Investigation of tritium inventory and permeation behaviour in the liquid breeder blanket concept of Demo as a function of design and material parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominetti, S.; Perujo, A.; Reiter, F.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical code has been used to estimate the time dependence of tritium inventory and of tritium transport into the coolant, into the first wall boxes and through the liquid breeder in the Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO. Several issues in both design and material parameters have been considered and the effect on inventory and permeation of coatings with low surface recombination coefficient and/or low diffusivity at various surfaces of the structural material has been studied. TiC has been chosen as reference material for these calculations and a general database on coating efficiency as a function of its properties has also been produced on the basis of TiC data

  7. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  8. On the use of tin-lithium alloys as breeder material for blankets of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Aiello, G.; Barbier, F.; Giancarli, L.; Poitevin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Szczepanski, J.; Li Puma, A.; Ruvutuso, G.; Vella, G.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-lithium alloys have several attractive thermo-physical properties, in particular high thermal conductivity and heat capacity, that make them potentially interesting candidates for use in liquid metal blankets. This paper presents an evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks caused by the substitution of the currently employed alloy lead-lithium (Pb-17Li) by a suitable tin-lithium alloy: (i) for the European water-cooled Pb-17Li (WCLL) blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as the structural material; (ii) for the European self-cooled TAURO blanket with SiC f /SiC as the structural material. It was found that in none of these blankets Sn-Li alloys would lead to significant advantages, in particular due to the low tritium breeding capability. Only in forced convection cooled divertors with W-alloy structure, Sn-Li alloys would be slightly more favorable. It is concluded that Sn-Li alloys are only advantageous in free surface cooled reactor internals, as this would make maximum use of the principal advantage of Sn-Li, i.e., the low vapor pressure

  9. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 1: Self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Sebening, H.; Barleon, L.; Bogusch, E.; Bojarsky, E.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Buehler, L.; Casal, V.; Deckers, H.; Feuerstein, H.; Fischer, U.; Frees, G.; Graebner, H.; John, H.; Jordan, T.; Kramer, W.; Krieg, R.; Lenhart, L.; Malang, S.; Meyder, R.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, J.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Schnauder, H.; Stieglitz, R.; Oschinski, J.; Wiegner, E.

    1991-12-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket for a fusion DEMO-reactor and the status of the development programme is described as a part of the European development programme of DEMO relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4907) contains a summary, Volume 2 (KfK 4908) a more detailed version of the report. Both volumes contain sections on previous studies on self-cooled liquid metal breeder blankets, the reference blanket design for a DEMO-reactor, a typical test blanket design including the ancillary loop system and the building requirements for NET/ITER together with the present status of the associated R and D-programme in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium removal and recovery, liquid metal compatibility and purification, ancillary loop system, safety and reliability. An outlook is given regarding the required R and D-programme for the self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the relevant test programme to be performed in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  10. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  11. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.; Rao, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    excellent understanding of type IV cracking in the heat affected zone of 9Cr1Mo steel weldments, factors influencing hot cracking in 316L (N) welds and weldments, measures to be taken for prevention of hydrogen assisted cracking and achieving adequate toughness in the weld metal of Mod.9Cr1Mo and production of dissimilar weld joints between Mod.9Cr1Mo and 316L (N) stainless steels. All this experience could be utilized in the fabrication of sound components for fusion reactors. Robust ANN models have been developed for alloy development, thermomechanical processing, for prediction of creep-fatigue life, radiation damage and delta-ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds. Extensive investigations by electron microscopy have led to understanding fundamental mechanisms associated with radiation damage in 316 SS and Alloy D9. The concept of Phase evolution diagrams has been developed for the prediction of remnant life of ferritic steel components based on the evolving microstructure. Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE) is being pursued as an innovative processing technique to tailor the properties of the existing alloys by producing higher number of coincident site lattice boundaries that lead to greater resistance to intergranular degradation against fracture, cavitation and localized corrosion, higher creep resistance and possibly higher radiation damage resistance. Experimental and modeling work done on GBE of austenitic and ferritic steels will be presented. Various Non Destructive Examination techniques and procedures have been developed for ensuring quality of the nuclear grade steels with respect to inclusion content, qualification of microstructure, mechanical properties, determination of residual stresses, and early detection and evaluation of damage in materials and components, in service. The adoption of suitable NDE techniques and methodologies would facilitate to obtain deeper insights into the development of materials, fabrication techniques and assessment of

  12. Experimental study of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor at the fast critical assembly: Power distribution measurements and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, S.; Obu, M.; Hayase, T.; Ohno, A.; Nemoto, T.; Okajima, S.

    1988-01-01

    Power distributions of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor were studied by using the experiment results of fast critical assemblies XI, XII, and XIII and the results of their analyses. The power distributions were examined by the gamma-scanning method and fission rate measurements using /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U fission counters and the foil irradiation method. In addition to the measurements in the reference core, the power distributions were measured in the core with a control rod inserted and in a modified core where the shape of the internal blanket was determined by the radial boundary. The calculation was made by using JENDL-2 and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's standard calculation system for fast reactor neutronics. The power flattening trend, caused by the decrease of the fast neutron flux, was observed in the axial and radial power distributions. The effect of the radial boundary shape of the internal blanket on the power distribution was determined in the core. The thickness of the internal blanket was reduced at its radial boundary. The influence of the internal blanket was observed in the power distributions in the core with a control rod inserted. The calculation predicted the neutron spectrum harder in the internal blanket. In the radial distributions of /sup 239/Pu fission rates, the space dependency of the calculated-to-experiment values was found at the active core close to the internal blanket

  13. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: liquid metal MHD pressure drop effects in the packed bed blanket. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which result from the use of liquid metal coolants in magnetic fusion reactors include the modification of flow profiles (including the suppression of turbulence) and increases in the primary loop pressure drop and the hydrostatic pressure at the first wall of the blanket. In the reference fission-suppressed tandem mirror fusion breeder design concept, flow profile modification is a relatively minor concern, but the MHD pressure drop in flowing the liquid lithium coolant through an annular packed bed of beryllium/thorium pebbles is directly related to the required first wall structure thickness. As such, it is a major concern which directly impacts fissile breeding efficiency. Consequently, an improved model for the packed bed pressure drop has been developed. By considering spacial averages of electric fields, currents, and fluid flow velocities the general equations have been reduced to simple expressions for the pressure drop. The averaging approach results in expressions for the pressure drop involving a constant which reflects details of the flow around the pebbles. Such details are difficult to assess analytically, and the constant may eventually have to be evaluated by experiment. However, an energy approach has been used in this study to bound the possible values of the constant, and thus the pressure drop. In anticipation that an experimental facility might be established to evaluate the undetermined constant as well as to address other uncertainties, a survey of existing facilities is presented

  14. Comparative analysis of quality assurance systems which effectively control, review and verify the quality of components manufactured for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors within the EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative analyses are made of Quality Assurance Systems, by techniques and the methodology used, for the manufacture of component parts for the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) within the EEC. Two differing alternative systems are presented in the analysis. First, a tabulated analytical treatment which analyses 14 codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance which can be applied to LMFBR's. The comparison equates equivalent clauses between codes and standards followed by an analysis of individual clauses in tabular form, the International Standard ISO 6215. A statistical summary and recommendations conclude this analysis. The second alternative system used in the comparison is a descriptive analytical method applied to 9 selected codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance based on the 13 criteria of the International IAEA Code of Practice no. 50 C.QA entitled ''Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants''. An investigation is then made of the state of the art on the subject of classification of component parts bearing generally on Quality Assurance. The method of classification is segregated into General, Safety and Inspection categories. A summary of destructive and non destructive controls that may be applied during the manufacture of LMFBR components is given, together with tests that may be applied to selected components, namely Primary Tank, Secondary Sodium Pump and the Primary Cold Trap allocated to Safety Classes, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The report concludes with a summary of typical records produced at the delivery of a component

  15. Experience with EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Porter, D.L.; Walters, L.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The exceptional performance of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of elements under steady-state, transient overpower, and loss-of-flow conditions. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of element lifetime. Improved design and duct materials currently under test are expected to increase the burnup from 8 to 14 at.%

  16. Hand Book of Metal Material Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Hui

    1989-06-01

    This book first gives descriptions of using of this hand book and contents. It tells of steel such as bar steel, section steel, and steel sheet which are steel for general structure and steel for pressure vessel, a steel pipe, carbon steel for machine structure and alloy steel, steel for special things, stainless steel, heat resisting steel, tool steel, spring steel, forging, steel casting, nonferrous metal such as aluminium and aluminium alloy, casting, list of similar steel per metal, list of steel like ASTM, AISI per number, and list of collecting standard per metal material.

  17. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  18. Development of metallic fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Chong Tak; Yang, Yeoung Seok; Kim, Ki Hwan; Hwang, Sung Chan; Joo, Keun Sik; Ann, Hyun Suk; Chang, Sae Jung.

    1997-09-01

    Through the control of melting and casting parameters, the sound and homogenous U-10wt.%Zr alloy could be fabricated. The yield and segregation of Zr elements were 85% and ±0.1wt.%, and the density of the alloy was about 16.6 g/cm 3 . The major phase were α-U and δ-UZr 2 . The microstructure showed the laminar structure with fiber morphology which was arranged alternatively with uranium and Zr-rich phase. This alloy will be used for KALIMER fuel material through developing the fabrication technology and the characteristics analysis. And electrorefining study was performed to separate uranium from uranium-neodymium and uranium-zirconium alloy by their different free energy for chloride formation. The liquid cadmium phase becomes the anode of the electrorefining cell. Uranium is electrolytically transported through a molten salt electrolyte to a low carbon steel cathode. The electrolyte is composed of KCl-LiCl eutectic and some UCl 3 , which are installed in the salt to facilitate the electrotransport of uranium. In pyrochemical process the reaction condition of chlorination and the maintenance its purity in preparing UCl 4 by chlorination of UO 2 is strongly dependent on the reaction temperature and time. (author).52 refs., 40 tabs., 129 figs

  19. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Twenty-fifth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    'burning' of the associated extremely long-life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. This additional important mission for the LMFBR is gaining worldwide interest. In the framework of disarmament of nuclear weapons and the utilization of the nuclear material for peaceful purposes a role for fast reactors can be also considered. Over the past 25 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in Fast Breeder Reactor Technology. At the present time the Working Group on Fast Reactors is the oldest and one of the most active groups in the Division of Nuclear Power. The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1991, as reported at the 25th jubilee Annual Meeting of the IWGFR in Vienna, 27-30 April 1992. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States and CEC

  20. Ab Initio Studies of Metal Hexaboride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kevin M.

    Metal hexaborides are refractory ceramics with several qualities relevant to materials design, such as low work functions, high hardness, low thermal expansion coefficients, and high melting points, among many other properties of interest for industrial applications. Thermal and mechanical stability is a common feature provided by the covalently-bonded network boron atoms, and electronic properties can vary significantly with the resident metal. While these materials are currently employed as electron emitters and abrasives, promising uses of these materials also include catalytic applications for chemical dissociation reactions of various molecules such as hydrogen, water and carbon monoxide, for example. However, these extensions require a thorough understanding of particular mechanical and electronic properties. This dissertation is a collection of studies focused on understanding the behavior of metal hexaboride materials using computational modeling methods to investigate materials properties of these from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view. Classical modeling is performed using molecular dynamics methods with interatomic potentials obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Atomic mean-square displacements from the quasi-harmonic approximation and lattice energetic data are produced with DFT for developing the potentials. A generalized method was also developed for the inversion of cohesive energy curves of crystalline materials; pairwise interatomic potentials are extracted using detailed geometrical descriptions of the atomic interactions and a list of atomic displacements and degeneracies. The surface structure of metal hexaborides is studied with DFT using several model geometries to describe the terminal cation layouts, and these provide a basis for further studies on metal hexaboride interactions with hydrogen. The surface electronic structure calculations show that segregated regions of metal and boron

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Linmin; Guo, Xingye; Kane, Stephen; Deng, Yifan; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Lee, Je-Hyun; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, the latest developments of the four most common additive manufacturing methods for metallic materials are reviewed, including powder bed fusion, direct energy deposition, binder jetting, and sheet lamination. In addition to the process principles, the microstructures and mechanical properties of AM-fabricated parts are comprehensively compared and evaluated. Finally, several future research directions are suggested.

  2. SIEX: a correlated code for the prediction of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, D.S.; Baker, R.B.

    1975-06-01

    The SIEX computer program is a steady state heat transfer code developed to provide thermal performance calculations for a mixed-oxide fuel element in a fast neutron environment. Fuel restructuring, fuel-cladding heat conduction and fission gas release are modeled to provide assessment of the temperature. Modeling emphasis has been placed on correlations to measurable quantities from EBR-II irradiation tests and the inclusion of these correlations in a physically based computational scheme. SIEX is completely modular in construction allowing the user options for material properties and correlated models. Required code input is limited to geometric and environmental parameters, with a ''consistent'' set of material properties and correlated models provided by the code. 24 references. (U.S.)

  3. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  4. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  5. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-05-18

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration.

  6. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration

  7. Neutron radiation damage studies in the structural materials of a 500 MWe fast breeder reactor using DPA cross-sections from ENDF / B-VII.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Uttiyoarnab; Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Pandikumar, G.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation damage in the structural materials of a 500 MWe Indian prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is re-assessed by computing the neutron displacement per atom (dpa) cross-sections from the recent nuclear data library evaluated by the USA, ENDF / B-VII.1, wherein revisions were taken place in the new evaluations of basic nuclear data because of using the state-of-the-art neutron cross-section experiments, nuclear model-based predictions and modern data evaluation techniques. An indigenous computer code, computation of radiation damage (CRaD), is developed at our centre to compute primary-knock-on atom (PKA) spectra and displacement cross-sections of materials both in point-wise and any chosen group structure from the evaluated nuclear data libraries. The new radiation damage model, athermal recombination-corrected displacement per atom (arc-dpa), developed based on molecular dynamics simulations is also incorporated in our study. This work is the result of our earlier initiatives to overcome some of the limitations experienced while using codes like RECOIL, SPECTER and NJOY 2016, to estimate radiation damage. Agreement of CRaD results with other codes and ASTM standard for Fe dpa cross-section is found good. The present estimate of total dpa in D-9 steel of PFBR necessitates renormalisation of experimental correlations of dpa and radiation damage to ensure consistency of damage prediction with ENDF / B-VII.1 library.

  8. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  9. Characterization of nano structured metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M.; Gutierrez W, C.; Cruz C, R.; Angeles C, C.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays the search of new materials with specific optical properties has carried out to realize a series of experiments through the polymer synthesis [(C 3 N 3 ) 2 (NH) 3 ] n doped with gold metallic nanoparticles. The thermal stability of a polymer is due to the presence of tyazine rings contained in the structure. The samples were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction by the Powder method, Ft-infrared and its thermal properties by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TGA). One of the purposes of this work is to obtain nano structured materials over a polymeric matrix. (Author)

  10. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  11. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1991-12-01

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  13. Comparison of the tritium residence times of various ceramic breeder materials irradiated in EXOTIC experiments 4 and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwast, H.; Elen, J.D.; Conrad, R.; Casadio, S.; Werle, H.; Verstappen, G.

    1990-09-01

    Tritium residence times have been determined for various ceramic tritium breeding materials from in-situ release measurements. The irradiations, codenamed EXOTIC (EXtraction Of Tritium In Ceramics), were carried out in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten. During the irradiation more than 450 transients were performed and the corresponding tritium release measured. Materials supplied by SCK/CEN (Li 2 ZrO 3 ), CEA (Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ), ENEA (LiAlO 2 ), KfK (Li 4 SiO 4 ), NRL (Li 6 Zr 2 O 7 ) and ECN (Li 8 ZrO 6 ) were irradiated in EXOTIC-5 to compare the tritium residence times obtained under equal conditions. Apart from differences in density, grain size, pore size and OPV it appeared that the tritium residence times of the lithium zirconates (pellets) were shorter than those of the Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles. The tritium residence times of the Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles were shorter than those of the LiAlO 2 pellets. (author). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, MW; Gu, ZY; Bosch, M; Perry, Z; Zhou, HC

    2015-06-15

    Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic MOMs is still at its embryonic stage, considerable progress has been made in the past few years. In this critical review, we will highlight the recent advances in the design, development and application of biomimetic MOMs, and illustrate how the incorporation of biological components into MOMs could further enrich their structural and functional diversity. More importantly, this review will provide a systematic overview of different methods for rational design of MOMs with biomimetic features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  16. New composite materials to metal sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annenkov, V.V.; Danilovtseva, E.N.; Filina, E.A.; Trofimov, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Complexing-active polymers are promising substances for detoxication of radioactive elements from the polluted soils and natural waters. Tis work is devoted to searching of new polymeric compositions for detoxication of soils and waters from heavy metals. Three systems (azole-carboxylic polyampholytes, polymer-polymer complexes of poly(1-vinylimidazole) (PVI), Ai- and Al-based organo/inorganic composites) were discussed. Sorption properties of new composites were studied using Cu 2+ ions as an example. The sorption equilibrium range time is equals to 20-60 min, sorption capacity attains 280 mg/g. The most effective sorbents are composites on the basis of PVI, poly(4-vinylpyridine) decrease sorption capacity due to hydrophobia of this polymer. Thus, composites on the basis of nitrogen-containing polymers are promising systems for heavy materials sorption. Introduction of Si-, Al-hydroxides into composites allows to decrease cost of the materials and increase their nature-compatibility

  17. Fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Laird, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ramamurty, U. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Campbell, G.H.; King, W.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

    1999-04-01

    The process of fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials is reviewed placing emphasis in results derived for pure FCC metals with wavy slip behavior. The relationship between Persistent Slip Bands (PSB`s) and crack initiation will be examined for both single crystals and polycrystals, including the conditions for inter- and transgranular crack nucleation and their connection to type of loading, crystallography and slip geometry. The latter has been found to be an important parameter in the nucleation of intergranular cracks in polycrystals subjected to high strain fatigue, whereby primary slip bands with long slip lengths impinging on a grain boundary produce intergranular crack nucleation under the right conditions. Recent results related to intergranular crack nucleation in copper bicrystals and crack nucleation in Cu/Sapphire interfaces indicate that this mechanism controls crack nucleation in those simpler systems as well. Furthermore, it is found that under multiple slip conditions the crack nucleation location is controlled by the presence of local single slip conditions and long slip lengths for a particular Burgers vector that does not have to be in the primary slip system.

  18. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  19. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  20. Blanket materials for DT fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the critical materials issues that must be considered in the development of a tritium breeding blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor that operates on the D-T-Li fuel cycle. The primary requirements of the blanket system are identified and the important criteria that must be considered in the development of blanket technology are summarized. The candidate materials are listed for the different blanket components, e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and neutron multiplier. Three blanket concepts that appear to offer the most potential are: (1) liquid-metal breeder/coolant, (2) liquid-metal breeder/separate coolant, and (3) solid breeder/separate coolant. The major uncertainties associated with each of the design concepts are discussed and the key materials R and D requirements for each concept are identified

  1. Binary breeder reactor with annular core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of a 1200 MWe binary breeder reactor with annular core fueled with metallic 233 U- 238 U-Zr, Pu- 238 U-Zr and Th in the blankets have been analyzed. The Doppler effect is small as expected in a metal fueled fast reactor. The sodium void reactivity is, in general, smaller than in homogeneous fast reactors fueled with metallic fuel and with 1 m core height. The worths of available control is high and there is a large shutdown margin throughout the operational cycle. There are flexibility in blankets fueling in the two cycles, uranium and thorium, with doubling times of about 20 years. (author) [pt

  2. Carter's breeder policy has failed, claims Westinghouse manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear nations developing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) technology have not been dissuaded by President Carter's efforts to stop the breeder program as a way to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons. There is no evidence that Carter's policy of moral persuasion has had any impact on their efforts. A review of the eight leading countries cites their extensive progress in the areas of breeder technology and fuel reprocessing, while the US has made only slight gains. The Fast Flux Test Facility at Hanford is near completion, but the Clinch River project has been slowed to a minimum

  3. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H.U. [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochem...

  5. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  6. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first industrial-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) is the Superphenix I at Crays-Melville. It was designed and built by Novatome, a French company, and Ansaldo, an Italian company. The advantages of FBRs are summarized. The status of Superphenix and the testing schedule is given. The stages in its power escalation in 1986 are given. The article is optimistic about the future for FBRs and expects FBRs to take over from PWRs at the beginning of the 21st Century. To achieve economic viability, European financial cooperation for the research and development programme is advocated. (UK)

  7. 3rd quarterly report 1976 of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The report describes activities which were performed within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH Karlsruhe (GfK) or on behalf of the GfK during the third quarter. It contains contributions on the following subjects: Fuel rod development, material studies and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, safety of fast breeders, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental impacts, sodium technology tests, thermo- and fluid-dynamic tests in gas, tests concerning gas-cooled breeders. (HR) [de

  8. Development of fast-breeder reactors with high conversion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, S.B.; Danilychev, A.V.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Fast power reactors (breeders) burning oxide fuel have moderate breeding characteristics. The highest conversion ratios can be obtained in breeders using metallic fuel, but unfortunately these are inferior to oxide breeders in such important characteristics as thermal load and burnup. An effective method of building fast reactors with good breeding characteristics is the use of heterogeneous oxide-metal cores. The paper reports on parametric studies of various models of heterogeneous cores. A number of physical aspects of such reactors are analysed: breeding gain, specific doubling time; and safety parameters: sodium vacuum and Doppler effects of reactivity. The paper quotes dependences of these quantities on various parameters which will make it possible to identify the optimum design of an oxide-metal heterogeneous core

  9. Fiber metal acoustic material for gas turbine exhaust environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaton, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    FELTMETAL fiber metal acoustic materials function as broad band acoustic absorbers. Their acoustic energy absorbance occurs through viscous flow losses as sound waves pass through the tortuous pore structure of the material. Exhaust gas noise attenuation requirements are reviewed. Their selection process for higher performance materials is discussed. A new FELTMETAL fiber metal acoustic material has been designed for use in gas turbine auxiliary power unit exhaust environments without supplemental cooling. The physical and acoustic properties of mesh supported fiber metal acoustic medium FM 827 are discussed. Exposure testing was conducted under conditions which simulated auxiliary power unit operation. Weight gain and tensile strength data as a function of time of exposure at 650 0 C (1202 0 F) are reported. Fabrication of components with fiber metal acoustic materials is easily accomplished using standard roll forming and gas tungsten arc welding practices

  10. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  11. Metallic photonic band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigalas, M.M.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the transmission and absorption of electromagnetic waves propagating in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D periodic metallic photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. For 2D systems, there is substantial difference between the s- and p-polarized waves. The p-polarized waves exhibit behavior similar to the dielectric PBG's. But, the s-polarized waves have a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. For 3D systems, the results are qualitatively the same for both polarizations but there are important differences related to the topology of the structure. For 3D structures with isolated metallic scatterers (cermet topology), the behavior is similar to that of the dielectric PBG's, while for 3D structures with the metal forming a continuous network (network topology), there is a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. The systems with the network topology may have some interesting applications for frequencies less than about 1 THz where the absorption can be neglected. We also study the role of the defects in the metallic structures

  12. Recent Development in Metal Oxides and Related Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Recent Development in Metal Oxides and. Related Materials. FOREWORD. This special issue of the Journal of Chemical Sciences contains a col- lection of articles contributed by the participants of Recent Development in Metal Oxides ... energy transfer, nano particle synthesis, magnetic transport properties of rare earth ...

  13. Laser assisted embedding of nanoparticles into metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dong; Suslov, Sergey; Ye Chang; Liao Yiliang; Liu, C. Richard; Cheng, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a methodology of half-embedding nanoparticles into metallic materials. Transparent and opaque nanoparticles are chosen to demonstrate the process of laser assisted nanoparticle embedding. Dip coating method is used to coat transparent or opaque nanoparticle on the surface of metallic material. Nanoparticles are embedded into substrate by laser irradiation. In this study, the mechanism and process of nanoparticle embedding are investigated. It is found both transparent and opaque nanoparticles embedding are with high densities and good uniformities.

  14. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  15. EVALUATION OF METALLIC MATERIALS PLASTICITY BY DYNAMIC INDENTATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rudnitsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of plasticity test of metallic materials realized by means of a dynamic dimpling of material by a spherical tip is offered. The measured value of plasticity is defined by a ratio of plastic and complete deformations in the formed indentation which considers influence of an elastic modulus of material. The dependence connecting plasticity and dynamic hardness of materials is received. Experiments on metals from 70 to 380 GPA having an elastic modulus and hardness up to 62 HRC are made.

  16. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  17. Recent Advances as Materials of Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range of other functional properties that occur through the metal moiety and/or the organic ligand. The purpose of this critical review is to give a representative and comprehensive overview of the arising developments in the field of functional metal-organic frameworks, including luminescence, magnetism, and porosity through presenting examples. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design multifunctional MOFs.

  18. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments

  19. Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials Recent Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of inorganic and metallic nanotubular materials. It cover a wide variety of nanotubular materials excluding carbon nanotubes, ranging from metal oxides, sulfides and nitrides such as titanium oxide, tungsten sulfide, and boron nitride, as well as platinum and other noble-metals to unique nanotubes consisting of water, graphene or fullerene. Based on their structural and compositional characteristics, these nanotubular materials are of importance for their potential applications in electronic devices, photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanothermometers, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, sensors, and reinforcing fillers for plastics, among others. Such materials are also having a great impact on future developments, including renewable-energy sources as well as highly efficient energy-conversion and energy-saving technologies. This book will be of particular interest to experts in the fields of nanotechnology, material science ...

  20. Microorganisms as potential corrosion inhibitors of metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Žaklina Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion presents the destruction of materials through chemical or electrochemical interactions with their environment. Interactions between the metal surface and bacterial cells or products of their metabolic activities can lead to microbially-influenced corrosion. Also, it is known that certain microorganisms can contribute to corrosion inhibition. In accordance to that, the literature dealing with the application of different microorganisms as a potentialy corrosion inhibitors of metals is investigated. Different bacterial strains as a corrosion inhibitor of a metalic materials are examined. Further, the role of extracellular polymeric substances in corrosion behavior of metals is emphasized. Based on the data presented in this work, it can be said that inhibition efficiency depends on microorganism as well as type of metal. Also, it is presented that some bacterial species can be used as a good corrosion inhibitor instead of toxic organic compounds.

  1. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  2. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  3. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  4. Material parameter identification on metal matrix composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available of the material, compression tests were only performed to about 2% uniaxial strain as measured by the displacement of the hydraulic cylinder. In room temperature tests, three strain gauges are secured evenly around the centre of the test section. The results from...

  5. Tritium behaviour in ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium release from the candidate ceramic materials, Li 2 O, LiA10 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , is being investigated in many blanket programs. Factors that affect tritium release from the ceramic into the helium sweep gas stream include operating temperature, ceramic microstructure, tritium transport and solubility in the solid. A review is presented of the material properties studied and of the irradiation programs and the results are summarized. The ceramic breeder blanket concept is briefly reviewed

  6. History and evolution of the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the breeder reactor is almost as old as the idea of the nuclear reactor itself. From the very first years following the discovery of nuclear fission, scientists and technicians tried to turn mankind's eternal dream into reality; that is, enjoy an abundant source of energy without using up our raw material reserves. Nuclear energy offered several solutions to realize this dream. One of them, fusion, seemed out of our grasp in the near future. But fission of 235 U was possible, and the Manhattan Project soon furnished ample proof of this theory. However, everyone working in this field was conscious of the fact that thermal neutron reactors make very inefficient use of the energy potential contained in natural uranium. The solution was to use in a core sufficiently rich in fissile matter, the excess neutrons to convert the 238 U, so poorly used by other types of reactors, into fissile 239 Pu. Regeneration, or 'breeding' of fuel, can multiply the energy drawn from a ton of uranium by a factor of 50 to 100. This would enable us to ward off the specter of an energy shortage and the rapid depletion of uranium mines. As early as 1945 in Los Alamos, Enrico Fermi stated: 'The country which first develops a breeder reactor will have a great competitive edge in atomic energy.' The development of the breeder reactor in the USA and around the world is discussed

  7. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de

  8. Status quo of ceramic material for metal halide discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappen, Theo G M M

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline alumina is an excellent ceramic material for use as the envelope for metal halide discharge lamps. Although this material was introduced in the mid-1960s, and is thus already known for several decades, recent years have seen considerable effort aimed at further development of these ceramic envelope materials. Developments are not only in the field of ceramic shaping technologies, but are also concentrated on the material properties of the ceramic material itself. Optical, mechanical as well as the chemical properties of the ceramic envelope are strongly controlled by the shape as well as the microstructure of the ceramics used

  9. Management Model Applicable to Metallic Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ioana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithmic analysis of the marketing mix in metallurgy. It also analyzes the main correlations and their optimizing possibilities through an efficient management. Thus, both the effect and the importance of the marketing mix, for components (the four “P-s” areanalyzed in the materials’ industry, but their correlations as well, with the goal to optimize the specific management. There are briefly presented the main correlations between the 4 marketing mix components (the 4 “P-s” for a product within the materials’ industry, including aspects regarding specific management.Keywords: Management Model, Materials Industry, Marketing Mix, Correlations.

  10. Metal-molecular assembly for functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuo, Yutaka; Negishi, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Michito; Uemura, Takashi; Takaya, Hikaru; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Soichiro

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modern coordination chemistry, covering porous coordination polymers, metalloproteins, metallopeptides, nanoclusters, nanocapsules, aligned polymers, and fullerenes. As well, it deals with applications to electronic devices and surface characterization. These wide-ranging topics are integrally described from the perspectives of dimensionality (one-, two-, and three-dimension), new materials design, synthesis, molecular assembly, function and application. The nine chapters making up this book have been authored by scientists who are at the cutting edge of research in this p

  11. Plastic Behavior of Metallic Damping Materials under Cyclical Shear Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic shear panel dampers (SPDs have been widely adopted in seismic engineering. In this study, axial and torsional specimens of four types of metallic damping materials, including three conventional metallic steels as well as low yield strength steel 160 (LYS160, were tested in order to investigate the material response under repeated large plastic strain and low cycle fatigue between 10 and 30 cycles. The present study demonstrated that both the deformation capacity and fatigue performance of LYS160 were underestimated by the conversion from the traditional uniaxial tensile test. The main difference in the failure mechanism between LYS160 and the three conventional materials was determined from the scanning electron microscopy data. The dominant failure mode in LYS160 is stable interlaminate slip and not bucking. Our results provide physical insights into the origin of the large deformation capacity, which is an important foundation for the lightweight design of SPDs.

  12. Metal containing mesoporous silica materials: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sinue

    The work presented here comprises the development of a new route for the incorporation of transition metals (TM = Mn, V, Cr) into the pores of mesoporous silica materials, the characterization, and the applications of the resulting materials. The mesoporous silica material used in this work is of the M41S family, known as MCM-48. The first part of the work is going to be focused on in the incorporation of manganese species. Characterization of the resulting materials will be sub-divided in two major parts: (1) Structural and textural properties and (2) Analysis of the Mn oxidation state, coordination and location in the mesoporous host. The process of incorporation of Mn into the mesoporous materials takes place by using high valence metal precursor anions. Then a mechanism to describe the process of loading the Mn species will be proposed. The method developed makes possible the incorporation of high loadings of transition metals while maintaining the properties of the host material, MCM-48. In the second part of the research the synthesis method developed in the first part is used to incorporate other transition metals such as vanadium and chromium. As in the first part, the nature of the TM species is investigated and their catalytic application in oxidation of styrene is also studied. The materials show good activity towards styrene oxidation with conversions as high as 100%. The catalysts can also be recycled without significant loss of activity. Finally, the last part of the research deals with the incorporation of tin oxide into mesoporous silica. A similar approach to the one used for transition metals was used to load tin in MCM-48, however, discrete tin oxide nanoparticles were formed on the surface of the mesoporous structure rather than inside of the pores. The sensing properties towards reducing gases such as hydrogen of these materials were tested, and the Sn containing mesoporous silica show promising properties for gas sensing applications.

  13. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States of America - April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide a continuum of development for liquid metal reactors, the U.S. program has been reshaped into two portions -- advanced converter reactor technology including the Liquid Metal Reactor for the near and intermediate term, and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for deployment in the twenty-first century. The focused research and development program is directed at innovative means to improve economics, provide inherent safety, and to meet the needs of the ultimate user, the utilities. Work in the fuels and materials, and reprocessing areas is being continued to support eventual deployment. A major factor in successful deployment will be the effectiveness of international collaboration in reducing costs and duplication of efforts

  14. Comparison of inventory of tritium in various ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Beloglazov, S.; Nakashima, N.; Hashimoto, K.; Enoeda, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been pointed out by the present authors that it is essential to understand such mass transfer steps as diffusion of tritium in the grain of breeder material, absorption of water vapor into bulk of the grain, and adsorption of water on surface of the grain, together with the isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen in purge gas and tritium on surface of breeder material and the isotope exchange reaction between water vapor in purge gas and tritium on surface, for estimation of the tritium inventory in a uniform ceramic breeder blanket under the steady-state condition. It has been also pointed out by the present authors that the water formation reaction on the surface of ceramic breeder materials at introduction of hydrogen can give effect on behavior of bred tritium and lithium transfer in blanket. The tritium inventory for various ceramic breeder blankets are compared in this study basing on adsorption capacity, absorption capacity, isotope exchange capacity, and isotope exchange reactions on the Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 surface experimentally obtained by the present authors. Effect of each mass transfer steps on the shape of release curve of bred tritium at change of the operational conditions is also discussed from the observation at out pile experiment in KUR. (orig.)

  15. Metal (Hydr)oxides@Polymer Core-Shell Strategy to Metal Single-Atom Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Yang-Gang; Chen, Wenxing; Dong, Juncai; Zheng, Lirong; Luo, Jun; Wan, Jiawei; Tian, Shubo; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2017-08-16

    Preparing metal single-atom materials is currently attracting tremendous attention and remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a novel core-shell strategy to synthesize single-atom materials. In this strategy, metal hydroxides or oxides are coated with polymers, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and acid leaching, metal single atoms are anchored on the inner wall of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) materials. By changing metal precursors or polymers, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of different metal single atoms dispersed on CN materials (SA-M/CN, M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, FeCo, FeNi, etc.). Interestingly, the obtained SA-Fe/CN exhibits much higher catalytic activity for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol than Fe nanoparticles/CN (45% vs 5% benzene conversion). First-principle calculations further reveal that the high reactivity originates from the easier formation of activated oxygen species at the single Fe site. Our methodology provides a convenient route to prepare a variety of metal single-atom materials representing a new class of catalysts.

  16. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  17. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D

  18. Nanostructured metal oxides as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin; Wang, Guoxiu; Lao, Zhuo Jin; Liu, Hua Kun; Devers, T

    2009-02-01

    In this study, nanostructured transition metal oxides, such as Co3O4, NiO and MnO2 were comprehensively studied and reported as promising electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors. The materials have been obtained by solution or spray solution techniques, which are cost-effective and promising for industry application. All materials feature a large specific surface area, which can reach up to 270 m2/g. The high surface area is a compulsory condition for high capacitance. The best MnO2 materials yielded up to 406 F/g.

  19. Feasibility investigation of non-metallic and light weight metallic materials for light weight compressor pistons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Bergsma, O.K.; Eijk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Steel and aluminium have been the traditional materials of choice for pistons. In order to reduce moving mass-related vibrational problems, a feasibility assessment is made of the application of other materials in a project for the research group of the EFRC. In particular, polymer and metal matrix

  20. Development of carbon and metallic nano particle composite materials for the determination of uranium and other heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.; Dey, M.K.; Satpati, A.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and metallic nano particle based composite materials were developed and characterised for the determination of heavy metal ions and uranium in trace concentration levels. Composite material were electrodeposited on the substrate electrode and applied for the electrochemical determination of metal ions. Electrodeposition parameters to synthesise the composite material and the analytical parameters for determination were optimised. (author)

  1. Influence of metal dental materials on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Chiba, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nakata, Minoru; Fujita, Isao

    1998-01-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility produce artifacts and signal loss in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was undertaken to compare the degree of artifacts on MRI caused by metallic dental materials. The influence on MRI of six types of dental alloys, a dental implant, orthodontic appliance, and magnetic attachment was investigated. Among the dental metals, nickel-chromium alloy and cobalt-chromium alloy, which have ferromagnetism, caused significant metal artifacts. Gold-platinum alloy, gold-silver-palladium alloy, silver alloy, and amalgam alloy produced slight metal artifacts. The orthodontic appliance mainly consisted of iron, and the keeper for its magnetic attachment was made of stainless steel. For these reasons, marked metal artifacts and signal loss could be seen in both of them owing to their ferromagnetism. These results suggest that orthodontic appliances and magnetic attachments impair evaluation of the GRE and EPI techniques. It is therefore preferable to use predominantly diamagnetic or paramagnetic dental materials for MRI of the head and neck. Removable keepers should be used more widely to prevent metal artifacts and enhance safety on MRI. (author)

  2. Influence of metal dental materials on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Chiba, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Main Hospital; Nakata, Minoru; Fujita, Isao

    1998-11-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility produce artifacts and signal loss in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was undertaken to compare the degree of artifacts on MRI caused by metallic dental materials. The influence on MRI of six types of dental alloys, a dental implant, orthodontic appliance, and magnetic attachment was investigated. Among the dental metals, nickel-chromium alloy and cobalt-chromium alloy, which have ferromagnetism, caused significant metal artifacts. Gold-platinum alloy, gold-silver-palladium alloy, silver alloy, and amalgam alloy produced slight metal artifacts. The orthodontic appliance mainly consisted of iron, and the keeper for its magnetic attachment was made of stainless steel. For these reasons, marked metal artifacts and signal loss could be seen in both of them owing to their ferromagnetism. These results suggest that orthodontic appliances and magnetic attachments impair evaluation of the GRE and EPI techniques. It is therefore preferable to use predominantly diamagnetic or paramagnetic dental materials for MRI of the head and neck. Removable keepers should be used more widely to prevent metal artifacts and enhance safety on MRI. (author)

  3. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  4. Noncontacting thermoelectric detection of material imperfections in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter B. Nagy; Adnan H. Nayfeh; Waseem I. Faidi; Hector Carreon; Balachander Lakshminaraya; Feng Yu; Bassam Abu-Nabah

    2005-06-17

    This project was aimed at developing a new noncontacting thermoelectric method for nondestructive detection of material imperfections in metals. The method is based on magnetic sensing of local thermoelectric currents around imperfections when a temperature gradient is established throughout a conducting specimen by external heating and cooling. The surrounding intact material serves as the reference electrode therefore the detection sensitivity could be very high if a sufficiently sensitive magnetometer is used in the measurements. This self-referencing, noncontacting, nondestructive inspection technique offers the following distinct advantages over conventional methods: high sensitivity to subtle variations in material properties, unique insensitivity to the size, shape, and other geometrical features of the specimen, noncontacting nature with a substantial stand-off distance, and the ability to probe relatively deep into the material. The potential applications of this method cover a very wide range from detection metallic inclusions and segregations, inhomogeneities, and tight cracks to characterization of hardening, embrittlement, fatigue, texture, and residual stresses.

  5. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  6. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The subject of this invention is a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor construction in which a concrete pit is lagged to protect it from the heat radiated from the reactor in normal operation but in which the efficiency of the lagging is reduced in case of emergency to allow the excess heat generated by the reactor to be dissipated throughout the pit. The lagging is in two layers, the first covering the internal surface of the pit wall is impermeable to the liquid metal, whilst the second layer over the first is permeable [fr

  7. The breeder reactor and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of a conference on the breeder reactor and Europe held in Lucerne, Switzerland from 14 - 17 October 1979 sponsored by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy and the Association of European Atomic Forums. The underlying theme of the conference was the question that if nuclear power is to play a major role in meeting world energy needs in the long term, thermal reactors must in time be complemented with more advanced reactor systems that conserve uranium resources which are huge but not unlimited. This is not questioned; disagreement begins with discussion of the desirability of the breeder, and how fast and how far the introduction of such reactors should go. Aspects considered at the conference which are especially dealt with in this review are; why breed, commercial aspects, alternatives to the LMFBR, how to build a fast reactor, the breeder programmes in Europe, Britain, the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States. (U.K.)

  8. Italian position paper on the safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors as related to sodium fires. The PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, A.

    1983-01-01

    To obtain a deep understanding of physical phenomena and engineering problems connected to sodium fires, and to optimize the utilization of human and financial resources available, CNEN (now ENEA) has decided to join the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in the realization of a Franco-Italian experimental programme on sodium fires, named ESMERALDA. As for design preventions for PEC reactor (a fast flux, liquid metal cooled, fuel element testing reactor) fundamental choices were made taking into account all available knowledge, but with particular reference to the results of CEA's previous experiments on sodium fires. More detailed design analysis will be possible in the future, based on experimental results coming from the ESMERALDA programme

  9. Tritium dynamics in fusion reactor solid breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of the NET research progrm, the chemical and diffusive processes involved in solid ceramic breeder materials have been analysed. A mathematical model describing the phenomena has been developed to obtain a quantitative evaluation for a first design approach. The data obtained by means of the above mentioned model are in good agreement with the data obtained by other research groups working in Europe and in United States. The computer codes BLANKET2, MC2, FWBC, have been developed to simulate the phenomena

  10. Optimization of binary breeder reactor V - Binary breeder reactors with two and four zones and a conventional LMFBR - (Pu/U) of two zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1986-04-01

    Comparative analyses of a commercial-size Pu/U-fueled liquid metal fast breeder reactor and two binary breeder reactors with different numbers of enrichment zones have been done. Principal parameters of comparison are safety and breeding characteristics and reactivity losses during an operational cycle. The comparison shows that in a binary breeder reactor, good breeding characteristics in both cycles, Pu/U and U/Th, in addition to a possibility of an efficient utilization of thorium, and superior inherent safety than current LMFBRs can be achieved. (Author) [pt

  11. Electrocatalytic Applications of Graphene–Metal Oxide Nanohybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    of cutting-edge developments in graphene–metal oxide nanohybrid materials, with the recently reported results from worldwide research groups. This chapter is presented first with an introduction, followed by synthetic meth‐ ods and structural characterization of nanocomposites, an emphasis......Development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available precursors with low cost is an essential step in the advancement of next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. In this regard, noble metal-free and graphene-sup‐ ported nanocomposites...... of graphenebased composite materials, graphene–metal oxide nanohybrids hold great promise to‐ ward engineering efficient electrocatalysts and have attracted increasing interest in both scientific communities and industrial partners around the world. The goal of this chapter is primarily set on an overview...

  12. Metal-free materials for fixed prosthodontic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Carlo E; Ercoli, Carlo; Rispoli, Lorena; Maiorana, Carlo; Esposito, Marco

    2017-12-20

    Fixed prosthodontic treatment (crowns, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), complete arch prostheses) involves the use of several different materials to replace missing tooth structure. Traditionally full metal or metal frameworks veneered with ceramic (metal-ceramic (MC)) have been used. In recent years several different metal-free systems have become available to clinicians and patients. In general, metal-free restorations should allow practitioners to better reproduce natural tooth colour, avoiding shortcomings of MC restorations. The comparative in service clinical performance of fixed prosthodontic treatments of different materials is unclear. To assess the effects of metal-free materials for prosthodontic restorations compared to metal-ceramic or other conventional all-metal materials. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 3 May 2017), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 4) in the Cochrane Library (searched 3 May 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 3 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 3 May 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials (searched 3 May 2017). No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which the clinical performance of metal-free fixed prosthodontic restorations was compared with metal-ceramic (MC) or other conventional restorations in adult patients requiring prosthodontic treatment. RCTs in which the clinical performance of different kinds of metal-free systems were compared among themselves were also considered. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction

  13. Photothermal heating in metal-embedded microtools for material transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Material transport is an important mechanism in microfluidics and drug delivery. The methods and solutions found in literature involve passively diffusing structures, microneedles and chemically fueled structures. In this work, we make use of optically actuated microtools with embedded metal layer...

  14. 3rd Workshop on metal ceramic materials for functional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korb, G.

    1997-01-01

    This workshop contains contributions about materials and processing, characterization and modeling of properties and applications of metallic ceramics and composite structures. It was held on behalf of the Taiwan-Austrian scientific collaboration in Vienna, June 4 th - 6 th 1997. (Suda)

  15. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  16. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor steam generator: behaviour of heat exchange tubes in face of a through crack resulting in a contact between sodium and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinet, J.L.; Lannou, L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a survey made Electricite de France on the behaviour of cracked tubes under operating conditions of an industrial steam generator are submitted in this communication. A comparison is made of the tube material: INCOLOY 800, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-2 Mo land to the initial leak. Finally, a description is given of the self-development process of a water leak into sodium. (author)

  17. Japanese research and development on metallic biomedical, dental, and healthcare materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hanawa, Takao; Narushima, Takayuki

    2005-04-01

    There is considerable demand for metallic materials for use in medical and dental devices. Metals and alloys are widely used as biomedical materials and are indispensable in the medical field. In dentistry, metal is used for restorations, orthodontic wires, and dental implants. This article describes R&D on metallic biomaterials primarily conducted by the members of the Japan Institute of Metals.

  18. Machinability studies of infrared window materials and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Morris, T.O.; Sladky, R.E.; Steger, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Diamond machining of materials for optical applications is becoming an important fabrication process. Development work in material-removal technology to better understand the mechanics of the diamond-turning process, its limitations, and applications is described. The technique is presently limited to a select group of metals, most of which are of a face-center-cubic crystal structure. Machinability studies were done which were designed to better understand diamond compatibility and thus expand the range of applicable materials. Nonconventional methods such as ultrasonic tool stimulation were investigated. Work done to determine the machinability of infrared window materials indicates that this is a viable fabrication technique for many materials, although additional effort is needed to optimize the process for particular materials

  19. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sartor, George B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reeder, Craig L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  20. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Donald W.; Dunlap, Bobby D.; Veal, Boyd W.

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  1. Computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials for improved corrosion performance: computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoba, OS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying is a material processing method which utilizes the high power density available from defocused laser beam to melt both metal coatings and a part of the underlying substrate. Since melting occur solitary at the surface, large...

  2. Adsorption of heavy metals in waste water using biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Tejada-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is a process that allows active or passive uptake of metal ions due to the property that different living or dead biomass have to bind and accumulate these pollutants by different mechanisms. The application of low-cost materials obtained from different biomass from microbial flora, agro-industrial waste and algae has been investigated to replace the use of conventional methods for the removal of contaminants such as heavy metals. Some of the metals of greatest impact to the environment due to its high toxicity and difficult to remove are chromium, nickel, cadmium, lead, and mercury. In this paper, an overview of adsorption as an alternative process for the removal of contaminants in solution and biomass commonly used in these processes, as well as some of the modifications made to improve the efficiency of adsorption of these materials is presented. It was concluded that the use of adsorption in the removal of pollutants in aqueous solution using waste biomass is applicable to these decontamination processes avoiding subsequent problems such as the generation of chemical sludge, and generating an alternative to use materials considered as waste. It is further identified that such factors as the pH of the solution, particle size, temperature, and concentration of metal effect on the process.

  3. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  4. Material behavior and physical chemistry in liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book gives an overview of current work in liquid metal science and technology. Included are the topics of sodium corrosion and mass transfer, impurities in sodium, lithium corrosion, material behavior, lead corrosion, chemical reactions, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, solubility in alkali metals, and interstitial elements transfer. The 57 papers include one discussion report; the latter challenges the attempts made as reported in the other papers to determine the diffusing coefficients of the alloying elements during corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in liquid sodium. The preface groups the papers into logical categories and offers several overviews concerning results and findings. The index is to topics

  5. Breeder reactors over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    After a short recall on the development of research programs, this paper reviews the fast breeder reactor operating, in construction or in project over the world (USA, France, Italy, RFG, India, Japan and U.K.). Thermal and electrical power output, and operation data are given [fr

  6. Spallator - accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concept involves the use of spallation neutrons produced by interaction of a high energy proton (1 to 2 GeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) with a heavy metal target (uranium). The principal spallator concept is based on generating fissile fuel for use in LWR nuclear power plants. The spallator functions in conjunction with a reprocessing plant to regenerate and produce the Pu-239 or U-233 for fabrication into fresh LWR reactor fuel elements. Advances in proton accelerator technology has provided a solid base for predicting performance and optimizing the design of a reliable, continuous wave, high-current LINAC required by a fissile fuel production machine

  7. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m 2 and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of 233 U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U 3 O 8 depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management

  8. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  9. Alkali metal ion templated transition metal formate framework materials: synthesis, crystal structures, ion migration, and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Espen; Lock, Nina; Filsø, Mette; Stingaciu, Marian; Shen, Yanbin; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2014-10-06

    Four transition metal formate coordination polymers with anionic frameworks, namely, Na[Mn(HCOO)3], K[Mn(HCOO)3], Na2[Cu3(HCOO)8], and K2[Cu5(HCOO)12], were synthesized using a mild solution chemistry approach. Multitemperature single-crystal (100-300 K) and powder X-ray diffraction studies of the compounds reveal structures of large diversity ranging from cubic chiral Na-Mn formate to triclinic Na-Cu formate. The structural variety is caused by the nature of the transition metals, the alkali metal ion templation, and the versatility of the formate group, which offers metal-metal coordination through three different O-C-O bridging modes (syn-syn, syn-anti, anti-anti) in addition to metal-metal bridging via a single oxygen atom. The two manganese(II) compounds contain mononuclear, octahedrally coordinated moieties, but the three-dimensional connectivity between the manganese octahedra is very different in the two structures. The two copper frameworks, in contrast, consist of binuclear and mononuclear moieties (Na-Cu formate) and trinuclear and mononuclear moieties (K-Cu formate), respectively. Procrystal electron density analysis of the compounds indicates one-dimensional K(+)-ion conductivity in K-Mn and K-Cu, and the nature of the proposed potassium ion migration is compared with results from similar analysis on known Na(+) and K(+) ion conductors. K-Mn and Na-Mn were tested as cathode materials, but this resulted in poor reversibility due to low conductivity or structural collapse. The magnetic properties of the compounds were studied by vibrating sample magnetometric measurements, and their thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Despite structural differences, the metal formates that contain the same transition metal have similar magnetic properties and thermal decomposition pathways, that is, the nature of the transition metal controls the compound properties.

  10. Metal Induced Luminescence Quenching in Organic Light Emitting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En; Park, Yongsup; Gao, Yongli; Hsieh, Bing; Tang, Ching

    1997-03-01

    Organic materials have been demonstrated to have the necessary attributes for display applications. In typical organic light-emitting devices, metallic electrodes are used to inject charged carriers into the organic electroluminescent (EL) medium. We report severe photoluminescence (PL) quenching of organic thin films comprising of the most useful materials, namely tris-(8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum and 1,4-bis[4-(3,5-di-tert- butylstyryl)styryl]benzene (4PV), upon sub-monolayer deposition of Al, Ag, and Ca in an ultra high vacuum environment. The severity of the luminescence quenching, which depends on the type of metal used, can greatly affect the EL device performance. For example, a sub-monolayer coverage of the various metals on a 300 /AA 4PV thin film can reduce the PL by as much as 50layer onto a metal substrate also exhibits PL quenching. An exciton diffusion length of 200 /AA can be estimated from the quenching data. Work supported in part by NSF DMR-9303019 and by DARPA DAAL 0196R9133.

  11. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  12. Thermal baffle for fast-breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylatt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor includes a bridge structure for separating hot outlet coolant from relatively cool inlet coolant consisting of an annular stainless steel baffle plate extending between the core barrel surrounding the core and the thermal liner associated with the reactor vessel and resting on ledges thereon, there being inner and outer circumferential webs on the lower surface of the baffle plate and radial webs extending between the circumferential webs, a stainless steel insulating plate completely covering the upper surface of the baffle plate and flex seals between the baffle plate and the ledges on which the baffle plate rests to prevent coolant from washing through the gaps therebetween. The baffle plate is keyed to the core barrel for movement therewith and floating with respect to the thermal liner and reactor vessel. 3 claims, 2 figures

  13. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  14. Expanding Application of Perforated Metal Materials in Construction and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironovs, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Gorbacova, S.

    2017-10-01

    Perforated metal materials (PMM) combine a range of properties, including rigidity, strength, lightweight, small thickness, a dosed transparency and decorative attractiveness. All these bring new application effects in construction industry and architecture. Nowadays, PMM are widely used in design of facades and interiors all over the world, becoming more popular in Latvia as well. The paper touches several aspects of PMM applications, including its decoration function, shadowing of sunlight, sound and noise barrier function and the problem of corrosion when exploited outdoors. Possible perfection may include using different coatings, multi-layer design variants and integration with other constructional materials in order to provide better sound absorption, corrosion resistance and functionality.

  15. Fast Breeder Project status report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    A compilation of the papers read at the Status Report of the Fast Breeder Project at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center on March 26, 1974 is presented. The first papers present a general survey of the present state of research and development work performed by the German, Belgian, and Netherlands research centers on the SNR 300 Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Kalkar Nuclear Power Station), on the SNR follow-on program, alternative fuels and coolants and basic problems, on work performed by industry with respect to the licensing procedure and construction of the SNR 300, and on commissioning and the planned conversion of KNK, the Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor. The detailed papers deal with results elaborated at the institutes of GfK Karlsruhe, SCK/CEN Mol, RCN Petten, and TNO Apeldoorn. Most of these efforts have been concentrated upon fuel pin and materials development and on the physics and safety of fast reactors. The status report concludes with a reference to the future program under the Project. (U.S.)

  16. Prototype fast breeder reactor main options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fast reactor programme gets importance in the Indian energy market because of continuous growing demand of electricity and resources limited to only coal and FBR. India started its fast reactor programme with the construction of 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The reactor attained its first criticality in October 1985. The reactor power will be raised to 40 MWt in near future. As a logical follow-up of FBTR, it was decided to build a prototype fast breeder reactor, PFBR. Considering significant effects of capital cost and construction period on economy, systematic efforts are made to reduce the same. The number of primary and secondary sodium loops and components have been reduced. Sodium coolant, pool type concept, oxide fuel, 20% CW D9, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) materials have been selected for PFBR. Based on the operating experience, the integrity of the high temperature components including fuel and cost optimization aspects, the plant temperatures are recommended. Steam temperature of 763 K at 16.6 MPa and a single TG of 500 MWe gross output have been decided. PFBR will be located at Kalpakkam site on the coast of Bay of Bengal. The plant life is designed for 30 y and 75% load factor. In this paper the justifications for the main options chosen are given in brief. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  18. Newton's metal as a new home-made shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M.; Moharam, B. M.; Farag, H. I.; El-Bediwi, A.; Shosha, Hany A.; Aboshieasha, H. F.

    The protection of critical organs inside the radiated area during radiotherapy applications is very important. Lipowitz's metal (also called cerrobend) is widely used. It consists of 50% bismuth, 26.7% lead, 13.3% tin and 10% cadmium. The physical density at 20 °C is 9.4 g/cm3 (70 °C melting point). Cadmium has been recognized as a source of environmental pollution and poisonous cadmium gas is emitted during fabrication of the material into custom blocks. The determining factor in the release of metallic oxide fumes is temperature. The higher the temperature, the greater the potential for release of metallic oxide fumes. To overcome the toxic effect of cadmium in Lipowitz's alloy during casting, low melting point Newton's metal (cadmium-free) is used. This study is carried out to compare the two alloys. The first alloy is the cerrobend alloy used in the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University, imported from Medical Technology Company, USA. Secondly, we deal with Newton's metal which has a composition of 50% Bi, 31.2% Pb and 18.8% Sn known in industry as a low melting point solder. The measurements taken using 60Co and 6 MV X-ray show that Bi50Pb31.2Sn18.8 alloys have good physical properties (low melting point, high attenuation coefficient, adequate values of hardness). They are easy to fabricate into shapes, and friendly to the environment, so that they may be used as a substitute for Lipowitz's metal in radiotherapy.

  19. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, H.D. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    This bibliogralphy includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2.

  20. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, H.D. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    This bibliography includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2.

  1. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raleigh, H.D.

    1980-11-01

    This bibliography includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2

  2. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raleigh, H.D.

    1980-11-01

    This bibliogralphy includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2

  3. Impact of material system thermomechanics and thermofluid performance on He-cooled ceramic breeder blanket designs with SiCf/SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.; Yokomine, T.; Shimizu, A.; Kohyama, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a recent effort initiated under the JUPITER-II collaborative program for high temperature gas-cooled blanket systems using SiC/SiC as a structural material. Current emphasis is to address issues associated with the function of the helium gas considered in the DREAM and ARIES-I concepts by performing thermomechanical and thermofluid analysis. The objective of the analysis is to guide future research focus for a task in the project. It is found that the DREAM concept has the advantage of achieving uniform temperature without threatening blanket pebble bed integrity by differential thermal stress. However, its superiority needs to be further justified by investigating the feasibility and economic issues involved in the tritium extraction technology. (author)

  4. Metal-nanotube composites as radiation resistant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Rafael I.; Valencia, Felipe; Mella, José; Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: m.kiwi.t@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, CEDENNA, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Duin, Adri C. T. van [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); So, Kang Pyo; Li, Ju [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina)

    2016-07-18

    The improvement of radiation resistance in nanocomposite materials is investigated by means of classical reactive molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an Ni matrix on the trapping and possible outgassing of He. When CNTs are defect-free, He atoms diffuse alongside CNT walls and, although there is He accumulation at the metal-CNT interface, no He trespassing of the CNT wall is observed, which is consistent with the lack of permeability of a perfect graphene sheet. However, when vacancies are introduced to mimic radiation-induced defects, He atoms penetrate CNTs, which play the role of nano-chimneys, allowing He atoms to escape the damaged zone and reduce bubble formation in the matrix. Consequently, composites made of CNTs inside metals are likely to display improved radiation resistance, particularly when radiation damage is related to swelling and He-induced embrittlement.

  5. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  6. Dinuclear transition metal complexes in carbon nanostructured materials synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, J. I.; Hernández, E.; Delgado, E.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) were prepared with two similar techniques using organometallic complexes as catalysts precursors. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and pyrolysis with chlorine gas approaches were employed in order to explore the effect of dinuclear transition metal compounds [Fe2(CO)6(μ-S2C6H2X2), (X=OH, Cl)] in synthesis of CNMs. Our to-date results have shown these complexes generate different carbonaceous materials when they are used in bulk, it was also observed that their performances in synthesis differ even though these compounds are analogous. With X=OH complex used in CVD process, metal nanoparticles of ca. 20-50 nm in size and embedded in carbon matrix were obtained. X=C1 complex has been used in pyrolysis experiments and showed an entire volatilisation or no reaction, depending on selected temperature. Furthermore, obtaining of a new tetranuclear iron cluster is presented in this work.

  7. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO 3 /C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g −1 . •Co, Li 2 CO 3 , Li 2 O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO 3 . -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , SrCO 3 , BaCO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , CoCO 3 ) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO 3 is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g −1 . The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO 3 is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO 3 and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li 2 CO 3 , and then partial Li 2 CO 3 is further reduced into carbon (C 0 ), low-valence carbon (C 2+ ), and Li 2 O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO 3 and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO 3 /Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO 3 , ball-milled CoCO 3 and ball-milled CoCO 3 /C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity

  8. Strain Rate Dependant Material Model for Orthotropic Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignjevic, Rade

    2016-08-01

    In manufacturing processes anisotropic metals are often exposed to the loading with high strain rates in the range from 102 s-1 to 106 s-1 (e.g. stamping, cold spraying and explosive forming). These types of loading often involve generation and propagation of shock waves within the material. The material behaviour under such a complex loading needs to be accurately modelled, in order to optimise the manufacturing process and achieve appropriate properties of the manufactured component. The presented research is related to development and validation of a thermodynamically consistent physically based constitutive model for metals under high rate loading. The model is capable of modelling damage, failure and formation and propagation of shock waves in anisotropic metals. The model has two main parts: the strength part which defines the material response to shear deformation and an equation of state (EOS) which defines the material response to isotropic volumetric deformation [1]. The constitutive model was implemented into the transient nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D [2] and our in house SPH code. Limited model validation was performed by simulating a number of high velocity material characterisation and validation impact tests. The new damage model was developed in the framework of configurational continuum mechanics and irreversible thermodynamics with internal state variables. The use of the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient makes the model applicable to arbitrary plastic and damage deformations. To account for the physical mechanisms of failure, the concept of thermally activated damage initially proposed by Tuller and Bucher [3], Klepaczko [4] was adopted as the basis for the new damage evolution model. This makes the proposed damage/failure model compatible with the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) model Follansbee and Kocks [5], 1988; Chen and Gray [6] which was used to control evolution of flow stress during plastic deformation. In

  9. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghy, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    An article made of a zirconium alloy can be electrolytically plated with a layer of a metal such as copper, nickel or chromium when the article is free of any loosely adhering film formed during an activation step. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution of ammonium bifluoride and sulfuric acid. Next the loosely adhering film formed in the first step is removed by chemical treatment, ultrasonic cleaning, or by swabbing the surface with cotton or an organic material. Finally the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution in the presence of an electrode receiving current

  10. Strengthening and development of raw material basis of rare metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistov, L.B.; Zubynin, Yu.L.

    1991-01-01

    Main trends in research programs which lately were way in Giredmet institute are analyzed. They cover a large scope of problems concerning investigations and reprocessing of REM containing ores. A special attention is paid to deeper raw material reprocessing and incidental extraction of REM from non-rare earth ores, metallurgical wastes and used articles, containing rare and rare earth metals. Complex technologies are developed for ore concentration which could be used in the deposits of new commercial types with regard to ecological problems

  11. PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek PAWLICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstructural examinations and identification of the fracture type enabled to describe a correlation between strain rate, strain and microstructure.

  12. Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project (IAM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Elizabeth [Columbia River Economic Development Council, Vancouver, WA (United States)

    2017-01-06

    This project, under the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge, Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project, contracted with Cascade Energy to provide a shared energy project manager engineer to work with five different companies throughout the Portland metro grant region to implement ten energy efficiency projects and develop a case study to analyze the project model. As a part of the project, the energy project manager also looked into specific new technologies and methodologies that could change the way energy is consumed by manufacturers—from game-changing equipment and technology to monitor energy use to methodologies that change the way companies interact and use their machines to reduce energy consumption.

  13. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  14. Influence of stem type on material loss at the metal-on-metal pinnacle taper junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothi, Harry S; Whittaker, Robert K; Meswania, Jay M; Blunn, Gordon W; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2015-01-01

    The clinical importance of material loss at the head-stem junction is unknown. Comparison of retrievals with different stem types can provide the opportunity to understand the importance of the taper junction. This was a case-control study involving 20 retrieved 36 mm metal-on-metal Pinnacle (DePuy) hips that were paired with either a Corail (n = 10) or S-ROM (n = 10) stem. The median head taper material loss rate for the Corail group was 0.238 (0.0002-2.178) mm(3)/year and was significantly greater than the S-ROM group (p = 0.042), which had a median material loss rate of 0.132 (0.015-0.518) mm(3)/year. The only significant difference between the groups was the stem taper roughness and length: this was rougher and shorter for the Corails. Long and smooth stem taper designs are preferred when used in conjunction with metal heads. © IMechE 2015.

  15. Status and prospects of thermal breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    The main objective of this cooperative study and of this report is to evaluate the extent to which thermal breeders might complement or serve as an alternative to fast breeders in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. A secondary objective is to consider in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability, and fuel cycle versatility to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  16. Heavy metal ion removal by adsorption on to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson-Charrier, M.; Guibal, E.; Le Cloirec, P.; Surjous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of regulations constraints in the industrial waste-waters management leads to the study of new treatment processes, using raw or functionalized biological materials. These processes show competitive performances in metal ion sorption efficiency for the low metal content effluents. Uptake capacities of Uranium as high as 400 mg.g -1 chitosan, equivalent to the double of the uptake capacity of fungal origin biomass, can be reached. The application of these processes to real mine wastewaters gives efficiency coefficient upper to 90%, the residual concentrations are compatible to a direct injection into the environment. The grafting of functional groups onto the chitosan scales up the sorption performances to uptake capacity upper than 600 mg.g -1 polymer. pH, metal concentration are cited as major parameters, particle size influences both uptake kinetics and sorption equilibrium, in the case of the uranium accumulation by chitosan. The desorption of uranium from the sorbent allows the valorization of uranium and the re-use of the sorbent. (authors). 21 refs., 10 figs

  17. Research on utilization of isotopes for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebashi, Yoichi; Kagaya, Yutaka; Kametani, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    As the research on the utilization of unsealed radioisotopes for metallic materials, among the refining of nonferrous metals already carried out in the National Research Institute for Metals, the refining reaction of copper sulfide was taken up. In this refining reaction, it is important to know the oxidation behavior of sulfur in copper sulfide for improving the refining method. However in the oxidation of sulfur, the kinds of the oxides formed are many, and when copper and iron ions coexist as in this case, their separation and analysis are very difficult. The utilization of radioisotopes is required for identifying the oxidation products and the oxides in melt, and for identifying various compound ions. The solvent for thin layer chromatography was selected, and the effects exerted by the moving rate, concentration and coexisting elements of various sulfur acid ions on the thin layer of silica gel were clarified. In the suspension reaction of copper sulfide without a power source, it was elucidated that S 2 O 3 2- arose consistently from the initial stage of reaction, and the reaction equation was forecast. The melting state of sulfur in anode oxidation reaction was studied. (Kako, I.)

  18. Standard test method for instrumented impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard establishes the requirements for performing instrumented Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and instrumented Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) impact tests on metallic materials. This method, which is based on experience developed testing steels, provides further information (in addition to the total absorbed energy) on the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Minimum requirements are given for measurement and recording equipment such that similar sensitivity and comparable total absorbed energy measurements to those obtained in Test Methods E 23 and E 2248 are achieved. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Fast breeder reactor safety : a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration India's limited reserves of natural and vast reserves of thorium, the fast reactor route holds a great promise for India's energy supply in future. The fast reactor fueled with 239 Pu/ 238 U (unused or depleted) produces (breeds) more fissionable fuel material 239 Pu than it consumes. Calculations show that a fast breeder reactor (FBR) increases energy potential of natural uranium by about 60 times. As the fast reactor can also convert 232 Th into 233 U which is a fissionable material, it can make India's thorium reserves a source of almost inexhaustible energy supply for a long time to come. Significant advantage of FBR plants cooled by sodium and their world-wide operating experience are reviewed. There are two main safety issues of FBR, one nuclear and the other non-nuclear. The nuclear issue concerns core disruptive accident and the non-nuclear one concerns the high chemical energy potential of sodium. These two issues are analysed and it is pointed that they are manageable by current design, construction and operational practices. Main findings of safety research during the last six to eight years in West European Countries and United States of America (US) are summarised. Three stage engineered safety provision incorporated into the design of the sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) commissioned at Kalpakkam are explained. The important design safety features of FBTR such as primary system containment, emergency core cooling, plant protection system, inherent safety features achieved through reactivity coefficients, and natural convection cooling are discussed. Theoretical analysis and experimental research in fast reactor safety carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research during the past some years are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  20. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  1. Roles of transition metals interchanging with lithium in electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Tokuda, Kazuya; Sakaida, Masashi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Oishi, Masatsugu; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2015-06-07

    Roles of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms in electrode materials of Li transition-metal complex oxides were clarified using a newly developed direct labeling method, termed powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) near the Ni K-edge. We site-selectively investigated the valence states and local structures of Ni in Li0.89Ni1.11O2, where Ni atoms occupy mainly the NiO2 host-layer sites and partially the interlayer Li sites in-between the host layers, during electrochemical Li insertion/extraction in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). The site-selective X-ray near edge structure evaluated via the P-DAFS method revealed that the interlayer Ni atoms exhibited much lower electrochemical activity as compared to those at the host-layer site. Furthermore, the present analyses of site-selective extended X-ray absorption fine structure performed using the P-DAFS method indicates local structural changes around the residual Ni atoms at the interlayer space during the initial charge; it tends to gather to form rock-salt NiO-like domains around the interlayer Ni. The presence of the NiO-like domains in the interlayer space locally diminishes the interlayer distance and would yield strain energy because of the lattice mismatch, which retards the subsequent Li insertion both thermodynamically and kinetically. Such restrictions on the Li insertion inevitably make the NiO-like domains electrochemically inactive, resulting in an appreciable irreversible capacity after the initial charge but an achievement of robust linkage of neighboring NiO2 layers that tend to be dissociated without the Li occupation. The P-DAFS characterization of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms complements the understanding of the detailed charge-compensation and degradation mechanisms in the electrode materials.

  2. Conceptual design study for a mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Deng Boquan; Li Guiqing

    1986-01-01

    A mirror fusion breeder, CHD, has been designed for providing plenty of nuclear fuel for light water reactors to meet the needs for rapid development of nuclear power in the first half of next century. The breeder is able to support the nuclear fuel needs for more than 10 LWRs of equal scale in power with fuel enriched directly in CHD without reprocessing. Measures are taken to flatten the power density distribution in the blanket so that fission is suppressed in the region close to the plasma, and by this way fuel production is enhanced for this direct enriched fusion breeder. In order to reduce the MHD pressure drop, LiPb flows in the blanket axially. Though the tritium inventory in the reactor is very low, special material and design have to be developed to reduce the permeation of tritium through the coolant pipes. The cost of electricity from the system, consisting of 11 LWR plants and one fusion breeder is predicted to be 1.05 times of that from a traditional LWR plant. This figure is insensitive both to the cost of CHD and its support ratio

  3. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States of America - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Breeder Technology program continues to produce viable information on fuel performance, nuclear systems technology, and power conversion technology. The unique testing capabilities design into the FFTF have resulted in well-validated materials and fuels irradiation information that has confirmed and extended previous data bases. Current directions for the research and development program are to improve the technology for power conversion systems, components, instrumentation, and materials technology to the point where cost reduction and reliability potentials are realized. Operation of the breeder test facility complex at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) continues to provide the experience base and test capability for the breeder R and D effort. International cooperation will be even more important in the future than in the past for several reasons. Significant new investments still have to be made in breeder R and D to improve designs, achieve economic competitiveness and to develop practical breeder fuel cycle capabilities. Progress can be accelerated, redundancies avoided, and economics achieved if nations coordinate their programs, and where possible, divide up the work. In addition, there is clear mutual benefit in encouraging the countries involved in breeder development to harmonize standards and regulations related to safety. It is also important that the advanced nations work together closely in assuring that adequate international safeguards, export controls, and national physical security measures keep pace with breeder reactor and fuel cycle developments

  4. High temperature metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Specialists' Meeting was organized in conjunction with an earlier meeting on this topic held in Vienna, Austria, 1981, which provided for a comprehensive review of the status of materials development and testing at that time and for a description of test facilities. This meeting provided an opportunity (1) to review and discuss the progress made since 1981 in the development, testing and qualification of high temperature metallic materials, (2) to critically assess results achieved, and (3) to give directions for future research and development programmes. In particular, the meeting provided a form for a close interaction between component designers and materials specialists. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from France, People's Republic of China, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USSR and USA presenting 22 papers. The technical part of the meeting was subdivided into four technical sessions: Components Design and Testing - Implications for Materials (4 papers); Microstructure and Environmental Compatibility (4 papers); Mechanical Properties (9 papers); New Alloys and Developments (6 papers). At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was organized in order to summarize the meeting and to make recommendations for future activities. This volume contains all papers presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP

  6. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP.

  7. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  8. New multifunctional lightweight materials based on cellular metals - manufacturing, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephani, Guenter; Quadbeck, Peter; Andersen, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Cellular metallic materials are a new class of materials which have been the focus of numerous scientific studies over the past few years. The increasing interest in cellular metals is due to the fact that the introduction of pores into the materials significantly lowers the density. These highly porous materials also possess combinations of properties which are not possible to achieve with other materials. Besides the drastic weight and material savings that arise from the cell structure, there are also other application-specific benefits such as noise and energy absorption, heat insulation, mechanical damping, filtration effects and also catalytic properties. Cellular metallic materials are hence multi-functional lightweight materials.

  9. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  10. 41 CFR 109-45.1003 - Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials. 109-45.1003 Section 109-45.1003 Public Contracts and Property Management... of Precious Metals § 109-45.1003 Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials. The...

  11. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Shoji; Sugiyama, Shuta; Shimura, Kojiro; Tobayama, Go; Togashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface ...

  12. Removal of metal cations from wastewater using recycled wool-based non-woven material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA RADETIC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of low-temperature air plasma, biopolymer chitosan and hydrogen peroxide treatment of recycled wool-based non-woven material on metal cation uptake was investigated. Recycled wool-based material either as an untreated or modified material showed ability to bind all investigated metal cations in the following order: Pb2+>Cu2+>Zn2+>Co2+. Material performed good selectivity due to distinct sorption rates of studied metal cations.

  13. Experience of secondary cooling system modification at prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko

    2010-09-01

    The prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has been shut down since the secondary sodium leak accident that occurred in December 1995. After the accident, an investigation into the cause and a comprehensive safety review of the plant were conducted, and various countermeasures for sodium leak were examined. Modification work commenced in September 2005. Since sodium, a chemically active material, is used as coolant in MONJU, the modification work required work methods suitable for the handling of sodium. From this perspective, the use of a plastic bag when opening the sodium boundary, oxygen concentration control in a plastic bag, slightly-positive pressure control of cover gas in the systems, pressing and cutting with a roller cutter to prevent the incorporation of metal fillings, etc. were adopted, with careful consideration given to experience and findings from previous modification work at the experimental fast reactor JOYO and plants abroad. Owing to these work methods, the modification work proceeded close to schedule without incident. (author)

  14. in meat production III. Feeder - breeder dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeder- breeder dimorphism is advantageous when large offspring for slaughter is obtained from small breeding animals. The effect of feeder- breeder dimorphism on herd efficiency is evaluated for terminal crossbreeding and growth modification by biotechnological or dietary means. Selection criteria for breeds or lines in ...

  15. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  16. Development of eutectic free cladding materials for metallic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Yuda, Ryoichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan); Ohuchi, Atsushi [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amaya, Masaki [Global Nuclear Fuel-Japan Co., Ltd, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Historically, it is well known that U base metallic fuel has a lower eutectic temperature with stainless steel cladding. In the phase diagram for the U-Fe binary system, the eutectic temperature is 998K. The eutectic reaction is a limiting factor for raising reactor operation temperature. For the purpose of development of eutectic-free cladding materials, three kinds of diffusion-couple tests with 10 mass%Zr alloy were conducted at a temperature of 1027K for 2250 hrs. We selected the following materials: (a) nitrogen charged zirconium foils, (b) vanadium foils of commercial grade, and (c) nitrogen charged ferritic stainless steel (HT-9). The results showed that typical Zr with layer was observed in all of these materials. Zr with layer appeared to act as a barrier against inter-diffusion of U, Fe. The barrier provided immunity to the eutectic reaction. Discussion was made on C-14 problems in relation to another desirable thermodynamic characteristics of Zr such as carbon-14 immobilization. EPMA analysis indicated relatively high nitrogen concentration at the barrier. The barrier is probably composed of ZrN. (author)

  17. Test reactor: basic to U.S. breeder reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.J.; Harness, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Long-range energy planning in the U. S. includes development of a national commercial breeder reactor program. U. S. development of the LMFBR is following a conservative sequence of extensive technology development through use of test reactors and demonstration plants prior to construction of commercial plants. Because materials and fuel technology development is considered the first vital step in this sequence, initial U. S. efforts have been directed to the design and construction of a unique test reactor. The Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF, is a 400 MW(t) reactor with driver fuel locations, open test locations, and closed loops for higher risk experiments. The FFTF will provide a prototypic LMFBR core environment with sufficient instrumentation for detailed core environmental characterization and a testing capability substituted for breeder capability. The unique comprehensive fuel and materials testing capability of the FFTF will be key to achieving long-range objectives of increased power density, improved breeding gain and shorter doubling times. (auth)

  18. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring is realized by adopting ionic liquid. In addition, promising spin-orbit effects in AFM as well as spin transfer via AFM spin waves reported by different groups have also been reviewed, indicating that the AFM can serve as an efficient spin current source. To explore the crucial role of AFM acting as efficient generators, transmitters, and detectors of spin currents is an emerging topic in the field of magnetism today. AFM metals are now ready to join the rapidly developing fields of basic and applied spintronics, enriching this area of solid-state physics and microelectronics.

  19. Transport and screen blockage characteristics of reflective metallic insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocard, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a LOCA within a nuclear power plant, it is possible for insulation debris to be generated by the break jet. Such debris has the potential for PWR sump screen (or BWR RHR suction inlet) blockage and thus can affect the long-term recirculation capability. In addition to the variables of break jet location and orientation, the types and quantities of debris which could be generated are dependent on the insulation materials employed. This experimental investigation was limited to reflective metallic insulation and components thereof. The study was aimed at determining the flow velocities needed to transport the insulation debris to the sump screens and the resulting modes of screen blockage. The tests revealed that thin metallic foils (0.0025 in. and 0.004 in.) could transport at low flow velocities, 0.2 to 0.5 ft/sec. Thicker foils (0.008 in.) transported at higher velocities, 0.4 to 0.8 ft/sec, and as fabricated half cylinder insulation units required velocities in excess of 1.0 ft/sec for transport. The tests also provided information on screen blockage patterns that showed blockage could occur at the lower portion of the screen as foils readily flipped on the screen when reaching it

  20. A new material for removing heavy metals from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center developed and is patenting a new high capacity ion exchange material (IEM) that removes toxic metals from contaminated water in laboratory tests. The IEM can be made into many forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As a result, it can be adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water wherever it is found, be it in waste water treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or in homes. Laboratory tests have been conducted on aqueous solutions containing only one of the following metal cations: lead, copper, mercury, cadmium, silver, chromium (III), nickel, zinc, and yttrium. Tests were also conducted with: (1) calcium present to determine its effects on the uptake of cadmium and copper, and (2) uranium and lanthanides which are stand-ins for other radioactive elements, (3) drinking water for the removal of copper and lead, and (3) others compositions. The results revealed that the IEM removes all these cations, even in the presence of the calcium. Of particular interest are the results of the tests with the drinking water: the lead concentration was reduced from 142 ppb down to 2.8 ppb (well below the accepted EPA standard).

  1. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  2. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  3. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  4. Templated synthesis, postsynthetic metal exchange, and properties of a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    Reaction of biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate (H 3BPT) and CdCl 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) afforded porph@MOM-10, a microporous metal-organic material containing CdTMPyP cations encapsulated in an anionic Cd(II) carboxylate framework, [Cd 6(BPT) 4Cl 4(H 2O) 4]. Porph@MOM-10 is a versatile platform that undergoes exchange to serve as the parent of a series of porph@MOMs that exhibit permanent porosity and heterogeneous catalytic activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  6. Under sodium ultrasonic viewing for Fast Breeder Reactors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpara, Eaglekumar G.; Patankar, V.H.; Vijayan Varier, N.

    2016-09-01

    Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR/FBR) are of two types: Loop type and Pool type. Many countries like USA, Japan, UK, Russia, China, France, Lithuania, Belgium, Korea, and India have worked extensively on these types of FBRs. FBRs are capable of breeding more fissionable fuel than it consumes like breeding of Plutonium-239 from non-fissionable Uranium-238. In FBR, heat is released by fission process and it must be captured and transferred to the electric generator by the liquid metal coolant (i.e. Sodium). Due to continuous operation and for safety and licensing reasons, periodic inspection and maintenance is required for reactor fuel assemblies which carry nuclear fuels. For this reason, under sodium ultrasonic imaging technique is adopted as in-service inspection activity for viewing of core of FBRs. Since liquid sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic technique is the only method which can be employed for imaging in liquid sodium. In harsh conditions like high temperature and high radiation, there is a restriction on the development of possible ultrasonic visualization systems and selection of the transducer materials which can operate in the core region of reactor at around 200 °C during shutdown of reactor. This report provides a review of works related to ultrasonic imaging in sodium, different materials used in high temperature transducer assemblies and their different coupling/bonding techniques to achieve maximum transmission efficiency in high temperature sodium environment. The report also provides the overview of different architectures and imaging methods of transducer array elements which were used in LMFBRs for inspection and visualization of the reactor core sub-assemblies. The report is focused on a review of some possible beam forming techniques which may be used for nuclear applications for high temperature environment. Published information of the different simulation models are also reviewed which can be adopted to simulate the

  7. Leading research on super metal. 2. Aluminium materials; Super metal no sendo kenkyu. 2. Ogata sozai (aluminium kei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Aluminum materials were surveyed to improve aluminum materials drastically so as to play an important role as prospective materials in response to the changing social environment. Aluminum materials have become the following metal materials to iron materials due to their light weight, durability, and profitability. Based on their merits and demerits, it was made clear how the aluminum materials contribute to the future resource saving, energy saving, and global environmental protection. Review was made on the two research and development themes which contribute to the creation of super metals. Hence, the themes proposed are focused on the creation of new aluminum mill products with ultra fine grain structure using very low temperature processing and on the creation of super-formability aluminum alloy sheets by advanced texture control using processing which can enhance the shearing stress. Results of the research and development are expected to provide wide applicability for other metals, ceramics, and polymers. 433 refs., 315 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Present status of the Liquid Breeder Validation Module for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.casal@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mas, Avelino; Mota, Fernando; García, Ángela; Rapisarda, David [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nomen, Oriol [Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya (IREC), Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Disseny d’Equips Industrials (CDEI), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, Jose Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abal, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The LBVM will be used to perform irradiation experiments on functional materials for fusion reactors. • It houses 16 experimental rigs, each one containing a EUROFER capsule partially filled with lithium lead, at 300–550 °C. • A helium purge gas will sweep the tritium permeated through the capsule walls to a tritium measuring station. • A helium cooling system will keep tritium diffusion within safe margins and guarantee its mechanical integrity. • Thermal hydraulic and mechanical calculations, the module instrumentation and aspects as safety or RAMI are presented. -- Abstract: One of the objectives of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), as stated in its specifications, is the validation of breeder blanket concepts for DEMO design. The so-called Liquid Breeder Validation Module (LBVM) will be used in IFMIF to perform experiments under irradiation on functional materials related to liquid breeder concepts for future fusion reactors. This module, not considered in previous IFMIF design phases, is currently under design by CIEMAT in the framework of the IFMIF/EVEDA project. In this paper, the present status of the design of the LBVM is presented.

  9. Synthesis by plasma of polymer-metal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is the design of an experimental set-up to synthesize polymer- metal composites by plasma with versatility in the conditions of synthesis. The main components are a vacuum system capable to reach up to 10 -2 mbar and valves and accessories to control the pressure in the system. In order to generate the electrical discharges and the plasma, an electrical circuit with an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz of frequency was constructed. The electric field partially ionizes the reactor atmosphere where the polymer-metal composites were synthesized. The reactor has two metallic electrodes, one in front of the other, where the particles electrically charged collide against the electrodes producing ablation on them. The polymer-metal composites were synthesized by means of an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz. Aniline, 3-chlorine-ethylene and electrodes of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) were used in a cylindrical reactor coupled with an external coil to generate glow discharges. The average pressures were 6.15 X 10 -1 and 5.2 X 10 -1 mbar for the synthesis of Poly aniline (P An) and Poly chloroethylene (PE-CI), respectively. The synthesis was performed during 60 and 180 minutes for P An and PE-CI, respectively. The polymers were formed, as films, with an average thickness of 6.42 μm for P An and, in the case of PE-CI, with an approximately growing rate of 14 ηm/W. The power in the syntheses was 30, 50, 70 and 90 W for P An and 50, 100, 120, 140 170, and 200 W for PE-CI. The characterization of the polymer-metal composites was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the composition and the relation of the elements involved in the synthesis. The morphology of the films was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The infrared analysis (IR) was done to study the chemicals bonds and the structure of these polymers. Another important study in these materials was the behavior of the electrical conductivity (σ), which was complemented

  10. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  11. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  12. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  13. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskite oxides as promising functional materials for oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sunasira

    2012-07-01

    Modern industries employ several gases as process fluids. Leakage of these gases in the operating area could lead to undesirable consequences. Even in chemical industries, which use large quantities of inert gases in confined areas, accidental leakage of these process gases would result in the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in atmospheric air. For instance, large amounts of gaseous nitrogen and argon are used in pharmaceutical industries, gas filling/bottling plants, operating area of Fast Breeder reactors, etc. Fall of concentration of oxygen in air below 17% could lead to life risk (Asphyxiation) of the working personnel that has to be checked well in advance. Further, when the leaking gas is of explosive nature, its damage potential would be very high if its concentration level in air increases beyond its lower explosive limit. Surveillance of the ambient within these industries at the critical areas and also in the environment around them for oxygen therefore becomes highly essential. Sensitive and selective gas sensors made of advanced materials are required to meet this demand of monitoring environmental pollution. The perovskite class of oxides (ABO3) is chemically stable even at high temperatures and can tolerate large levels of dopants without phase transformations. The electronic properties of this parent functional material can be tailored by adding appropriate dopants that exhibit different valence states. Aliovalent transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskites are good mixed ionic and electronic conductors and potential candidates for sensing oxygen at percentage level exploiting their oxygen pressure dependent electrical conductivity. This paper presents the preparation, study of electrical conductivity and oxygen-sensing characteristics of iron and cobalt substituted SrTiO3.

  15. Derivative criteria of plasticity anddurability of metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustov Yuriy Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Criteria of plasticity and durability derivative of standard indicators of plasticity (δ, ψ and durability (σ , σ are offered. Criteria К and К follow from the equation of relative indicators of durability and plasticity. The purpose of the researches is the establishment of interrelation of derivative criteria with the Page indicator. The values of derivative criteria were defined for steels 50X and 50XH after processing by cold, and also for steels 50G2 and 38HGN after sorbitizing. It was established that the sum of the offered derivative criteria of plasticity and durability С considered for the steels is almost equal to unit and corresponds to a square root of relative durability and plasticity criterion C . Both criteria testify to two-unity opposite processes of deformation and resistance to deformation. By means of the equations for S and С it is possible to calculate an indicator of uniform plastic deformation of σ and through it to estimate synergetic criteria - true tension and specific energy of deformation and destruction of metal materials. On the basis of the received results the expressions for assessing the uniform and concentrated components of plastic deformation are established. The preference of the dependence of uniform relative lengthening from a cubic root of criterion К , and also to work of the criteria of relative lengthening and relative durability is given. The advantage of the formulas consists in simplicity and efficiency of calculation, in ensuring necessary accuracy of calculation of the size δ for the subsequent calculation of structural and power (synergetic criteria of reliability of metals.

  16. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  17. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  18. Filbe molten salt research for tritium breeder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Petti, D.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Flibe (2Lif·BeF 2 ) molten salt research activities conducted at the INEEL as part of the Japan-US JUPITER-II joint research program. The research focuses on tritium/chemistry issues for self-cooled Flibe tritium breeder applications and includes the following activities: (1) Flibe preparation, purification, characterization and handling, (2) development and testing of REDOX strategies for containment material corrosion control, (3) tritium behavior and management in Flibe breeder systems, and (4) safety testing (e.g., mobilization of Flibe during accident scenarios). This paper describes the laboratory systems developed to support these research activities and summarizes key results of this work to date. (author)

  19. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.

    2009-01-01

    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  20. The present status of the fast breeder reactor industrialization in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J.P. van

    1987-01-01

    The development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor in Europe started in the mid-fifties, after the successful operation of EBR-1 at ARCO, Idaho, in 1951. A more and more integrated development among the countries of the European Community culminated in 1986 with the beginning to power of the 1200 MWe SUPERPHENIX plant at Creys-Malville, France. The road is now open towards the full industrialization of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor at the moment, in 2005, when the first European thermal neutron power reactor station will have to be decommissioned and replaced. The European programme aims at providing the utilities at that time with a clear choice between thermal neutron reactors and fast breeder reactors, both economical but very different in their use of the limited natural resource that uranium is. (author)

  1. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project

  2. ANDRA - Referential Materials. Volume 1: Context and scope; Volume 2: Argillaceous materials; Volume 3: Cementitious materials; Volume 4: The corrosion of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This huge document gathers four volumes. The first volume presents some generalities about materials used in the storage of radioactive materials (definition, design principle, current choices and corresponding storage components, general properties of materials and functions of the corresponding storage components, physical and chemical solicitations experienced by materials in a storage), and the structure and content of the other documents. The second volume addresses argillaceous materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their design. It presents and comments the crystalline and chemical, and physical and chemical characteristics of swelling argillaceous materials and minerals, describes how these swelling argillaceous materials are shaped and set up, presents and comments physical properties (hydraulic, mechanical and thermal properties) of these materials, comments and discusses the modelling of the geo-chemical behaviour, and their behaviour in terms of containment and transport of radionuclides. The third volume addresses cementitious materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their definition and specifications. It presents some more detailed generalities (cement definition and composition, hydration, microstructure of hydrated cements, adjuvants), presents and comments their physical properties (fresh concrete structure and influence of composition, main aimed properties in the hardened status, transfer, mechanical, and thermal properties, shaping and setting up of these materials, technical solutions for hydraulic works). The fourth volume addresses the corrosion of metallic materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage of radioactive materials. It presents metallic materials and discusses their corrosion behaviour. It describes the peculiarities

  3. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I ampersand C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I ampersand C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants

  4. Fractal Model for Acoustic Absorbing of Porous Fibrous Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the changing rules between sound absorbing performance and geometrical parameters of porous fibrous metal materials (PFMMs, this paper presents a fractal acoustic model by incorporating the static flow resistivity based on Biot-Allard model. Static flow resistivity is essential for an accurate assessment of the acoustic performance of the PFMM. However, it is quite difficult to evaluate the static flow resistivity from the microstructure of the PFMM because of a large number of disordered pores. In order to overcome this difficulty, we firstly established a static flow resistivity formula for the PFMM based on fractal theory. Secondly, a fractal acoustic model was derived on the basis of the static flow resistivity formula. The sound absorption coefficients calculated by the presented acoustic model were validated by the values of Biot-Allard model and experimental data. Finally, the variation of the surface acoustic impedance, the complex wave number, and the sound absorption coefficient with the fractal dimensions were discussed. The research results can reveal the relationship between sound absorption and geometrical parameters and provide a basis for improving the sound absorption capability of the PFMMs.

  5. Research process of nondestructive testing pitting corrosion in metal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion directly affects the usability and service life of metal material, so the effective nondestructive testing and evaluation on pitting corrosion is of great significance for fatigue life prediction because of data supporting. The features of pitting corrosion are elaborated, and the relation between the pitting corrosion parameters and fatigue performance is pointed out. Through introducing the fundamental principles of pitting corrosion including mainly magnetic flux leakage inspection, pulsed eddy current and guided waves, the research status of nondestructive testing technology for pitting corrosion is summarized, and the key steps of nondestructive testing technologies are compared and analyzed from the theoretical model, signal processing to industrial applications. Based on the analysis of the signal processing specificity of different nondestructive testing technologies in detecting pitting corrosion, the visualization combined with image processing and signal analysis are indicated as the critical problems of accurate extraction of pitting defect information and quantitative characterization for pitting corrosion. The study on non-contact nondestructive testing technologies is important for improving the detection precision and its application in industries.

  6. Metal alkoxides as starting materials for hydrolysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, Omaima Awad

    1999-12-01

    In this thesis the preparation of some metal alkoxides and their hydrolysis products were studied. The characteristic of each prepared alkoxides and their hydrolyzates were determined. Tetra ethoxysilane was prepared by the elemental route (the reaction of silicon powder with liquid ethanol) in the presence of tin ethoxide as a catalyst. The use of tin alkoxide is considered one of the most developed ways used recently in chemistry, compared to the usage of acids and bases as catalyst previously. It had been confirmed by the usage of (infrared) IR spectroscopy, the structure of the prepared material. Also tin isopropoxide had been prepared and hydrolyzed. Ethoxides of aluminium, magnesium and tin had been prepared by the elemental route. The gelation product had been analyzed. tetraethoxysilane had been also prepared by the halosilane route. Isopropoxide of each aluminium, magnesium and tin had been synthesized, hydrolyzed, allowed to gel and analyzed by IR (infrared) spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. However, results obtained indicated that tin ethoxide is an effective catalyst in the direct synthesis of tetraethoxysilane from silicon powder and liquid ethanol. Gas-liquid chromatography, infra-red (IR) analysis showed that the final reaction product was tetraethoxysilane. (Author)

  7. Comparison of Machining Temperature in High Speed Grinding of Metallic Materials and Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chongjun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding has always been a high energy expenditure process, which generally produce massive grinding heat and possibly produce thermal damage in workpiece ground surface. Therefore, a good understanding of grinding temperature characteristics is important to lower the thermal effect on the workpiece quality. However, the grinding temperature characteristic differs when grinding of different materials, especially for those hard-to-machine materials (eg. Titanium alloys and ceramics. Therefore, this paper is devoted to investigate different grinding temperature characteristics for metallic materials and brittle materials. In order to detect the grinding temperature, a grindable thermocouple technique with NI-DAQ device is adopted in diamond wheel grinding of ceramics and CBN grinding of Titanium alloys. The results show that the temperature characteristics for ceramics is totally different with Titanium alloys. When the grinding wheel speed increases, the grinding temperature increases all the way when grinding of Titanium alloys. However, there is a temperature turning point for grinding of ceramics. When the wheel speed surpasses the turning point, the grinding temperature goes down and closes at a relatively low temperature.

  8. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  9. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  10. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  11. Metallic Nanocomposites as Next-Generation Thermal Interface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagabandi, Nirup [Texas A& M University; Oh, Jun Kyun [Texas A& M University; Akbulut, Mustafa [Texas A& M University; Yegin, Cengiz [Texas A& M University

    2017-07-27

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are an integral and important part of thermal management in electronic devices. The electronic devices are becoming more compact and powerful. This increase in power processed or passing through the devices leads to higher heat fluxes and makes it a challenge to maintain temperatures at the optimal level during operation. Herein, we report a free standing nanocomposite TIM in which boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are uniformly dispersed in copper matrices via an organic linker, thiosemicarbazide. Integration of these metal-organic-inorganic nanocomposites was made possible by a novel electrodeposition technique where the functionalized BNNS (f-BNNS) experience the Brownian motion and reach the cathode through diffusion, while the nucleation and growth of the copper on the cathode occurs via the electrochemical reduction. Once the f-BNNS bearing carbonothioyl/thiol groups on the terminal edges come into the contact with copper crystals, the chemisorption reaction takes place. We performed thermal, mechanical, and structural characterization of these nanocomposites using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), diffusive laser flash (DLF) analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectence (PSTTR), and nanoindentation. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity ranging from 211 W/mK to 277 W/mK at a filler mass loading of 0-12 wt.percent. The nanocomposites also have about 4 times lower hardness as compared to copper, with values ranging from 0.27 GPa to 0.41 GPa. The structural characterization studies showed that most of the BNNS are localized at grain boundaries - which enable efficient thermal transport while making the material soft. PSTTR measurements revealed that the synergistic combinations of these properties yielded contact resistances on the order of 0.10 to 0.13 mm2K/W, and the total thermal resistance of 0.38 to 0.56 mm2K/W at bondline thicknesses of 30-50 um. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the

  12. Metallic Nanocomposites as Next-Generation Thermal Interface Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagabandi, Nirup [Texas A& M University; Oh, Jun K. [Texas A& M University; Akbulut, Mustafa [Texas A& M University; Yegin, Cengiz [Texas A& M University

    2017-09-14

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are an integral and important part of thermal management in electronic devices. The electronic devices are becoming more compact and powerful. This increase in power processed or passing through the devices leads to higher heat fluxes and makes it a challenge to maintain temperatures at the optimal level during operation. Herein, we report a free standing nanocomposite TIM in which boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are uniformly dispersed in copper matrices via an organic linker, thiosemicarbazide. Integration of these metal-organic-inorganic nanocomposites was made possible by a novel electrodeposition technique where the functionalized BNNS (f-BNNS) experience the Brownian motion and reach the cathode through diffusion, while the nucleation and growth of the copper on the cathode occurs via the electrochemical reduction. Once the f-BNNS bearing carbonothioyl/thiol groups on the terminal edges come into the contact with copper crystals, the chemisorption reaction takes place. We performed thermal, mechanical, and structural characterization of these nanocomposites using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), diffusive laser flash (DLF) analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectence (PSTTR), and nanoindentation. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity ranging from 211 W/mK to 277 W/mK at a filler mass loading of 0-12 wt.percent. The nanocomposites also have about 4 times lower hardness as compared to copper, with values ranging from 0.27 GPa to 0.41 GPa. The structural characterization studies showed that most of the BNNS are localized at grain boundaries - which enable efficient thermal transport while making the material soft. PSTTR measurements revealed that the synergistic combinations of these properties yielded contact resistances on the order of 0.10 to 0.13 mm2K/W, and the total thermal resistance of 0.38 to 0.56 mm2K/W at bondline thicknesses of 30-50 um. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the

  13. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  14. Materials research in the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report gives a survey of the research work done at the Institute for Material and Solids Research at Karlsruhe. The following subjects are dealt with: Instrumental analysis; producing thin films; corrosion; failure mechanism and damage analysis; fuel elements, ceramic nuclear fuels and can and structure materials for fast breeder reactors; material problems and ceramic breeding materials for nuclear fusion plants; glass materials for the treatment of radioactive waste; super-conducting materials; amorphous metals, new high alloyed steels; ceramic high performance materials; hard materials; compound materials and polymers. (MM) [de

  15. Synthesis by plasma of polymer-metal materials; Sintesis por plasma de materiales polimero-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, G

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is the design of an experimental set-up to synthesize polymer- metal composites by plasma with versatility in the conditions of synthesis. The main components are a vacuum system capable to reach up to 10{sup -2} mbar and valves and accessories to control the pressure in the system. In order to generate the electrical discharges and the plasma, an electrical circuit with an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz of frequency was constructed. The electric field partially ionizes the reactor atmosphere where the polymer-metal composites were synthesized. The reactor has two metallic electrodes, one in front of the other, where the particles electrically charged collide against the electrodes producing ablation on them. The polymer-metal composites were synthesized by means of an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz. Aniline, 3-chlorine-ethylene and electrodes of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) were used in a cylindrical reactor coupled with an external coil to generate glow discharges. The average pressures were 6.15 X 10{sup -1} and 5.2 X 10{sup -1} mbar for the synthesis of Poly aniline (P An) and Poly chloroethylene (PE-CI), respectively. The synthesis was performed during 60 and 180 minutes for P An and PE-CI, respectively. The polymers were formed, as films, with an average thickness of 6.42 {mu}m for P An and, in the case of PE-CI, with an approximately growing rate of 14 {eta}m/W. The power in the syntheses was 30, 50, 70 and 90 W for P An and 50, 100, 120, 140 170, and 200 W for PE-CI. The characterization of the polymer-metal composites was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the composition and the relation of the elements involved in the synthesis. The morphology of the films was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The infrared analysis (IR) was done to study the chemicals bonds and the structure of these polymers. Another important study in these materials was the behavior of the electrical conductivity ({sigma

  16. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  17. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T → n(14.1 MeV) + α(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device

  18. Breeder reactor program in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1978-01-01

    In the United States, commercial fuel reprocessing and demonstration test of plutonium breeder reactors were now postponed. LMFBR project and schedule of FFTF and afterwards await the results of INFCE. However, this is not discarding the development of LMFBRs. With the existing energy resources, the United States can have the opportunity to make careful and thorough study. Emphasis is placed on the research and development on new alternative types of fuel. FFTF going to be operated soon should provide effective means for the developments of FBR fuel and materials. High priority is to be retained for the test and development of sodium system hardwares. The nuclear proliferation problem is not related to heat transfer and secondary systems; it is associated with the selection of fuel and fuel cycle. The whole program is centered around LMFBR design and development. The target output will be 600 x 10 3 -- 700 x 10 3 MW. In the United States, now is the time to develop excellent products and to study the nuclear proliferation problem more carefully. (Mori, K.)

  19. Preliminary design of a Binary Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, E. Y.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R. C.

    2014-10-01

    A binary breeder reactor (BBR) is a reactor that by means of the transmutation and fission process can operates through the depleted uranium burning with a small quantity of fissile material. The advantages of a BBR with relation to other nuclear reactor types are numerous, taking into account their capacity to operate for a long time without requiring fuel reload or re-arrangement. In this work four different simulations are shown carried out with the MCNPX code with libraries Jeff-3.1 to 1200 K. The objective of this study is to compare two different models of BBR: a spherical reactor and a cylindrical one, using two fuel cycles for each one of them (U-Pu and Th-U) and different reflectors for the two different geometries. For all the models a super-criticality state was obtained at least 10.9 years without carrying out some fuel re-arrangement or reload. The plutonium-239 production was achieved in the models where natural uranium was used in the breeding area, while the production of uranium-233 was observed in the cases where thorium was used in the fertile area. Finally, a behavior of stationary wave reactor was observed inside the models of spherical reactor when contemplating the power uniform increment in the breeding area, while inside the cylindrical models was observed the behavior of a traveling wave reactor when registering the displacement of the burnt wave along the cylindrical model. (Author)

  20. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory

  1. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally investigate the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure level. The effects of material parameters on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials under high sound pressure level are further explored experimentally. Measurements are carried out by using a standard impedance tube that has been modified to accommodate sound pressure level of up to 150 dB. The experimental results show that with the increase in sound pressure level, the effect of sound pressure level on the sound absorption characteristics yields different variation regularities in different frequencies. The sound absorption performance of porous metal materials increases with the increase in sound pressure level in low frequency, which is reasonably consistent with the theoretical results. Under high sound pressure level, the sound absorption characteristics are significantly dependent upon the material parameters such as the metal fiber diameter, the material porosity, and the material thickness. It could provide a reliable experimental validation for the applications of porous metal materials in the area of vibration and noise control at high sound pressure levels.

  2. Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zdeněk; Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan; Matějková, Stanislava; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-23

    The synthesis of graphene materials is typically carried out by oxidizing graphite to graphite oxide followed by a reduction process. Numerous methods exist for both the oxidation and reduction steps, which causes unpredictable contamination from metallic impurities into the final material. These impurities are known to have considerable impact on the properties of graphene materials. We synthesized several reduced graphene oxides from extremely pure graphite using several popular oxidation and reduction methods and tracked the concentrations of metallic impurities at each stage of synthesis. We show that different combinations of oxidation and reduction introduce varying types as well as amounts of metallic elements into the graphene materials, and their origin can be traced to impurities within the chemical reagents used during synthesis. These metallic impurities are able to alter the graphene materials' electrochemical properties significantly and have wide-reaching implications on the potential applications of graphene materials.

  3. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys.

  4. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys

  5. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This composite can be used as armour penetrator material. It is possible to envisage structural materials for use in aircraft frames, automobiles and medical implants. These materials have large supercooled liquid regions in which the workability of the material is very high. This property has been exploited in friction welding ...

  6. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-08-02

    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  7. Proceedings of the eleventh international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-07-01

    This report is the Proceedings of 'the Eleventh International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions' which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders Under the IEA Implementing Agreement on the Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors, and the Japan-US Fusion Collaboration Framework. This workshop was held in Tokyo, Japan on December 15-17, 2003. About thirty experts from China, EU, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Russia and USA attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included 1) evolutions in ceramic breeder blanket design, 2) progress in ceramic breeder material development, 3) irradiation testing, 4) breeder material properties, 5) out-of-pile pebble bed experiment, 6) modeling of the thermal, mechanical and tritium transfer behavior of pebble beds and 7) interfacing issues of solid breeder blanket. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for designs of solid breeder blankets and test blankets in EU, Russia and Japan, recent results of irradiation tests, HICU, EXOTIC-8 and the irradiation tests by IVV-2M, modeling study on tritium release behavior of Li 2 TiO 3 and so on, fabrication technology developments and characterization of the Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles, research on measurements and modeling of thermo-mechanical behaviors of Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles, and interfacing issues, such as, fabrication technology for blanket box structure, neutronics experiments of blanket mockups by fusion neutron source and tritium recovery system. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Development of sputter ion pump based SG leak detection system for Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, B.; Sureshkumar, K.V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development and commissioning of SG leak detection system for FBTR. ► Development of Robust method of using sputter ion pump based system. ► Modifications for improving reliability and availability. ► On line injection of hydrogen in sodium during reactor operation. ► Triplication of the SG leak detection system. - Abstract: The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt, loop type sodium cooled fast reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam as a fore-runner to the second stage of Indian nuclear power programme. The reactor design is based on the French reactor Rapsodie with several modifications which include the provision of a steam-water circuit and turbo-generator. FBTR uses sodium as the coolant in the main heat transport medium to transfer heat from the reactor core to the feed water in the tertiary loop for producing superheated steam, which drives the turbo-generator. Sodium and water flow in shell and tube side respectively, separated by thin-walls of the ferritic steel tubes of the once-through steam generator (SG). Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Early detection of water or steam leaks into sodium in the steam generator units of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) is an important requirement from safety and economic considerations. The SG leak in FBTR is detected by Sputter Ion Pump (SIP) based Steam Generator Leak Detection (SGLD) system and Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) based Hydrogen in Argon Detection (HAD) system. Many modifications were carried out in the SGLD system for the reactor operation to improve the reliability and availability. This paper details the development and the acquired experience of SIP based SGLD system instrumentation for real time hydrogen detection in sodium for FBTR.

  9. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  10. Metal fuel safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J. Jr.; Tentner, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to the renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modeling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of the metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation exercises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modeling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated

  11. Investigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Materials for use in Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Jaworski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metals can provide a continually replenished material for the first wall and extraction blankets of fusion reactors. However, research has shown that solid metal surfaces will experience embrittlement when exposed to liquid metals under stress. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes in structural strength of the solid metal materials and test different surface treatments that can limit embrittlement. Research was conducted to design and build an apparatus for exposing solid metal samples to liquid metal under high stress and temperature. The apparatus design, results of tensile testing, and surface imaging of fractured samples will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  12. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material is disclosed. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy

  13. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy.

  14. On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mei@df.uba.ar; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu; Depine, Ricardo A. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rdep@df.uba.ar

    2008-03-31

    Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction.

  15. Graphene-Metal Oxide Hybrid Nanostructured Materials for Electrocatalytic Sensing and Sustainable Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    with specific metal oxide nanostructures, resulting nanohybrid materials can play a significant role in the cutting-edge development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available and low-cost precursors. Herein, we review the mostly recent advances in the development of noble metal free...... technology and sensor applications. In particular, graphene-metal oxide nanohybrid materials have been introduced as a new basis for preparation of low cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts for energy storage and conversion as well as for electrochemical sensing applications. By combining graphene...... graphene supported electrocatalysts. This review includes an introduction to graphene-metal oxide based nanohybrid materials, different synthetic strategies for the preparation of graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites and their structural characterization, and an overview of various electrochemical...

  16. Implications of nuclear physics in the development of Fast Breeder Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.; Ilie, P.; Vasiliu, G.; Popescu, C.; Boeriu, S.; Constantinescu, D.; Mateescu, S.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to point out the involved aspects of nuclear physics in the calculation and design of the fast reactors. After a brief description of the advantages of using the fast reactors in the national economy, the national programs concerning this activity are presented. The structure and operation conditions of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are also reviewed. Then, the methods aimed to calculate the core, the burn-up, the reactor dynamics, the analysis of accidents, the shielding, as well as, the materials required in the fast reactor calculation, are shortly given. Further on, it deals with the nuclear data types connected to the fast reactor calculations, with accuracy requirements for nuclear data, as well as, with the present stage of nuclear data for fissile, fertile and structural materials. The requirements for new differential data measurements, new integral data and benchmark experiments are presented. Data adjustement methods are also summarized. Some aspects of the structural material behaviour in intense gamma radiation and neutron fields existing into a fast reactor are also presented in the last part of this paper. The concluding remarks are mentioned at the end of the paper. (author)

  17. Techniques developed to evaluate the fracture toughness offast breeder reactor duct. [Use of J-integral tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. H.; Wire, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Large changes in strength and ductility of metals after irradiation are known to occur. The fracture toughness of irradiated metals, which is related to the combined strength and ductility of a material, may be significantly reduced and the potential for unstable crack extension increased. Therefore, the resistance of cladding and duct materials to fracture after exposure to fast neutron environments is of concern. Existing Type 316 stainless steel irradiated ducts are relatively thin and since this material retains substantial ductility, even after irradiation, the fracture behavior of the duct material cannot be analyzed by linear elastic fracture mechanics techniques. Instead, the multispecimen R-curve method and J-integral analysis were used to develop an experimental approach to evaluate the fracture toughness of thin breeder reactor duct materials irradiated at elevated temperatures. Alloy A-286 was chosen for these experiments because the alloy exhibits elastic/plastic behavior and the fracture toughness data of thicker (12 mm) specimens were available for comparison. Technical problems associated with specimen buckling and remote handling were treated in this work. The results are discussed in terms of thickness criterion for plane strain.

  18. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  19. Radioactive materials in scrap metal, the situation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jossen, H.

    2005-01-01

    About 10 years ago, different happenings in the Swiss and international metal scrap recycling scene created a sensibility to unwanted radioactive substances in scrap metal. Italy, one of the main buyers for scrap metals, started at its borders with systematic checks, arranged by authorities. As a consequence, in Switzerland a concept was elaborated under cooperation of the recycling companies, the Italian authorities, the Federal Office of Public Health (BAG), Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) and the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva) to fulfil the different requirements. Individual radioprotection, protection of environment, protection of work yard and machinery and the quality assurance of the recycled metals and the resulting products requires adapted solutions with the main issues: training, suitable measuring equipment and an intervention-and waste management. Detected radioactive substances are professionally recovered, stored and submitted to the radioactive waste collection. The investigation of the happenings can lead to useful hints on gaps and on chances for improvements in general radioprotection. (orig.)

  20. Accounting for material scatter in sheet metal forming simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Atzema, E.H.; Atzema, E.H.; Boterman, R.; Abspoel, M.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.

    2013-01-01

    Robust design of forming processes is gaining attention throughout the industry. To analyze the robustness of a sheet metal forming process using Finite Element (FE) simulations, an accurate input in terms of parameter variation is required. This paper presents a pragmatic, accurate and economic

  1. Non-Destructive Metallic Materials Testing—Recent Research and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    João Manuel R. S. Tavares; Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) has become extremely important formicrostructural characterization, mainly by allowing the assessment of metallic material properties in an effective and reasonable manner, in addition to maintaining the integrity of the evaluated metallic samples and applicability in service in many cases [...

  2. Non-Destructive Metallic Materials Testing—Recent Research and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive testing (NDT has become extremely important formicrostructural characterization, mainly by allowing the assessment of metallic material properties in an effective and reasonable manner, in addition to maintaining the integrity of the evaluated metallic samples and applicability in service in many cases [...

  3. Corrosion resistance of metallic materials for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.; Pelras, M.; Turluer, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main of this review is to reassess the corrosion resistance properties required from metallic materials to be used in the various developments of the Purex process applied for nuclear fuel reprocessing

  4. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Metallic materials file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Metallic materials for molten salt reactors are studied. The corrosion of steels by the eutectic LiF-BeF 2 and molten lead is examined. Fabrication, aging and welding of molybdenum or TZM tubes are also examined. [fr

  5. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-06-11

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  6. An overview of hydrogen storage materials: Making a case for metal organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available attention. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as hydrogen storage materials due to their well-defined structure, tunability, high porosity and large specific surface area. This presentation provides...

  7. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh

    2017-06-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  8. Recommended processes for controlling the presence of radioactive material in metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, M. J.; Garcia-Galludo, M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to assure that the radiation portal monitors (RPM), which are installed in companies adheres to the Protocol for the monitoring of radioactive content of the metallic materials (hereafter Protocol), work correctly and that they have the appropriate detection characteristics, the procedures recommended are the following: 1) elaboration of a report of the initial installation of the equipment, 2) periodic verifications that assure the correct equipment operation and, 3) static and dynamic annual calibrations using a cesium-137 source. The criteria for selecting these procedures are based on standard related to the portals in the frontiers of ANSI-N 42-35, IC-62244 and the guide for IAEA, TS-1-1240. These procedures are similar to those established in a quality management system. They have simple and clear definitions, in addition to rapid and economic execution. the tests defined in these procedures allow to obtain the quantitative physical parameters of the standard ISO-11929 using static and dynamic measurements. (Author)17 refs.

  9. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  10. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  11. Surface properties of ceramic/metal composite materials for thermionic converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.R.; Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composite electrode materials are of interest for thermionic energy conversion (TEC) applications for several reasons. These materials consist of submicron metal fibers or islands in an oxide matrix and therefore provide a basis for fabricating finely structured electrodes, with projecting or recessed metallic regions for more efficient electron emission or collection. Furthermore, evaporation and surface diffusion of matrix oxides may provide oxygen enhancement of cesium adsorption and work function lowering at both the collecting and emitting electrode surfaces of the TEC. Finally, the high work function oxide matrix or oxide-metal interfaces may provide efficient surface ionization of cesium for space-charge reduction in the device. The authors are investigating two types of ceramic/metal composite materials. One type is a directionally solidified eutectic consisting of a bulk oxide matrix such as UO 2 or stabilized ZrO 2 with parallel metal fibers (W) running through the oxide being exposed at the surface by cutting perpendicular to the fiber direction. The second type of material, called a surface eutectic, consists of a refractory substrate (Mo) with a thin layer of deposited and segregated material (Mo-Cr 2 O 3 -A1 2 O 3 ) on the surface. The final configuration of this layer is an oxide matrix with metallic islands scattered throughout

  12. Ferritic steels for the first generation of breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  13. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  14. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  15. Developments in welding and joining methods of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the welding technology on the economy development. The welding and joining methods review. The particular role of the laser welding and its interesting applications: with filler metal, twin spot laser welding, hybrid welding process, remote welding. The fiber lasers. The high intensity electron beams applications for surface modification. The TIG welding with the use of the active flux. Friction welding, friction stir welding and friction linear welding. (author)

  16. Nondestructive Characterization of Two-Phase Metal-Matrix Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    to a time standard. The alloys 1100. 3003. 5052 , 6061. and 2024. Aluminium specific technique may utilise a standin,-wave pat- alloys that contain...obtained for rolled ferritic steel sheets, rolled ferritic steel plates and for extruded metal-matrix composites of the aluminium alloys Al-8091, Al-7064...and Salama Table 1. Chemical composition of aluminium alloyvs and volhme percentage of SiC reinforcement of the MNIC-specimens Alloying Elements Alloy

  17. Fabrication techniques of metal liner used for pressure vessels made by composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, W.K.; Al-Qureshi, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Different viable techniques for the manufacturing of metal liner used for pressure vessels are presented. The aim of these metal liner is to avoid the fluid leakage from the pressurized vessel and to serve as a mandreal to be wound by composite material. The studied techniques are described and the practical results are illustrated. Finally a comparative study of the manufacturing techniques is made in order to define the process that furnishes the metal liner with the best characteristics. The advantages offered by these type of pressure vessels when compared with the conventional metallic vessels, are also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  19. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MECHANICAL AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo, SAKAI; Masaki, NAKAJIMA; Keiro, TOKAJI; Norihiko, HASEGAWA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University

    1997-01-01

    Many papers on the statistical aspect of materials strength have been collected and reviewed by The Research Group for Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength.A book of "Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength" was written by this group, and published in 1992.Based on the experimental data compiled in this book, distribution patterns of mechanical properties are systematically surveyed paying an attention to metallic materials.Thus one can obtain the fundamental knowledge for a reliabilit...

  20. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  1. Trend of development of fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S. (Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Bureau)

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is indispensable as the core of the substitute energy for petroleum. It is the urgent subject for world advanced countries to develop fast breeder reactors which can utilize uranium resources efficiently, to breed nuclear fuel resources, and to secure the stable supply of energy for long term in future. In Japan, the development of fast breeder reactors has been advanced independently and efficiently as a national project mainly by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The experimental reactor ''Joyo'' attained the criticality in April, 1977, and has been operated at the thermal output of 75,000 kW. As for the prototype reactor ''Monju'', the application for the permission to install it was submitted in December, 1980, and now, the safety examination is in progress. The present state of the development of fast breeder reactors in USA, Great Britain, France, West Germany, USSR and Japan is explained. In order to advance fast breeder reactors to the stage of full-scale practical use, a number of the reactors of 1 million kW class including the demonstration reactor will be constructed and operated to demonstrate and learn the technology of power generation plants in practical scale, to improve the performance, and to establish the economical efficiency. The schedule of development, the organization and the sharing of roles, the research and development in the demonstration stage are described.

  2. Statistical treatment of hazards result from radioactive material in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.F.; Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive sources have a wide range of uses in medicine and industry. Radioactive materials entering the public domain in an uncontrolled manner may creating a serious risk of radiation exposure for workers and the public as well as excessive costs for plant decontamination and waste of product to be borne by the metal industry. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last decades due to radioactive material in metal scrap, provides assessment of associated hazards and lessons learned. This will help Regulatory Authority to introduce measures capable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. The study highlights the situation for metal scrap incidents in Egypt.

  3. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  4. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  5. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of `the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions` which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: (1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, (2) properties data for ceramic breeders, (3) tritium release characteristics, (4) modeling of tritium behavior, (5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, (6) blanket design and R and D requirements, (7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and (8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, tritium release behavior of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li{sub 2}O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Leaching of metals on stabilization of metal sludge using cement based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Carmalin A; Swaminathan, K

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure(TCLP) of zinc plating sludge was carried out to assess the leaching potential of the sludge and the leachates were analyzed for heavy metals. The concentration of zinc, chromium, and lead in the leachate were 371.5 mg/L, 1.95 mg/L and 1.99 mg/L respectively. Solidification of zinc sludge was carried out using four different binder systems consisting of cement mortar, fly ash, clay and lime and cured for 28 d. The ratio of sludge added varied from 60% to 80% by volume. The solidified products were tested for metal fixing efficiency and physical strength. It was observed that the volume of sludge added that resulted in maximum metal stabilization was 60% for all the combinations, above which the metal fixation efficiency decreased resulting in high values of zinc in the leachate. Addition of 5% sodium silicate enhanced the chemical fixation of metals in all the binder systems. Among the four fixing agents studied, mixture of fly ash: lime, and cement mortar: lime stabilized zinc and other metals in the sludge effectively than other combinations. Addition of lime increased the stabilization of zinc whereas cement mortar increased the strength of the solidified product.

  7. Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Köller, M

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms.

  8. Evaluation of Surfactant-stabilized Nanocrystalline Metallic Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — What are the key technical challenges? The materials will be brittle and the microstructural features will be ultrafine. Generating valid data from mechanical...

  9. Self-Assembling Protein Materials for Metal Nanoparticle Templation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Figure 2.4. Phospholipid tubules plated with nickel and aligned with a bar magnet (magnification of 120x) (a).155 Conductive DNA nanowires...of biomineralization by humans, and one that can be detrimental to our health is the formation of kidney stones, which are microcrystals of calcium...materials of interest in creating these compound materials include oligonucleotides, enzymes, viruses, lipids, and peptides.154 Phospholipid tubules

  10. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Materials for Sodium Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guoqiang; Hou, Hongshuai; Ge, Peng; Huang, Zhaodong; Zhao, Ganggang; Yin, Dulin; Ji, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are extensively explored and are regarded as one of the most promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for electrochemical energy conversion and storage, owing to the abundant raw material resources, low cost, and similar electrochemical behavior of elemental sodium compared to lithium. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted enormous attention due to their high surface areas, tunable structures, and diverse applications in drug delivery, gas storage, and catalysis. Recently, there has been an escalating interest in exploiting MOF-derived materials as anodes for sodium energy storage due to their fast mass transport resulting from their highly porous structures and relatively simple preparation methods originating from in situ thermal treatment processes. In this Review, the recent progress of the sodium-ion storage performances of MOF-derived materials, including MOF-derived porous carbons, metal oxides, metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites, and other materials (e.g., metal phosphides, metal sulfides, and metal selenides), as SIB anodes is systematically and completely presented and discussed. Moreover, the current challenges and perspectives of MOF-derived materials in electrochemical energy storage are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  12. DIissolution of low enriched uranium from the experimental breeder reactor-II fuel stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively engaged in the development of electrochemical processing technology for the treatment of fast reactor fuels using irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as the primary test material. The research and development (R&D) activities generate a low enriched uranium (LEU) metal product from the electrorefining of the EBR-II fuel and the subsequent consolidation and removal of chloride salts by the cathode processor. The LEU metal ingots from past R&D activities are currently stored at INL awaiting disposition. One potential disposition pathway is the shipment of the ingots to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for dissolution in H-Canyon. Carbon steel cans containing the LEU metal would be loaded into reusable charging bundles in the H-Canyon Crane Maintenance Area and charged to the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver. The LEU dissolution would be accomplished as the final charge in a dissolver batch (following the dissolution of multiple charges of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)). The solution would then be purified and the 235U enrichment downblended to allow use of the U in commercial reactor fuel. To support this potential disposition path, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a dissolution flowsheet for the LEU using samples of the material received from INL.

  13. Strengthening of old metallic structures in fatigue with CFRP materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding strengthening of old metallic structures using unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer(CFRP) laminates has shown very usable to lengthen the service life of structural members in tension With the basis in a 110 year old riveted beam, centre notched test specimens have been...... growth completely. A simple fracture mechanic study using linear elastic fracture mechanics has been used to show the effect of both non- and prestressed repairs, in relation to the stress intensity factor. Furthermore stresses in the bond between the steel and CFRP has been analyzed according...

  14. Metallic bionanocatalysts: potential applications as green catalysts and energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskie, Lynne E; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Omajai, Jacob B; Stephen, Alan J; Wood, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development at PNC, Japan, October - December, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    Following the completion of building construction and equipment installation for the experimental fast breeder reactor ''Joyo'' at PNC's Oarai Engineering Center, hydrostatic pressure and leak tests were conducted on the reactor vessel. For the prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju'', specification was finalized after the design adjustment. For the period from October to December, 1974, the following matters are described: construction of the Joyo, design of the Monju, reactor physics, components and equipments, instruments and control, sodium technology, fuel and material research and development, safety research and development, and steam generator. (Mori, K.)

  16. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  17. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tanoue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1 air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON; 2 1 + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA; 3 1 + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP; 4 treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. RESULTS: The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05 greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. CONCLUSION: Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used.

  19. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects

  20. A report on the instrumented Charpy impact test for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1988-12-01

    An instrumented testing method has been developed for Charpy impact test for steels, aluminum alloys and other materials. Using the instrumented Charpy testing machine developed, it is clearly estimated that the method is good enough to give us detailed information about the impact properties of these metallic materials. (author)

  1. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects.

  2. Technical committee meeting on material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation in liquid metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Material-Coolant Interactions and Material Movement and Relocation in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors was sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by PNC, on behalf of the Japanese government. A broad range of technical subjects was discussed in the TCM, covering entire aspects of material motion and interactions relevant to the safety of LMFRs. Recent achievement and current status in research and development in this area were presented including European out-of-pile test of molten material movement and relocation; molten material-sodium interaction; molten fuel-coolant interaction; core disruptive accidents; sodium boiling; post accident material relocation, heat removal and relevant experiments already performed or planned

  3. Development of an interfacial model for forming of a metal-composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Compston, Paul; Mosse, Luke

    2013-12-01

    This work presents a finite element model for the stamp forming simulation of Fiber-Metal laminate system consisting of glass fiber reinforced composite material layer sandwiched between two aluminium layers. A novel interfacial model was developed to analyze the role of the interface between the metal and composite layers. A one way coupled thermo mechanical model was used to study the effect of pre heating the material system to improve the formability. Comparison between the simulation and experiments were carried out for forming of rectangular cups. The results indicate that the interfacial model is effective in predicting the forming behavior of this advanced light weight material system.

  4. R and D activities of the liquid breeder blanket in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARS and GAMMA were developed for He coolant and liquid breeder analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FMS/FMS and Be/FMS joining methods were developed and verified with high heat flux test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperature and pressure nitrogen and He loops were constructed for heat transfer experiment for developed codes validation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A PbLi breeder loop was constructed for components, MHD, and corrosion tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A chamber for tritium extraction with a gas-liquid contact method was constructed. - Abstract: A liquid breeder blanket has been developed in parallel with the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Test Blanket Module (TBM) program in Korea. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the common fields of a solid TBM such as design tools, structural material, fabrication methods, and He cooling technology to support this concept for the ITER. Also, other fields such as a liquid breeder technology and tritium extraction have been developed from the designed liquid TBM. For design tools, system codes for safety analysis such as Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) and GAs Multi-component Mixture Analysis (GAMMA) were developed for He coolant and liquid breeder. For the fabrication methods, Ferritic Martensitic Steel (FMS) to FMS and Be to FMS joinings with a Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) were developed and verified with a high heat flux test of up to 0.5-1.0 MW/m{sup 2}. Moreover, three mockups were successfully fabricated and a 10-channel prototype is being fabricated to make a rectangular channel FW. For the integrity of the joining, two high heat flux test facilities were constructed, and one using an electron beam has been constructed. With the 6 MPa nitrogen loop, a basic heat transfer experiment for code validation was performed. From the verification of the components such as preheater and

  5. Nanofluid based on self-nanoencapsulated metal/metal alloys phase change materials with tuneable crystallisation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Nuria; Gimeno-Furio, Alexandra; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Cabedo, Luis; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Julia, J Enrique

    2017-12-14

    Nanofluids using nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials (nePCM) allow increments in both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the base fluid. Incremented heat capacity is produced by the melting enthalpy of the nanoparticles core. In this work two important advances in this nanofluid type are proposed and experimentally tested. It is firstly shown that metal and metal alloy nanoparticles can be used as self-encapsulated nePCM using the metal oxide layer that forms naturally in most commercial synthesis processes as encapsulation. In line with this, Sn/SnOx nanoparticles morphology, size and thermal properties were studied by testing the suitability and performance of encapsulation at high temperatures and thermal cycling using a commercial thermal oil (Therminol 66) as the base fluid. Secondly, a mechanism to control the supercooling effect of this nePCM type based on non-eutectic alloys was developed.

  6. Under water cutting of metallic materials by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Ghosal, Swati; Goswami, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    A laser cutting assembly has been made which allows laser beam to be focused on a job submerged under water, even though the laser head remains outside water. Under water cutting will be very useful for cutting of radioactive materials inside pool or storage bay. This can also be used for reactive materials like uranium etc which otherwise are difficult to cut in open atmosphere as they catch fire. The effect of cutting parameters on the cut quality and also comparison between under-water cutting and open air-cutting is discussed. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  7. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  8. Sewage sludge as barrier material for heavy metals in waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huyuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollutants in the leachate of waste landfill are a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge as barrier material for the containment of heavy metal pollutants from solid waste landfills was evaluated by compaction test and hydraulic conductivity test concerning compaction property, impermeability and heavy metal retardation. Results of the compaction test showed that the maximum dry density of 0.79 g·cm−3 was achieved at the optimum water content of about 60%. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted sewage sludge permeated with synthetic heavy metal solutions were in the range of 1.3×10−8 – 6.2×10−9 cm·s−1, less than 1.0 ×10−7cm·s−1 recommended by regulations for barrier materials. Chemical analyses on the effluent from the hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that the two target heavy metals, Zn and Cd in the permeants were all retarded by compacted sewage sludge, which might be attributed to the precipitation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. The results of this study suggest that specially prepared material from sewage sludge could be used as a barrier for waste landfills for its low permeability and strong retardation to heavy metal pollutants.

  9. Diversity in the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Professions (DMMM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Amy Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Slide presentation includes background data on diversity in employed persons in metallurgical and materials and other engineering disciplines by ethnicity and gender, and it includes TMS strategic goals for 2018, diversity and inclusion goals, outputs, programming details, as well as supporting initiatives.

  10. Comparative Investigation of the Fracture Strengths of Crowns of Three Different Non-metal Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Fiket, Danijel; Ćatović, Adnan; Franz, Mladen; Seifert, Davor

    2005-01-01

    The demands of patients for high aesthetics during reconstructive prosthetic procedures accelerated the development of new materials and technology. Forces acting in the post-canine part of the dental arch amount to ≥ 500 N, and thus the material used for fabrication of the restoration must withstand such forces. The aim of this investigation was to study the resistance to fracture of three non-metal materials: 1. ceromer (Targis, Ivoclar-Vivadent), 2. ceromer reinforced with fibre reinforced...

  11. Unusual occurrences in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.; Srinivasan, G.; Ellappan, T.R.; Ramalingam, P.V.; Vasudevan, A.T.; Iyer, M.A.K.; Lee, S.M.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its main aim is to generate experience in the design, construction and operation of fast reactors including sodium systems and to serve as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and structural materials for future fast reactors. It achieved first criticality in Oct 85 with Mark I core (70% PuC - 30% UC). Steam generator was put in service in Jan 93 and power was raised to 10.5 MWt in Dec 93. Turbine generator was synchronised to the grid in Jul 97. The indigenously developed mixed carbide fuel has achieved a burnup of 44,000 MW-d/t max at a linear heat rating of 320 W/cm max without any fuel clad failure. The commissioning and operation of sodium systems and components have been smooth and performance of major components, viz., sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and once through sodium heated steam generators (SG) have been excellent. There have been three minor incidents of Na/NaK leaks during the past 14 years, which are described in the paper. There have been no incident of a tube leak in SG. However, three incidents of water leaks from water / steam headers have been detailed. The plant has encountered some unusual occurrences, which were critically analysed and remedial measures, in terms of system and procedural modifications, incorporated to prevent recurrence. This paper describes unusual occurrences of fuel handling incident of May 1987, main boiler feed pump seizure in Apr 1992, reactivity transients in Nov 1994 and Apr 1995, and malfunctioning of the core cover plate mechanism in Jul 1995. These incidents have resulted in long plant shutdowns. During the course of investigation, various theoretical and experimental studies were carried out for better understanding of the phenomena and several inspection techniques and tools were developed resulting in enriching the technology of sodium cooled reactors. FBTR has 36 neutronic and process

  12. Simulation of Metal Particulates in High Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Trinitrotoluene US United States ZND Zeldovich, Von Neumann, and Deering 1-D One-Dimension 3-D Three-Dimension xvi List of Symbols αsg drag partitioning...function Al aluminum AlFj aluminum fluorides βsg inter-granular stress C mass source term Ci i-th solid mass source term csg compaction partitioning...other material without dis- integrating before detonation. When the munition detonates, the internal pressure creates tensile stress on the case as it

  13. Rational Design of Two-Dimensional Metallic and Semiconducting Spintronic Materials Based on Ordered Double-Transition-Metal MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Liang

    2016-12-30

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials that display robust ferromagnetism have been pursued intensively for nanoscale spintronic applications, but suitable candidates have not been identified. Here we present theoretical predictions on the design of ordered double-transition-metal MXene structures to achieve such a goal. On the basis of the analysis of electron filling in transition-metal cations and first-principles simulations, we demonstrate robust ferromagnetism in Ti2MnC2Tx monolayers regardless of the surface terminations (T = O, OH, and F), as well as in Hf2MnC2O2 and Hf2VC2O2 monolayers. The high magnetic moments (3–4 μB/unit cell) and high Curie temperatures (495–1133 K) of these MXenes are superior to those of existing 2D ferromagnetic materials. Furthermore, semimetal-to-semiconductor and ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transitions are predicted to occur in these materials in the presence of small or moderate tensile in-plane strains (0–3%), which can be externally applied mechanically or internally induced by the choice of transition metals.

  14. Production of novel ceramic materials from coal fly ash and metal finishing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.R.; Adell, V.; Cheeseman, C.R. [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Skempton Building, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ash from coal fired power stations is a potential raw material for the production of ceramic tiles, bricks and blocks. Previous work has demonstrated that the addition of metals can significantly alter fly ash sintering. Metal finishing produces problematic waste filter cakes and sludges that are increasingly difficult to dispose of to landfill. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected metal finishing wastes on the properties of sintered fly ash. A 10 wt.% addition of dried metal finishing sludge obtained from the phosphate bath at a tri-cationic phosphating operation significantly reduced the sintering temperature for maximum density by approximately 75 C. The addition of the phosphate bath sludge also reduced leaching of As, to the extent that fly ash ceramics containing this waste would be classified as inert. Potential industrial applications for these novel waste-derived ceramic materials are discussed. (author)

  15. Transition-metal chlorides as conversion cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting; Chen, Zhong X.; Cao, Yu L.; Ai, Xin P.; Yang, Han X.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble AgCl and soluble CuCl 2 were selected and investigated as model compounds of transition-metal chlorides for electrochemical conversion cathode materials. The experimental results demonstrated that the AgCl nanocrystals can convert reversibly to metallic Ag with nearly full utilization of its one-electron redox capacity (187 mAh g −1 ). Similarly, the CuCl 2 -filled mesoporous carbon can realize a reversible two-electron transfer reaction, giving a very high reversible capacity of 466 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles. These data imply that the metal chlorides can undergo complete electrochemical conversion utilizing their full oxidation states for electrical energy storage as previously reported metal fluorides, possibly being used as high capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  16. Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyao Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM. Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.

  17. Safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the safeguards system of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) seems similar to that of Light Water Reactor (LWR), it was raised safeguards challenges of SFR that resulted from the visual opacity of liquid sodium, chemical reactivity of sodium and other characteristics of fast reactor. As it is the basic concept stage of the safeguards of SFR in Korea, this study tried to analyze the latest similar study of safeguards issues of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) at Joyo and Monju in Japan. For this reason, this study is to introduce some potential safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor. With this analysis, future study could be to address the safeguards challenges of SFR in Korea

  18. EBR-2 [Experimental Breeder Reactor-2] test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Lindsay, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Hill, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development, (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development, advanced control system development, plant diagnostics development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs

  19. Reduced material model for closed cell metal foam infiltrated with phase change material based on high resolution numerical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsenbrügge, Christoph; Marth, Wieland; Navarro y de Sosa, Iñaki; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Voigt, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Closed cell metal foam sandwich structures were investigated. • High resolution numerical studies were conducted using CT scan data. • A reduced model for use in commercial FE software reduces needed degrees of freedom. • Thermal inertia is increased about 4 to 5 times in PCM filled structures. • The reduced material model was verified using experimental data. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of closed cell metal foam infiltrated with paraffin wax as latent heat storage for application in high precision tool machines was examined. Aluminium foam sandwiches with metallically bound cover layers were prepared in a powder metallurgical process and cross-sectional images of the structures were generated with X-ray computed tomography. Based on the image data a three dimensional highly detailed model was derived and prepared for simulation with the adaptive FE-library AMDiS. The pores were assumed to be filled with paraffin wax. The thermal conductivity and the transient thermal behaviour in the phase-change region were investigated. Based on the results from the highly detailed simulations a reduced model for use in commercial FE-software (ANSYS) was derived. It incorporates the properties of the matrix and the phase change material into a homogenized material. A sandwich-structure with and without paraffin was investigated experimentally under constant thermal load. The results were used to verify the reduced material model in ANSYS.

  20. The fast breeder reactor Rapsodie (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1962-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the Rapsodie project, the French fast breeder reactor, as it stands at construction actual start-up. The paper provides informations about: the principal neutronic and thermal characteristics, the reactor and its cooling circuits, the main handling devices of radioactive or contaminated assemblies, the principles and means governing reactor operation, the purposes and locations of miscellaneous buildings. Rapsodie is expected to be critical by 1964. (authors) [fr

  1. FOWL CHOLERA IN A BREEDER FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  2. Interface Characterization of Metals and Metal-nitrides to Phase Change Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial contact properties of the CMOS compatible electrode materials W, TiW, Ta, TaN and TiN to doped-Sb2Te phase change material (PCM). This interface is characterized both in the amorphous and in the crystalline state of the doped-Sb2Te. The electrical nature of the

  3. The tensile failure modes of metal-matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M. A.; Wills, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The strengths of individual boron fibers extracted from various as-received and thermally fatigued aluminum alloy matrix materials were measured. The results are described in terms of a Weibull distribution, and strengths of composites fabricated from these fibers are calculated in terms of lower and upper bounds. Tests conducted on composite specimens indicated that strengths approaching the upper bounds can be achieved in composites fabricated by normal diffusion bonding techniques. Cyclic temperature changes effectively reduced the strength values toward the lower bounds. It was concluded that this effect resulted from the degradation of the strength of the fiber-matrix bond.

  4. Functionally Graded Materials by Laser Metal Deposition (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    composition of Fe-82 wt% V (powder-1) and Inconel - 625 (powder-2) powders are listed in Table 1. The substrate materials used for the experiment were cold...like laser power, travel speed and powder feed rate is yet to be determined to obtain a successful FGM. Inconel - 625 deposits showed macro-cracks...Composition (wt%) Powder-1: Fe-82 wt% V V (82), Al (0.68), Si (0.9), C (0.07), S (0.01), P (0.02), Fe (18) Powder-2: Inconel - 625 Ni (58), Cr (20-23

  5. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-01-01

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made

  6. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  7. Comparison of properties of silver-metal oxide electrical contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in physical properties such as density, porosity, hardness and electrical conductivity of the Ag-SnO2 and Ag-SnO2In2O3 electrical contact materials induced by introduction of metal oxide nanoparticles were investigated. Properties of the obtained silver-metal oxide nanoparticle composites are discussed and presented in comparison to their counterparts with the micro metal oxide particles as well as comparable Ag-SnO2WO3 and Ag-ZnO contact materials. Studied silvermetal oxide composites were produced by powder metallurgy method from very fine pure silver and micro- and nanoparticle metal oxide powders. Very uniform microstructures were obtained for all investigated composites and they exhibited physical properties that are comparable with relevant properties of equivalent commercial silver based electrical contact materials. Both Ag-SnO2 and Ag- SnO2In2O3 composites with metal oxide nanoparticles were found to have lower porosity, higher density and hardness than their respective counterparts which can be attributed to better dispersion hardening i.e. higher degree of dispersion of metal oxide in silver matrix.

  8. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  9. Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis and Computer Simulation in the Age of Hypotheticality

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and critical technological endeavors. In the face of the ...

  10. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option

  11. Overview of solid breeder TBM concepts and programme for testing in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Akiba, M.; Enoeda, M.; Cho, S.; Demidov, V.; Feng, K.M.; Hong, B.G.; Kovalenko, V.; Ying, A.

    2007-01-01

    The use of the solid breeder (SB) material technology offers attractive solutions for blankets of a first generation of Fusion Power Plant according to the possibility of a relatively simple design and operation of this component in reactor with high performances in term of thermal efficiency, tritium recovery and reduced dimensions. Almost all the ITER international parties have performed studies on such a concept and have presented an own blanket design for testing in ITER. Also if several different configurations of this kind of concept have been proposed during the past years, a set of common features can be identified that characterise this first generation concept, like the extern cooling of the breeder zone materials, the use of an independent low pressure helium flow for tritium recovery and Ceramic Breeder materials, mainly ternary Li-compounds, in form of a pebble bed. Furthermore, Ferritic/Ferritic-Martensitic steels at reduced activation grade have been selected for the structures; this choice dictates in strong way the performances of this kind of concept in term of minimum/maximum temperatures. All these concepts necessitate addition of large quantities (up to 4 times the amount of ceramic breeder) of beryllium or beryllium alloys as neutron multiplier in order to achieve a sufficient tritium breeder ratio with a reduced blanket thickness. Starting from this common base, different variants of this concept have been proposed. According to the coolant selection, two major classes of SB blanket can be identified, namely water cooled (SBWC) and helium cooled (SBHC) concepts. He cooling concepts have the advantage of a better chemical compatibility with the other materials and, in particular, with beryllium; water cooling concepts promise better thermo-hydraulics performances in term of cooling capacity of the first wall and a well proved cooling technology. Also the different arrangements of the breeder materials or the inclusion in the design of

  12. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  13. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    )Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25...... addition of stellar-derived (26)Al has not been identified yet but may be preserved in planetesimals that accreted in the outer Solar System. We show that metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and their components have a unique isotopic signature extending from an inner Solar System composition toward a (26......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  15. Metal Ions Removal Using Nano Oxide Pyrolox™ Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysz-Płaska, A.; Skwarek, E.; Budnyak, T. M.; Kołodyńska, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the use of Pyrolox™ containing manganese nano oxides used for the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions. Their concentrations were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometer SpectrAA 240 FS (Varian) as well as UV-vis method. For this purpose the static kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using the batch technique. The effect of solution pH, shaking time, initial metal ion concentrations, sorbent dosage, and temperature was investigated. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the sorption isotherm models proposed by Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetic results showed that the pseudo second order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well. The results indicate that adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions is strongly dependent on pH. The value of pH 4-7 was optimal adsorption. The time to reach the equilibrium was found to be 24 h, and after this time, the sorption percentage reached about 70%. Kinetics of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and U(VI) adsorption on the adsorbent can be described by the pseudo second order rate equation. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements for adsorbent characterization were performed. Characteristic points of the double layer determined for the studied Pyrolox™ sample in 0.001 mol/dm3 NaCl solution are pHPZC = 4 and pHIEP < 2.

  16. Neutron scattering material analysis of Bronze Age metal artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartechini, L.; Arletti, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Kockelmann, W.; Giovannini, S.; Cardarelli, A.

    2008-03-01

    Non-destructive characterization of bronze artefacts from archaeological finds of the 'Terramare' dwellings near Modena, Italy, was carried out by time-of-flight neutron scattering at the ISIS spallation neutron source of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. This provides information on ancient metal technology and its development through the Bronze Age in that region. Six pieces from three different classes as to use and manufacture, from the Middle to Late Bronze Age, were investigated on the ROTAX and GEM beam lines at ISIS, providing a comparison between results from the two instruments. A comparison is also made with three axes of the same area of provenance (Emilia, Terramare culture) from the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age respectively, analysed previously. Data collected provide stable refinements of the phase fractions and lattice parameters by the Rietveld method, allowing determination of Sn contents from the unit cell expansion due to the incorporation of Sn into the Cu-type α-phase. Notably, two of the objects exhibit a range of Sn contents in the bulk as is evident from broad diffraction peaks (4-8 and 10-14 wt% Sn), while the other four artefacts have more defined Sn contents of 8, 9, 10 and 14.5 wt% respectively. The higher Sn weight fractions are associated with the presence of pure unalloyed Cu, interestingly coexisting in one case with two bronze phases (α and the eutectoid δ). One sample shows the presence of 2-3 wt% Pb. Varying amounts of oxidation products such as cuprite were identified. Texture information extracted from the diffraction data provided some indications of different working treatments of the analysed objects.

  17. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  18. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, M.; Wiener, R.

    1999-01-01

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  19. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne's waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne's metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities

  20. Influence of External Static Magnetic Fields on Properties of Metallic Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zuo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of external static magnetic fields on solidification, solid phase transformation of metallic materials have been reviewed in terms of Lorentz force, convection, magnetization, orientation, diffusion, and so on. However, the influence of external static magnetic fields on properties of metallic functional materials is rarely reviewed. In this paper, the effect of static magnetic fields subjected in solidification and/or annealing on the properties of Fe–Ga magnetostrictive material, high strength high conductivity Cu-based material (Cu–Fe and Cu–Ag alloys, and Fe–Sn magnetic material were summarized. Both the positive and negative impacts from magnetic fields were found. Exploring to maximize the positive influence of magnetic fields is still a very meaningful and scientific issue in future.

  1. Effects of different drying processes on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anawar, H.M.; Canha, N.; Freitas, M.C; Santa Regina, I.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The drying process of fresh plant materials may affect the porous structure, dehydration and a number of quality characteristics of these materials. Therefore, this study has investigated the effect of different drying processes on the variation of metal and metalloid concentrations in the dried plant materials. Seven varieties of native plant species collected from Sao Domingos mine were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to investigate the effects of freeze-drying (FD), ambient air-drying (AAD) and oven-drying (OD) process on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in the plant biomass. Comparison of ambient air-dried, oven-dried and freeze-dried preparations allows a phenomenological description of the dehydration artefacts. In the quantitative analysis of metals and metalloids, FD and OD plant samples show the higher concentrations of metals and metalloids when compared to those in the AAD plant biomass. The freeze-drying process is comparatively reliable for determination of metals and metalloids concentrations in plant materials. (author)

  2. Multiscale study on hydrogen mobility in metallic fusion divertor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinola, K.

    2010-01-01

    For achieving efficient fusion energy production, the plasma-facing wall materials of the fusion reactor should ensure long time operation. In the next step fusion device, ITER, the first wall region facing the highest heat and particle load, i.e. the divertor area, will mainly consist of tiles based on tungsten. During the reactor operation, the tungsten material is slowly but inevitably saturated with tritium. Tritium is the relatively short-lived hydrogen isotope used in the fusion reaction. The amount of tritium retained in the wall materials should be minimized and its recycling back to the plasma must be unrestrained, otherwise it cannot be used for fueling the plasma. A very expensive and thus economically not viable solution is to replace the first walls quite often. A better solution is to heat the walls to temperatures where tritium is released. Unfortunately, the exact mechanisms of hydrogen release in tungsten are not known. In this thesis both experimental and computational methods have been used for studying the release and retention of hydrogen in tungsten. The experimental work consists of hydrogen implantations into pure polycrystalline tungsten, the determination of the hydrogen concentrations using ion beam analyses (IBA) and monitoring the out-diffused hydrogen gas with thermodesorption spectrometry (TDS) as the tungsten samples are heated at elevated temperatures. Combining IBA methods with TDS, the retained amount of hydrogen is obtained as well as the temperatures needed for the hydrogen release. With computational methods the hydrogen-defect interactions and implantation-induced irradiation damage can be examined at the atomic level. The method of multiscale modelling combines the results obtained from computational methodologies applicable at different length and time scales. Electron density functional theory calculations were used for determining the energetics of the elementary processes of hydrogen in tungsten, such as diffusivity and

  3. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  4. Evaluation of metallic materials for use in engineering barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, S.G.; Griggs, B.; Elmore, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions of this work are as follows: Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy C-276, and titanium alloys all had excellent corrosion resistance in all postulated repository environments tested. Further work will be required to evaluate the pertinent enviro-mechanical properties of these materials; the mechanical properties of grade 2 titanium are better than those of grade 12 titanium, except the tensile and yield strengths. These properties include fatigue-crack-growth rate, environmental fatigue-crack-growth rate, fracture toughness, impact toughness, and dynamic fracture toughness; there is no evidence in the current data to indicate that the simulated repository environment is aggressive to grade 2 or grade 12 titanium. This includes data from corrosion-fatigue, crevice corrosion, wedge-loaded cracked specimens, and residual-stress specimens

  5. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  6. Morphology evolution and nanostructure of chemical looping transition metal oxide materials upon redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lang; Cheng, Zhuo; Guo, Mengqing; Fan, Jonathan A.; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal are heavily used in chemical looping technologies because of their high oxygen carrying capacity and high thermal reactivity. These oxygen activities result in the oxide formation and oxygen vacancy formation that affect the nanoscale crystal phase and morphology within these materials and their subsequent bulk chemical behavior. In this study, two selected earlier transition metals manganese and cobalt as well as two selected later transition metals copper and nickel that are important to chemical looping reactions are investigated when they undergo cyclic redox reactions. We found Co microparticles exhibited increased CoO impurity presence when oxidized to Co 3 O 4 upon cyclic oxidation; CuO redox cycles prefer to be limited to a reduced form of Cu 2 O and an oxidized form of CuO; Mn microparticles were oxidized to a mixed phases of MnO and Mn 3 O 4 , which causes delamination during oxidation. For Ni microparticles, a dense surface were observed during the redox reaction. The atomistic thermodynamics methods and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to elucidate the effect of oxygen dissociation and migration on the morphological evolution of nanostructures during the redox processes. Our results indicate that the earlier transition metals (Mn and Co) tend to have stronger interaction with O 2 than the later transition metals (Ni and Cu). Also, our modified Brønsted−Evans−Polanyi (BEP) relationship for reaction energies and total reaction barriers reveals that reactions of earlier transition metals are more exergonic and have lower oxygen dissociation barriers than those of later transition metals. In addition, it was found that for these transition metal oxides the oxygen vacancy formation energies increase with the depth. The oxide in the higher oxidation state of transition metal has lower vacancy formation energy, which can facilitate forming the defective nanostructures. The fundamental understanding of these

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic high-temperature materials. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.; Gottstein, G.; Mecking, H.; Riedel, H.; Toboloski, J.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 38 lectures of research studies performed in the course of the Priority Programme 'Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Metallic High-Temperature Materials' supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) over a period of six years from 1991 to 1997. The four materials selected were: 1. light metal PM-aluminium and titanium base alloys; 2. ferritic chromium and austenitic alloy 800 steels; 3. (monocrystalline) nickel-base superalloys; and 4. nickel- and iron-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened superalloys. All papers have been abstracted separately for the ENERGY database

  8. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  9. Correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, B Yilmaz; Sahan, U

    2007-02-01

    1. The research was carried out to investigate correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders. 2. Egg cholesterol content increased with increased breeder age. The mean yolk cholesterol contents (mg per g yolk) were 10.47+/-0.28, 15.34+/-0.65 and 15.64+/-0.71 mg/g at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively. 3. There were positive correlations between yolk weight and yolk cholesterol content (mg/g yolk) (r=01.941; Pegg cholesterol content (mg/egg) (r=0.980; Pegg yolk cholesterol content and hatchability of fertile eggs (r=-0.345; Peggs (r=-0.574; Pcholesterol levels were 165.1+/-11.04, 166.5+/-11.97 and 179.5+/-11.33 mg/dl at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alamer, Badriah

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few decades, vast majority of industrial and academic research throughout the world has witnessed the emergence of materials that can serve as ideal candidates for potential utility in desired applications, and these materials are known as Metal Organic Framework (MOFs). This exceptional new family of porous materials is fabricated by linkage of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers via strong bonds. MOFs have been awarded with remarkable interest and widely studied due to their inherent structural methodology (e.g. use of various metals, expanded library of organic building blocks with different geometry and functionality particularly frameworks designed from carboxylate organic linkers) and unquestionably unique structural and chemical features for many practical applications. (i.e. gas storage/separation, catalysis, drug delivery etc). Simply, metal organic frameworks epitomize the beauty of porous chemical structures. From a design perspective, the introduction of the Molecular Building Block (MBB) approach is actively being pursued pathway by researchers toward the construction of MOFs by employing inorganic building blocks and organic linkers and taking advantage of not only their multiple coordination modes and geometries but also the way in which they are reticulated to generate final framework. In this thesis, research studies will be directed toward (i) the investigation of the relationship between experimental parameters and synthesis of well-known fcu –MOF, (ii) rational design and synthesis of new rare earth (RE) based MOFs, (ii) isoreticular materials based on particular MBB ([M3O(RCO2)6]), M= p-and d-block metals, and (iv) zeolite- like metal organic framework assembled from single-metal ion based MBB ([MN2(CO2)4]) via 2-, 3-,and 4-connected organic linkers. Consequently, the porosity, chemical and thermal stability, and gas sorption properties will be evaluated and detailed.

  11. Accelerator breeder: a viable option for the production of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the growing pains of the US nuclear power industry, our dependence on nuclear energy for the production of electricity and possibly process heat is likely to increase dramatically over the next few deacades. This statement dismisses fusion as being entirely too speculative to be practical within that time frame. Sometime, between the years 2000 and 2050, fissile material will be in short supply whether it is to fuel existing LWR's or to provide initial fuel inventory for FBR's. The accelerator breeder could produce the fuel shortfall predicted to occur during the first half of the 21st century. The accelerator breeder offers the only practical means today of producing, or breeding, large quantities of fissile fuel from fertile materials, albeit at high cost. Studies performed over the last few years at Chalk River Laboratory and at Brookhaven National Laboratory have demonstrated that the accelerator breeder is practical, technically feasible with state-of-the-art technology, and is economically competitive with any other proposed synthetic means of fissile fuel production. This paper gives the parameters of a nearly optimized accelerator-breeder system, then discusses the development needs, and the economics and institutional problems that this breeding concept faces

  12. A Micro-Test Structure for the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Ren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative micro-test structure for detecting the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC of metal materials is presented in this work. Throughout this method, a whole temperature sensing moveable structures are supported by four groups of cascaded chevrons beams and packed together. Thermal expansion of the metal material causes the deflection of the cascaded chevrons, which leads to the capacitance variation. By detecting the capacitance value at different temperatures, the TEC value of the metal materials can be calculated. A finite element model has been established to verify the relationship between the TEC of the material and the displacement of the structure on horizontal and vertical directions, thus a function of temperature for different values of TEC can be deduced. In order to verify the analytical model, a suspended-capacitive micro-test structure has been fabricated by MetalMUMPs process and tested in a climate chamber. Test results show that in the temperature range from 30 °C to 80 °C, the TEC of the test material is 13.4 × 10−6 °C−1 with a maximum relative error of 0.8% compared with the given curve of relationship between displacement and temperature.

  13. Microstructure and Microhardness of Laser Metal Deposition Shaping K465/Stellite-6 Laminated Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available K465 superalloy with high titanium and aluminum contents was easy to crack during laser metal deposition. In this study, the crack-free sample of K465/Stellite-6 laminated material was formed by laser metal deposition shaping to control the cracking behaviour in laser metal deposition of K465 superalloy. The microstructure differences between the K465 superalloy with cracking and the laminated material were discussed. The microstructure and intermetallic phases were analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that the microstructure of K465/Stellite-6 laminated material samples consisted of continuous dendrites with a similar structure size in different alloy deposition layers, and the second dendrite arm spacing was finer compared with laser metal deposition shaping K465. The intermetallic phases in the different alloy deposition layers varied, and the volume fraction of carbides in K465 deposition layer of the laminated material was higher than only K465 deposition under the fluid flow effect. In addition, the composition and microhardness distribution of laminated materials variation occurred along the deposition direction.

  14. Materials and Breakdown Phenomena: Heterogeneous Molybdenum Metallic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological activities to design, manufacture, and test new accelerating devices using different materials and methods is under way all over the world. The main goal of these studies is to increase the accelerating gradients and reduce the probability of radio-frequency (RF breakdown. Indeed, it is still not clear why, by increasing the intensity of the applied field, intense surface damage is observed in copper structures, limiting the lifetime and, therefore, the practical applications. A possible solution is represented by a coating of a relatively thick layer of molybdenum in order to improve the breakdown rate. molybdenum can be reliably grown on different substrates with a negligible strain and, for thicknesses up to 600 nm, with a resistivity < 100–150·μΩ cm. Moreover, Mo coatings with controlled composition, internal stress, and roughness may allow improving thermo-mechanical properties reaching values not attainable by uncoated copper. Although the Mo conductivity remains lower compared to Cu, a Mo coating represents a very interesting option for high gradient accelerator components manufactured in copper.

  15. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  16. Metals and metalloids treatment in contaminated neutral effluents using modified materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugaru, Iuliana Laura; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Genty, Thomas; Zagury, Gérald J

    2018-04-15

    Circumneutral surface water and groundwater can contain hazardous concentrations of metals and metalloids that can threaten organisms in surrounding ecosystems. Extensive research has been conducted over the past two decades to prevent, limit, and treat water pollution. Among the currently available treatment options is the use of natural and residual materials, which is generally regarded as effective and inexpensive. The modification of such materials enhances the removal capacity of metals and metalloids, as well as the physical and chemical stability of the materials and resulting sludge (after treatment). This paper reviews several modified materials that have produced and evaluated in the past twenty years to treat various contaminants in water under specific conditions. Important factors on performance improvement following the modifications are emphasized. Sorption capacity and kinetics, and element removal mechanisms are also discussed. Element recovery, material regeneration, water reuse, evaluation of treatment efficiency for real effluents are also considered, as well as the applicability of these materials in both active and passive treatment systems. Modified natural and residual materials are a promising option for the treatment of metals and metalloids in circumneutral contaminated waters. However, further research is necessary to evaluate their field-scale performance and to properly assess treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  18. Trial examination of direct pebble fabrication for advanced tritium breeders by the emulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The integration of raw material preparation and granulation is proposed as a new direct pebble fabrication process. • The emulsion method granulates gel spheres of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2}. • The gel spheres are calcined and sintered in air. • The crush load of the sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles obtained is 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. - Abstract: Demonstration power plant reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. For the mass production of advanced tritium breeder pebbles, pebble fabrication by the emulsion method is a promising technique. To develop the most efficient pebble fabrication method, a new direct pebble fabrication process utilizing the emulsion method was implemented. A prior pebble fabrication process consisted of the preparation of raw materials followed by granulation. The new process integrates the preparation and granulation of raw materials. The slurry for the emulsion granulation of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} as a tritium breeder consists of mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} at specific ratios. Subsequently, gel spheres of tritium breeders are fabricated by controlling the relative flow speeds of slurry and oil. The average diameter and crush load of the obtained sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles were 1.0 or 1.5 mm and 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. The trial fabrication results suggest that the new process has the potential to increase the fabrication efficiency of advanced tritium breeder pebbles.

  19. Reducing the leachability of nitrate, phosphorus and heavy metals from soil using waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridullah

    Full Text Available Abstract Contaminants like nitrate (NO3, phosphorus (P and heavy metals in water are often associated with agricultural activities. Various soil and water remediation techniques have been employed to reduce the risk associated with these contaminants. A study was conducted to examine the extent of leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr, NO3 and P. For this purpose sandy and silt loam soils were amended with different waste materials, namely wood ash, solid waste ash, vegetable waste, charcoal, and sawdust. The soils were saturated with wastewater. Irrespective of the waste applied, the pH and EC of the amended soils were found to be greater than the control. Charcoal, sawdust and wood ash significantly decreased heavy metals, nitrate and phosphorus concentrations in the leachate. Treatments were more efficient for reducing Ni than other heavy metals concentrations. Waste amendments differed for heavy metals during the process of leaching. Heavy metals in the soil were progressively depleted due to the successive leaching stages. This research suggests that waste material may act as an adsorbent for the above contaminants and can reduce their leachability in soils.

  20. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Experimental investigation of solidification in metal foam enhanced phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyne, W.; Bağci, O.; Huisseune, H.; Canière, H.; Danneels, J.; Daenens, D.; De Paepe, M.

    2017-10-01

    A major challenge for the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) is overcoming the low thermal conductivity of PCM’s. The low conductivity gives rise to limited power during charging and discharging TES. Impregnating metal foam with PCM, however, has been found to enhance the heat transfer. On the other hand, the effect of foam parameters such as porosity, pore size and material type has remained unclear. In this paper, the effect of these foam parameters on the solidification time is investigated. Different samples of PCM-impregnated metal foam were experimentally tested and compared to one without metal foam. The samples varied with respect to choice of material, porosity and pore size. They were placed in a rectangular cavity and cooled from one side using a coolant flowing through a cold plate. The other sides of the rectangular cavity were Polymethyl Methacrylate (PM) walls exposed to ambient. The temperature on the exterior walls of the cavity was monitored as well as the coolant flow rate and its temperature. The metal foam inserts reduced the solidification times by at least 25 %. However, the difference between the best performing and worst performing metal foam is about 28 %. This shows a large potential for future research.

  2. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaopeng Wang; Yinggang Li; Tianning Chen; Zhiping Ying

    2015-01-01

    Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally...

  3. Terahertz artificial material based on integrated metal-rod-array for phase sensitive fluid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Borwen; Chen, Ching-Yu; Yu, Chin-Ping; Liu, Tze-An; Hattori, Toshiaki; Lu, Ja-Yu

    2017-04-17

    A terahertz artificial material composed of metal rod array is experimentally investigated on its transmission spectral property and successfully incorporated into microfluidics as a miniaturized terahertz waveguide with an extended optical-path-length for label-free fluidic sensing. Theoretical and experimental characterizations of terahertz transmission spectra show that the wave guidance along the metal rod array originates from the resonance of transverse-electric-polarized waves within the metal rod slits. The extended optical path length along three layers of metal-rod-array enables terahertz waves sufficiently overlapping the fluid molecules embedded among the rods, leading to strongly enhanced phase change by approximately one order of magnitude compared with the blank metal-parallel-plate waveguide. Based on the enhanced phase sensitivity, three kinds of colorless liquid analytes, namely, acetone, methanol, and ethanol, with different dipole moments are identified in situ using the metal-rod-array-based microfluidic sensor. The detection limit in molecular amounts of a liquid analyte is experimentally demonstrated to be less than 0.1 mmol, corresponding to 2.7 μmol/mm2. The phase sensitive terahertz metal-rod-array-based sensor potentially has good adaptability in lab-chip technology for various practical applications, such as industrial toxic fluid detection and medical breath inspection.

  4. Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1993-07-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use

  5. Material flow analysis of scarce metals: sources, functions, end-uses and aspects for future supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Laura Talens; Méndez, Gara Villalba; Ayres, Robert U

    2013-03-19

    A number of metals that are now important to the electronic industry (and others) will become much more important in the future if current trends in technology continue. Most of these metals are byproducts (or hitch-hikers) of a small number of important industrial metals (attractors). By definition, the metals in the hitch-hiker group are not mined by themselves, and thus their production is limited by the demand for the major attractors. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) of the complex inter-relationships between these groups of metals. First, it surveys the main sources of geologically scarce (byproduct) metals currently considered critical by one or other of several recent studies. This is followed by a detailed survey of their major functions and the quantities contained in intermediate and end-products. The purpose is to identify the sectors and products where those metals are used and stocked and thus potentially available for future recycling. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of possible substitution and barriers to recycling.

  6. Quantum spin Hall and Z2 metallic states in an organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Feng, Wanxiang; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by recently searching for topological states in organic materials as well as successful experimental synthesis of a graphitelike metal-organic framework Ni3(C18H12N6 )2 [Sheberla et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 8859 (2014), 10.1021/ja502765n], we systematically investigated the electronic and topological properties of the Ni3(C18H12N6 )2 monolayer using an ab initio method combined with a tight-binding model. Our calculations demonstrate that the material can be in a quantum spin Hall or Z2 metallic state in different electron-doped concentrations, which are experimentally accessible with currently electrostatic gating technologies. The tight-binding model also shows that the real next-nearest-neighbor interaction is essential to drive the Z2 metallic phase in Ni3(C18H12N6 )2-type lattices.

  7. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  8. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  9. Prognostic service life assessment of high-strength metallic materials in high temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzer, R.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical methods for the prediction of service life of high-strength materials are presented. The major mechanisms of failure of metals in high temperatures are given, which include creep and fatigue. The microstructural mechanism of fracture are described, and fracture mechanics methods of analysis and evaluation are explained. (orig./MM) With 92 figs., 6 tabs [de

  10. Bias dependent specic contact resistance of phase change material to metal contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of contact resistance of phase change materials (PCM) to metal electrodes is important for scaling, device modeling and optimization of phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this article, we report the systematic determination of the speci_c contact resistance (_c) with

  11. Speci﬿c contact resistance of phase change materials to metal electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha A.A.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells, it is important to know the contact resistance of phase change materials (PCMs) to metal electrodes at the contacts. In this letter, we report the systematic determination of the speci﬿c contact resistance (Ͽc ) of doped Sb2Te and Ge2Sb2Te5 to TiW

  12. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313907854; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  13. LEACHING OF METALS FROM HOUSEHOLD PLUMBING MATERIALS: IMPACT OF HOME WATER SOFTENERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot plant study was conducted to evaluate the effects of household ion exchange softening on the leaching of metals from home plumbing materials. The study was conducted in two phases on two different water qualities. Phase I was conducted using a finished tap water having a...

  14. Metals and ceramics division materials science program. Aunnual progress report for period ending June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    Progress is reported concerning theoretical studies of metals and alloys, deformation and mechanical properties, physical properties and transport phenomena, radiation effects, and engineering materials. During this period emphasis was shifted from support of nuclear technologies to support of nonnuclear energy systems. (FS)

  15. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of metallic dental materials and their impact on MR imaging artifacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuková, Jana; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Linetskiy, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2008), s. 715-723 ISSN 0109-5641 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : metallic dental materials * dental alloys * amalgams * MR imaging * magnetic susceptibility * electric conductivity * image artifact Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2008

  16. Corrosion resistance of metallic materials for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legry, J.P.; Pelras, M.; Turluer, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the corrosion resistance properties required from metallic materials to be used in the various developments of the PUREX process for nuclear fuel reprocessing. Stainless steels, zirconium or titanium base alloys are considered for the various plant components, where nitric acid is the main electrolyte with differing acid and nitrate concentrations, temperature and oxidizing species. (author)

  17. Metals and ceramics division materials science program. Aunnual progress report for period ending June 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; b.

    1979-10-01

    Progress is reported concerning theoretical studies of metals and alloys, deformation and mechanical properties, physical properties and transport phenomena, radiation effects, and engineering materials. During this period emphasis was shifted from support of nuclear technologies to support of nonnuclear energy systems

  18. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  19. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  20. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of metal film on bismuth telluride-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Wen Hsuan; Chen, Yi Ray; Tseng, Shih Chun; Yang, Ping Hsing; Wu, Ren Jye; Hwang, Jenn Yeu

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion barriers have a significant influence on the reliability and life time of thermoelectric modules. Although nickel is commonly used as a diffusion barrier in commercial thermoelectric modules, several studies have verified that Ni migrates to bismuth telluride-based material during high temperature cycles and causes a loss in efficacy. In this paper, the influence of metal layers coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 on the interface characterization and thermoelectric property is studied using a RF magnetron sputtering. The findings from this study demonstrate the structural and thermoelectric properties of p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 coated with different metal layers. The crystalline phase and compositional change of the interface between the Bi 2 Te 3 materials and the metal layers were determined using an X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Formation of NiTe was observed in the sample of Ni/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed in an N 2 atmosphere at 200 °C. In contrast, no Co x Te y was formed in the sample of Co/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed at 200 °C. For as-deposited Ni/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs, the Ni slightly diffused into the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the as-deposited Co/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. The Seebeck coefficients of the Co contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based material displayed better behavior than those of the Ni contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. Thus Co could be a suitable diffusion barrier for bulk Bi 2 Te 3 based material. The observed effects on the thermoelectric and structural properties of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based material are crucial for understanding the interface between the diffusion barrier and thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • Interface characterization of metal coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 is studied. • We examined the phase transformation of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based films

  2. Partitioning of metals between the aqueous phase and suspended insoluble material in fog droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Valeriana; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Mangani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the partitioning of metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) between the aqueous phase and the suspended insoluble material in fog samples collected in the Po Valley during two extensive fields campaigns. Metals represent on average 11% of the mass of suspended insoluble matter, while the main component is carbon (both organic carbon, OC = 35%, and black carbon, BC = 8%). The unaccounted suspended matter mass is very high, on average 46%, and is attributable to non metallic species, such as O and N and of Si. The principal metals in the insoluble suspended fraction are Fe and Al (2-5%), while the contributions of other metals (Na, Mg, Cu, Pb and Zn) are lower than 1%. Ca and K exhibited high blank values and could not be detected above blank detection limit threshold. The main components in the aqueous phase are NO3- (34%), WSOC (23%), SO4(2-) (18%) and NH4+ (19%), while trace metals and remaining cations and anions accounted for less than 1% of solute mass. The main dissolved trace metals in fog droplets are Zn, Al and Fe, while the main metallic cations are Na and Ca. Fe and Al are the only metals preferentially distributed in the suspended insoluble matter of fog droplets (partitioning ratio respectively 37% and 33%). All other metals are mostly dissolved in the aqueous phase (mean partitioning ratios of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Na are 69%, 70%, 77%, 81% and 87%). These findings are in agreement with literature data on metal speciation in cloud and rain samples. The dependence of partitioning ratios on pH is investigated for the different metals, with only Al showing a clear partitioning ratio decrease with increasing pH. Conversely, the other metals show no dependence or a complex and highly variable behaviour. The partitioning ratio of iron (mean 37%) observed in the Po Valley fog samples is much higher than the water extractable iron in aerosol particles (typically 1-2 %): this fact can be explained by differences in the aerosol sources

  3. Urban Biomining: Biological Extraction of Metals and Materials from Electronics Waste Using a Synthetic Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Rothschild, L.

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life electronics waste (e-waste) containing toxic and valuable materials is a rapidly progressing human health and environmental issue. Using synthetic biology tools, we have developed a recycling method for e-waste. Our innovation is to use a recombinant version of a naturally-occurring silica-degrading enzyme to depolymerize the silica in metal- and glass- containing e-waste components, and subsequently, to use engineered bacterial surfaces to bind and separate metals from a solution. The bacteria with bound metals can then be used as "bio-ink" to print new circuits using a novel plasma jet electronics printing technology. Here, we present the results from our initial studies that focus on the specificity of metal-binding motifs for a cognate metal. The candidate motifs that show high affinity and specificity will be engineered into bacterial surfaces for downstream applications in biologically-mediated metal recycling. Since the chemistry and role of Cu in metalloproteins is relatively well-characterized, we are using Cu as a proxy to elucidate metal and biological ligand interactions with various metals in e-waste. We assess the binding parameters of 3 representative classes of Cu-binding motifs using isothermal titration calorimetry; 1) natural motifs found in metalloproteins, 2) consensus motifs, and 3) rationally designed peptides that are predicted, in silico, to bind Cu. Our results indicate that naturally-occurring motifs have relative high affinity and specificity for Cu (association constant for Cu Ka 104 M-1, Zn Ka 103 M-1) when competing ions are present in the aqueous milieu. However, motifs developed through rational design by applying quantum mechanical methods that take into account complexation energies of the elemental binding partners and molecular geometry of the cognate metal, not only show high affinity for the cognate metal (Cu Ka 106 M-1), but they show specificity and discrimination against other metal ions that would be

  4. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  6. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  7. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  8. The development of breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a global analysis of the various available sources of energy, Japan has reserved a prominent place to the nuclear energy and, in the long-term view, to the breeder reactor which will be due for commercial deployment in 20)10. To achieve these objectives, three stages are envisaged, one of the experimental reactor Joyo (in service), one of the demonstration reactor Monju (its construction has been decided), and one of the pre-commercial reactor (due to be taken in hand at the beginning of the Nineties). Efforts will be made in parallel concerning the fuel cycle [fr

  9. Neutronics design for a fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenglun; Xie Zhongyou

    1987-01-01

    As a fusion breeder, one of the most important figure is support ratio which reflects the economic and fuel production performance of the system to a great extent. In this paper, the support ratio is calculated by using one dimension transport program ANISN and optimized by adjusting 6 Li enrichment and blanket arrangement. The radial distribution of producted U-233 is also taken into account. Measures are taken for better blanket design, and satisfactory results are obtained. Tritium breeding ratio T reaches 1.11 and the support ratio is enhanced from 11 to 14. The engineering, safety and environment performance are improved

  10. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-01-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  11. Zirconium-Based metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) material with high hydrostability for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Material-based solutions, such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs), continue to attract increasing attention as viable options for hydrogen storage applications. MOFs are widely regarded as promising materials for hydrogen storage due to their high...

  12. Some metal-graphite and metal-ceramic composites for use as high energy brake lining materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Materials were studied as candidates for development as potential new aircraft brake lining materials. These families were (1) copper-graphite composites; (2) nickel-graphite composites; (3) copper - rare-earth-oxide (gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) or lanthanum oxide (La2O3)) composites and copper - rare-earth-oxide (La2O3) - rare-earth-fluoride (lanthanum fluoride (LaF3)) composites; (4) nickel - rare-earth-oxide composites and nickel - rare-earth-oxide - rare-earth-fluoride composites. For comparison purposes, a currently used metal-ceramic composite was also studied. Results showed that the nickel-Gd2O3 and nickel-La2O3-LaF3 composites were comparable or superior in friction and wear performance to the currently used composite and therefore deserve to be considered for further development.

  13. On interrelation of crack resistance characteristics of metal materials under static and dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, K.G.; Goloveshkin, Yu.V.; Tuzlukova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Home and foreign data on crack resistance characteristics of metal structural materials are generalized and analyzed. Dependence between various parameters of material strength and toughness on the one hand and racck resistance on the other hand is established on the basis of the energy concept of the failure mechanics. Effect of the strain rate on σsub(0.2) and Ksub(Ic) values is evaluated. Quanlitative and quantitative relations obtained permit conducting a complex estimation of materials behaviour during static and dynamic loading operations

  14. Analysis of Metallized Teflon(trademark) Film Materials Performance on Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, H. Gary; Normand, Eugene; Wolf, Suzanne L. B.; Kamenetzky, Rachel; Kauffman, William J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and on-orbit performance data for two common thermal control materials, silver- and aluminum-backed (metallized) fluorinated ethyl-propylene (TER) was collected from a variety of sources and analyzed. This paper demonstrates that the change in solar absorptance, alpha, is a strong function of particulate radiation for these materials. Examination of additional data shows that the atomic oxygen recession rate is a strong function of solar exposure with an induction period of between 25 to 50 equivalent solar hours. The relationships determined in this analysis were incorporated into an electronic knowledge base, the 'Spacecraft Materials Selector,' under NASA contract NAS8-98213.

  15. Migration of Toxic Metals from Ceramic Food Packaging Materials into Acid Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term extraction experiments were carried out on glazed tile specimens with 4 and 10% (v/v acetic acid, 1% (w/v citric acid, and 1% (v/v lactic acid solution in three temperature conditions (20, 40, and 60°C to investigate the effect of temperature and pH value on extraction of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc from ceramic food packaging materials and to study the extraction kinetics of toxic metals. Results showed that except at 60°C the amount of extraction of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc had linear dependence on time at longer times and removal of these toxic metals under other conditions increased linearly with the square root of the time, indicating a diffusion-controlled process. The amount of these toxic metals leached out from ceramic food packaging materials into the leachate, and the leaching rate increased with temperature and decreased with pH value of the food simulants. In addition, among these four toxic metals lead was the least leachable element, and nickel was the most leachable one. Disagreement between the ratios of the oxide of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc in the glaze and their release in the leachate suggested that extraction of these toxic metals was an incongruent dissolution process.

  16. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, M.

    1957-11-01

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the γ phase. (author) [fr

  17. A Review of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers an exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. Bipolar plates have been fabricated primarily from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to developing cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Two different classes of materials have attracted attention: metals and composites. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current research being carried out on metallic bipolar plates, covering materials and fabrication methods.

  18. A metallization and bonding approach for high performance carbon nanotube thermal interface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Robert; Graham, Samuel; Cola, Baratunde A; Fisher, Timothy; Xu Xianfan; Gall, Ken

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed to create vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) thermal interface materials that can be attached to a variety of metallized surfaces. VACNT films were grown on Si substrates using standard CVD processing followed by metallization using Ti/Au. The coated CNTs were then bonded to metallized substrates at 220 deg. C. By reducing the adhesion of the VACNTs to the growth substrate during synthesis, the CNTs can be completely transferred from the Si growth substrate and used as a die attachment material for electronic components. Thermal resistance measurements using a photoacoustic technique showed thermal resistances as low as 1.7 mm 2 K W -1 for bonded VACNT films 25-30 μm in length and 10 mm 2 K W -1 for CNTs up to 130 μm in length. Tensile testing demonstrated a die attachment strength of 40 N cm -2 at room temperature. Overall, these metallized and bonded VACNT films demonstrate properties which are promising for next-generation thermal interface material applications.

  19. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity

  20. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  1. Solid-phase materials for chelating metal ions and methods of making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wey, John E.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2003-06-10

    A solid material for recovering metal ions from aqueous streams, and methods of making and using the solid material, are disclosed. The solid material is made by covalently bonding a chelating agent to a silica-based solid, or in-situ condensing ceramic precursors along with the chelating agent to accomplish the covalent bonding. The chelating agent preferably comprises a oxime type chelating head, preferably a salicylaldoxime-type molecule, with an organic tail covalently bonded to the head. The hydrocarbon tail includes a carbon-carbon double bond, which is instrumental in the step of covalently bonding the tail to the silica-based solid or the in-situ condensation. The invented solid material may be contacted directly with aqueous streams containing metal ions, and is selective to ions such as copper (II) even in the presence of such ions as iron (III) and other materials that are present in earthen materials. The solid material with high selectivity to copper may be used to recover copper from mining and plating industry streams, to replace the costly and toxic solvent extraction steps of conventional copper processing.

  2. Knowledge based system and decision making methodologies in materials selection for aircraft cabin metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pashupati Raj

    Materials selection processes have been the most important aspects in product design and development. Knowledge-based system (KBS) and some of the methodologies used in the materials selection for the design of aircraft cabin metallic structures are discussed. Overall aircraft weight reduction means substantially less fuel consumption. Part of the solution to this problem is to find a way to reduce overall weight of metallic structures inside the cabin. Among various methodologies of materials selection using Multi Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) techniques, a few of them are demonstrated with examples and the results are compared with those obtained using Ashby's approach in materials selection. Pre-defined constraint values, mainly mechanical properties, are employed as relevant attributes in the process. Aluminum alloys with high strength-to-weight ratio have been second-to-none in most of the aircraft parts manufacturing. Magnesium alloys that are much lighter in weight as alternatives to the Al-alloys currently in use in the structures are tested using the methodologies and ranked results are compared. Each material attribute considered in the design are categorized as benefit and non-benefit attribute. Using Ashby's approach, material indices that are required to be maximized for an optimum performance are determined, and materials are ranked based on the average of consolidated indices ranking. Ranking results are compared for any disparity among the methodologies.

  3. The influence of metal nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIMOV Eduard Khasanovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on changes in mechanical and physical properties of polymeric construction materials after the introduction of metal nanoparticles. As an example of metal nanoparticles the influence of nanoparticles of copper has been considered. The ways of formation of copper with dimensions of nanometers, a brief methodology and structure of the obtained filler are shown. Copper nanoparticles have unique anti-bacterial, thermal and conductive properties. These properties substantially remain in the polymer material. The resulting composite material has technological properties of polymers and unique physical properties of the filler. Polymer material was selected among the products of large-tonnage production: polyvinyl chloride, elastomers, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene.The selection of copper ions from the nanoparticles depends on the type of stabilizing agent and on the chemical nature of the environment. The performance of antimicrobial properties in polymer materials is achieved by the dosage of copper in the amount of 1–2% by weight. To give a material the conductive properties of copper nanoparticles a higher concentration of metal is required. To use only plastic PVC as the carrier will limit the effectiveness of nanocrystals of copper and affect the mechanical parameters of the material. Therefore it is considered a more complex type of polymer material. Thermoplastic elastomers obtained from blends of rubber and plastic (or plastics, became of great interest in the industrial sector. The wax embedded in a polymeric matrix of polyethylene is used for heat storage of solar energy; thermal protection of electronic devices, nutritional products and medical products; a reduction in installed capacity and thermal comfort in vehicles. To improve the thermal conductivity copper nanoparticles are introduced in the mixture of polyethylene and wax. To obtain the polypropylene with copper nanoparticles

  4. Study on the metal vapor generator for the production of improved gadolinia burnable poison material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, O. C.; Noh, S. P.; Ko, K. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    A longer cycle operation of a nuclear fuel is one of the ways to promote the economy of a nuclear power plant. For this purpose, high burn up fuel which has initial higher enrichment is required with higher loading of fuel. As a result, adequate burnable poison material must be used to control peak fuel pin power. Devices to manufacture the improved gadolinia burnable poison are developed. The improved gadolinia contains higher abundance of the preferred thermal neutron absorbers. Devices are composed of metal vapor generator, lasers and ion extractor. In this paper, a metal vapor generator by using electron beam gun is reported

  5. Density functional studies of functionalized graphitic materials with late transition metals for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallejo, Federico Calle; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Reaction (OER). Spin analyses suggest that the oxidation state of those elements in the active sites should in general be +2. Moreover, our results verify that the adsorption behavior of transition metals is not intrinsic, since it can be severely altered by changes in the local geometry of the active site......) at the cathode. In this contribution, on the basis of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that graphitic materials with active sites composed of 4 nitrogen atoms and transition metal atoms belonging to groups 7 to 9 in the periodic table are active towards ORR, and also towards Oxygen Evolution...

  6. Manufacturing and Morphological Analysis of Composite Material of Polystyrene Nanospheres/Cadmium Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratama Jujur Wibawa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple nanocomposite material has been in-situ manufactured from an aqueous polystyrene nanospheres dispersion and cadmium (Cd metal nanoparticles. The manufacturing was performed by using a high frequency of 40 kHz ultrasonic (US agitation for 45 minute at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature 20 oC. No chemical reducing agent and surfactant added in this manufacturing technique due to the US could reduce Cd2+ ions of cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate to Cd atomic metals nanoparticles whereas water molecules could act as a pseudo stabilizer for the manufactured material. A thin film was manufactured from aqueous colloidal nanocomposite material of Polystyrene nanospheres/Cd metal nanoparticles (PSNs/CdMNp fabricated on a hydrophilic silicon wafer. The thin film was then characterized by a JEOL-FESEM for its surface morphology characteristic and by ATR-FTIR spectrometry for its molecular change investigation. It could be clearly observed that surface morphology of the thin film material was not significantly changed under 633 nm wavelength continuous laser radiation exposure for 20 minute. In addition, its ATR-FTIR spectra of wave number peaks around 3400 cm-1 have been totally disappeared under the laser exposure whereas that at around 699 cm-1 and 668 cm-1 have not been significantly changed. The first phenomenon indicated that the hydrogen bond existed in PSNs/CdMNp material was collapsed by the laser exposure. The second phenomena indicated that the PSNs phenyl ring moiety was not totally destroyed under the laser exposure. It was suspected due to the existence of Cd nanoparticles covered throughout the spherical surface of PSNs/CdMNp material particles. Therefore a nice model of material structure of the mentioned PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite material could be suggested in this research. It could be concluded that this research have been performed since the material structure model of the manufactured PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite could be

  7. Contribution of nuclear analysis methods to the certification of BCR reference materials for non-metals in non-ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of reference materials for oxygen in different non-ferrous metals have been certified by BCR in the frame of a multidisciplinary Community project. The contribution of nuclear analysis methods is illustrated by several examples concerning the optimization of sample preparation techniques, the analysis of low and high oxygen non-ferrous metals and the extension of the program to other non-metals, especially nitrogen and carbon. (author)

  8. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  9. Current trends in degradation assesment on metallic materials of industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Palma, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    To needs to assess objectively a structural integrity analysis in nuclear and termal power-, oil- and chemical- industry system, represents a large challenge for engineer and researches related to Materials Science, equipment manufactures or users. These systems share many of their problems with regards to aging mechanism of components metallic materials, high replacement costs and increasing requirements on efficiency and safety. This paper makes an attempt to give an overview of the current trends on material damage and residual life assessment for installation of power-, oil- and chemical industry. Some of the currently existing ideas on components inspection, as an activity for damage detection are shown. A summary on mechanism of material damage and experimental techniques for their characterization is also presented. Finally, some analytical methods with wide appliance in materials damage evaluation and residual life assesment of components are described

  10. Metals and Ceramics Division materials science annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1977-09-01

    Progress is reported for research programs in the metals and ceramics division of ORNL. In structure of materials, theoretical research, x-ray diffraction studies, studies of erosion of ceramics, preparation and synthesis of high temperature and special service materials, and studies of stabilities of microphases in high-temperature structural materials. Research into deformation and mechanical properties included physical metallurgy, and grain boundary segregation and embrittlement. Physical properties and transport phenomena were studied and included mechanisms of surface and solid state reactions, and properties of superconducting materials. The radiation effects program, directed at understanding the effects of composition and microstructure on the structure and properties of materials irradiated at elevated temperatures, is also described

  11. Metals and Ceramics Division materials science annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    Progress is reported for research programs in the metals and ceramics division of ORNL. In structure of materials, theoretical research, x-ray diffraction studies, studies of erosion of ceramics, preparation and synthesis of high temperature and special service materials, and studies of stabilities of microphases in high-temperature structural materials. Research into deformation and mechanical properties included physical metallurgy, and grain boundary segregation and embrittlement. Physical properties and transport phenomena were studied and included mechanisms of surface and solid state reactions, and properties of superconducting materials. The radiation effects program, directed at understanding the effects of composition and microstructure on the structure and properties of materials irradiated at elevated temperatures, is also described. (GHT)

  12. Advanced material and approach for metal ions removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhanen, Petri A.; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J.; Peräniemi, Sirpa

    2015-01-01

    A Novel approach to remove metals from aqueous solutions has been developed. The method is based on a resin free, solid, non-toxic, microcrystalline bisphosphonate material, which has very low solubility in water (59 mg/l to ion free Milli-Q water and 13 mg/l to 3.5% NaCl solution). The material has been produced almost quantitatively on a 1 kg scale (it has been prepared also on a pilot scale, ca. 7 kg) and tested successfully for its ability to collect metal cations from different sources, such as ground water and mining process waters. Not only was this material highly efficient at collecting several metal ions out of solution it also proved to be regenerable and reusable over a number of adsorption/desorption, which is crucial for environmental friendliness. This material has several advantages compared to the currently used approaches, such as no need for any precipitation step. PMID:25758924

  13. Adsorption of mixtures of nutrients and heavy metals in simulated urban stormwater by different filter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Xie, Tao; Dastgheibi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several best management practices have been developed for the removal of different types of pollutants from stormwater runoff that lead to effective stormwater management. Filter materials that remove a wide range of contaminants have great potential for extensive use in filtration systems. In this study, four filter materials (calcite, zeolite, sand, and iron filings) were investigated for their adsorption and efficiency in the removal of nutrients and heavy metals when they exist individually versus when they co-exist. Laboratory batch experiments were conducted separately under individual and mixed contaminants conditions at different initial concentrations. Adsorption capacities varied under the individual and mixed contaminant conditions due to different removal mechanisms. Most filter materials showed lower removal efficiency under mixed contaminant conditions. In general, iron filings were found effective in the removal of nutrients and heavy metals simultaneously to the maximum levels. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to model the batch adsorption results and the former better fitted the experimental results. Overall, the results indicate that the filter materials used in this study have the potential to be effective media for the treatment of nutrients and heavy metals commonly found in urban stormwater runoff.

  14. Three-Dimensional (3D Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fafenrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a three-dimensional (3D printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid (PLA printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  15. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  16. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palza, Humberto; Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian; Bravo, Denisse; Diaz-Dosque, Mario; Perez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials

  17. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palza, Humberto, E-mail: hpalza@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bravo, Denisse [Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Diaz-Dosque, Mario [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas y Comunitarias, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Bioactive glasses (SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials.

  18. Reprocessing of spent fuel, Dounreay and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingjaerde, R.

    1986-11-01

    In the light of the public interest in Norway in the breeder reactor fuel reprocessing plant projected in Dounreay, Scotland, the report gives a description of the research center in Dounreay and the planned joint European demonstration facility (EDRP). Certain aspects of the fast breeder reactor are also explained

  19. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... (1988) analysed the relative changes in rate of lay and egg weight and showed that rate of lay is influenced to a greater extent by a decrease in protein intake than is egg weight. This has important implications for broiler breeders where the marginal revenue for breeder eggs is considerably higher than is ...

  20. Synthesis of new metal-matrix Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshina, L. A.; Muradymov, R. V.; Kvashnichev, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Molchanova, N. G.; Pankratov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of formation of ceramic microparticles (alumina) and graphene in a molten aluminum matrix is studied as a function of the morphology and type of precursor particles, the temperature, and the gas atmosphere. The influence of the composition of an aluminum composite material (as a function of the concentration and size of reinforcing particles) on its mechanical and corrosion properties, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity is investigated. Hybrid metallic Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials with up to 10 wt % alumina microparticles and 0.2 wt % graphene films, which are uniformly distributed over the metal volume and are fully wetted with aluminum, are synthesized during the chemical interaction of a salt solution containing yttria and boron carbide with molten aluminum in air. Simultaneous introduction of alumina and graphene into an aluminum matrix makes it possible to produce hybrid metallic composite materials having a unique combination of the following properties: their thermal conductivity is higher than that of aluminum, their hardness and strength are increased by two times, their relative elongation during tension is increased threefold, and their corrosion resistance is higher than that of initial aluminum by a factor of 2.5-4. We are the first to synthesize an in situ hybrid Al-Al2O3-graphene composite material having a unique combination of some characteristics. This material can be recommended as a promising material for a wide circle of electrical applications, including ultrathin wires, and as a structural material for the aerospace industry, the car industry, and the shipbuilding industry.

  1. Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, Alexander E; Galunin, Evgeny V; Burakova, Irina V; Kucherova, Anastassia E; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tkachev, Alexey G; Gupta, Vinod K

    2018-02-01

    The problem of water pollution is of a great concern. Adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for removing noxious heavy metals from the solvent phase. This paper presents a detailed information and review on the adsorption of noxious heavy metal ions from wastewater effluents using various adsorbents - i.e., conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, and industrial by-products) and nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes). In addition to this, the efficiency of developed materials for adsorption of the heavy metals is discussed in detail along with the comparison of their maximum adsorption capacity in tabular form. A special focus is made on the perspectives of further wider applications of nanostructured adsorbents (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphenes) in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Noble metal nanoparticles embedding into polymeric materials: From fundamentals to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Pivin, J C; Swart, H C

    2015-12-01

    This review covers some key concepts related to embedding of the noble metal nanoparticles in polymer surfaces. The metal nanoparticles embedded into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in modern nanotechnology. In particular, the origin of various processes that drive the embedding phenomenon, growth of the nanostructure at the surface, factors affecting the embedding including role of surface, interface energies and thermodynamic driving forces with emphasis on the fundamental and technological applications, under different conditions (annealing and ion beams) have been discussed. In addition to the conventional thermal process for embedding which includes the measure of fundamental polymer surface properties with relevant probing techniques, this review discusses the recent advances carried out in the understanding of embedding phenomenon starting from thin metal films to growth of the nanoparticles and embedded nanostructures using novel ion beam techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of metallic complexing capacities of the dissolved organic material in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Laglera-Baquer

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Langmuir isotherm for the study of the complexing properties of functional groups present both in dissolved organic material and on biological surfaces in aquatic systems needs a heterogeneous model and an iterative linear regression solution. The method proposed previously by van den Berg is improved by replacing the expression used to obtain the complexing capacity and the conditional stability constant of the functional groups with stronger trace metal affinity, for the linear expression of the Langmuir isotherm proposed by Scatchard. The result is also an iterative linear regression process, which gives a convergent solution, together with better statistical weight distribution of the initial metallic titration data. It also fits better with the titration data obtained at very low dissolved metallic ion concentrations.

  4. Theory of metallic magnetism at finite temperatures in bulk materials and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, J. B.; Razee, S. S. A.; Szunyogh, L.; Gyorffy, B. L.

    2002-06-01

    A review of ‘first-principles’ theoretical work that describes the properties of magnetic metallic materials at finite temperatures is given. The key assumption is that a time-scale separation can be identified. There are the thermally induced spin fluctuations which are long-lived compared to the time electrons take to move from one lattice site to another. The dependence on the spin-polarised electronic structures of the systems is emphasised including the role of ‘local exchange splitting’ inferred even in the paramagnetic states. The disordered local moment picture which provides the basis of a mean field theory is discussed and its results for bulk transition metals and alloys recalled. Finally, new results for this picture in metallic thin films are reported. In particular comparison with calculated magnetic ordering temperatures of iron films on copper substrates is made with those deduced from experiment and an interpretation in terms of the electronic structure is given.

  5. A rapid screening method for heavy metals in biological materials by emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, E C; Sadler, P A

    1981-06-02

    A semi-quantitative screening method for heavy metals in biological material is described. The metals are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and potassium sodium tartrate. The solutions are adjusted to pH 4 and then extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase is evaporated onto a matrix mixture of lithium fluoride and graphite. The sample is analysed by direct current arc emission spectroscopy using a 3 metre grating spectrograph. The spectra are recorded on a photographic plate. The method is developed on aqueous and spiked samples and then applied to in vivo samples containing toxic levels of heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to check standard concentrations and to monitor the efficiency of the extraction procedure.

  6. Neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of metallic materials, such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and others are determined by their chemical composition, which influences the various steps of the production process and the economic value attained by the materials. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used in this work to evaluate the chemical composition of iron, steel, silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials. The concentration of the elements As, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V and W were analyzed in the iron and steel samples whereas As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, U, Th, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, V, W and Yb were determined in silicon and ferrosilicon samples. Accuracy was assessed comparing obtained results to reference materials certified values. Results of about 10 % were achieved for most of the elements. Precision was assessed by replicate measurements, and the results of about 10 % were also achieved. Accuracy and precision results showed that the technique is suitable for the metallic materials composition analysis. Interferences of Cr and Mn in V, Fe and Co in Mn; Co in Fe and Cr in Ti were quantified and only the last one was critical to the analysis of the materials employed in this work. (author)

  7. Design Feasible Area on Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor in Equilibrium States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidik Permana; Naoyuki Takaki; Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2006-01-01

    Thorium as supplied fuel has good candidate for fuel material if it is converted into fissile material 233 U which shows superior characteristics in the thermal region. The Shippingport reactor used 233 U-Th fuel system, and the molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR) project showed that breeding is possible in a thermal spectrum. In the present study, feasibility of water cooled thorium breeder reactor is investigated. The key properties such as flux, η value, criticality and breeding performances are evaluated for different moderator to fuel ratios (MFR) and burn-ups. The results show the feasibility of breeding for different MFR and burn-ups. The required 233 U enrichment is about 2% - 9% as charge fuel. The lower MFR and the higher enrichment of 233 U are preferable to improve the average burn-up; however the design feasible window is shrunk. This core shows the design feasible window especially in relation to MFR with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  8. Generic problems with Li2O breeders and tritium control in high-temperature fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Within the past year, major reactor design studies have been performed using Li 2 O as a breeder material. These are the INTOR and STARFIRE/DEMO projects. We in our studies on fusion/synfuels are embarking on another, but our blanket will operate at significantly higher temperatures than these two. Some of the problems inherent in using this material are aggravated and some are diminished by operating at higher temperatures. For the conditions of the above two design studies many of the problems were mentioned in the respective references. This report reviews the available data, the educated guesses about unavailable data, and the design options that have been and are being chosen. The review of this information is a needed part for our proposed use of Li 2 O as a breeder in a fusion/synfuel reactor blanket. Further details will be available in various appropriate sections of our FY82 project report

  9. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  10. Evaluation of Wet Digestion Methods for Quantification of Metal Content in Electronic Scrap Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhabrata Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the electronics sector and the short life-span of electronic products have triggered an exponential increase in the generation of electronic waste (E-waste. Effective recycling of E-waste has thus become a serious solid waste management challenge. E-waste management technologies include pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and bioleaching. Determining the metal content of an E-waste sample is critical in evaluating the efficiency of a metal recovery method in E-waste recycling. However, E-waste is complex and of diverse origins. The lack of a standard digestion method for E-waste has resulted in difficulty in comparing the efficiencies of different metal recovery processes. In this study, several solid digestion protocols including American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM-D6357-11, United States Environment Protection Agency Solid Waste (US EPA SW 846 Method 3050b, ultrasound-assisted, and microwave digestion methods were compared to determine the metal content (Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Pd, Sn, and Zn of electronic scrap materials (ESM obtained from two different sources. The highest metal recovery (mg/g of ESM was obtained using ASTM D6357-11 for most of the metals, which remained mainly bound to silicate fractions, while a microwave-assisted digestion protocol (MWD-2 was more effective in solubilizing Al, Pb, and Sn. The study highlights the need for a judicious selection of digestion protocol, and proposes steps for selecting an effective acid digestion method for ESM.

  11. Application of Hard Metal Weld Deposit in the Area of Mixing Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Any machine part is subject to degradation processes. Intensive wear occurs either when two bearing surfaces come into contact or when loose particles rub the function surface of a machine part. Soil processing machines are a good example. A similar process of abrasive wear occurs also in mixing machines or lines for material transport, such as worm-conveyors. The experiment part of this paper analyses hard metal weld deposit dedicated for renovation of abrasive stressed surfaces. In order to prolong the service life of a blade disc in a mixing machine Kreis-Biogas-Dissolver, the technology of hard surfacing by an electric arc was used. Tested hard metal electrodes were applied on a steel tape class 11 373. To eliminate mixing with the base material, weld beads were applied in two layers. Firstly, the weld bead was visually analyzed on a binocular microscope. Further, weld bead as well as the base material was analyzed from the metallographic point of view, whose aim was to identify the structure of weld metal and the origin of microcracks in weld bead. Moreover, there was also measured microhardness of weld metal. Abrasive resistance was tested according to the norm ČSN 01 5084, which is an abrasive cloth test. As in the mixing process also erosion wear occurs, there was also processed a test on a Bond device simulating stress of test samples by loose abrasive particles. The abrading agents were formed by broken stones of 8–16 mm in size. Based on the results of the individual tests, the recommendation of usage hard metal electrodes for prolonging service life of machine parts will be made.

  12. [Use of new materials results in improved prostheses. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composite materials extend durability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, L; Johansson, C

    1999-10-18

    Advances in our knowledge of multifactorial host-biomaterial interactions have improved the outcome of joint replacement surgery. Fixation and aseptic loosening are the principal foci of research. Wear debris from articulating parts is a major cause of prosthetic loosening. Tri-biological analysis, and the development of new materials and surface finishes have reduced wear particle production. The use of modular implants increases flexibility and facilitates surgical fit, but also introduces new problems such as dissociation of components, corrosion and wear. In the future, as design, biomaterials and surgical technique become further optimized, arthroplasty may also become an alternative for use in younger patients.

  13. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zemtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1 preparation of porous metal matrix; (2 surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3 pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  14. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels

  15. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  16. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  17. Selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction of metal ions from waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.N.; Laintz, K.E.; Yonker, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The removal of toxic organics, metals, and radioisotopes from solids or liquids is a major concern in the treatment of industrial and nuclear wastes. For this reason, developing methods for selective separation of toxic metals and radioactive materials from solutions of complex matrix is an important problem in environmental research. Recent developments indicate supercritical fluids are good solvents for organic compounds. Many gases become supercritical fluids under moderate temperatures and pressures. For example, the critical temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide are 31 degrees C and 73 atm, respectively. The high diffusivity, low viscosity, and T-P dependence of solvent strength are some attractive properties of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Since CO 2 offers the additional benefits of stability and non-toxicity, the SFE technique avoids generation of organic liquid waste and exposure of personnel to toxic solvents. While direct extraction of metal ions by supercritical fluids is highly inefficient, these ions when complexed with organic ligands become quite soluble in supercritical fluids. Specific ligands can be used to achieve selective extraction of metal ions in this process. After SFE, the fluid phase can be depressurized for precipitation of the metal chelates and recycled. The ligand can also be regenerated for repeated use. The success of this selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction (SC-SFE) process depends on a number of factors including the efficiencies of the selective chelating agents, solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical fluids, rate of extraction, ease of regeneration of the ligands, etc. In this report, the authors present recent results on the studies of the solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical CO 2 , experimental ions from aqueous solution, and the development of selective chelating agents (ionizable crown ethers) for the extraction of lanthanides and actinides

  18. Application of biowaste materials for the sorption of heavy metals in contaminated aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Biowaste materials were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous medium. The biowaste used were black gram husk, wheat bran, sheesham (dalbergia sissoo) sawdust pea pod, rice husk and cotton and mustard seed cakes. All these biosorbents, except pea pod and rice husk, exhibited good adsorption potential for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni. Black gram husk (bgh) was found to have the highest sorption capacity with 100, 99.4, 95.7, 98.2 and 93.1% removal of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni, respectively. The metal ions adsorbed by bgh desorbed with 0.1 M HCl and the regenerated biosorbent was reused successfully for sorption of metal ions in the next cycle. Concentration of the tested metals achieved at equilibrium in the contaminated aqueous medium was well below the maximum limits recommended by UNEP for sewage discharge. The study indicates the potential of bgh as a new, inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals. (author)

  19. Experience in quality assurance of alloy D9 clad tubes for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    Stainless Steel Alloy D9 is the material for cladding in various sub-assemblies of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). The fabrication, inspection, testing and supply of the clad tubes for the first core of PFBR is nearly completed. The paper also compares the specification requirements and the achieved results for some of the critical aspects which is arrived after completing supply against the first core requirement

  20. Determination of metallic complexing capacities of the dissolved organic material in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Luis M. Laglera-Baquer; Melchor González-Dávila; J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Langmuir isotherm for the study of the complexing properties of functional groups present both in dissolved organic material and on biological surfaces in aquatic systems needs a heterogeneous model and an iterative linear regression solution. The method proposed previously by van den Berg is improved by replacing the expression used to obtain the complexing capacity and the conditional stability constant of the functional groups with stronger trace metal affinity, for the line...