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Sample records for metacarpal bones

  1. Radiodiagnosis of closed fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fastykovskaya, E.D.; Kopysova, V.A.; Kuzina, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    A unified method of radiodiagnosis of angular deformities in subcapital fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones was proposed. It was based on the standardization of the wrist laying for roentgenography of the oblique view strictly at the angle of 45 deg. The projection angle of deformity of the metacarpal bone was measured on a radiogram obtained and then a true value of the angular displacement of the bone fragments to the palm was determined on a nomogram (i.e. on a chart of the ratio of values of the true and projection angles). The healthy metacarpal bone heads were inclined to the palm at the angle of 13-33 deg. It was found that in subcapital fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones certain self-correction (varying from 10 to 15 deg) of angular deformities was possible in children and adolescents only. Owing to such radiodiagnosis and a differentiated choice of therapeutic methods (in 48.8% of the patients indications for reposition were determined) good anatomical and functional results were obtained in most of the patients (96.9%)

  2. Simple Bone Cyst of Metacarpal: Rare Lesion with Unique Treatment

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    Patwardhan, Sandeep; Shah, Kunal; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Simple bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst (UBC) are benign cystic lesions commonly found in femur and humerus. However hand is a very rare site of occurrence. Treatment described for UBC of hand commonly involves curettage and bone grafting. Case Report: A 7 year old right hand dominant girl presented to us with chief complaints of pain and swelling in right 4th metacarpal since 2 month. On imaging, plain radiographs of right hand showed expansile lytic lesion on Metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of 4th metacarpal with pathological fracture. MRI showed cystic lesions with internal loculations and fluid-fluid levels (Fig 2). There was minimal soft tissue extension. We performed aspiration which showed serosanguinous fluid with haemorrhagic tinge. With the diagnosis of unicameral bone cyst in mind we performed and closed intramedullary nail with k wire. The cyst healed up completely within 2 months. There was no recurrence at 18 month follow up. Conclusion: In conclusion simple bone cyst is very rare in metacarpal bone. However it should be considered as important differential since it warrants simple treatment and extensive procedures should be avoided. PMID:27298987

  3. Diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal and metatarsal bone in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsbrunner, G.; Steiner, A.; Martig, J.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1993 ten cows with diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal or metatarsal bone were brought to the Clinic for Food Animals and Horses, University of Bern. History, clinical and radiographic findings at admission, therapy, and clinical and radiographic short- and longterm results were evaluated retrospectively. Six animals had a history of trauma. The metatarsal bone (n = 9) was much more frequently affected than the metacarpal bone (n = 1). Lameness was slight in seven cases and intermediate in three cases. Soft tissue swelling was present in all cases, and fistula formation in eight cases. Sequestrectomy was performed in nine cases, the exuberant new bone circumferentially removed in three of these cases, and the skin primarily closed in all nine cases treated surgically. One animal with a small sequestrum, showing no fistula formation, was treated conservatively. Four to 44 months after surgery, interviews with the owners by telephone revealed that the recovery had been satisfactory in all ten cases. At the same time period, clinical and radiographic examinations of the six animals that were still alive were performed by a veterinarian additionally. Normal limb function had been restored in all six animals, although the affected limb was clearly distinctable from the unaffected contralateral limb, because of its increased diameter. From the results of this study we concluded that longterm prognosis after sequestrectomy is favourable; primary wound closure can be attempted with good success. Cosmetically promising results, however, can only be achieved, if sequestrectomy is performed early enough in the course of the disease or if the exuberant new bone is surgically removed

  4. A Patient-Matched Entire First Metacarpal Prosthesis in Treatment of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

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    Thipachart Punyaratabandhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of the bones occurring in the first metacarpals frequently requires entire metacarpal resection due to the aggressive nature and high rate of recurrence. Bone reconstruction can be performed with autogenous bone grafts. Here we describe a new technique of reconstruction using a patient-matched three-dimensional printed titanium first metacarpal prosthesis. This prosthesis has a special design for ligament reconstruction in the proximal and distal portions. Good hand function and aesthetic appearance were maintained at a 24-month follow-up visit. This reconstructive technique can avoid donor-site complications and spare the autogenous bone grafts for revision options.

  5. Metacarpal sign

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    Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Archibald's sign, or metacarpal sign is defined as shortening of the IV and V metacarpal bones, is a rare phenomenon found in the Turner syndrome, homocystinuria and in Albright's osteodystrophy. Objectives The aim of the article was to show a rare case of metacarpal sign with atypical shortening of the III and IV metacarpal bones not connected with gonadal dysgenesia, genetic disorders nor osteodystrophy. Material and methods Case report of a 60-year-old female patient. Results Artchibald's metacarpal sign in the described case was accompanied by erosive arthritis in the left lower extremity. No features of genetic disorders nor gonadal disgenesia were found in the patient. Undifferentiated seronegative asymmetric erosive arthritis developed in the patient. The level of parathormon was within the normal range. No signs of tumor were seen in bone scintigraphy. Conclusions Archibald's metacarpal sign may be present in patients without genetic disorders.

  6. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

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    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  7. Preexisting lesions associated with complete diaphyseal fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 12 Thoroughbred racehorses.

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    Gray, Sarah N; Spriet, Mathieu; Garcia, Tanya C; Uzal, Francisco A; Stover, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    We characterized features of complete diaphyseal fractures of third metacarpal bones in Thoroughbred racehorses. Given that stress fractures are known to occur in the third metacarpal bone, an additional aim was to determine if complete fractures are associated with signs of a preexisting incomplete stress fracture. Bilateral metacarpi from 12 Thoroughbred racehorses euthanized because of complete unilateral metacarpal diaphyseal fracture were examined visually and radiographically. Open, comminuted, transverse or short oblique fractures occurred in the middle of the diaphysis or supracondylar region. Periosteal surface discoloration and bone callus formation contiguous with the fracture line were present in fractured bones. All contralateral intact metacarpi had gross anatomic lesions, and 10 had radiographic abnormalities similar to those observed on fractured metacarpi. Catastrophic metacarpal fractures occurred in racehorses with bilateral evidence of preexisting bone injury.

  8. Quantitative metacarpal bone measurements before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1986-01-01

    The outer (D) and inner diameter (d) of the second metacarpal bone, the combined cortical thickness (D-d), cortical area (D 2 -d 2 ) and bone mass ((D 2 d 2 /D 2 ) were measured in 74 renal transplant (RT) recipients at the time of renal transplantation and in a prospective analysis of 60 recipients after transplantation. The RT patient group was made up of recipients who after renal transplanation developed osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures (RT-ON/SF) and an age- and sex-matched renal control group of subjects who did not develop these complications (RT-C). At the time of renal transplantation, in renal transplant recipient men and women, significantly reduced values in D, D-d and D 2 -d 2 was noticed. These findings could be explained by a higher ratio of bone resoprtion than formation at the periosteal surface. Following renal transplantation, significant increases in d were seen with significant decreases in D-d, D 2 -d 2 and (D 2 -d 2 )/D 2 , probably due to endosteal bone resorption, whereas D was unchanged compared with normal control persons. In the total group and in RT-ON/SF women, D decreased significantly and in ON/SF, increased significantly with significant decrease in bone mass compared with normal women whereas no significant changes in the parameters were seen in RT-C women. These findings indicate that bone loss after transplantation continues at the periosteal surface in women. The bone loss was most markedly demonstrated in women, who subsequently develop osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures, probably due to combined periosteal and endosteal resorption of calcified bony tissue. (orig.)

  9. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurlock, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  10. Stress fracture of the second metacarpal bone in a badminton player.

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    Fukuda, Koji; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Ikuo; Uemoto, Harunobu; Hiranaka, Takafumi; Tsuji, Mitsuo; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2008-07-18

    We present a rare case of stress fracture of the second metacarpal bone. A 14-year-old girl felt pain on the dorsal aspect of the right wrist without any history of major trauma, when she played a smash during a game of badminton. On the radiographs, periosteal reaction was detected on the ulnar aspect of the base of the second metacarpal bone. She was treated conservatively and she returned to the original activity level.

  11. Incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone in six horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, B.C.; Foerner, J.J.; Haines, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    To describe incomplete oblique sagittal dorsal cortical fractures of the equine third metacarpal bone, their surgical repair, and subsequent performance of the horses. Retrospective examination of medical records and racing performance. Six Thoroughbred race horses, 2 to 4 years of age. Radiographic confirmation of all fractures preceded general anesthesia and surgical correction. Three fractures were treated by intracortical compression using screws placed in lag fashion, and five fractures were treated by osteostixis. Race records were reviewed for each horse to determine performance after surgery. Fractures were best observed on palmarodorsal radiographic projections. Three horses treated by intracortical compression returned to racing, but fracture recurred in one horse and was treated by osteostixis. This horse and the other three horses treated by osteostixis raced after surgery. Horses with incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone can race after surgical management of the fracture by screws placed in lag fashion or osteostixis. The authors' preferred surgical procedure for managing this fracture is osteostixis. Palmarodorsal radiographic projections of the third metacarpal bone are recommended in young Thoroughbred race horses suspected of having dorsal metacarpal stress fractures

  12. Experimental Fracture Model versus Osteotomy Model in Metacarpal Bone Plate Fixation

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    S. Ochman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteotomy or fracture models can be used to evaluate mechanical properties of fixation techniques of the hand skeleton in vitro. Although many studies make use of osteotomy models, fracture models simulate the clinical situation more realistically. This study investigates monocortical and bicortical plate fixation on metacarpal bones considering both aforementioned models to decide which method is best suited to test fixation techniques. Methods. Porcine metacarpal bones (=40 were randomized into 4 groups. In groups I and II bones were fractured with a modified 3-point bending test. The intact bones represented a further control group to which the other groups after fixation were compared. In groups III and IV a standard osteotomy was carried out. Bones were fixated with plates monocortically (group I, III and bicortically (group II, IV and tested for failure. Results. Bones fractured at a mean maximum load of 482.8 N ± 104.8 N with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 21.7%, mean stiffness was 122.3 ± 35 N/mm. In the fracture model, there was a significant difference (=0.01 for maximum load of monocortically and bicortically fixed bones in contrast to the osteotomy model (=0.9. Discussion. In the fracture model, because one can use the same bone for both measurements in the intact state and the bone-plate construct states, the impact of inter-individual differences is reduced. In contrast to the osteotomy model there are differences between monocortical and bicortical fixations in the fracture model. Thus simulation of the in vivo situation is better and seems to be suitable for the evaluation of mechanical properties of fixation techniques on metacarpals.

  13. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, fore-arm and vertebral bone density and fractures in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bochner, M.; Need, A.G.; Nordin, B.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between metacarpal morphometric, vertebral and forearm density measurement and the prevalence of vertebral and peripheral fractures were examined in 239 postmenopausal women (median age 63, range 32-84 years). Metacarpal cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA) was measured with needle calipers forearm mineral density (FMD) by single photon absorptiometry and vertebral mineral density (VMD) by single energy quantitative computed tomography. The authors suggest that metacarpal morphometry, which is widely available at relatively low cost, yields cross-sectional information about bone density and fracture risk, comparable with that obtained by forearm and vertebral densitometry. (Author)

  14. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone.

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    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego

    2010-10-01

    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  15. Increased sclerostin associated with stress fracture of the third metacarpal bone in the Thoroughbred racehorse

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    Singer, E.; Henson, F.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The exact aetiology and pathogenesis of microdamage-induced long bone fractures remain unknown. These fractures are likely to be the result of inadequate bone remodelling in response to damage. This study aims to identify an association of osteocyte apoptosis, the presence of osteocytic osteolysis, and any alterations in sclerostin expression with a fracture of the third metacarpal (Mc-III) bone of Thoroughbred racehorses. Methods A total of 30 Mc-III bones were obtained; ten bones were fractured during racing, ten were from the contralateral limb, and ten were from control horses. Each Mc-III bone was divided into a fracture site, condyle, condylar groove, and sagittal ridge. Microcracks and diffuse microdamage were quantified. Apoptotic osteocytes were measured using TUNEL staining. Cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), HtrA1, and sclerostin expression were analyzed. Results In the fracture group, microdamage was elevated 38.9% (sd 2.6) compared with controls. There was no difference in the osteocyte number and the percentage of apoptotic cells between contralateral limb and unraced control; however, there were significantly fewer apoptotic cells in fractured samples (p fractured samples, sclerostin expression was significantly higher (p fractured during racing. In this study, this is not associated with osteocyte apoptosis or osteocytic osteolysis. The finding of increased sclerostin in the region of the fracture suggests that this protein may be playing a key role in the regulation of bone microdamage during stress adaptation. Cite this article: N. Hopper, E. Singer, F. Henson. Increased sclerostin associated with stress fracture of the third metacarpal bone in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:94–102. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.71.BJR-2016-0202.R4. PMID:29363519

  16. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF THE METACARPAL BONE WITH BIOABSORBABLE MATERIALS: A CASE REPORTS

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    Ernest Novak

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent advances in biomaterial technology make it possible to produce easy-to-handle implants for osteosynthesis with ultra-high strenght and excellent biocompatibility. Biomechanical studies have shown that fixation rigidity achieved with self-reinforced (SR pins, screws and miniplates is comparable with that of metallic fixation methods. Internal fixation by means of bioabsorbable plates, screws, and pins can be used to stabilize some fractures of small bones in the hand.We report our experience with three cases where internal fixation with a SR (poly-L/DL-lactide 70/30; SR-P (L/DL LA 70/30, BioSorbTMFX miniplates and screws was carried out for stabilization of a metacarpal shaft fracture and thumb replantation.Conclusions. After bone healing is complete, metallic osteosynthesis devices become unnecessary or can even be harmful. Metallic implant-related long-term complications and secondary removal operation are avoided by using of bioabsorbable osteosynthesis devices for metacarpal bones osteosynthesis.

  17. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Oikawa, M.; Wada, R.; Hasegawa, M.; Kaneko, M.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  18. Incomplete fracture of the proximo-palmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Previous descriptions of incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) have focused on diagnostic imaging findings, especially in racehorses. Objectives: To document the case details, clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia, diagnostic imaging findings and follow-up data in a large group of horses with an incomplete longitudinal fracture or fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII. Materials And Methods: Horses were included in the study if pain was localised to the proximopalmar aspect of the metacarpal region, with radiological evidence of an incomplete longitudinal fracture or generalised increased radiopacity in the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII, or focal increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) in the proximopalmar aspect of the McIII. Age, breed, gender, height, bodyweight, work discipline, work history, duration of lameness, clinical signs and responses to diagnostic analgesia were recorded. Radiographic and scintigraphic images were assessed subjectively and objectively. Results: There were 55 horses representing a broad spectrum of ages and work disciplines, 73% of which had radiological abnormalities. The majority had no localising clinical signs, although 73% of horses with radiological abnormalities showed a characteristic pattern of lameness. Lameness was generally worse in straight lines than in circles. Increased radiopharmaceutical uptake ranged from mild to intense in the lame limb; 14% of nonlame limbs had mild IRU. Of horses for which long-term follow-up was available, 98% returned to full athletic function. Conclusions And Potential Relevance: Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII may occur in horses of many types and sports disciplines, and are not confined to immature performance horses. They should be considered an important differential diagnosis for proximal

  19. Pathology of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones of the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, C.M.; Whitehouse, G.H.; Boyde, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined material from Thoroughbred horses, the majority of which had been in race training, for evidence of pathology in the third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones which might be related to the occurrence of distal condylar fractures. Whole bone samples were studied and documented by macrophotography prior to macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Microradiographs were made from 100 microm thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces of distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII. Blocks were prepared for morphological imaging using the backscattered electron mode of scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Linear defects in mineralised articular cartilage and subchondral bone were found in the palmar/plantar aspects of the condylar grooves adjacent to the sagittal ridge. These were closely related to the pattern of densification of the subchondral bone and were associated with intense focal remodelling of the immediately adjacent and subjacent bone. Parasagittal fractures of the condyles originated in similar defects. A unifying hypothesis for the aetiopathogenesis of these fractures is presented

  20. Increased sclerostin associated with stress fracture of the third metacarpal bone in the Thoroughbred racehorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, N; Singer, E; Henson, F

    2018-01-01

    The exact aetiology and pathogenesis of microdamage-induced long bone fractures remain unknown. These fractures are likely to be the result of inadequate bone remodelling in response to damage. This study aims to identify an association of osteocyte apoptosis, the presence of osteocytic osteolysis, and any alterations in sclerostin expression with a fracture of the third metacarpal (Mc-III) bone of Thoroughbred racehorses. A total of 30 Mc-III bones were obtained; ten bones were fractured during racing, ten were from the contralateral limb, and ten were from control horses. Each Mc-III bone was divided into a fracture site, condyle, condylar groove, and sagittal ridge. Microcracks and diffuse microdamage were quantified. Apoptotic osteocytes were measured using TUNEL staining. Cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), HtrA1, and sclerostin expression were analyzed. In the fracture group, microdamage was elevated 38.9% (sd 2.6) compared with controls. There was no difference in the osteocyte number and the percentage of apoptotic cells between contralateral limb and unraced control; however, there were significantly fewer apoptotic cells in fractured samples (p fractured samples, sclerostin expression was significantly higher (p bones that have fractured during racing. In this study, this is not associated with osteocyte apoptosis or osteocytic osteolysis. The finding of increased sclerostin in the region of the fracture suggests that this protein may be playing a key role in the regulation of bone microdamage during stress adaptation. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2018;7:94-102. © 2018 Hopper et al.

  1. Surgical management of complete diaphyseal third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures: Clinical outcome in 10 mature horses and 11 foals

    OpenAIRE

    Bischofberger, Andrea S; Fürst, Anton; Auer, Jörg A; Lischer, Christoph J

    2009-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Osteosynthesis of third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bone fractures in horses is a surgical challenge and complications surrounding the repair are common. Retrospective studies evaluating surgical repair, complications and outcome are necessary to increase knowledge and improve success of long bone fracture repair in the horse. Objectives: To evaluate clinical findings, surgical repair, post operative complications and outcome of 10 mature h...

  2. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

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    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  3. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshinobu; Takamori, Hitoshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  4. Nuclear scintigraphic evaluation of third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures in three horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Snyder, J.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Meagher, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy was used to evaluate healing of third metacarpal bone (MC III) fractures in 2 horses (horses 1 and 2) and a third metatarsal bone fracture in 1 horse (horse 3) after stabilization of each fracture with 2 broad dynamic compression plates. In horse 1, the fracture had uniform uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate on days 1, 15, and 30 after surgery. The fracture healed, and the horse was discharged from the clinic on day 52. In horse 2, a 6-cm photopenic region (ie, area of low radioactivity) was seen over the diaphysis of MC III on day 3. The region persisted and became more distinct by day 32. The diaphysis of MC III sequestered, and horse 2 was euthanatized on day 44. In horse 3, vascularity was seen bridging the fracture on day 5, with a 3-cm photopenic region over the dorsal diaphysis of the third metatarsal bone. By days 18 and 32, uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate in the region had increased, indicating vascularization of the site. the fracture healed, and horse 3 was discharged from the clinic on day 47. Our findings indicated that serial nuclear scintigraphy can be used to evaluate fracture vascularization after surgery in horses

  5. Mechanical and morphological properties of trabecular bone samples obtained from third metacarpal bones of cadavers of horses with a bone fragility syndrome and horses unaffected by that syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Jennifer E; Entwistle, Rachel C; Arens, Amanda M; Garcia, Tanya C; Christiansen, Blaine A; Fyhrie, David P; Stover, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    To determine morphological and mechanical properties of trabecular bone of horses with a bone fragility syndrome (BFS; including silicate-associated osteoporosis). Cylindrical trabecular bone samples from the distal aspects of cadaveric third metacarpal bones of 39 horses (19 horses with a BFS [BFS bone samples] and 20 horses without a BFS [control bone samples]). Bone samples were imaged via micro-CT for determination of bone volume fraction; apparent and mean mineralized bone densities; and trabecular number, thickness, and separation. Bone samples were compressed to failure for determination of apparent elastic modulus and stresses, strains, and strain energy densities for yield, ultimate, and failure loads. Effects of BFS and age of horses on variables were determined. BFS bone samples had 25% lower bone volume fraction, 28% lower apparent density, 18% lower trabecular number and thickness, and 16% greater trabecular separation versus control bone samples. The BFS bone samples had 22% lower apparent modulus and 32% to 33% lower stresses, 10% to 18% lower strains, and 41 % to 52% lower strain energy densities at yield, ultimate, and failure loads, compared with control bone samples. Differences between groups of bone samples were not detected for mean mineral density and trabecular anisotropy. Results suggested that horses with a BFS had osteopenia and compromised trabecular bone function, consistent with bone deformation and pathological fractures that develop in affected horses. Effects of this BFS may be systemic, and bones other than those that are clinically affected had changes in morphological and mechanical properties.

  6. [Ex Vivo Testing of Mechanical Properties of Canine Metacarpal/Metatarsal Bones after Simulated Implant Removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, R; Fedorová, P; Pěnčík, J; Vojtová, L; Sedlinská, M; Nečas, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In a long-term perspective, it is better to remove implants after fracture healing. However, subsequent full or excessive loading of an extremity may result in refracture, and the bone with holes after screw removal may present a site with predilection for this. The aim of the study was to find ways of how to decrease risk factors for refracture in such a case. This involved support to the mechanical properties of a bone during its remodelling until defects following implant removal are repaired, using a material tolerated by bone tissue and easy to apply. It also included an assessment of the mechanical properties of a bone after filling the holes in it with a newly developed biodegradable polymer-composite gel ("bone paste"). The composite also has a prospect of being used to repair bony defects produced by pathological processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Experiments were carried out on intact weight-bearing small bones in dogs. A total of 27 specimens of metacarpal/metatarsal bones were used for ex vivo testing. They were divided into three groups: K1 (n = 9) control undamaged bones; K2 (n = 9) control bones with iatrogenic damage simulating holes left after cortical screw removal; EXP (n = 9) experimental specimens in which simulated holes in bone were filled with the biodegradable self-hardening composite. The bone specimens were subjected to three-point bending in the caudocranial direction by a force acting parallel to the direction of drilling in their middiaphyses. The value of maximum load achieved (N) and the corresponding value of a vertical displacement (mm) were recorded in each specimen, then compared and statistically evaluated. RESULTS On application of a maximum load (N), all bone specimens broke in the mid-part of their diaphyses. In group K1 the average maximum force of 595.6 ± 79.5 N was needed to break the bone; in group K2 it was 347.6 ± 58.6 N; and in group EXP it was 458.3 ± 102.7 N. The groups with damaged bones, K2 and

  7. Incomplete longitudinal fracture of the proximal palmar cortex of the third metacarpal bone in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.W.; Ford, T.S.; Orsini, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Seven horses, 2 to 4 years of age, were examined because of moderate-to-severe forelimb lameness, mild effusion of the middle carpal joint (3 horses), and pain on palpation of the origin of the suspensory ligament (4 horses). The lameness was abolished by anesthetic infiltration of the middle carpal joint in six horses. In four of them, a high palmar nerve block also abolished the lameness. A linear radiolucency in the proximal end of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) was interpreted as an incomplete longitudinal fracture. In one horse, distinct intramedullary sclerosis limited to the palmar cortex was indicative of an incomplete fracture confined to the palmar cortex. No osteoproliferative lesions were identified on the dorsal cortex of any of the horses. Surgical treatment with cortical screws in lag fashion accompanied by a rest period was successful in one horse. In four horses, rest for at least 3 months resulted in clinical soundness. In two horses, a shorter rest period resulted in recurrence of the lameness even though the horses were sound when put back into training. Careful clinical and radiographic examinations helped differentiate incomplete longitudinal fractures from lesions involving the carpus and proximal aspect of the suspensory ligament

  8. Histological Features of the Distal Third Metacarpal Bone in Thoroughbred Racehorses, With and Without Lateral Condylar Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, M J; Tranquille, C A; Blunden, A S; Chang, Y M; Parkin, T D H; Murray, R C

    2017-07-01

    A detailed histopathological study of the distal third metacarpal bone of Thoroughbred racehorses was undertaken to characterize lesions observed previously on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The bones were selected and grouped on the basis of MRI features. Representative sections in different planes were processed for histopathology. All lesions observed in the articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) were recorded and graded with a scoring system, based partially on the Osteoarthritis Research Society International grading system. The scoring system included the severity of the lesion. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed effects models were performed. A positive correlation was observed between the severity of histopathological changes in the superficial and deeper osteochondral tissues, and between the number of race starts and AC score. Age was not correlated with AC or SCB score. A moderate variation in AC and SCB scores was observed between the groups; however, there were differences within individual bones. Bones with focal palmar necrosis (FPN) showed significant differences in the histological scoring of the AC compared with bones without FPN. Bones with incomplete fractures or larger areas of bone remodelling showed significant differences in SCB pathology when compared with bones with FPN. Haematoidin was detected in areas with excessive SCB and cancellous bone sclerosis and/or irregular bone density. This finding is suggestive of poor blood perfusion in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of bone mass by image analysis of metacarpal bone roentgenograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Fukunaga, Masao; Ishibashi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Kichiya; Nishii, Yasuho.

    1990-01-01

    A digital image processing (DIP) method for assessing bone mass was developed on the basis of image analysis of roentgenograms. Linearity between DIP values and the actual calcium carbonate content was scarcely affected even if roentgenograms were made with bone phantoms placed in different depths of water or by altering the voltage of X-ray generation. In clinical studies, coefficients of variation (CV) for various measurements were lower than 2.4%. When the correlation between the DIP values and the bone mineral densities in the distal one-third of the radius, and the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae were investigated in 340 females, there were good positive correlations of r=0.799, and r=0.611, respectively (p<0.001). The DIP value was significantly lower in patients showing a low Singh index and in those with vertebral fractures than in other subjects. These results suggest that the DIP method provides an index with which to assess the efficacy of treatment and which can be used as a criterion in screening for osteoporosis. (author)

  10. Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone in 55 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Dyson, S

    2012-01-01

    Previous descriptions of incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) have focused on diagnostic imaging findings, especially in racehorses. To document the case details, clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia, diagnostic imaging findings and follow-up data in a large group of horses with an incomplete longitudinal fracture or fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII. Horses were included in the study if pain was localised to the proximopalmar aspect of the metacarpal region, with radiological evidence of an incomplete longitudinal fracture or generalised increased radiopacity in the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII, or focal increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) in the proximopalmar aspect of the McIII. Age, breed, gender, height, bodyweight, work discipline, work history, duration of lameness, clinical signs and responses to diagnostic analgesia were recorded. Radiographic and scintigraphic images were assessed subjectively and objectively. There were 55 horses representing a broad spectrum of ages and work disciplines, 73% of which had radiological abnormalities. The majority had no localising clinical signs, although 73% of horses with radiological abnormalities showed a characteristic pattern of lameness. Lameness was generally worse in straight lines than in circles. Increased radiopharmaceutical uptake ranged from mild to intense in the lame limb; 14% of nonlame limbs had mild IRU. Of horses for which long-term follow-up was available, 98% returned to full athletic function. Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII may occur in horses of many types and sports disciplines, and are not confined to immature performance horses. They should be considered an important differential diagnosis for proximal metacarpal region pain. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Qualitative assessment of bone density at the distal articulating surface of the third metacarpal in Thoroughbred racehorses with and without condylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughridge, A B; Hess, A M; Parkin, T D; Kawcak, C E

    2017-03-01

    Changes in subchondral bone density, induced by the repetitive cyclical loading of exercise, may potentiate fatigue damage and the risk of fracture. To use computed tomography (CT) to characterise bone density patterns at the articular surface of the third metacarpal bone in racehorses with and without lateral condylar fractures. Case control METHODS: Computed tomographic images of the distal articulating surface of the third metacarpal bone were obtained from Thoroughbred racehorses subjected to euthanasia in the UK. Third metacarpal bones were divided into 3 groups based on lateral condyle status; fractured (FX, n = 42), nonfractured contralateral condyle (NFX, n = 42) and control condyles from horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the third metacarpal bone (control, n = 94). Colour CT images were generated whereby each colour represented a range of pixel values and thus a relative range of bone density. A density value was calculated qualitatively by estimating the percentage of each colour within a specific region. Subchondral bone density was assessed in 6 regions from dorsal to palmar and 1 mm medial and lateral to the centre of the lateral parasagittal groove in NFX and control condyles and 1 mm medial and lateral to the fracture in FX condyles. Bone density was significantly higher in the FX and NFX condyles compared with control condyles for all 6 regions. A significantly higher bone density was observed in FX condyles relative to NFX condyles in the lateral middle and lateral palmar regions. Fractured condyles had increased heterogeneity in density among the 6 regions of interest compared with control and NFX condyles. Adjacent to the fracture, a focal increase in bone density and increased heterogeneity of density were characteristic of limbs with lateral condylar fractures compared with control and NFX condyles. These differences may represent pathological changes in bone density that increase the risk for lateral condylar fractures in

  12. Structural variation of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, C.M.; Whitehouse, G.H.; Boyde, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of sectors with contrasting density in the equine third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones with a view to explaining the aetiology of distal condylar fractures. Macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were used in the nondestructive study of bones obtained from horses, most of which were Thoroughbreds in race training. Distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII were also studied in microradiographs of 100 mu m thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces. Qualitative and quantitative results from all methods used (radiography, CTand microradiographic stereology) demonstrated densification (sclerosis) of subchondral bone located in the palmar/plantar regions of the medial and lateral condyles of both McIII and MtIII, Substantial density gradients between the denser condyles and the subchondral bone of the sagittal groove were shown to equate with anatomical differences in loading intensity during locomotion. It is hypothesised that such differences in bone density results in stress concentration at the palmar/plantar aspect of the condylar grooves, which may predispose to fracture

  13. Internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones using bioabsorbable screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageed, M; Steinberg, T; Drumm, N; Stubbs, N; Wegert, J; Koene, M

    2018-03-01

    Fractures involving the proximal one-third of the splint bone are relatively rare and are challenging to treat. A variety of management techniques have been reported in the literature. The aim of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical presentation and evaluate the efficacy of bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws in internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses. The medical records, diagnostic images and outcome of all horses diagnosed with a proximal fracture of the splint bones and treated with partial resection and internal fixation of the proximal stump using bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Eight horses met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were no complications encountered during screw placement or postoperatively. Six horses returned to full work 3 months after the operation and two horses remained mildly lame. On follow-up radiographs 12 months postoperatively (n = 2) the screws were not completely absorbed. The screws resulted in a cone-shaped radiolucency, which was progressively replaced from the outer margins by bone sclerosis. The use of bioabsorbable screws for fixation of proximal fractures of the splint bone appears to be a safe and feasible technique and may offer several advantages over the use of traditional metallic implants. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Comparative characteristics of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics, belong to, is one of the most commonly used in forensic cases (poaching, fraud, theft, counterfeiting of food of animal origin.For identification of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi as well as finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum there were used distal parts of front limb bones, taken from 6 roe deers and 7 sheep. Afer the separation from the soft tissues, the bones were boiled in an autoclave, and for bleaching and degreasing they were kept in 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The bones were air dried, and then photographed. In roe deer, there are four developed metacarpal bones: the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth. The third and the fourth mrtacarpal bones form one bone, named the main metacarpal bone. The second and the fifth metacarpal bones are connected by con­nective tissue to distal parts of the third and the fourth metacarpal bones. In sheep, there are three developed metacarpal bones: the third, the fourth and the fifth. The thord and the fourth metacarpal bones are, as in roe deer, grown together along the entire length, forming in that way one single bone - the main metacarpal bone. On the distal part of front limb in roe deer there are four fingers, and in sheep two. In roe deer the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth finger are developed, and in sheep, the third and the fourth. Each finger of front limbs, both in roe deer and in sheep, consists of three articles: Phalanx proximalis, Phalanx media i Phalanx distalis. In the case of certain bone missing, a roe deer can be distinguished from a sheep on the basis of the tird article of the third and fourth finger, which is of characteristic appearance. Plantar edge in roe deer is peaked, and in sheep it is blunt. The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics of roe deer

  15. Incomplete palmar fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone in horses: ten cases (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, K.C.K.; Koblik, P.; Ragle, C.; Wheat, J.D.; Lakritz, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 4 adult horses, simple, non displaced, incomplete fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) was identified radiographically only on the dorsopalmar projection. Lameness was slight to moderate. Although nerve blocks of the foot and fetlock did not alter the lameness, high palmar regional nerve block improved the gait in 1 of the 2 horses on which it was performed. Pain on palpation or swollen distal accessory (inferior check) ligament, flexor tendons, and suspensory ligament were not found in any horse. The fracture was localized to the palmar surface of the proximal extremity of the MC3 on the basis of the intense uptake of radiopharmaceutical (99MTc-labeled sodium medronate) observed in that area during the soft tissue and delayed bone phases of a nuclear scintigraphic examination (nuclear scan) performed concurrently with radiography. Of 4 horses evaluated 6 months after the initial diagnosis, 3 had medullary sclerosis without radiographic evidence of fracture; results of follow-up nuclear scintigraphy performed in one of these horses at the same time were normal. Incomplete fracture also was suspected in another 6 adult horses with clinical lameness referable to the proximal extremity of the MC3. Although a fracture line could not be seen radiographically, trabecular hypertrophy and/or medullary sclerosis of the proximal extremity of the MC3 were detected on the dorsopalmar projection. Further, during nuclear scintigraphy, an intense uptake of the radiopharmaceutical was observed on the palmar aspect of the proximal extremity of the MC3 in all 6 horses

  16. Quantitative comparison of bone mineral density characteristics of the distal epiphysis of third metacarpal bones from Thoroughbred racehorses with or without condylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Sophie H; Rogers, Chris W; Bolwell, Charlotte; Roe, Wendi; Gee, Erica; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2016-01-01

    To compare regional proportions and spatial distributions of volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv) of the palmar aspect of the distal epiphysis of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) in limbs with or without a condylar fracture from Thoroughbred racehorses. McIIIs from cadavers of Thoroughbred racehorses with (n = 6 bones) and without (8) a condylar fracture. BMDv and spatial distributions of BMDv in peripheral quantitative CT images of the distal epiphysis of McIIIs were quantitatively assessed with spatial analysis software. Relative proportions of voxels within 9 threshold categories of BMDv and spatial statistics for BMDv distribution were compared between fractured and nonfractured limbs. No significant differences in BMDv characteristics were identified between fractured and nonfractured limbs, although fractured limbs had a lower proportion of voxels in the BMDv thresholds 700 to bone to race training rather than differences between fractured and nonfractured limbs. In both limb groups, uniform clusters of low BMDv with areas of high BMDv were identified. BMDv characteristics of the distal epiphysis of McIII reflected training load, and fracture characteristics were subtle. Serial imaging techniques in conjunction with detailed training data are required to elucidate the onset of the pathological response to load in horses.

  17. Surgical management of complete diaphyseal third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures: clinical outcome in 10 mature horses and 11 foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, A S; Fürst, A; Auer, J; Lischer, C

    2009-05-01

    Osteosynthesis of third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bone fractures in horses is a surgical challenge and complications surrounding the repair are common. Retrospective studies evaluating surgical repair, complications and outcome are necessary to increase knowledge and improve success of long bone fracture repair in the horse. To evaluate clinical findings, surgical repair, post operative complications and outcome of 10 mature horses and 11 foals with McIII or MtIII fractures that were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Medical records were reviewed and follow-up information obtained by means of radiographs and/or telephone questionnaire. Survival was achieved in 62% of the horses (3 mature/10 foals). On long-term evaluation (> 6 months) 11 horses (2 mature/9 foals) were fit for their intended activity, one mature horse had a chronic low grade lameness, and one foal was lost to follow-up because it was sold. The main fracture types were simple transverse (333%) or simple oblique (28.6%) and 71.4% of the fractures were open, 3 Type I (one mature/2 foals) and 12 type II (7 mature/5 foals). The preoperative assessment revealed inadequate emergency treatment in 10 horses (5 mature/5 foals; 47.6%). Survival rate of horses with open fractures was 12.5% (1/8) in mature and 85.7% (6/7) in foals. Post operative incisional infection (4 mature, 3 foals) was only managed successfully in 2 foals. Fracture instability related to inadequate fracture fixation technique occurred in 4 horses (all mature) and was always associated with unsuccessful outcome. Age, bodyweight and infection are strongly associated with outcome in treatment of complete McIII/MtIII fractures. Rigid fixation using plates and screws can be successful in treatment of closed or open, complete diaphyseal McIII/MtIII fractures in mature horses and foals. Instable fixation, infection and a bodyweight > 320 kg are major risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.

  18. Scintigraphic appearance of stress-induced trauma of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone in racing Thoroughbred horses: 121 cases (1978-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Seeherman, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Review of 121 bone scintigrams obtained on racing Thoroughbred horses with clinical histories indicative of forelimb lameness revealed 3 scintigraphic patterns of stress-induced trauma to the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone: (1) focal, intense uptake associated with recent stress fracture; (2) regional uptake of varying intensity or a mixed pattern of uptake associated with chronic stress fracture; and (3) diffuse, mild to moderate uptake associated with periostitis (bucked shins). The latter scintigraphic pattern appeared to be an exaggerated manifestation of the normal remodeling process evident in immature horses (2 to 3 years old). Scintigraphy was most helpful in identifying radiographically occult stress fractures, determining the extent of cortical involvement before surgical intervention in cases of chronic stress fractures, and monitoring the fracture healing process

  19. Comparative characteristics of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi) and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in order to determine animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Miloš; Nikolić Zora; Zorić Zoran; Prokić Bogomir Bolka; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics, belong to, is one of the most commonly used in forensic cases (poaching, fraud, theft, counterfeiting of food of animal origin).For identification of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi) as well as finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) there were used distal parts of front limb bones, taken from 6 roe deers and 7 sheep. Afer the se...

  20. Frequency distributions of 174 fractures of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones in 167 Thoroughbred racehorses (1999-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, B D; Wright, I M

    2012-11-01

    Although fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal condyles are the most common long-bone fractures of Thoroughbred horses in training, limited data on variations in morphology and incidence have been published. Additionally, grouped analyses of previous studies from the UK and USA would permit comparison between study groups and the creation of a substantial pool of international data. Retrospective analysis of case records of horses with fractures of the distal condyles of third metacarpal/metatarsal bones seen over the last 10 years at Newmarket Equine Hospital. The current series was compared with a prior series from the UK; pooled analyses of these, and series from the USA were also compared. One hundred and seventy-four fractures were identified in 167 racehorses. The current series contained a significantly lower proportion of medial condylar fractures than in a similar population 17 years earlier. Fractures that originated more abaxially tended to be shorter, and a significant proportion of lateral condylar fractures arose outside of the condylar groove. There was also some apparent seasonality of fractures of the lateral condyles in 2-year-old horses, but not so in older horses or those with medial condylar fractures. A substantial portion (approximately 50%) of fractures in the present series cannot be explained by unifying theories of aetiopathogenesis, which suggest that fractures usually arise within the condylar groove, as a focus of cumulative fatigue and failure of adaptation of bone. A separate aetiopathogenesis may be responsible for a proportion of condylar fractures encountered in racehorses, and further work is required to elucidate this. Changes in the number of medial condylar fractures encountered may reflect the introduction of artificial racing and training surfaces, and also may reflect changes in the age demographic of horses racing in the UK since the introduction of year-round 'all-weather' racing. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Compressive forces achieved in simulated equine third metacarpal bone lateral condylar fractures of varying fragment thickness with Acutrak Plus screw and 4.5 mm AO cortical screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Sod, Gary A; Burba, Daniel J; Mitchell, Colin F

    2010-01-01

    To compare compression pressure (CP) of 6.5 mm Acutrak Plus (AP) and 4.5 mm AO cortical screws (AO) when inserted in simulated lateral condylar fractures of equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing. Cadaveric equine MC3 bones (n=12 pair). Complete lateral condylar osteotomies were created parallel to the midsagittal ridge at 20, 12, and 8 mm axial to the epicondylar fossa on different specimens grouped accordingly. Interfragmentary compression was measured using a pressure sensor placed in the fracture plane before screw placement for fracture fixation. CP was acquired and mean values of CP for each fixation method were compared between the 6.5 mm (AP) and 4.5 mm (AO) for each group using a paired t-test within each fracture fragment thickness group with statistical significance set at Pfractures, especially complete fractures. Because interfragmentary compression plays a factor in the overall stability of a repair, it is recommended for use only in patients with thin lateral condyle fracture fragments, as the compression tends to decrease with an increase in thickness.

  2. A lateral approach to the repair of propagating fractures of the medial condyle of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bone in 18 racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ian M; Smith, Matthew R W

    2009-08-01

    To report the technique, observations on fracture configurations and results of treatment by fixation lag screw following the fracture plane determined by an approach to the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone (MC3/MT3) that begins laterally over the metacarpo(metatarso)phalangeal joint and extends dorsally over the diaphysis of the bone. Case series. Thoroughbred horses (n=18) with propagating fractures of the medial condyle of MC3/MT3. Retrospective analysis of case records of horses with fractures of the medial condyle of MC3/MT3 that propagated sagittaly or in a spiral configuration into the diaphysis, repaired surgically under general anesthesia by screw fixation in lag fashion through a lateral approach with periosteal reflection. Fractures were readily identified at surgery, enabling screw fixation in lag fashion following the fracture plane. Fracture configurations varied and could be classified as sagittal and spiral fractures with fractures within each group generally following a similar course. All horses recovered relatively uneventfully from general anesthesia and surgery, and all fractures healed well. Thirteen horses returned to training; 5 subsequently raced. Repair of propagating sagittal and spiral fractures of the medial condyle of MC3/MT3 with diaphyseal involvement, through a lateral approach with periosteal reflection permits stable fixation with minimal complications. In this series there were no catastrophic failures. Fractures of the medial condyle of MC3/MT3 that propagate either sagittaly or in a spiral configuration into the diaphysis can be successfully repaired with screw fixation in lag fashion using a lateral approach with periosteal reflection.

  3. Surgical repair of propagating condylar fractures of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bones with cortical screws placed in lag fashion in 26 racehorses (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, N; François, I; Coté, N; Alford, C; Cleary, O; Desjardins, M R

    2018-01-19

    Despite the recommendation of plate fixation for propagating condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or third metatarsal bone (MtIII), lag screw fixation can be a viable surgical option. To evaluate short-term outcome and long-term racing performance of horses that underwent lag screw fixation of long condylar fractures of the McIII/MtIII. Retrospective case series. Medical records, post-surgical racing performance and outcome of 26 horses with propagating fractures of the medial and/or lateral condyle of McIII/MtIII were reviewed. Medical information included were age, breed, sex, physical examination at admission, circumstances of fracture, radiographic evaluation, anaesthesia and recovery records, surgical and post-operative management, as well as complications. Outcome included racing data and information from telephone interviews. Twenty-six horses (9 Standardbreds and 17 Thoroughbreds) were admitted with a long condylar fracture of the McIII/MtIII. Fore- and hindlimbs were equally represented with the left hindlimb being more frequently involved. Most of the fractures had a spiralling component (76%) and four (15%) were comminuted. Fifteen (58%) horses raced post-surgery including nine Standardbreds (100%) and six Thoroughbreds (35%). Twelve of them were placed in at least one race and 11 won at least once. One horse sustained a severe complication in recovery. No significant difference was observed in the racing performances before and after surgery. Follow-up method and duration were not standardised and there is a low number of cases with six surgeons. Long condylar fractures can be repaired using lag fashion technique combined with a half-limb or full-limb tight cast for recovery as a good surgical alternative. Similar results to plate fixation can be expected, with a return to racing of more than 50%, and the prognosis being even better for pacers. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Gender difference in metacarpal descent of fifth metacarpal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Ali, H.; Ghani, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the difference in metacarpal descent of fifth metacarpal between men and women. Skyline of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals were used as reference line, from which the descent of the 5th metacarpal head was measured. The position of 5th metacarpal head was documented as angle X. Metacarpal descent was defined as the difference between angle 'X' in relaxed and clenched fist position. The relaxed position was standardized by placing the forearm, wrist and palm on a shaped woodblock such that the wrist would be held in 25 - 30 degree in extension by a triangular spur, supported the 3rd metacarpal only. It was ensured that the movement of 4th and 5th metacarpals were not impaired. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the significance of means between genders at p < 0.05 level of significance. Metacarpal descent of the 5th metacarpal of both hands was significantly greater for women, with a mean of 7 degree as compared with a mean of 4 degree for the men. This decrease in angle 'X' was significant for the right 5th metacarpal relaxed and fist position and the fist position on the left. In contrast, women showed no significant differences between the various age groups for any of the variables tested.There was no relationship between metacarpal descent and hand dominance.Difference in metacarpal descent between men and women is significant and must be kept in mind when hand function is evaluated in both genders to assess the outcome of treatment and rehabilitation. (author)

  5. Dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone in 30 racehorses: retrospective analysis (1990-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, L R; Nixon, A J; Conway, J D; Morley, P S; Bladon, B M; Hogan, P M

    2014-11-01

    An in-depth review of dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condyle fractures of the third metacarpus or metatarsus has not been previously reported. To describe the technique, evaluate short-term outcome and long-term race performance of racehorses that underwent DCP fixation for repair of propagating or spiralling medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or metatarsal (MtIII) bone. Retrospective case series. The surgical case records of 30 horses with propagating fractures of the medial condyle of McIII or MtIII were reviewed. Medical information included: age, breed, sex, presentation, how injury occurred (racing or training), surgical treatment and post operative complications. Racing information included: starts, top 3 placing and career earnings. Long propagating fractures of the medial condyle of Mc/tIII were identified in 23 Thoroughbred (TB) and 7 Standardbred (STB) racehorses. The fracture spiralled proximally in 22 of 30 cases (73%). Standardbreds had a higher propensity for hindlimb involvement (71%), whereas TBs tended to have more front limb involvement (61%). Twelve of 30 (40%) horses raced post surgery. Career earnings were significantly lower for TB horses with medial condylar fractures; $34,916 when compared with the national average of $60,841 (P≤0.03). Overall, horses having DCP fixation for medial condylar fractures had less starts post surgery (3.1 TBs and 5.8 STBs) compared with the national average (7 TBs and 17.3 STBs) and decreased lifetime starts 13.4 (TBs) compared with 17.3 nationally. Propagating medial condyle fractures can be repaired with plate fixation to potentially lessen the risk of catastrophic fracture destabilisation and return to racing can be expected in 40% of horses. Further prospective studies are warranted comparing lag screw fixation with DCP fixation for repair of severe medial condylar fractures of the metacarpus/metatarsus. © 2013 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal

  6. Miniplating of metacarpal fractures: an outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Trauma to the hand is very common and consequently, metacarpal fractures are not rare entities. Some of these fractures need surgery. Considering the diversity of surgical methods available for these kinds of fractures and also the importance of achieving full function and speedy return to work for patients that are mainly young workers or athletes, this study was undertaken to investigate the outcome of treating these fractures by mini-plates."n"nMethods : Eighteen patients with open or comminuted fractures of metacarpal bones who were admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital between the years 2007 and 2010 underwent fixation surgery using mini-plates. Fourteen patients with 17 metacarpal fractures completed the study."n"nResults : Thirteen out of 14 patients had complete fracture union. The patient with non-union underwent revision surgery and bone graft. Four individuals developed an extensor lag of 15 degrees without functional impairment. Two patients had joint stiffness that was relieved after a period of physiotherapy and one developed wound dehiscence and discharge that improved with debridement and use of antibiotics without plate removal. Six patients had

  7. Computed Tomographic Imaging of Subchondral Fatigue Cracks in the Distal End of the Third Metacarpal Bone in the Thoroughbred Racehorse Can Predict Crack Micromotion in an Ex-Vivo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marie-Soleil; Morello, Samantha; Rayment, Kelsey; Markel, Mark D.; Vanderby, Ray; Kalscheur, Vicki L.; Hao, Zhengling; McCabe, Ronald P.; Marquis, Patricia; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT) and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses). Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (pThoroughbred horses in-vivo to assess risk of condylar fracture. Horses with parasagittal crack arrays that exceed 30 mm2 may have a high risk for development of condylar fracture. PMID:25077477

  8. Effect of diameter of the drill hole on torque of screw insertion and pushout strength for headless tapered compression screws in simulated fractures of the lateral condyle of the equine third metacarpal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ryan S; Galuppo, Larry D; Stover, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    To compare variables for screw insertion, pushout strength, and failure modes for a headless tapered compression screw inserted in standard and oversize holes in a simulated lateral condylar fracture model. 6 pairs of third metacarpal bones from horse cadavers. Simulated lateral condylar fractures were created, reduced, and stabilized with a headless tapered compression screw by use of a standard or oversize hole. Torque, work, and time for drilling, tapping, and screw insertion were measured during site preparation and screw implantation. Axial load and displacement were measured during screw pushout. Effects of drill hole size on variables for screw insertion and screw pushout were assessed by use of Wilcoxon tests. Drill time was 59% greater for oversize holes than for standard holes. Variables for tapping (mean maximum torque, total work, positive work, and time) were 42%, 70%, 73%, and 58% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Variables for screw pushout testing (mean yield load, failure load, failure displacement, and failure energy) were 40%, 40%, 47%, and 71% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Screws could not be completely inserted in 1 standard and 2 oversize holes. Enlarging the diameter of the drill hole facilitated tapping but decreased overall holding strength of screws. Therefore, holes with a standard diameter are recommended for implantation of variable pitch screws whenever possible. During implantation, care should be taken to ensure that screw threads follow tapped bone threads.

  9. Computed tomographic imaging of subchondral fatigue cracks in the distal end of the third metacarpal bone in the thoroughbred racehorse can predict crack micromotion in an ex-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Dubois

    Full Text Available Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3 is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses. Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (p<0.001. In our biomechanical model, we found a significant positive correlation between extensometer micromotion and parasagittal crack area derived from reconstructed CT images (SR = 0.32, p<0.05. Correlations with transverse and frontal plane crack lengths were not significant. Histologic fatigue damage was not significantly correlated with crack dimensions determined by CT or extensometer micromotion. Bones with parasagittal crack area measurements above 30 mm2 may have a high risk of crack propagation and condylar fracture in vivo because of crack micromotion. In conclusion, our results suggest that CT could be used to quantify subchondral fatigue crack dimensions in racing Thoroughbred horses in-vivo to

  10. Computed tomographic imaging of subchondral fatigue cracks in the distal end of the third metacarpal bone in the thoroughbred racehorse can predict crack micromotion in an ex-vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marie-Soleil; Morello, Samantha; Rayment, Kelsey; Markel, Mark D; Vanderby, Ray; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; McCabe, Ronald P; Marquis, Patricia; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT) and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses). Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (pBones with parasagittal crack area measurements above 30 mm2 may have a high risk of crack propagation and condylar fracture in vivo because of crack micromotion. In conclusion, our results suggest that CT could be used to quantify subchondral fatigue crack dimensions in racing Thoroughbred horses in-vivo to assess risk of condylar fracture. Horses with parasagittal crack arrays that exceed 30 mm2 may have a high risk for development of condylar fracture.

  11. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  12. Metacarpal index in short stature before and during growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, M.; Graf, K.; Nelle, M.; Heinrich, U.; Troger, J.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the usefulness of the metacarpal index (MCI) as a radiographic measure of the proportions of the metacarpals in the differential diagnosis of short stature. To investigate the significance of the MCI in following the longitudinal growth and proportions of individual long bones during growth hormone stimulated catch up growth in children with short stature with and without growth hormone deficiency.
SUBJECTS—124 children, including 65 children with short sta...

  13. Exame clínico e radiológico do terceiro metacarpeano em potros Puro Sangue de Corrida em treinamento Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the third metacarpal bone in 2-year-old thoroughbred horses in raining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Gomes de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação clínica e radiológica do terceiro metacarpeano (McIII de 42 potros Puro Sangue de Corrida de dois anos de idade, em treinamento, realizou-se a cada 15 dias. Vinte e cinco potros foram acompanhados durante dois meses e 17 durante os quatro meses anteriores a sua participação na primeira corrida. Nas radiografias (projeção lateromedial, foram avaliadas o córtex dorsal (CD do McIII e a espessura do CD, do córtex palmar e da zona medular para determinação do índice radiológico (IR. Não foram observadas alterações radiológicas no CD do McIII nos potros que manifestaram periostite metacarpeana dorsal (PM aguda. O aumento tanto do CD, como do IR, entre as avaliações foi significativo (PThe third metacarpal bones (McIII of 42 2-year-old thoroughbreds in training were evaluated clinically and radiologically every 15 days. The evaluation was performed during 2 and 4 month, prior to the first race of 25 and17 horses, respectively. X-rays were taken using latero-medial projection. Dorsal cortex (DC was evaluated on the X-rays and DC, palmar cortex and medular zone were measured in order to determine the radiologic index (RI. No radiographic changes were observed on the DC of the McIII of horses clinically affected by dorsal metacarpal disease (DMD. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 in DC thickness and RI between evaluations of both, healthy and DMD affected McIII. DC thickness also showed a significant increase between affected and not affected McIII. A larger increase in DC thickness was observed at evaluation before the one in which DMD was diagnosed. In conclusion, the increase in DC thickness could be used as a diagnostic tool for early recognition of DMD allowing adoption of preventive measures.

  14. [Staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang-Hua; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Huang, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Xin, Da-Wei; Xu, Can-Da

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effcacy of the staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury. From May 2009 to November 2012,16 patients with hamate metacarpal joint injury were treated with staple fixation including 10 males and 6 females with an average age of 33.6 years old ranging from 21 to 57 years. Among them, 11 cases were on the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation without fractures, 5 cases were the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation with avulsion fractures of the back of hamatum. Regular X-ray review was used to observe the fracture healing, joint replacement and position of staple fixation. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were evaluated according to ASIA (TAM) system evaluation method. All incision were healed well with no infection. All patients were followed up from 16 to 24 months with an average of (10.0 +/- 2.7) months. No dislocation recurred, the position of internal fixator was good,no broken nail and screw withdrawal were occurred. Five patients with avulsion fracture of the back of hamatum achieved bone healing. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal was excellent in 10 cases,good in 5 cases, moderate in 1 case. The application of the staple for the treatment of hamatometacarpal joint injury has the advantages of simple operation, small trauma, reliable fixation, early postoperative function exercise and other advantages, which is the ideal operation mode for hamatometacarpal joint injury.

  15. [Metacarpal osteoarticular injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehanno, P; Mas, V; Fitoussi, F; Frajman, J-M; Valenti, P; Mazda, K

    2013-09-01

    Metacarpal fractures and dislocations in the fingers are common injuries in children's hands. Most of these can be treated successfully non-operatively, although a subset requires more aggressive treatment. Results following appropriate care in children are generally good. Twenty percent of them need a reduction, need for surgical stabilization is rare. Each injury is presented, including diagnostic, therapeutic principles, pitfalls to prevent and potential complications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Some observations on lameness associated with pain in the proximal metacarpal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The carpus and metacarpus of 40 horses which were free from lameness and 40 horses with lameness associated with the metacarpophalangeal joint or more distal limb were examined radiographically (Group A). The opacity of the proximal third of the third metacarpal bone was regular, with a uniform trabecular pattern. Osseous cyst-like lesions (OCLLs) were identified in the radial carpal bone (1), the ulnar carpal bone (2), the second carpal bone (15) and the fourth carpal bone (1). Thirty-one of 638 horses (4.8 percent) with forelimb lameness had pain localised to the proximal metacarpal region using local anaesthesia (Group B). All these horses were examined radiographically and an ultrasonographic examination was performed in seven. No definitive diagnosis was reached in 16 horses, seven of which had an OCLL in one of the carpal bones or the second metacarpal bone. One horse had, in addition to a poorly defined lucent area in the second carpal bone, radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease of the carpometacarpal joint and an hypoechoic lesion in the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon. One horse had an hypoechoic lesion in the proximal part of the suspensory ligament. Abnormalities of the trabecular structure of the third metacarpal bone were identified in 13 horses. In 11 of these there was a vertically orientated lucent line, usually surrounded by sclerotic bone. These lucent lines may represent fatigue fractures seen end on. In one horse an horizontal lucent line was seen. One of these 13 horses also had a lesion in the proximal part of the suspensory ligament. Ten of the 13 (77 per cent) horses with presumed fractures of the third metacarpal bone recovered completely, whereas only eight of the 16 (50 per cent) horses in which no definitive diagnosis was reached returned to their former function

  17. Nutrition and growth: assessing the impact of regional nutritional intake on childhood development and metacarpal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Covino, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    Measuring skeletal development throughout juvenile growth can provide a greater understanding into the health, hormonal function and genetics of children. The metacarpals have been of interest for their potential to provide insights into healthy juvenile skeletal development. This study investigated the growth patterns of developing females from isolated communities who had varied diets. Anthropometrical measurements and hand-wrist X-rays were taken of 353 juvenile females from three populations: Pari Coastal Village and Bundi Highlands Village, Papua New Guinea (PNG); and Brisbane, Australia between 1968 to 1983. Radiographs were digitized, and the length and width of the second and third metacarpals compared to each subject's height and weight. As subject heights increased, metacarpal length and width increased. However, stature and second metacarpal length indicated the strongest correlation ( P regional intake of protein in their diets. The second metacarpal presents particularly accurate measurements when determining the height or development of a child. Nutritional intake appears to have a major influence normal childhood growth, with a potential for protein deficiency to strongly inhibit growth. Any delayed growth is particularly evident in the child's stature, as well as in the development of the metacarpal long bones of the hand.

  18. What is the real angle of deviation of metacarpal neck fractures on oblique views? A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur de Góes Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish an indirect, easy-to-use, predictable and safe means of obtaining the true degree of displacement of fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone, through oblique radiographic views. METHODS: An anatomical specimen from the fifth human metacarpal was dissected and subjected to ostectomy in the neck region. A 1-mm Kirschner wire was fixed to the base of the fifth metacarpal bone, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bone and parallel to the ground. Another six Kirschner wires of the same diameter were bent over and attached to the ostectomized bone to simulate fracture displacement. Axial rotation of the metacarpus was used to create oblique radiographic views. Radiographic images were generated with different angles and at several degrees of rotation of the bone. RESULTS: We deduced a mathematical formula that showed the true displacement of fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone by means of oblique radiographs. CONCLUSIONS: Oblique radiographs at 30° of supination provided the best view of the bone and least variation from the real value of the displacement of fractures of the fifth metacarpal bone. The mathematical formula deduced was concordant with the experimental model used.

  19. The association between metacarpal ratio, radiographic hand and knee osteoarthritis and its progression after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, P T; Lohmander, Stefan; Englund, Martin Kristian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the ratio of the second and fourth metacarpal bone length (MC2:MC4) in subjects with prior meniscectomy of the knee is associated with radiographic hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and its progression. DESIGN: We assessed 219 subjects (175 men and 44 women) twice...

  20. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  1. Familial short fifth metacarpals and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyari, Muwafag; Hamamy, Hanan; Barham, Muries; Ajlouni, Kamel; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2006-01-01

    Very few reports on the phenotype of short fifth metacarpals have been published in the medical literature. We report a Jordanian family in which three sisters aged 15, 13 and 8 years revealed bilateral shortening of the fifth fingers and radiological shortening of the fifth metacarpals. The father had unilateral short fifth metacarpal. The elder two sisters, their father as well as their brother and another sister manifested insulin resistance. Spherocytosis was diagnosed in one of the girls and her father. The parents are non-consanguineous. This constellation of findings has not been previously reported and could point to the presence of two disorders segregating in the family or to a novel syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expressivity. (orig.)

  2. Effects of rotation radiographic dimensions of metacarpals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armes, F.M.; Horsman, A.; Bentley, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described which shows that small rotations of metacarpals about their long axis produce small systematic changes in the cortical dimensions as measured by radiographic morphometry. The effect is of no significance in cross-sectional studies but is an important source of error in sequential studies. (author)

  3. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  4. A Rare Complete Metacarpal Pseudoepiphysis in a Teenager With a Scaphoid Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Rachel B; Colberg, Ricardo E

    2017-11-01

    A 13-yr-old adolescent boy presented with wrist pain after falling off a scooter onto his outstretched hand. Radiographs revealed a nondisplaced hairline fracture of the scaphoid bone and an irregular radiolucent line in the proximal metaphysis of the second metacarpal bone, consistent with an anomalous growth plate, or complete pseudoepiphysis. Complete pseudoepiphysis is a rare finding, with only a few cases reported. Learning about the common locations of growth plates and the radiographic differences between normal, injured, and anomalous growth plates can help decrease physician error and improve patient outcomes.

  5. Metacarpal lengthening in children: comparison of three different techniques in 15 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, C; Aurégan, J-C; Salon, A; Guéro, S; Glorion, C; Pannier, S

    2016-09-22

    Metacarpal lengthening is a useful procedure to address hand deficiencies in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of three different techniques from one consecutive clinical series of hand deficiencies. A total of 15 metacarpal lengthenings have been performed in 12 children aged from 9 to 14 years. The callotasis technique was used in seven cases, the two-stage distraction-graft technique in four cases and the single-stage lengthening in four cases. All the metacarpals healed with bone. The lengthening obtained was a mean of 13 mm (range 8-21 mm), a mean of 22 mm (range 13-32 mm) and a mean of 12 mm (range 9-15 mm), respectively, in the three different techniques. The healing index was longer for callotasis (81 days/cm) compared with the other techniques (41 days/cm and 46 days/cm, respectively). We observed one case of fracture after callotasis and one after distraction-graft. One patient underwent tenolysis of the extensor mechanism after single-stage lengthening. In conclusion, distraction graft and single-stage lengthening may be valuable alternatives to callotasis. IV; therapeutic study; multi-case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Avascular Necrosis of the Metacarpal Head: A Review of 4 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhayel, Salah; Ghanad, Erfan; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2018-04-03

    To report on 4 cases of avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head. We retrospectively reviewed 4 patients who received a diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head and were treated from 2000 to 2016. All patients were males with involvement of the dominant hand. Three patients had a history of trauma and/or fractures in another finger and one had a history of fracture in the same finger. The diagnosis was confirmed on regular x-rays and magnetic resonance imaging. Nonsurgical management was offered to all patients (rest, placement of an orthosis, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for 3 to 6 months. Two patients responded well to nonsurgical management and improved in their symptoms. One patient refused surgical intervention and continued to have persistent pain. The other patient was treated with curettage and bone graft and had total resolution of pain symptoms with full active range of motion. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose and treat avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head correctly. Treatment options are numerous and require further studies to investigate their effectiveness in the treatment of this rare disease. Therapeutic V. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Salter-Harris type II metacarpal and metatarsal fracture in three foals. Treatment by minimally-invasive lag screw osteosynthesis combined with external coaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein Bregger, Micaël D; Fürst, Anton E; Kircher, Patrick R; Kluge, Katharina; Kummer, Martin

    2016-05-18

    To describe minimally-invasive lag screw osteosynthesis combined with external coaptation for the treatment of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal and third metatarsal bone fractures. Three foals aged two weeks to four months with a Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fracture. Surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia in lateral recumbency. After fracture reduction, the metaphyseal fragment was stabilized with two cortical screws placed in lag fashion under fluoroscopic control. A cast was applied for at least two weeks. All foals had a good outcome with complete fracture healing and return to complete soundness without any angular limb deformity. All foals had moderate transient digital hyperextension after cast removal. Internal fixation of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fractures with two cortical screws in lag fashion, combined with external coaptation provided good stabilization and preserved the longitudinal growth potential of the injured physis.

  8. Biomechanical study in vitro on the use of self-designed external fixator in diaphyseal III metacarpal fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, B; Potyński, A; Wajler, C; Szara, T; Czopowicz, M; Drewnowska, O

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of the III metacarpal bone represent 22% of all fractures of the long bones in horses. Treatment of such cases is difficult. The most popular solution used in these types of fractures is two plates applied directly to the bone surface, but they are not applicable on contaminated and infected fractures. External fixators are quite commonly used in human medicine, although in veterinary practice there is no typical stabilizer designed for the treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the III metacarpal bone so far. In this study, an external semicircular fixator of our own design was used and in vitro strength tests were conducted to determine the maximum force which would lead to the destruction of non-fractured bone and fractured bone treated with the stabilizer. On the basis of the strength tests, we can conclude that the stabilizer can be strong enough to allow the horse to stand up after surgery. It also has many favorable features which make it easy to assemble and to take care of a wound, while being safe enough for the animal at the same time.

  9. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Tuebingen (Germany); Jenni, Oskar G. [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Centre, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert {sup registered}, a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert registered , a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  11. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  12. Biomechanical comparison of double-row locking plates versus single- and double-row non-locking plates in a comminuted metacarpal fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Varun K; Szabo, Robert M; Myo, George K; Curtiss, Shane B

    2009-12-01

    Open or unstable metacarpal fractures frequently require open reduction and internal fixation. Locking plate technology has improved fixation of unstable fractures in certain settings. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be a difference in strength of fixation using double-row locking plates compared with single- and double-row non-locking plates in comminuted metacarpal fractures. We tested our hypothesis in a gap metacarpal fracture model simulating comminution using fourth-generation, biomechanical testing-grade composite sawbones. The metacarpals were divided into 6 groups of 15 bones each. Groups 1 and 4 were plated with a standard 6-hole, 2.3-mm plate in AO fashion. Groups 2 and 5 were plated with a 6-hole double-row 3-dimensional non-locking plate with bicortical screws aimed for convergence. Groups 3 and 6 were plated with a 6-hole double-row 3-dimensional locking plate with unicortical screws. The plated metacarpals were then tested to failure against cantilever apex dorsal bending (groups 1-3) and torsion (groups 4-6). The loads to failure in groups 1 to 3 were 198 +/- 18, 223 +/- 29, and 203 +/- 19 N, respectively. The torques to failure in groups 4 to 6 were 2,033 +/- 155, 3,190 +/- 235, and 3,161 +/- 268 N mm, respectively. Group 2 had the highest load to failure, whereas groups 5 and 6 shared the highest torques to failure (p row plates had equivalent bending and torsional stiffness, significantly higher than observed for the single-row non-locking plate. No other statistical differences were noted between groups. When subjected to the physiologically relevant forces of apex dorsal bending and torsion in a comminuted metacarpal fracture model, double-row 3-dimensional non-locking plates provided superior stability in bending and equivalent stability in torsion compared with double-row 3-dimensional locking plates, whereas single-row non-locking plates provided the least stability.

  13. [Intramedullary osteosynthesis of distal metacarpal fractures with curved wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, M; Winkel, R; Porcher, R; Haas, H G

    1997-07-01

    When intramedullary pinning is used to treat metacarpal fractures, as recently described by Förstner (1994) and Foucher (1995), the closed reduction technique developed by Jahss (1938) is applied in the same way as for conservative fracture treatment. It is not always possible to achieve complete anatomical reduction using this closed technique. The intramedullary pinning technique, that we have applied since 1989, involves a Kirschner wire which is bent at one end. Apart from reducing the fracture, the pre-set Kirschner wire serves as a butressing internal fixator. The elastic clamping of the wire acts as an internal wire spring splint, permitting early mobilisation. We have operated on 62 metacarpal fractures using the above-mentioned technique over a period of 6 years until 1995. Anatomic reduction was realized in 50 of 62 fractures. In the follow-up of 32 fractures, we noticed four complications: one infection, two paraesthesias, and one non-union.

  14. Metacarpal index in Marfan's syndrome and in constitutional tall stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelle, M; Tröger, J; Rupprath, G; Bettendorf, M

    1994-01-01

    The metacarpal index (MCI) in 54 children with constitutional tall stature was mean (SD) 8.65 (0.8) and in 55 with Marfan's syndrome 9.15 (0.9). Indices in both groups showed arachnodactyly and differed from those found in normal individuals (< 7.9). Because the MCI is a poor discriminator patients with tall stature or clinical signs of arachnodactyly should be examined for additional signs of Marfan's syndrome or other hereditary disorders of connective tissue.

  15. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF METACARPAL AND PHALANGAL FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Margić

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In past three years we have used smallexternal fixator in the treatment of: 18 closed fractures of metacarpalbones, 15 phalangeal fractures, four dislocated fracturesof MCP and five of PIP joint, ten arthrodesis, five replantations/revascularisations, two pathological fractures, and infew post-traumatic infection of bones and joints.Results. Results were graded as excellent (completely normalfunction, very good (15° deficit of total ROM, good (30° deficitof total ROM; can flex the fingers to the palm, and poor.Excellent result was obtained in the treatment of all 18 metacarpalfractures. The final results in the treatment of 12 closedfragmentated fractures of phalanges were as follows: excellent3, very good 2, good 2 and five poor results (three patientsin this group have fallen on their hands causing refractureand reoperation. Three of four fractures of MCP joint andfour of five fractures involving PIP joint have good mobility.In eight of ten patients arthrodeses are stable and withoutpain. In two cases pathological fractures were first stabilizedand than the tumor was evacuated and grafted with minimaldissection; booth have good results.Conclusion. Author suggests that, in selected cases, with applicationof small external fixator reasonable good results can beobtained.

  16. Evaluation of transfixation casting for treatment of third metacarpal, third metatarsal, and phalangeal fractures in horses: 37 cases (1994-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescun, Timothy B; McClure, Scott R; Ward, Michael P; Downs, Christopher; Wilson, David A; Adams, Stephen B; Hawkins, Jan F; Reinertson, Eric L

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate clinical findings, complications, and outcome of horses and foals with third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or phalangeal fractures that were treated with transfixation casting. Retrospective case series. Animals-29 adult horses and 8 foals with fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone or the proximal or middle phalanx. Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression models for survival, fracture healing, return to intended use, pin loosening, pin hole lysis, and complications associated with pins. In 27 of 35 (77%) horses, the fracture healed and the horse survived, including 10 of 15 third metacarpal or metatarsal bone fractures, 11 of 12 proximal phalanx fractures, and 6 of 8 middle phalanx fractures. Four adult horses sustained a fracture through a pin hole. One horse sustained a pathologic unicortical fracture secondary to a pin hole infec-tion. Increasing body weight, fracture involving 2 joints, nondiaphyseal fracture location, and increasing duration until radiographic union were associated with horses not returning to their intended use. After adjusting for body weight, pin loosening was associated with di-aphyseal pin location, pin hole lysis was associated with number of days with a transfixation cast, and pin complications were associated with hand insertion of pins. Results indicated that transfixation casting can be successful in managing fractures distal to the carpus or tarsus in horses. This technique is most suitable for comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx but can be used for third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or middle phalanx fractures, with or without internal fixation.

  17. Performance Outcomes After Metacarpal Fractures in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.

  18. Response of cortical bone to antiresorptive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, J T; Sørensen, T K

    2001-01-01

    of the spine, hip, and forearm. Longitudinal changes in bone densitometry were compared with changes captured by DXR: BMD evaluated by DXR (BMDDXR), cortical thickness of the second metacarpal (CTMC2), and porosity of cortical bone. The expected annual postmenopausal reduction in BMD in the control group...... treatment regimens used in the prevention of osteoporosis....

  19. Exercise does not affect stiffness and mineralisation of third metacarpal condylar subarticular calcified tissues in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VL Ferguson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact exercise has a profound effect in increasing volumetric density of epiphyseal bone, as clearly shown in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses from which we derived the tissue studied in the present investigation. Here, we asked the question whether the fabric-level properties of the mineralised tissues immediately below hyaline articular cartilage which transmit the extra loads are themselves altered in consequence. We therefore studied the nanoindentation elastic modulus and its relationship to the concentration of mineral determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in the heavily loaded palmar medial and lateral condyles of the distal third metacarpal bone (Mc3 of 4 untrained and 4 trained 2-year old Thoroughbred racehorses. We found no difference between trained and untrained horses in either subchondral bone or calcified cartilage in the mean stiffness or mineral content or their correlation. Thus neither articular calcified cartilage nor the immediately adjacent subchondral bone were affected by exercise, even though they transmitted the higher load associated with athletic training through to the deeper bone, which itself responded floridly to exercise. Under the circumstances of this experiment and at least in the very small regions studied, therefore, the structure of these two tissues was apparently optimised to function.

  20. Extra-articular fractures of the digital metacarpals and phalanges of the long fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nen, D

    2014-02-01

    Metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of the long fingers are the result of trauma occurring under extremely varied circumstances. As a consequence, the clinical presentation varies greatly, with every bone and joint potentially being involved. Each step of their treatment is crucial, although the benign appearance of these injuries can lead to steps being missed: diagnostic phase with clinical examination and radiographs; therapeutic phase where the most suitable treatment is chosen, which combines mobilization of the digital chains as soon as possible and in every patient; follow-up phase with regular monitoring to detect any complications, especially secondary displacement, and verify that good progress is being made during rehabilitation. The goal of any fracture treatment is to preserve or restore the anatomy, with the emphasis here being on the stability and mobility of the digital chains. The potential progression towards serious functional sequelae (pain, instability or stiffness in hand) and the resulting significant socio-economic repercussions must be at the forefront of a surgeon's mind early on during the initial care of any finger or hand trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type using multidetector CT and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Ebina, Shunsuke [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    We report a case of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type (CDP-TM) that was diagnosed prenatally using multidetector CT (MDCT) with three-dimensional (3-D) CT reconstructions. Prenatal US had shown severe thoracic hypoplasia and rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, raising the suspicion of thanatophoric dysplasia. However, MDCT showed punctate calcifications in the epiphyseal cartilage of the humeri and femora, carpal bones, and paravertebral region. On 3-D CT, the tibiae were much shorter than the fibulae, the humeri were very short and bowed, and severe platyspondyly was evident. These findings led to the diagnosis of CDP-TM. The diagnosis was confirmed on postnatal radiographs. Prenatal MDCT with 3-D images may make a useful contribution to prenatal diagnosis in selected fetuses with severe skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  2. Anatomic Assessment of K-Wire Trajectory for Transverse Percutaneous Fixation of Small Finger Metacarpal Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandizio, Louis C; Speeckaert, Amy; Kozick, Zach; Klena, Joel C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study is to evaluate the trajectory of percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement for fifth metacarpal fractures relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for the treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. Using 12 unmatched fresh human upper limbs, we evaluated the trajectory of percutaneous transverse K-wire placement relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. The midpoint of the small and ring finger metacarpals in the sagittal plane was identified at 3 points. At each point, a K-wire was inserted from the small finger metacarpal into the midpoint of the ring finger metacarpal ("center-center" position). The angle of the transverse K-wire relative to the table needed to achieve a center-center position averaged 20.8°, 18.9°, and 16.7° for the proximal diaphysis, middiaphysis, and the collateral recess, respectively. Approximately 80% of transversely placed K-wires obtained purchase in the long finger metacarpal. These results can serve as a guide to help surgeons in the accurate placement of percutaneous K-wires for small finger metacarpal fractures and may aid in surgeon training.

  3. Interobserver Variability in the Treatment of Little Finger Metacarpal Neck Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosti, Rick; Ilyas, Asif M.; Mellema, Jos J.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; Spoor, A. B.; Shafritz, A. B.; Platz, A.; Berner, A.; Terrono, A. L.; Jubel, A.; Kreis, B. E.; Hearon, B. F.; Bottke, C. A.; Broekhuyse, H.; Buckley, R.; Watkins, B.; Fernandes, C. H.; Metzger, C.; Taleb, C.; Bainbridge, L. C.; Cornell, C.; van Deurzen, D. F. P.; Osei, D. A.; Haverkamp, D.; Oloruntoba, D. O.; Eygendaal, D.; Verbeek, D. O. F.; Kalainov, D. M.; Polatsch, D.; Melvanki, P.; Shafi, M.; van Riet, R.; Ruchelsman, D.; Duncan, S. F.; Pemovska, E. Stojkovska; Tolo, E. T.; Schumer, E. D.; Frihagen, F.; Raia, F. J.; DeSilva, G.; Dyer, G. S. M.; Frykman, G. K.; Doornberg, J. N.; Ponsen, K. J.; Kloen, P.; Haverlag, R.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To address the null hypothesis that surgeons shown radiographs of little finger metacarpal neck fractures with measured fracture angulation would recommend surgery as often as surgeons shown unmarked radiographs. Methods Members of the Science of Variation Group, an international

  4. Early outcomes of pyrolytic carbon hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of trapezial-metacarpal arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez de Aragon, J. S.; Moran, Steven L.; Rizzo, Marco; Reggin, Kirsten B.; Beckenbaugh, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pyrolytic carbon implants have been successfully used in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. Recently, pyrolytic carbon hemiarthroplasties have been proposed for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the trapezial-metacarpal (TM)

  5. Osteoporosis of the slender smoker. Vertebral compression fractures and loss of metacarpal cortex in relation to postmenopausal cigarette smoking and lack of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, H W

    1976-03-01

    A group of thirty-eight women under age 70 who sustained vertebral compression fractures during minor trauma included more postmenopausal smokers than a group of 34 similar women with fractures resulting from major trauma and more than a group of 572 other women. Advanced idiopathic osteoporosis occurring before age 65 was found rarely among nonsmokers. The percent cortical area at the second metacarpal midpoint was measured in 103 white women aged 40 to 49 years, and 208 white women aged 60 to 69 years. In the younger group, no quantitative differences were demonstrated between bones of the obese and the nonobese or between smokers and nonsmokers. In contrast, among the older group, postmenopausal smokers exhibited much more bone loss than did nonsmokers (P less than .001), and nonobese women demonstrated much more bone loss than did obese women, this difference being most striking among smokers.

  6. HEALING OF ARTICULAR AND PERIARTICULAR METACARPAL AND PHALANGEAL FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Kruščić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary treatment of 779 closed epiphysial, diaphyseal, comminutive, oblique and periarticular fractures of metacarpals and phalanges was carried out with painless reposition and fixation with a plaster splint. In 435 cases, fracture slides occurred after one week. For correction, the ligamentotaxis metod with aluminium (Alu- splint and Softcast plaster was used. This method allows the retaining of a good position of fractured fragments after reposition by neutralization of the pathologic action of kinetic vectors on these fragments. Our goal in using this method is to stabilize the fractured fragments individually with consideration of soft tissues.Methods. In local (in the fracture or Oberst analgesia, a correct size Alu-splint is placed over the wad-protected skin on the volar or dorsal side of the hand. The Alu-splint is fixed with Urgopore proximally and distally from the fracture. Then, correction using the reduction technique over the Alu-splinting is done. Such correction is followed by X-ray control and if the fragments are in good position, the construction is fixed with plaster. One week later, X-ray control verifies the position of broken parts.Results. In the year 2000, 740 outpatients with a total of 779 (100% metacarpal and phalangeal fractures were treated. There were 569 (73% men and 210 (27% women. The incidence in men was highest in the 10–19 years age group with 143 fractures. In the 50–59 years group, the incidence was equal in men and women (69 fractures. The highest prevalence of fracture slides was in the group of proximal phalanx fractures (190 fractures or 44%. X-ray control after one week showed 435 (56% fracture slides in immobilization with plaster. This high percentage is due to a severe damage to skeletal connective tissue. 321 (41% fractures were re-repositioned with ligamentotaxis, 172 (22% fracture slides were treated using other methods (e.g. surgery. 385 (49% fractures treated with

  7. Urinary and Anthropometrical Indices of Bone Density in Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements on the x-ray of the 2nd metacarpal of the right hand and 2h fasting urine sample were used in a cross sectional study to assess urinary indices of bone density (bone mass, percentage cortical area, PCA) in 94 healthy Nigerian adults aged between 19-72 years. Body mass index (BMI) was also estimated.

  8. Bone age assessment by digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm which allows bone age assessment by digital radiological images was developed. For geometric parameters extraction, the phalangeal and metacarpal regions of interest are enhanced and segmented, through spatial and morphological filtering. This study is based on perimeter, length and area, from distal to proximal portions. The quantification of these parameters make possible comparison between chronological and skeletal age, using growth standard tables

  9. A Novel Handmade External Fixator for Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The value of external fixation in complex hand injuries is well established. Expenses and technical difficulties of commercial mini external fixator sets have led to the innovation of handmade external fixators. These fixators are used as versatile facilities to treat certain hand fractures. Usually, these structures are made by k-wires crossed filled with cement plastic tube. However, these fixators have multiple deficiencies that should be addressed. Objectives In this study, we described in detail the surgical technique of a handmade concrete like mini external fixator and report its clinical use and results. Methods Our handmade external fixator was applied for 52 patients with 56 fractures. Only 5% of the fractures were closed, non-comminuted extra-articular, and the other 51 fractures were more complex injuries. The mean follow up time was 9.3 months. At the end of the follow up, radiologic and functional assessment (DASH: Disability of arm, shoulder and hand and TAM: Total active motion was evaluated. Results All 56 fractures were united completely. None of the cases experienced pin loosening or reduction loss. Of the fractures, 8.9% malunited due to fracture complexity. The mean dash score was 3.76. TAM was excellent in 45% of the fractures; it was good in 7% and fair in 4%. Conclusions This type of handmade external fixator is simple, lightweight, and cheap. Furthermore, all implements are readily available in most operating fields. The probability of loosening has been greatly diminished because of the concrete like structure. Easy and fast assembly and good clinical and functional results are the other advantages of this technique. Due to the less complication and benefits, this technique could be used for many phalangeal and metacarpal fractures with confidence.

  10. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  11. Dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis associated with unilateral absent first metacarpal: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kodliwadmath

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis is a less common variety of valvular pulmonary stenosis. It is known to be part of Noonan syndrome. Bony hand anomalies in patients of pulmonary stenosis are very rare. Case report: A 50-year-old lady, with no significant past history, presented with slowly progressive breathlessness and fatigue, and had progressed from NYHA class 1 to 2 over 2 years. She had unilateral absent first metacarpal and diagnosed on workup to have dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis and was treated with balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion: Dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis can rarely be associated with bony hand anomalies like absent first metacarpal.

  12. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Alessandro [National Scientific and Technological Development Council, Ministry of Science and Technology, SEPN 509, Bloco A, Sala 204, 70750-901 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil); Reichmann, Peter [Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Agricultural Science Centre/Londrina State University, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Gamba, Humberto Remigio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Av. 7 de setembro 3165, 80230-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-12-07

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s{sup -1}, in steps of 1 mm s{sup -1}, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  13. Sensorineural deafness, abnormal genitalia, synostosis of metacarpals and metatarsals 4 and 5, and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendioroz, Jacobo; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Suárez, Etelvina

    2005-01-01

    been described as an isolated Mendelian defect, as part of multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) patterns, and in different syndromes. Among a total of 2,023,155 liveborn infants in the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC), we observed only two cases with this type of metacarpal...

  14. One-stage thumb lengthening with use of an osteocutaneous 2nd metacarpal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givissis, Panagiotis; Stavridis, Stavros I; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2009-12-01

    Traumatic thumb amputation represents an extremely disabling entity, thus rendering its reconstruction a procedure of paramount importance. A case of a patient, who sustained a traumatic amputation of his left index finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint and of his left thumb in the middle of the proximal phalanx 4 months ago and was initially treated elsewhere, is described. For the thumb reconstruction, an osteocutaneous flap of the radial side of the 2nd metacarpal, which consisted of a 3, 5-cm bony segment with the overlying skin and its blood and nerve supply was used. The flap was transferred and fixed with a plate and screws to the palmar-medial side of the stump of the thumb, while the 1st web space was deepened by removing the rest of the second metacarpal, while a partial skin graft was used to cover a remaining gap. Thumb functionality was restored immediately postoperatively, and the overall result was satisfactory.

  15. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography

  16. Lag screw fixation of dorsal cortical stress fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 116 racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalim, S L; McIlwraith, C W; Goodman, N L; Anderson, G A

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness and best method to manage dorsal cortical stress fractures is not clear. This study was performed to evaluate the success of lag screw fixation of such fractures in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. Lag screw fixation of dorsal cortical stress fractures is an effective surgical procedure allowing racehorses to return to their preoperative level of performance. The records of 116 racehorses (103 Thoroughbreds) admitted to Equine Medical Centre, California between 1986 and 2008 were assessed. Information obtained from medical records included subject details, limb(s) affected, fracture configuration, length of screw used in repair and presence of concurrent surgical procedures performed. Racing performance was evaluated relative to these factors using Fisher's exact test and nonparametric methods with a level of significance of Phorses, 83% raced preoperatively and 83% raced post operatively, with 63% having ≥5 starts. There was no statistically significant association between age, gender, limb affected, fracture configuration or presence of concurrent surgery and likelihood of racing post operatively or of having 5 or more starts. The mean earnings per start and the performance index for the 3 races following surgery were lower compared to the 3 races prior to surgery; however, 29 and 45% of horses either improved or did not change their earnings per start and performance index, respectively. Data show that lag screw fixation is successful at restoring ability to race in horses suffering from dorsal cortical stress fractures. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Incidence of Treatment for Infection of Buried Versus Exposed Kirschner Wires in Phalangeal, Metacarpal, and Distal Radial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Taylor J; Freking, Will; Erickson, Lauren O; Ward, Christina Marie

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether there is a difference in the incidence of infection between exposed and buried K-wires when used to treat phalangeal, metacarpal, and distal radius fractures. We conducted a retrospective review identifying all patients aged greater than 16 years who underwent fixation of phalangeal, metacarpal, or distal radius fractures with K-wires between 2007 and 2015. We recorded patient demographic data, fracture location, number of K-wires used, whether K-wires were buried or left exposed, and duration of K-wire placement. A total of 695 patients met inclusion criteria. Surgeons buried K-wires in 207 patients and left K-wires exposed in 488. Infections occurred more frequently in exposed K-wire cases than in buried K-wire ones. Subgroup analysis based on fracture location revealed a significantly increased risk of being treated for infection when exposed K-wires were used for metacarpal fractures. Patients with exposed K-wires for fixation of phalangeal, metacarpal, or distal radius fractures were more likely to be treated for a pin-site infection than those with K-wires buried beneath the skin. Metacarpal fractures treated with exposed K-wires were 2 times more likely to be treated for a pin-site infection (17.6% of exposed K wire cases vs 8.7% of buried K wire cases). Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  19. [Effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of finger web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Rui, Yongjun; Zhang, Quanrong; Xue, Mingyu; Zhang, Zhihai

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web. Between June 2009 and December 2010, 10 patients with scar contracture of the finger web were treated. There were 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 30 years (range, 14-57 years). Scar contracture was caused by injury in 8 cases, by burn in 1 case, and by operation in 1 case. The locations were the 1st web space in 1 case, the 2nd web space in 3 cases, the 3rd web space in 5 cases, and the 4th web space in 1 case. The disease duration was 3 to 9 months with an average of 5 months. The maximum abduction was 10-20 degrees. After web space scar release, the dorsal metacarpal island flap (3.5 cm x 1.2 cm-4.0 cm x 2.0 cm in size) was used to reconstruct web space (2.0 cm x 1.0 cm-3.0 cm x 1.8 cm in size). The donor site was directly sutured or repaired with local flaps. At 2 days after operation, necrosis occurred in 1 flap, which healed by extractive treatment. The other flaps survived and wound healed by first intention; all the flaps at donor sites survived and incision healed by first intention. Ten patients were followed up 6 to 15 months (mean, 9 months). The reconstructed web space had good appearance, the maximum abduction was 80 degrees in 1 case of the 1st web space scars contracture, and the maximum abduction was 35-45 degrees (mean, 40 degrees) in the other 9 cases. In 8 scar patients causing by injury, no scar contracture recurred during follow-up. It can achieve good results in appearance and function to use dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web.

  20. Soft tissue changes in the metacarpal region of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis causes changes in the soft tissues in the metacarpal portion of the hand which can be demonstrated by low Kv exposures. Indirect signs of inflammation consist of oedema extending from the synovial compartments to the skin, the subcutaneous tissues, the intermuscular fat septa and the peritendinous tissue. Increased blood flow leads to dilatation of veins. Direct signs of inflammation consists of tenosynovitis and synovitis of the joints, with enlargement of the corresponding compartments. Limited mobility of the hand over a long period, or improvement in motility are paralleled by changes in muscle mass.

  1. Soft tissue changes in the metacarpal region of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Rheumatoid arhtritis causes changes in the soft tissues in the metacarpal portion of the hand which can be demonstrated by low Kv exposures. Indirect signs of inflammation consist of oedema extending from the synovial compartments to the skin, the subcutaneous tissues, the intermuscular fat septa and the peritendinous tissue. Increased blood flow leads to dilatation of veins. Direct signs of inflammation consists of tenosynovitis and synovitis of the joints, with enlargement of the corresponding compartments. Limited mobility of the hand over a long period, or improvement in motility are paralleled by changes in muscle mass. (orig.) [de

  2. Goltz syndrome with absence of fifth metacarpal and distal phalanx, severe abdominal dehiscence and bladder exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goltz syndrome, also known as focal dermal hypoplasia, is a rare genodermatosis. It is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by mesoectodermal dysplasia present with cutaneous, ocular, dental, and skeletal defects. Its hallmark is thinning of the dermis resulting subcutaneous fat herniation. We report a case of a 7-month-old female child with typical clinical features of Goltz syndrome with some unusual findings such as severe abdominal dehiscence, bladder exstrophy, and absence of the fifth metacarpal and distal phalanx.

  3. Application of the active shape model in a commercial medical device for bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Rosholm, Anders

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disorder characterised mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD), and leading to an increased risk of fracture. We have developed a new device that estimates BMD from ordinary hand radiographs. A crucial element of this method is the reconstruction of the metacarpals...

  4. Transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures: A randomized controlled study with patient-reported outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Sherif; Safwat, Wael

    2017-01-01

    The 5th metacarpal fractures accounts for 38% of all hand fractures given that the neck is the weakest point in metacarpals, so neck fracture is the most common metacarpal fracture. Surgical fixation is also advocated for such fractures to prevent mal-rotation of the little finger which will lead to fingers overlap in a clenched fist. Various methods are available for fixation of such fractures, like intramedullary & transverse pinning. There are very few reports in the literature comparing both techniques. Authors wanted to compare outcomes and complications of transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures. A single-center, parallel group, prospective, randomized study was conducted at an academic Level 1 Trauma Center from October 2014 to December 2016. A total of 80 patients with 5th metacarpal's neck fractures were randomized to pinning using either transverse pinning (group A) or intramedullary pinning (group B). Patients were assessed clinically on range of motion, patient-reported outcome using the Quick-DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire & radiographically. Two blinded observers assessed outcomes. At final follow up for each patient (12 months) the statistically significant differences were observed in operative time, the transverse pinning group showed shorter operative time, as well as complication rate as complications were observed only in intramedullary pinning group. No differences were found in range of motion or the Quick -DASH score. Both techniques are equally safe and effective treatment option for 5th metacarpal's neck fractures. The only difference was shorter operative time & less incidence of complications in transverse pinning group. Level II, Therapeutic study.

  5. Fixação externa em fratura completa de metacarpo em potros External fixation in complete metacarpal fracture in foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti de Sá

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de fraturas nos membros de eqüinos é complexa pelas características da espécie. Baseado em estudo biomecânico prévio, dez potros com fratura iatrogênica experimental do metacarpo tiveram redução pelo método de transfixação óssea. Cada animal foi avaliado mediante exames clínico, laboratorial e radiográfico até a recuperação. As complicações não foram significativas, exceto em um potro que requereu eutanásia. O método mostrou-se adequado e oferece estabilidade suficiente para cicatrização.The fracture healing in equine legs is a complex process due to species characteristics. Based in previous biomechanical study ten horses had iatrogenic metacarpal fractures reduced by external bone fixation. Each animal was evaluated by clinical, laboratorial and radiografic examination till complete recovery. No significant complication were observed, except one animal which was submitted to euthanasia. The method offers appropriate stability for bone healing.

  6. Criteria to evaluate bone mineralization in cattle. II. Noninvasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.N.; McDowell, L.R.; Lawrence, L.A.; Wilkinson, N.S.; Ferguson, P.W.; Warnick, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of dual photon absorptiometry (PA), radiographic photometry (RP), and ultrasound (U) to estimate bone mineral content (BMC) and bone strength of a group of bovine third metacarpals (McIII). Metacarpals were chosen for evaluating BMC and bone strength because of their accessibility and susceptibility to biomechanical stress. The right and left McIII of 14 Angus heifers (24 to 32 mo of age) were collected at slaughter and all soft tissues (including periosteum) were removed. The BMC was estimated at both the midpoint and 3 cm proximal to the midpoint on the McIII diaphysis. Metacarpals then were tested by three-point bending to determine breaking load (BL) and breaking strength (BS). Bones were reassembled and two 2-cm sections were removed, one at the midpoint and one 1 cm proximal to the midpoint section. Sections then were ashed and ash content was expressed as grams per 2-cm slice and defined as BMC. Correlation coefficients (r) between BMC vs PA, RP, and U were .908 (P < .0001), .967 (P < .0001), and .565 (P < .0001), respectively; r values between BS vs PA, RP, and U were .406 (P < 05), .429 (P < .05), and .499 (P < .01), respectively, and r values between BL vs PA, RP, and U were .870 (P < .0001), .865 (P < .0001), and .588 (P < .001), respectively. These data indicate that noninvasive techniques are useful in predicting BMC and BL in the bovine

  7. Small carpal bone surface area, a characteristic of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, R.H.; Done, S.; Correia, J.A.; Crawford, J.D.; Kushner, D.C.; Herman, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormality which has received little attention but may be easily recognized on radiographs of the hand of patients with Turner's syndrome is described. Eleven of thirty-one patients (35.5%) with Turner's syndrome were shown on radiographs of the hand to have a visually detectable smallness of the bone surface area of the carpus when compared to the area of the second through fifth metacarpals. Values for the ''C/M'' ratio (the area of the carpals divided by the area of the second through fifth metacarpals) were calculated for films of 31 individuals with gonadal dysgenesis and compared with those from bone age-matched films of seventy-six individuals with normal development of the hand and wrist. A consistent difference with minimal overlap was documented. (orig./WL)

  8. Changes in hand bone mineral density and the association with the level of disease activity in patients with RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, L.; Guler-Yuksel, M.; de Beus, W.M.; Ronday, H.K.; Speyer, I.; Huizinga, T.W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Allaart, C.F.; Lems, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine if metacarpal bone mineral density (mBMD) gain occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). If mBMD loss is driven by inflammation, we expect to find mBMD gain in patients who are in remission. Methods. mBMD was measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry in consecutive

  9. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those...

  10. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured...

  11. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  12. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  13. Unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures: treatment by internal fixation using AO mini-fragment plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Mohammad Umar; Farooq, Muneer Ahmad; Rasool, Altaf Ahmad; Kawoosa, Altaf Ahmad; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dhar, Shabir Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Accurate open reduction and internal fixation for metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of the hand is required in less than 5% of the patients; otherwise, closed treatment techniques offer satisfactory results in most of these cases as these fractures are stable either before or after closed reduction. AO mini-fragment screws and plates, when used in properly selected cases, can provide rigid fixation, allowing early mobilization of joints and hence good functional results while avoiding problems associated with protruding K-wires and immobilization. The advantages of such internal fixation urged us to undertake such a study in our state where such hand injuries are commonly seen. Forty patients with 42 unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using AO mini-fragment screws and plates over a period of three years in a prospective manner. The overall results were good in 78.5% of cases, fair in 19% of cases and poor in 2.5% of cases, as judged according to the criteria of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. This technique is a reasonable option for treating unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures as it provides a highly rigid fixation, which is sufficient to allow early mobilization of the adjacent joints, thus helping to achieve good functional results.

  14. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    OpenAIRE

    M Doube; EC Firth; A Boyde; AJ Bushby

    2010-01-01

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site tha...

  15. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  16. Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fontanarrosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses were performed using the subsets of (1 carpal variables, (2 metacarpal variables, and (3 phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly

  17. Space suit glove design with advanced metacarpal phalangeal joints and robotic hand evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Theodore; Roberts, Dustyn P; Moiseev, Nikolay; Ross, Amy; Kim, Joo H

    2013-06-01

    One area of space suits that is ripe for innovation is the glove. Existing models allow for some fine motor control, but the power grip--the act of grasping a bar--is cumbersome due to high torque requirements at the knuckle or metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCP). This area in particular is also a major source of complaints of pain and injury as reported by astronauts. This paper explores a novel fabrication and patterning technique that allows for more freedom of movement and less pain at this crucial joint in the manned space suit glove. The improvements are evaluated through unmanned testing, manned testing while depressurized in a vacuum glove box, and pressurized testing with a robotic hand. MCP joint flex score improved from 6 to 6.75 (out of 10) in the final glove relative to the baseline glove, and torque required for flexion decreased an average of 17% across all fingers. Qualitative assessments during unpressurized and depressurized manned testing also indicated the final glove was more comfortable than the baseline glove. The quantitative results from both human subject questionnaires and robotic torque evaluation suggest that the final iteration of the glove design enables flexion at the MCP joint with less torque and more comfort than the baseline glove.

  18. Strontium-90 concentrations in pronghorn antelope bones near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Halford, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Metacarpal bones were collected from pronghorn antelope near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and adjacent areas on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site in Southeastern Idaho. Control bones were collected from offsite animals at higher elevations. Average concentrations in metacarpals were 9.6+-2.8(SE) pCi/g(ash) within 10 km of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), 4.0+-0.9pCi/g for animals on the remainder of the INEL Site and 5.5+-1.0pCi/g for control animals. ICPP atmospheric releases of 90 Sr appeared to have caused a significant (P 90 Sr concentrations in antelope bones within 10 km of the ICPP as compared to bones of other INEL antelope. However, the ICPP antelope bone 90 Sr concentrations were not statistically different from that occurring in bones of the control animals from higher elevations. Antelope near the ICPP received approximately double the radiation dose to bone compared to doses received by other INEL antelope as a result of 90 Sr in bone. Strontium-90 in bone from both fallout and ICPP sources resulted in an estimated average radiation dose of 40 mrad/yr to edosteal cells and 20 mrad/yr to active bone marrow. (author)

  19. Unusual localizations of unicameral bone cysts and aneurysmal bone cysts: A retrospective review of 451 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Osman Emre; Çamurcu, İsmet Yalkın; Özer, Devrim; Arıkan, Yavuz; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBC) and aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign cystic lesions of bone which are easily diagnosed. However, unusual locations may lead to a false diagnosis. Therefore the aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of unusual localizations. The authors studied 451 cases with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of UBC or ABC, seen between 1981 and 2012. In the UBC group (352 cases) humerus, femur and calcaneus were found to be the most common sites, while acetabulum, scapula, scaphoid, lunatum, metacarpals, metatarsals, toe phalanges and ulna each accounted for less than 1%. In the ABC group (99 cases) the most common sites of involvement were femur, humerus and tibia, while finger phalanges, ilium, acetabulum, pubis, calcaneus, cuboid, and toe phalanges each accounted for only 1%. The differential diagnosis of cystic bone lesions should include both UBC and ABC. Pain complaints plead for the latter, except in case of fracture.

  20. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  1. Role of bone photonic densitometry in uremic osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specchi Bighi, E.; Baldelli, S.; Argalia, G.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the role of bone photonic densitometry in uremic osteodystrophy. Bone mineral contenent (BMC) and bone density (BD) have been measured in 80 hemodialyzed patients by double photonic emission densitometry. Photonic densitometry shows an higher sensibility to quantitative changes in bone mineral contenent than metacarpal index (IM). Photonic densitometry is unable to differentiate osteoporosis from osteomalacia; this differential diagnosis can be obtained by radiological analysis: low BD and low IM means osteoporosis, low BD and resorptive changes in cortical bone means osteomalacia and/or hyperparathyroidism. Photonic densitometry is particulary suitable for uremic osteodystrophy follow-up because of its easy ripetibility and innocuousness and for its close correlation with iPTH variations

  2. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  3. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

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    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  4. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  5. Mini-plate versus Kirschner wire internal fixation for treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-04-11

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of mini-plate versus Kirschner wire (K-wire) internal fixation on the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. Databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese VIP, PubMed, and Embase were retrieved for studies on mini-plate (case group) versus K-wire (control group) internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 18 studies involving 1,375 metacarpal or phalangeal fracture patients (709 cases and 666 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in fracture healing time (SMD = -1.28; 95% CI: -1.81, -0.76), postoperative infection rate (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.39), complication incidence (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.38), and surgery time (SMD = 1.57; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.37) between the case and the control group, while no significant difference was found in hospital stays between these two groups (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: -0.34, 1.20; P = 0.27). For the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population, mini-plate has advantages of shorter healing time and lower infection rate and complication incidence compared with K-wire internal fixation, while a longer surgery time than K-wire. In conclusion, mini-plate is prior than K-wire internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population.

  6. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  7. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  8. Bone mineral changes in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Trieste Univ.; Kanter, A.S.; Genant, H.K.; Kolb, F.O.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    We studied 34 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in order to assess their bone mineral status, to determine its relationship to biochemical parameters (serum calcium and parathyroid hormone) and surgical status, and to determine the relationship between peripheral cortical bone and spinal trabecular bone in this disease. These patients were studied with radiogrammetry of the metacarpals, Norland-Cameron photon absorptiometry of the radius, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine, industrial radiography of the hands, and conventional radiography of the thoracolumbar spine. We also calculated a spinal fracture index from thoracolumbar spine films. We found that the appendicular measurements correlated well together, but less well with spinal QCT. The spinal fracture index correlated best with QCT (r = 0.55), although significant dispersion was noted. We found that, in general, these hyperparathyroid patients had statistically significant decrements in bone mineral content in both the appendicular and the axial portions of the skeleton. However, the decrement in the appendicular skeleton did not correlate well with that in the axial skeleton. Therefore we conclude that it is necessary to measure both peripheral and central bone mineral content in order to reliably assess the skeletal demineralizing effects of primary hyperparathyroidism in an individual patient. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of torsion angles of long finger bones using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Ishaque, N.; Mauermann, F.; Klose, K.J.; Boehringer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Rotational dislocation at the fracture site is a complication of long finger bone fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges. To evaluate such deformities, we performed CT of the articular surfaces of these bones to demonstrate the torsion angles. Design: We evaluated 10 pairs of cadaver hands. These were placed flat, with the bones of interest perpendicular to the gantry to acquire axial images. The torsion of the long bone axes was defined as the angle between a tangent positioned parallel to the proximal articular surface and a tangent parallel to the distal articular surface of individual bones. Results: The maximum difference between repeated measurements was 4 . Intraobserver differences measured between right and left hands are less than 3 . Conclusion: Side differences in torsion angles exceeding 3 are strongly suspicious of a malrotation after fracture. These measurements might help to plan derotational osteotomy and assess the results of therapy. (orig.)

  10. A Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Constructs for Metacarpal Spiral Fracture Fixation in a Cadaver Model: 2 Large Screws Versus 3 Small Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eu-Jin Cheah, Andre; Behn, Anthony W; Comer, Garet; Yao, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Surgeons confronted with a long spiral metacarpal fracture may choose to fix it solely with lagged screws. A biomechanical analysis of a metacarpal spiral fracture model was performed to determine whether 3 1.5-mm screws or 2 2.0-mm screws provided more stability during bending and torsional loading. Second and third metacarpals were harvested from 12 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands and spiral fractures were created. One specimen from each matched pair was fixed with 2 2.0-mm lagged screws whereas the other was fixed with 3 1.5-mm lagged screws. Nine pairs underwent combined cyclic cantilever bending and axial compressive loading followed by loading to failure. Nine additional pairs were subjected to cyclic external rotation while under a constant axial compressive load and were subsequently externally rotated to failure under a constant axial compressive load. Paired t tests were used to compare cyclic creep, stiffness, displacement, rotation, and peak load levels. Average failure torque for all specimens was 7.2 ± 1.7 Nm. In cyclic torsional testing, the group with 2 screws exhibited significantly less rotational creep than the one with 3 screws. A single specimen in the group with 2 screws failed before cyclic bending tests were completed. No other significant differences were found between test groups during torsional or bending tests. Both constructs were biomechanically similar except that the construct with 2 screws displayed significantly less loosening during torsional cyclic loading, although the difference was small and may not be clinically meaningful. Because we found no obvious biomechanical advantage to using 3 1.5-mm lagged screws to fix long spiral metacarpal fractures, the time efficiency and decreased implant costs of using 2-2.0 mm lagged screws may be preferred. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  12. Mechanical evaluation of bone gap filled with rigid formulations castor oil polyurethane and chitosan in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Crispim Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Often fractures of long bones in horses are comminuted and form bone gaps, which represent a major challenge for the fixation of these fractures by loss of contact between the fragments. Bone grafts help in treating this kind of fracture and synthetic materials have been gaining ground because of the limitations of autologous and heterologous grafts. In this study were performed compressive non destructive test in 10 bones with complete cross-bone gap in mid-diaphyseal of the third metacarpal bone of horses. Using a mechanism of "crossing" the 10 bones were used in the three groups (control, castor oil poliuretane and chitosan according to the filling material. After the test with maximum load of 1000N bone had a gap filled by another material and the test was repeated. Deformations caused on the whole bone, plate and bone tissue near and distant of gap were evaluated, using strain gauges adhered to the surface at these locations. There was a reduction in bone deformation from 14% (control to 3,5% and 4,8% by filling the gap with Chitosan and castor oil respectively, and a reduction of strain on the plate of 96% and 85% by filling gap with chitosan and castor respectively. An increase in intensity and direction of deformations occurred in bone near to gap after its filling; however, there was no difference in bone deformations occurring far the gap.

  13. Thoroughbred horses in race training have lower levels of subchondral bone remodelling in highly loaded regions of the distal metacarpus compared to horses resting from training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J M; Mirams, M; Mackie, E J; Whitton, R C

    2014-12-01

    Bone is repaired by remodelling, a process influenced by its loading environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a change in loading environment on bone remodelling by quantifying bone resorption and formation activity in the metacarpal subchondral bone in Thoroughbred racehorses. Sections of the palmar metacarpal condyles of horses in race training (n = 24) or resting from training (n = 24) were examined with light microscopy and back scattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM). Bone area fraction, osteoid perimeter and eroded bone surface were measured within two regions of interest: (1) the lateral parasagittal groove (PS); (2) the lateral condylar subchondral bone (LC). BSEM variables were analysed for the effect of group, region and interaction with time since change in work status. The means ± SE are reported. For both regions of interest in the training compared to the resting group, eroded bone surface was lower (PS: 0.39 ± 0.06 vs. 0.65 ± 0.07 per mm, P = 0.010; LC: 0.24 ± 0.04 vs. 0.85 ± 0.10 per mm, P Thoroughbred racehorses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of biocompatibility of castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate in equine bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Fernanda S; Selim, Mariana B; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Correa, Luciana; Ferreira, Márcio P; Zoppa, André L V

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate for use in a unicortical ostectomy on the dorsal surface of the third metacarpal bone of horses. ANIMALS 6 adult horses. PROCEDURES A unicortical ostectomy was created on the dorsal surface of both third metacarpal bones of each horse. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate was implanted into the ostectomy on 1 limb, and the ostectomy of the contralateral limb was left unfilled and served as a control sample. Ostectomy sites were evaluated histologically 120 days later. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the interface of bone and polymer or the interface of bone and newly formed tissue; specimens were processed for histomorphometric evaluation by use of light microscopy, immunohistochemical analysis, histochemical analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS Osteoconductive activity of the biomaterial was confirmed by the presence of osteoblasts in the biopsy specimens. Absence of a chronic inflammatory response or foreign body reaction indicated biocompatibility. Expression of osteoblast markers was detected in the newly formed tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate could be an acceptable compound for use as a bone substitute in horses with fractures in which bone filling is necessary.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, V.L.; Soares, L.M.M.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  16. A digital database of wrist bone anatomy and carpal kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas C; Crisco, Joseph J; Trafton, Theodore G; Leventhal, Evan L

    2007-01-01

    The skeletal wrist consists of eight small, intricately shaped carpal bones. The motion of these bones is complex, occurs in three dimensions, and remains incompletely defined. Our previous efforts have been focused on determining the in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the normal and abnormal carpus. In so doing we have developed an extensive database of carpal bone anatomy and kinematics from a large number of healthy subjects. The purpose of this paper is to describe that database and to make it available to other researchers. CT volume images of both wrists from 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were acquired in multiple wrist positions throughout the normal range of wrist motion. The outer cortical surfaces of the carpal bones, radius and ulna, and proximal metacarpals were segmented and the 3-D motion of each bone was calculated for each wrist position. The database was constructed to include high-resolution surface models, measures of bone volume and shape, and the 3-D kinematics of each segmented bone. The database does not include soft tissues of the wrist. While there are numerous digital anatomical databases, this one is unique in that it includes a large number of subjects and it contains in vivo kinematic data as well as the bony anatomy.

  17. Routine closure of the donor site with a second dorsal metacarpal artery flap to avoid the use of a skin graft after harvest of a first dorsal metacarpal artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhenglin; Lin, Damu; Chen, Yiheng; Xue, Jixin; Li, Shi; Chu, Tinggang; Li, Zhijie

    2018-06-01

    Closure of the donor site on the index finger after raising a first dorsal metacarpal artery (DMA) flap harvest is challenging. The conventional choice is to use a full-thickness skin graft. However, this procedure is associated with several complications and a second donor site to harvest the skin graft is inevitable. The aim of this study was to design a modified incision to allow harvest of a first DMA flap without skin graft. From 2015 to 2016, 18 patients with a soft tissue defect of the thumb had reconstruction of the defect using a first DMA flap. A modified incision was used and a relaying perforator flap pedicled on the second DMA was raised through the same incision to cover the donor site. Patient satisfaction, appearance of the injured hand, and the active range of motion (ROM) were assessed. The sensitivity was evaluated by the 2-point discrimination (2-PD) test. All flaps survived completely without complications. Good coverage was obtained with only one linear scar in the dorsum of the hand and no skin grafts. All patients recovered full range of movement in their fingers and regained sensitivity of the flaps. All patients were satisfied with their hand function according to the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ). The mean cosmetic score for the appearance of the injured hand was 8.2 out of 10. Using our modified incision, it was possible to harvest a second DMA flap at the same time as a first DMA flap allowing simultaneous coverage of the donor defect on the index finger. This prevented the need for a skin graft with all of the associated disadvantages. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31, followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21, distal end of radius(n=14,upper end of fibula (n=9,proximal end of femur(n=5, upper end of the humerus(n=3, iliac bone(n=2,phalanx (n=2 and spine(n=1. The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4 and metatarsal(n=1. Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases . Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice . The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction.

  19. [Progressive bone lengthening of the hand in congenital malformations. 41 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, G; Pajardi, G; Lamas, C; Medina, J; Navarro, R

    2001-09-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the experience of two Hand Units with progressive bone distraction lengthening, collecting 41 cases of hand skeleton lengthening for congenital malformations. The Ilizarov callostasis method was used in 31 cases and in 10 cases bone union was reestablished at a second stage with an iliac graft (2 cases), vascularized metacarpal bone graft (one case), and vascularized (one case) or nonvascularized (3 cases) toe epiphysis. In the last three cases of index lengthening, the distal part was translocated to the tip of the third, deepening at the same stage the first web. The most frequently treated malformation was symbrachydactyly (22 cases). Mean lengthening was 2.3 cm (0.9 to 3.5) with a mean treatment duration of 3.8 months (1.5 - 8.2). The "lengthening index" was 0.59. There was a significant difference between phalanx and metacarpal lengthening, but the amount of lengthening or treatment duration were not affected by technique (Ilizarov vs bone grafting) or age. The complication rate was 32%. There were two complete failures, one extensor tendon tear, 3 pin tract infections (one requiring interruption of the lengthening), 2 cases of relevant pain, 2 delayed unions, 2 angulations and 1 callus fracture, 1 metacarpophalangeal dislocation and 1 joint stiffness. Despite advances in micorsurgical toe transfer, there are still indications for bone lengthening in congenital malformations. The apparent simplicity of the technique can mask a certain number of complications, emphasizing the need for surgical experience. Progressive bone lengthening in congenital deformity has the advantage of preserving sensitivity and avoiding bone resorption. Callostasis does not increase the duration of treatment compared to bone graft.

  20. Abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition for arthrosis of the first carpo-metacarpal joint. Long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Bjørnstad, Kari; Woje, Ann K N; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2016-02-01

    We performed an interposition arthroplasty using the abductor pollicis longus tendon for arthrosis in the basal joint of the thumb that needed surgery from 1995 to 2010. In 2001 47 patients (55 thumbs) were reviewed after 3.5 (1-5) years. The pain relief was excellent in 32 thumbs, and 25 patients improved their ability to perform daily tasks. Mobility was well preserved. Key pinch and grip strengths averaged 78% and 89%, respectively, of those in unaffected hands. We have now re-examined all 33 available patients (36 thumbs) 11-14 years after surgery. Fourty one of the originally examined patients were still alive. Seven were too ill to attend a follow-up and one refused. The remainder were examined in a fashion as similar as possible to that at the original review. The patients' subjective estimations of pain during the last week and satisfaction with the cosmetic and general results were recorded on visual analogue scales. The patients' ability to perform various activities of daily living were recorded and they completed the Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire. The mobility of the wrist and abduction of the thumb of the operated hands were recorded with a goniometer. Grip and pinch strength were measured and new radiographs were obtained. Key pinch strength had increased significantly over the last 10 years. The mobility was still good, except for thumb abduction, which had decreased with time. The median DASH score had fallen from 28 to 20 between the two reviews. There was insignificant further median loss of distance between the scaphoid and the metacarpal since the earlier review. The good results of this procedure found soon after surgery are maintained long-term.

  1. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix [University of Salzburg, Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Atzwanger, Joerg [University of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria); Tauber, Mark [Shoulder and Elbow Surgery ATOS Clinic Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  2. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix; Atzwanger, Joerg; Minnich, Bernd; Tauber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  3. Can high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography imaging of subchondral and cortical bone predict condylar fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G D; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Anderson, G A; Mackie, E J; Whitton, R C

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution 3D imaging may improve the prediction and/or early identification of condylar fractures of the distal metacarpus/tarsus and reduce the frequency of breakdown injury in racehorses. To test the hypotheses that horses suffering condylar fractures have higher bone volume fraction (BV/TV) of the distal metacarpal epiphysis, greater subchondral bone thickness at the fracture site and higher second moment of inertia in the metacarpal midshaft as identified with high-resolution 3D imaging. Cross-sectional study using cadaver material. Thoroughbreds that died on racetracks were grouped as: 1) horses with third metacarpal (McIII) fractures with a condylar component (cases, n = 13); 2) horses with no limb fracture (controls, n = 8); 3) horses with fractures in other bones or suspensory apparatus disruption (other fatal injuries, n = 16). The palmar condyles of McIII and the midshaft were examined with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Statistical analysis included logistic regression and Spearman's correlation. There were no significant differences in BV/TV of distal McIII and second moment of inertia of the midshaft between cases and controls. Epiphyseal bone BV/TV was greater in injured limbs of horses with any fatal limb injury (Groups 1 and 3 combined) compared with controls (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.42, P = 0.034). An epiphyseal BV/TV>0.742 resulted in a sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 62.5% in identifying horses with fatal limb injury. In horses without condylar fracture, increased subchondral bone thickness was associated with palmar osteochondral disease lesions in the adjacent condyle (rs = 0.65, Phorses at risk of any fatal breakdown injury but not metacarpal condylar fractures. Measurement of parasagittal groove subchondral bone thickness is complicated by adjacent palmar osteochondral disease lesions. Thus, high-resolution imaging of the distal metacarpus appears to have limited

  4. Isolated, extra-articular neck and shaft fractures of the 4th and 5th metacarpals: a comparison of transverse and bouquet (intra-medullary) pinning in 67 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, I N; Nordsletten, L; Husby, T; Ødegaard, R A; Hellund, J C; Kvernmo, H D

    2012-06-01

    Although extra-articular metacarpal fractures are common, there is no consensus on the mode of treatment. We evaluated the outcome in 67 patients operated for isolated, extra-articular fractures in the neck or shaft of the ulnar two metacarpals 28 months post-operatively. There were 22 bouquet (intra-medullary) pinnings and 45 transverse pinnings; 11 were lost to follow-up. Overall, hand function was good, and no difference was detected between the two methods (QuickDASH, grip strength, range of motion, VAS pain and VAS satisfaction). Many patients suffered complications: 12% had a superficial infection (all treated with transverse pinning with wires left exposed); 39% had some impairment in skin sensation; 29% reported cold intolerance; and 10% had other complications. Due to the potential risk of a secondary fracture of the neighbouring metacarpal after transverse pinning, we recommend bouquet (intra-medullary) pinning. We also recommend burying wires beneath the skin surface to avoid infection.

  5. Effects of porcine somatotropin and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone properties of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, T L; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Hansen, J A; Fitzner, G E; Friesen, K G; Laurin, J L

    1993-10-01

    One hundred eight gilts (initial weight = 58.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) and dietary P on growth performance and bone mechanical properties and mineralization during the finishing phase (58 to 105 kg) and a 35-d postfinishing phase. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg of pST and fed diets containing .4, .8, or 1.2% P in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. From 58 to 105 kg, administration of pST increased (P properties and bone ash. A pST x P interaction was observed (P < .05) for rib bending moment and modulus of elasticity; maximum rib bending moment was attained by control gilts at .8% P and rib modulus of elasticity values remained constant across P levels, whereas rib bending moment and modulus of elasticity increased as dietary P increased from .4 to 1.2% in pST-treated gilts. Administration of pST decreased (P < .05) stress of the rib, femur, and metacarpals compared with control gilts. Increasing dietary P resulted in a linear (P < .10) increase in bending moment, stress, and ash content for rib, femur, and metacarpal bones. The remaining 54 gilts were individually fed 1.8 kg/d of a common diet for 35 d postfinishing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Techniques for small-bone lengthening in congenital anomalies of the hand and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguella, J; Cabrera, M; Escolá, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse three different lengthening techniques used in 31 small bones for congenital malformations of the hand and foot: 15 metacarpals, 12 metatarsals, 1 foot stump and 3 spaces between a previously transplanted phalanx end of the carpus or the metacarpal. Progressive lengthening with an external fixator device was performed in 23 cases: the callus distraction (callotasis) technique was used in 15 cases, whereas in the other 8 cases the speed of lengthening was faster and the defect bridged with a bone graft as a second stage. In another eight cases, a one-stage lengthening was performed. In the callotasis group, the total length gained ranged from 9 mm to 30 mm and the percentage of lengthening obtained (compared with the initial bone length) averaged 53.4%; in the fast lengthening group, the length gained ranged from 8 mm to 15 mm, and the average percentage of lengthening was 53.1%; and in the one-stage group, the length gained ranged from 7 mm to 15 mm, and the average percentage of lengthening was 43%. The overall complication rate was 22.5%.

  7. Trabecular bone structure correlates with hand posture and use in hominoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdi J Tsegai

    Full Text Available Bone is capable of adapting during life in response to stress. Therefore, variation in locomotor and manipulative behaviours across extant hominoids may be reflected in differences in trabecular bone structure. The hand is a promising region for trabecular analysis, as it is the direct contact between the individual and the environment and joint positions at peak loading vary amongst extant hominoids. Building upon traditional volume of interest-based analyses, we apply a whole-epiphysis analytical approach using high-resolution microtomographic scans of the hominoid third metacarpal to investigate whether trabecular structure reflects differences in hand posture and loading in knuckle-walking (Gorilla, Pan, suspensory (Pongo, Hylobates and Symphalangus and manipulative (Homo taxa. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic method was used to analyse rates of evolutionary changes in trabecular parameters. Results demonstrate that trabecular bone volume distribution and regions of greatest stiffness (i.e., Young's modulus correspond with predicted loading of the hand in each behavioural category. In suspensory and manipulative taxa, regions of high bone volume and greatest stiffness are concentrated on the palmar or distopalmar regions of the metacarpal head, whereas knuckle-walking taxa show greater bone volume and stiffness throughout the head, and particularly in the dorsal region; patterns that correspond with the highest predicted joint reaction forces. Trabecular structure in knuckle-walking taxa is characterised by high bone volume fraction and a high degree of anisotropy in contrast to the suspensory brachiators. Humans, in which the hand is used primarily for manipulation, have a low bone volume fraction and a variable degree of anisotropy. Finally, when trabecular parameters are mapped onto a molecular-based phylogeny, we show that the rates of change in trabecular structure vary across the hominoid clade. Our results support a link

  8. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    for precise and accurate measurements of MCI (DXR-MCI). We hypothesized that DXR-MCI in contrast to projected areal bone mineral density (BMD) (DXA-BMD) is independent of bone size and studied 384 normal women by measuring DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and distal radius. A normative MCI...

  9. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  10. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  11. Subchondral bone failure in overload arthrosis: a scanning electron microscopic study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrdin, R W; Stover, S M

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical overload leads to a common arthrosis in the metacarpal condyle of the fetlock joint of racehorses. This is usually asymptomatic but severe forms can cause lameness. Subchondral bone failure is often present and the predictability of the site provided an opportunity to study of the progression of bone failure from microcracks to actual collapse of subchondral bone. Twenty-five fetlock condyles from racehorses with various stages of disease were selected. Stages ranged from mild through severe subchondral bone sclerosis, to the collapse of bone and indentation or loss of cartilage known as 'traumatic osteochondrosis'. Parasagittal slices were radiographed and examined with scanning electron microscopy. Fine matrix cracks were seen in the subchondral bone layer above the calcified cartilage and suggested loss of water or other non-collagenous components. The earliest microcracks appeared to develop in the sclerotic bone within 1-3 mm of the calcified cartilage layer and extend parallel to it in irregular branching lines. Longer cracks or microfractures appeared to develop gaps as fragmentation occurred along the margins. Occasional osteoclastic resorption sites along the fracture lines indicated activated remodeling may have caused previous weakening. In one sample, smoothly ground fragments were found in a fracture gap. Bone collapse occurred when there was compaction of the fragmented matrix along the microfracture. Bone collapse and fracture lines through the calcified cartilage were associated with indentation of articular cartilage at the site.

  12. Age-related changes in cortical bone mass: data from a German female cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, V.A. Molina; Jergas, M.

    2006-01-01

    To describe data from digital radiogrammetry (DXR) in an unselected German female cohort over a wide age range. Using a retrospective study design we analyzed radiographs of the hand from 540 German women (aged 5-96 years) using an automated assessment of cortical thickness, metacarpal index (MCI), and estimated cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) on digitized radiographs. Both hands were radiographed in 97 women. In this group DXR-BMD and cortical thickness were significantly higher in the right metacarpals while there was no significant difference in MCI. To study the association with age we differentiated young ( 45 years). In young women all parameters increased significantly with age in a linear fashion (r=0.8 for DXR-BMD, r=0.7 for MCI). In those aged 25-45 years DXR-BMD and MCI were highest (peak bone mass). In women aged 45 or older all parameters decreased with age in an almost linear fashion with an annual change ranging from 0.7% to 0.9%. Our results for an unselected German female cohort indicate that DXR is a reliable, widely available osteodensitometric technique based on the refinement of conventional radiogrammetry. These findings are comparable to those from other studies and represent a valid resource for clinical application and for comparisons with other ethnic groups. (orig.)

  13. A prospective study of dynamic treatment of fracture phalanx and metacarpals of the hand with Kirschner-wire fixation/external fixator and finger splint: Daycare management (30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Madhukar Salunkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures of the phalanx and metacarpals are some of the most frequently encountered orthopedics injuries and constitute between 14-28% of all visits to emergency department which comprises 46% of the hand fracture and out of that mostly involved are the proximal phalanx and metacarpal neck fracture are most common and then the middle and distal phalanx and the base of metacarpal. The commonest complication with surgical treatment were stiff painful joints due to prolonged immobilization at fracture sites. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalanx fracture on day care basis. Materials And Methods: In our study we treated 30 patients who came to our hospital by fixation either with K wire or external fixation or hybrid fixation under local anaesthesia depending on the type of fracture between 2013 to 2014 with the average age 28 years with the youngest being 18 years and the oldest being 41 years with transverse, spiral, oblique closed fracture, grade 1 compound fracture, intraarticular, extraarticular, comminuted and non comminuted fracture of phalanx and metacarpals.These were day care treatment. Patient was allowed to begin his daily routine work from post operative day l. During this course the operated site was protected with splinting. Results: Clinical Outcomes were assessed as Excellent, Good, Satisfactory and Poor. Radiological assessment was done by taking x-ray to check radiological union.There were 24 cases had excellent outcome, 5 cases had good outcome and only 1 case had satisfactory outcome which occurred due to mal-union. There were 3 cases of pin-tract infection which subsided with oral antibiotics, and 3 cases of malunion. Conclusion: This was a day care procedure, patient were admitted, treated and discharged on the same day & encouraged to begin mobilization of the joints of hands from day 1.

  14. Bone metabolism following gastric surgery. Microdensitometry and single-photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Mikio; Yamauchi, Hidemi; Fukushima, Koohei; Sasaki, Iwao; Ouchi, Akio.

    1988-11-01

    The impairment of bone metabolism was investigated in patients who underwent gastrectomy or vagotomy with drainage two or more years ago. Serum biochemical analysis, microdensitometry of the 2nd metacarpal bone, and measurements of bone mineral content of the radius (measured 1/3 distally) using single-photon absorptiometry were performed at follow-up examination. Although serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were within normal range, alkaline phosphatase levels were slightly for the Billroth II group than for Billroth I. Twenty-eight of 50 gastrectomy cases (56 %), and four of 10 vagotomy cases (40 %) showed pathologically thin bone : microdensitometric (MD) scores were greater than 3. The Billroth II group showed a far higher frequency of greater MD scores than Billroth I. The MD scores showed significant positive relationship with the age at follow-up, but did not correlate well with the length of the postoperative period. Radial bone mineral content (BMC) was lower in patients with Billroth II anastomosis, or with total or proximal gastrectomy, than in those undergoing Billroth I. These results suggest that metabolic bone disorders following gastric surgery can be detected by MD score and BMC of appendicular bones. However, there was not sufficient resolution with these parameters to detect any bone changes in patients treated with active vitamin D/sub 3/.

  15. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.; Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  16. Results of screw fixation combined with cortical drilling for treatment of dorsal cortical stress fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 56 Thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallap, B.L.; Bramlage, L.R.; Embertson, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate screw fixation with cortical drilling as a surgical treatment for dorsal cortical stress fractures of MCIII in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Details of age, sex, limb affected, fracture assessment, and post operative recommendations were obtained from medical records and radiographs. Fracture healing was assessed radiographically at the time of screw removal. Performance evaluation was determined from race records obtained from The Jockey Club Information System, Lexington, Kentucky. Fifty-six Thoroughbred racehorses were treated surgically for stress fracture of MCIII with screw fixation and cortical drilling. Stress fractures occurred primarily in the left front limb of the male 3-year-olds, in the dorsolateral cortex of the middle third of MCIII. Ninety-seven percent of the fractures travelled in a dorsodistal to palmaroproximal direction. Median period to screw removal was 2.0 months. Evaluation at time of screw removal revealed 98% of single stress fractures of the left front limb were healed radiographically. Median period to resume training was 2.75 months (single stress fractures); median period to race was 7.62 months. There was no statistically significant difference in earnings/start before and after surgical intervention. Of the 63 fractures treated, two recurred. There were no catastrophic failures, and no incisional infections

  17. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  18. Content-based image retrieval applied to bone age assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Brosig, André; Welter, Petra; Grouls, Christoph; Günther, Rolf W.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Radiological bone age assessment is based on local image regions of interest (ROI), such as the epiphysis or the area of carpal bones. These are compared to a standardized reference and scores determining the skeletal maturity are calculated. For computer-aided diagnosis, automatic ROI extraction and analysis is done so far mainly by heuristic approaches. Due to high variations in the imaged biological material and differences in age, gender and ethnic origin, automatic analysis is difficult and frequently requires manual interactions. On the contrary, epiphyseal regions (eROIs) can be compared to previous cases with known age by content-based image retrieval (CBIR). This requires a sufficient number of cases with reliable positioning of the eROI centers. In this first approach to bone age assessment by CBIR, we conduct leaving-oneout experiments on 1,102 left hand radiographs and 15,428 metacarpal and phalangeal eROIs from the USC hand atlas. The similarity of the eROIs is assessed by cross-correlation of 16x16 scaled eROIs. The effects of the number of eROIs, two age computation methods as well as the number of considered CBIR references are analyzed. The best results yield an error rate of 1.16 years and a standard deviation of 0.85 years. As the appearance of the hand varies naturally by up to two years, these results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the CBIR approach for bone age estimation.

  19. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  20. Radiographic monitoring of the ossification of long bones in kori (Ardeotis kori) and white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis) bustards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naldo, J.L.; Samour, J.H.; Bailey, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    A serial radiographic study was conducted on eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) and four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) chicks to determine the pattern of long bone development and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The ossification pattern, appearance of secondary ossification centres, and epiphyseal fusion of the long bones in kori and white-bellied bustards were similar to those in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii),rufous-crested bustards (Eupodotis ruficrista), domestic fowl (Gallusgallus), house wrens (Troglodytes aedon aedon), racing pigeons (Columba livia), and barn owls (Tyto alba). Secondary ossification centres were present at the proximal and distal tibiotarsus, proximal tarsometatarsus and proximal metacarpal III. The ossification of long bones occurred earlier in female kori bustards compared with males

  1. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  2. The effect of previous conditioning exercise on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone to imposition and withdrawal of training in young Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Elwyn C; Rogers, Christopher W; van Weeren, P Rene; Barneveld, Albert; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2012-04-01

    This study recorded the response to training of the diaphysis of the proximal phalangeal bone and the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) and the Mc3 proximal metaphysis. Nineteen 2- and 3-year old horses in training were exposed either to spontaneous exercise at pasture (PASTEX group) or additional imposed exercise (CONDEX group) from a very young age. Quantitative computed tomography scans were analysed for bone mineral content, size, bone mineral density, periosteal and endosteal circumference, cortical thickness and an estimate of bone strength. The bones of the CONDEX horses were bigger and stronger than those of the PASTEX horses at the start of the observation period, and these differences were maintained after adjusting for training workload. Increase in the bone strength index was through size and not density increase. Density increased during training and decreased during paddock rest between the two training campaigns, during which time bone strength continued to increase because of the slow growth that was still occurring. The greatest variance in the response to the training exercise of diaphyseal bone mineral content, bone strength index or cortical thickness was associated with the cumulative workload index at the gallop, although statistically significant unexplained variances remained. There were no differences in bone response to training, with the exception of the endosteal circumference at 55% of the Mc3 length from the carpometacarpal joint space between CONDEX and PASTEX, which indicated that young horses may be able to be exercised slightly more vigorously than currently accepted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  4. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  5. Inter-observer reliability of high-resolution ultrasonography in the assessment of bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: experience of an intensive dedicated training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Filippucci, Emilio; Ruta, Santiago; Salaffi, Fausto; Blasetti, Patrizia; Di Geso, Luca; Grassi, Walter

    2011-02-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the ability of a rheumatologist without experience in ultrasound (US) who attended an intensive 4-week training programme focused on US assessing bone erosions in the hands and feet in patients with RA. Twenty patients diagnosed with RA according to the ACR criteria were included in the study. All US examinations were performed bilaterally by two investigators (with different experience in the field of musculoskeletal US) at the following sites: the dorsal, lateral and volar aspect of the second metacarpal, ulnar and fifth metatarsal head; and the dorsal and volar aspect of the third metacarpal and second proximal heads. Each quadrant was scanning in longitudinal and transverse scans for assessing the qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative US findings indicative of bone erosions according the OMERACT preliminary definition. Both κ-values and overall agreement percentages of qualitative and semiquantitative assessments showed moderate to excellent agreement between the two investigators. Similar results were obtained for the quantitative assessment with the concordance correlation coefficient value always significant. The only exception was the volar aspects, in particular those of the fifth metatarsal head. Our study suggests that after a 4-week dedicated training programme, a rheumatologist without experience in US is able to detect and score bone erosions in the hands and feet of patients with RA.

  6. Assessment of photon migration for subsurface probing in selected types of bone using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Churchwell, John H.; Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Goodship, Allen E.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Bone diseases and disorders are a growing challenge in aging populations; so effective diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are now essential to manage the demands of healthcare sectors effectively. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for chemically specific sub-surface probing and has a great potential to become an in vivo tool for early non-invasive detection of bone conditions. Bone is a complex hierarchical material and the volume probed by SORS is dependent on its optical properties. Understanding and taking into account the variations in diffuse scattering properties of light in various bone types is essential for the effective development and optimization of SORS as a diagnostic in vivo tool for characterizing bone disease. This study presents SORS investigations at 830 nm excitation on two specific types of bone with differing mineralization levels. Thin slices of bone from horse metacarpal cortex (0.6 mm thick) and whale bulla (1.0 mm thick) were cut and stacked on top of each other (4-7 layers with a total thickness of 4.1 mm). To investigate the depth origin of the detected Raman signal inside the bone a 0.38 mm thin Teflon slice was used as test sample and inserted in between the layers of stacked bone slices. For both types of bone it could be demonstrated that chemically specific Raman signatures different from those of normal bone can be retrieved through 3.8-4.0 mm of overlying bone material with a spatial offset of 7-8 mm. The determined penetration depths can be correlated with the mechanical and optical properties of the specimens. The findings of this study increase our understanding of SORS analysis of bone and thus have impact for medical diagnostic applications e.g. enabling the non-invasive detection of spectral changes caused by degeneration, infection or cancer deep inside the bone matrix.

  7. Effects of treadmill exercise on cortical bone in the third metacarpus of young horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, R.N.; Jeffcott, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of exercise and relative inactivity on cortical bone were compared in young horses. Two groups were used; one was given a 14-week programme of exercise (n = 6) and the other kept as unexercised controls (n = 6). The first nine weeks of exercise involved trotting and cantering (2 to 4 km d-1 at speeds up to 12 m s-1) on a treadmill set at an incline of 3 degrees. Over the next five weeks the horses were trained at near maximal speeds (that is, up to 14.5 m s-1) with no incline of the treadmill. At the end of the programme marked differences in cortical porosity and distribution of subperiosteal osteogenesis at the mid-shaft of the third metacarpal bone were found between the groups. Histomorphometrical examination of the dorsal cortex showed minimal bone remodelling in the exercised horses, but extensive modelling as evidenced by the large amount of subperiosteal bone formation. In contrast, the unexercised horses had significantly more bone remodelling and less formation of subperiosteal bone. The histomorphometric and microradiographic findings provided an explanation for changes in the non-invasive bone measurements that occurred during training. Bone mineral content of the mid-metacarpus was found to increase more in the exercised than the unexercised horses despite a lower overall growth in bodyweight. In those horses that completed the full training programme, ultrasound speed increased significantly by the end of the training programme. It remained unchanged in the horse that did not complete the full exercise programme and decreased slightly in the unexercised horses. The difference in ultrasound speed between the groups was considered to reflect differences in intracortical bone porosity, endosteal bone formation and alterations in skin thickness. The stiffness of cortical bone increased significantly in the exercised horses but remained unaltered in the unexercised horses

  8. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  9. [Resection of a carpal bone row in a Pustertaler Sprinze cow with chronic purulent arthritis of the carpal joint and osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Peterbauer, C

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and radiographic findings and the surgical treatment of a serofibrinous arthritis of the antebrachiocarpal joint and of a chronic purulent arthritis of the intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints with osteomyelitis of the distal carpal bones and subchondral osteomyelitis of the proximal metacarpal bones in a cow of the breed "Pustertaler Sprinze". The therapy comprised an arthrotomy of both joint spaces and the resection of the distal row of the carpal bones. The right forelimb had been immobilised for 70 days by a full limb cast. After this period, radiographs revealed an ob- vious ankylosis of the carpal joint, and the cow showed only a slight lameness. Six years postoperatively this cow was still in the herd and had produced six calves.

  10. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  11. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  12. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  13. A lateral approach for screw repair in lag fashion of spiral third metacarpal and metatarsal medial condylar fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis C R; Greet, Timothy R C; Bathe, Andrew P

    2009-08-01

    To describe a lateral approach for screw fixation in lag fashion of simple spiral medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpus/metatarsus (MC3/MT3). Case series. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=9). Nondisplaced medial MC3/MT3 condylar fractures (3 thoracic, 6 pelvic limbs), with mean length 126 mm (range, 91-151 mm) were repaired by internal fixation, under general anesthesia, using multiple 4.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion from the lateral aspect of the limb, using radiographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Horses were recovered from anesthesia in half-limb casts; 7 unassisted and 2 using a rope-recovery system. Horses had 2 months box rest, 1 month in-hand walking, and follow-up radiographic examination at 3 months. Horses recovered uneventfully from anesthesia. Five horses raced; 1 returned to training, was persistently lame, and was retired to stud; 2 were retired directly to stud; and 1 horse was lost to follow-up. MC3/MT3 medial condylar fractures were successfully repaired by screws inserted n lag fashion form the lateral aspect. Use of a lateral approach to medial condylar MC3/MT3 fractures allows screw insertion perpendicular to the fracture plane without interference with palmar/plantar soft tissue structures or from the splint bones. Although repair was performed under general anesthesia, the technique should be adaptable to application in standing horses.

  14. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  15. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758 and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pourlis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (P<0.05; in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P<0.05. In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.

  16. Hemochromatosis: abnormalities of bones and joints: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farao, S.R.F.; Pereira, E.M.; Harima, H.A.; Rocha Correa Fernandes, A. da; Pavin, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 49 years-old male patient with emphasis in the arthropathy of hemochromatosis. The arthropathy was the first manifestation: the patient had been complaining of pain on the right hip for eight years. The other specific clinical manifestations: diabetes, abnormal pigmentation appeared after six years. The roentgenographic features of bone and joint involvement include abnormalites at metacarpophalangeal joints with osteophytes on the metacarpal heads and in the hip, joint space narrowing, was seen. In the knee involvement is characterized by subchondral cyst and osteophytosis. Laboratory analysis are: serum iron = 191 mg/dl (normal value: 50-150 mg/dl), ferritin > 400 ng/ml (normal value: 42-26 ng/ml). Iron within the parenchymal cells of the liver cirrhosis was detected by hepatic biopsy. Hemochromatosis was pathologically characterized by tissue damage produced by iron deposition. (author) [pt

  17. Traumatic Floating 1st Metacarpal in a 14-Year-Old Boy Managed by Close Reduction and Thumb Spica Immobilization: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Himanshu Ravindra; Kamat, Nandan; Wajekar, Sagar; Mandalia, Saumil H

    2014-01-01

    Double dislocation of thumb metacarpal (MC) is a rare injury which may be secondarily complicated by growth plate injury in children. The management of floating 1st MC is also controversial since the treatment ranges from simple reduction to complex reconstruction surgeries. It is also important to understand the long-term results of different management strategies (close reduction, K-wire fixation, ligament reconstruction) as any residual stiffness or instability of thumb may result in severe disability of the hand. A 14-year-old boy with an alleged history of injury to the thumb due to a fall. The postulated mechanism of injury was forced hyperextension of thumb and axial loading of hand in the prone position. On examination, there was prominent bony swelling over the dorsal aspect of carpometacarpal (CMC) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints which was very tender with diffuse swelling over entire thumb. X-ray showed dorsal dislocation of both MCP and CMC joints, without any fracture (bony avulsion) or volar plate avulsion. Treatment was by way of closed reduction performed by axial traction followed by forced flexion at MCP joint with continuous pressure over the dorsal aspect of the joint. The reduction of CMC joint was done by direct pressure over the dorsal aspect and full abduction of thumb. Following reduction, the thumb was immobilized in a thumb spica. Thus, we conclude it is possible to manage a case of floating 1st MC by closed reduction and immobilization, using proper reduction technique. However, a careful clinical and radiological assessment should be done beforehand for signs of bony injury or ligamentous instability.

  18. The interrelationship of porcine somatotropin administration and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone properties in developing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, T L; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Hansen, J A; Friesen, K G; Richert, B T

    1993-10-01

    Seventy-two gilts (initial weight = 57.9 kg) were used to determine the interrelationship of porcine somatotropin (pST) administration and dietary P on growth performance of finishing gilts (58 to 106 kg) and the effect on bone mechanical properties and mineralization for a 35-d postfinishing phase after withdrawal of pST administration. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg of pST and fed .4, .6, or .8% P in the finishing phase. Administration of pST increased ADG and G/F (P .18) on ADG, G/F, or ADFI for the overall finishing phase. When each block weight averaged 106 kg, half the gilts were slaughtered and the first rib, femur, and third and fourth metacarpals were collected. Stress, modulus of elasticity, and ash content of rib, femur, and metacarpals were reduced (P .22). The remaining 36 gilts were individually fed 1.8 kg/d of a common diet to assure a P intake of 22.8 g/d for the 35-d postfinishing phase. Gilts that received higher levels of dietary P during the finishing phase had increased (linear, P .4% P (10.3 g/d P) to maximize growth performance. However, a diet with .4% P (12.44 and 10.66 g/d P, control and pST-treated, respectively) was adequate for growth performance during the overall finishing phase (56 to 106 kg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  19. Perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, alters bone tissue composition in female goat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Rebecca; Lyche, Jan L.; Ropstad, Erik; Aleksandersen, Mona; Roenn, Monika; Skaare, Janneche U.; Larsson, Sune; Orberg, Jan; Lind, P. Monica

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if environmentally relevant doses of the putative estrogenic non dioxin-like PCB 153 and the dioxin-like PCB 126 caused changes in bone tissue in female goat offspring following perinatal exposure. Goat dams were orally dosed with PCB 153 in corn oil (98 μg/kg body wt/day) or PCB 126 (49 ng/kg body wt/day) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The offspring were exposed to PCB in utero and through mother's milk. The suckling period lasted for 6 weeks. Offspring metacarpal bones were analysed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) after euthanisation at 9 months of age. The diaphyseal bone was analysed at a distance of 18% and 50% of the total bone length, and the metaphyseal bone at a distance of 9%. Also, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the mid-diaphyseal pQCT measure point (50%). PCB 153 exposure significantly decreased the total cross-sectional area (125 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (142 mm 2 ± 5), decreased the marrow cavity (38 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (50 mm 2 ± 3) and decreased the moment of resistance (318 mm 3 ± 10) versus non-exposed (371 mm 3 ± 20) at the diaphyseal 18% measure point. At the metaphyseal measure point, the trabecular bone mineral density (121 mg/cm 3 ± 5) was increased versus non-exposed (111 mg/cm 3 ± 3). PCB 126 exposure did not produce any observable changes in bone tissue. The biomechanical testing of the bones did not show any significant changes in bone strength after PCB 153 or PCB 126 exposure. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, resulted in altered bone composition in female goat offspring

  20. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  1. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  2. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  3. New Neandertal wrist bones from El Sidrón, Spain (1994-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Ríos, Luis; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-nine carpal bones of Homo neanderthalensis have been recovered from the site of El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) during excavations between 1994 and 2009, alongside ∼2500 other Neandertal skeletal elements dated to ∼49,000 years ago. All bones of the wrist are represented, including adult scaphoids (n = 6), lunates (n = 2), triquetra (n = 4), pisiforms (n = 2), trapezia (n = 2), trapezoids (n = 5), capitates (n = 5), and hamates (n = 2), as well as one fragmentary and possibly juvenile scaphoid. Several of these carpals appear to belong to the complete right wrist of a single individual. Here we provide qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptions of these carpals, within a comparative context of other European and Near Eastern Neandertals, early and recent Homo sapiens, and other fossil hominins, including Homo antecessor, Homo naledi, and australopiths. Overall, the El Sidrón carpals show characteristics that typically distinguish Neandertals from H. sapiens, such as a relatively flat first metacarpal facet on the trapezium and a more laterally oriented second metacarpal facet on the capitate. However, there are some distinctive features of the El Sidrón carpals compared with most other Neandertals. For example, the tubercle of the trapezium is small with limited projection, while the scaphoid tubercle and hamate hamulus are among the largest seen in other Neandertals. Furthermore, three of the six adult scaphoids show a distinctive os-centrale portion, while another is a bipartite scaphoid with a truncated tubercle. The high frequency of rare carpal morphologies supports other evidence of a close genetic relationship among the Neandertals found at El Sidrón. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laterality and grip strength influence hand bone micro-architecture in modern humans, an HRpQCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Trousdale, William H; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Braga, José

    2017-06-01

    It is widely hypothesized that mechanical loading, specifically repetitive low-intensity tasks, influences the inner structure of cancellous bone. As such, there is likely a relationship between handedness and bone morphology. The aim of this study is to determine patterns in trabecular bone between dominant and non-dominant hands in modern humans. Seventeen healthy patients between 22 and 32 years old were included in the study. Radial carpal bones (lunate, capitate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, 1st, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals) were analyzed with high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Additionally, crush and pinch grip were recorded. Factorial analysis indicated that bone volume ratio, trabeculae number (Tb.N), bone surface to volume ratio (BS.BV), body weight, stature and crush grip were all positively correlated with principal components 1 and 2 explaining 78.7% of the variance. Volumetric and trabecular endostructural parameters (BV/TV, BS/BV or Tb.Th, Tb.N) explain the observed inter-individual variability better than anthropometric or clinical parameters. Factors analysis regressions showed correlations between these parameters and the dominant side for crush strength for the lunate (r 2 = 0.640, P modern human wrist. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of bone adaptation adjacent to percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalina, Sujee; Beck, James Peter; Bachus, Kent N; Chalayon, Ornusa; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (POPs) are being investigated as an alternative to conventional socket suspension and require a radiographic followup in translational studies to confirm that design objectives are being met. In this 12-month animal study, we determined (1) radiographic signs of osseointegration and (2) radiographic signs of periprosthetic bone hypertrophy and resorption (adaptation) and (3) confirmed them with the histologic evidence of host bone osseointegration and adaptation around a novel, distally porous-coated titanium POP with a collar. A POP device was designed to fit the right metacarpal bone of sheep. Amputation and implantation surgeries (n = 14) were performed, and plane-film radiographs were collected quarterly for 12 months. Radiographs were assessed for osseointegration (fixation) and bone adaptation (resorption and hypertrophy). The cortical wall and medullary canal widths were used to compute the cortical index and expressed as a percentage. Based on the cortical index changes and histologic evaluations, bone adaptation was quantified. Radiographic data showed signs of osseointegration including those with incomplete seating against the collar attachment. Cortical index data indicated distal cortical wall thinning if the collar was not seated distally. When implants were bound proximally, bone resorbed distally and the diaphyseal cortex hypertrophied. Histopathologic evidence and cortical index measurements confirmed the radiographic indications of adaptation and osseointegration. Distal bone loading, through collar attachment and porous coating, limited the distal bone resorption. Serial radiographic studies, in either animal models or preclinical trials for new POP devices, will help to determine which designs are likely to be safe over time and avoid implant failures.

  6. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  7. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  8. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-06-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  9. Radiographic evaluation and unusual bone formations in different genetic patterns in synpolydactyly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, Aylin; Acar, Murat; Kuru, Ilhami; Bozan, M. Eray; Solak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    To compare the radiological findings of heterozygous and homozygous subjects with synpolydactyly (SPD) and to discuss their unusual bone formations. Families with hand and foot SPD were examined. Genetic analysis was performed with blood samples and the pedigree was constructed. The affected individuals, especially those with distinctive phenotypic features, were invited to our orthopaedics clinic for further diagnostic studies. All participants underwent detailed clinical and X-ray examinations. Of the invited patients, 16 (five female and 11 male; age range 4-37 years, mean age 10.75 years) were included in our study, and hand and foot radiographs were obtained. All subjects had bilateral hand radiographs (32 hands), and 14 had bilateral foot radiographs (28 feet). Genetic analysis revealed 12 heterozygote (75%) and four (25%) homozygote phenotypes. Among patients enrolled into the study nine (three homozygotes, six heterozygotes) had SPD of both hands and feet bilaterally (tetrasynpolydactyly). Six unusual bone formations were observed in the hands and feet: delta phalanx, delta metacarpal/metatarsal, kissing delta phalanx, true double epiphysis, pseudoepiphysis and cone-shaped epiphysis. There were major differences in radiological and clinical manifestations of homozygote and heterozygote phenotypes. The homozygous SPD presented with very distinctive unusual bone formations. The existence and variety of unusual bones may indicate the severity of penetrance and expressivity of SPD. (orig.)

  10. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. PMID:24689513

  11. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  12. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  14. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  15. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  16. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  17. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  18. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  19. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  20. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  1. Osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis. Its demonstration by 99m Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezai, Shu-ichi; Ishizawa, Suguru; Yoshino, Katsumasa

    1987-10-01

    In order to investigate the osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis, 21 liver cirrhotic patients having no malignancy and normal renal function were examined by 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy. The cirrhotic subjects consisted of 14 males and 7 females. Their age was 31 - 80, average 55.7 years. The causes of their cirrhotic damage were 1 primary biliary cirrhosis, 9 alcoholic, 2 HB viral and 9 cryptogenic. The contents of their illness showed 9 cases in A, 4 in B and 8 in C of Child's classification. Abnormal hot spot(s) on bone in the cirrhotics could be observed very frequently in 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy (47.6 %; 10/21 cases). Those spots were seen more frequently in female and advanced stage of cirrhosis. The number of spot(s) increased also in advanced liver cirrhosis. Serum Ca, P and PTH were in normal range. All of three vitamin D/sub 3/ fractions decreased and especially 1,25 (OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ was depressed more in scinti-positive cases. Metacarpal bone X-p with an alumimum step wedge as a reference was analyzed by a microdensitometry (MD) method (Inoue T et al) and the pattern of osteopathy (i.e. porosis, malacia and poromalacia) was examined according to Sumi Y et al. MD method was not known yet if there was any definite correlation with bone scintigraphy and the osteopathic pattern belonged to border categories. In conclusion, more attension on hepatic osteodystrophy will be significantly necessary due to the fact that it has been found very frequently in liver cirrhosis. 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy is a good means for detection of the hepatic osteodystrophy.

  2. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  3. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  4. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  5. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  6. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  7. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  8. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  9. Appendicular bone mass and knee and hand osteoarthritis in Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moji Kazuhiko

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that there is an inverse association between osteoarthritis (OA and osteoporosis. However, the relationship of bone mass to OA in a Japanese population whose rates of OA are different from Caucasians remains uncertain. Methods We studied the association of appendicular bone mineral density (second metacarpal; mBMD and quantitative bone ultrasound (calcaneus; stiffness index with knee and hand OA among 567 Japanese community-dwelling women. Knee and hand radiographs were scored for OA using Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L scales. In addition, we evaluated the presence of osteophytes and of joint space narrowing. The hand joints were examined at the distal and proximal interphalangeal (DIP, PIP and first metacarpophalangeal/carpometacarpal (MCP/CMC joints. Results After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI, stiffness index was significantly higher in women with K/L scale, grade 3 at CMC/MCP joint compared with those with no OA. Adjusted means of stiffness index and mBMD were significantly higher in women with definite osteophytes at the CMC/MCP joint compared to those without osteophytes, whereas there were no significant differences for knee, DIP and PIP joints. Stiffness index, but not mBMD, was higher in women with definite joint space narrowing at the CMC/MCP joint compared with those with no joint space narrowing. Conclusions Appendicular bone mass was increased with OA at the CMC/MCP joint, especially among women with osteophytes. Our findings suggest that the association of peripheral bone mass with OA for knee, DIP or PIP may be less clearcut in Japanese women than in other populations.

  10. Association of unipedal standing time and bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Toba, N; Takeda, M; Suzuki, M; Abe, Y; Aoyagi, K; Nakamura, T

    2009-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with age. In community-dwelling Japanese women, unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD while in women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is associated with BMD. The aim of this study was to clarify whether unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD in community-dwelling women. The subjects were 90 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 54.7 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured by computed X-ray densitometry. We measured unipedal standing time as well as timed up and go test to assess physical performance of the lower extremities. Unipedal standing time decreased with increased age. Timed up and go test significantly correlated with age. Low BMD was significantly associated with old age, short unipedal standing time, and long timed up and go test. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that age, unipedal standing time, and timed up and go test were significant factors associated with BMD. In 21 participants aged 70 years and over, body weight and unipedal standing time, but not age, were significantly associated with BMD. BMD and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with older age. Unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD in community-dwelling Japanese women. In women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD.

  11. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration. Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected. Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  12. Radiologic anthropometry of the hand in patients with familial short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, C.D.; Lifshitz, F.; Levenbrown, J.; North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY; Cornell Univ., New York

    1988-01-01

    Fifth metacarpal bone shortening (brachymetacarpia V) was recently described to be highly prevalent in children with familial short stature (FSS). To characterize the hand bones of FSS patients with and without brachymetacarpia V, the left hand bone age radiographs of 26 FSS children were reviewed. In 16/19 patients with clinical brachymetacarpia V radiographs revealed fifth metacarpal bone shortening with a gap of 2 mm or more between the distal end of the fifth metacarpal bone and a tangential line connecting the distal ends of the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Only one of 7 patients without clinical brachymetacarpia V had a gap of 2 mm. Radiologic anthropometry revealed that FSS patients with clinically shortened fifth metacarpal bone frequently had shortened first metacarpal bones, second and third proximal phalanges, and fifth distal phalanx as well. FSS patients without clinical fifth metacarpal bone shortening had shortened 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones, fifth proximal phalanx, and fifth distal phalanx. Fifth metacarpal bone shortening was only detected clinically if the fourth metacarpal bone was not short as well. Reduction in height correlated more with reduction in metacarpal bone length than with that of the other hand bones. These peculiar tubular bone alterations commonly seen in FSS suggest a disturbance in endochondral ossification, the process primarily involved in tubular bone elongation. (orig.)

  13. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  14. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  15. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  16. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  17. Record-Breaking Pain: The Largest Number and Variety of Forelimb Bone Maladies in a Theropod Dinosaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Senter

    Full Text Available Bone abnormalities are common in theropod dinosaur skeletons, but before now no specimen was known with more than four afflicted bones of the pectoral girdle and/or forelimb. Here we describe the pathology of a specimen of the theropod dinosaur Dilophosaurus wetherilli with eight afflicted bones of the pectoral girdle and forelimb. On its left side the animal has a fractured scapula and radius and large fibriscesses in the ulna and the proximal thumb phalanx. On its right side the animal has abnormal torsion of the humeral shaft, bony tumors on the radius, a truncated distal articular surface of metacarpal III, and angular deformities of the first phalanx of the third finger. Healing and remodeling indicates that the animal survived for months and possibly years after its ailments began, but its right third finger was permanently deformed and lacked the capability of flexion. The deformities of the humerus and the right third finger may be due to developmental osteodysplasia, a condition known in extant birds but unreported in non-avian dinosaurs before now.

  18. Record-Breaking Pain: The Largest Number and Variety of Forelimb Bone Maladies in a Theropod Dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Juengst, Sara L

    2016-01-01

    Bone abnormalities are common in theropod dinosaur skeletons, but before now no specimen was known with more than four afflicted bones of the pectoral girdle and/or forelimb. Here we describe the pathology of a specimen of the theropod dinosaur Dilophosaurus wetherilli with eight afflicted bones of the pectoral girdle and forelimb. On its left side the animal has a fractured scapula and radius and large fibriscesses in the ulna and the proximal thumb phalanx. On its right side the animal has abnormal torsion of the humeral shaft, bony tumors on the radius, a truncated distal articular surface of metacarpal III, and angular deformities of the first phalanx of the third finger. Healing and remodeling indicates that the animal survived for months and possibly years after its ailments began, but its right third finger was permanently deformed and lacked the capability of flexion. The deformities of the humerus and the right third finger may be due to developmental osteodysplasia, a condition known in extant birds but unreported in non-avian dinosaurs before now.

  19. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood counts or blood urea nitrogen if CM was added to the diets. In conclusion, up to 20% high-protein CM or CM-CV may be included in diets for weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning without reducing growth performance or negatively affecting organ, bone, or blood parameters. In some instances, it may also be possible to use greater inclusion rates.

  20. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  1. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  3. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  4. Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Debbie Renee

    2001-07-01

    Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber

  5. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  6. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  7. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  8. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  9. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  10. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  11. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  12. Gracile bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  13. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  14. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...

  16. Radiostrontium, radiocesium and stable mineral composition of bones of domestic reindeer from Vågå, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiostrontium, radiocesium and macromineral concentrations were measured in metatarsal or metacarpal bones from 78 reindeer (59 calves and 19 adults in the Vågå reindeer herding district in Southern Norway. Samples were collected in the period August 1988 to May 1989. Radiocesium concentrations increased from August through the winter. Radiostrontium varied slightly around an average value 1810 Bq/kg DM. Mg concentrations decreased through the winter, the concentrations of other minerals and bone density showed only small variations. No signs of mineral deficiencies were observed. It is concluded that radiostrontium mainly originated from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.Radiostrontium, radiocesium og stabile mineraler in reinknokler fra Vågå, NorgeAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Innhold av radiostrontium, radiocesium og makromineraler ble målt i reinsdyrknokler (metatarsus og metacarpus innsamlet fra 78 dyr (59 kalver og 19 voksne tilhørende Vågå tamreinlag. Prøvene ble samlet i perioden august 1988 til mai 1989. Innholdet av radiocesium økte fra august og gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av radiostrontium var temmelig konstant (1810 Bq/ kg tørrstoff. Magnesium innholdet avtok gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av andre mineraler samt knoklenes tetthet varierte lite. Det ble ikke observert noen tegn på mineralmangel. Mesteparten av det radioaktive strontium kom fra atomkraftulykken i Tsjernobyl.

  17. Orthopedic infections in equine long bone fractures and arthrodeses treated by internal fixation: 192 cases (1990-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Benjamin J; Richardson, Dean W; Boston, Raymond C; Schaer, Thomas P

    2010-07-01

    To determine the rate of postoperative infection (POI) for internal fixation repaired equine long bone fractures and arthrodeses and identify associated risk factors. Case series. Horses (n=192) with fracture repair of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones, radius, ulna, humerus, tibia, and femur, or arthrodesis with internal fixation. Medical records (1990-2006) were reviewed for signalment, anatomic location, fracture classification and method of repair, technique and surgical duration, bacterial species isolated, postoperative care, onset of POI, and outcome. Of 192 horses (171 [89%] closed, 21 [11%] open fractures), 157 (82%) were discharged from the hospital. Infection occurred in 53 (28% horses), of which 31 (59%) were discharged. Repairs without POI were 7.25 times more likely to be discharged from the hospital. Closed fractures were 4.23 times more likely to remain uninfected and 4.59 times more likely to be discharged from the hospital compared with open fractures. Closed reduction and internal fixation was associated with a 2.5-fold reduction in rate of POI and a 5.9 times greater chance for discharge from the hospital compared with open reduction and internal fixation. Females had a strong trend for increased POI when compared with colts and stallion but not geldings. Overall rate of POI was 28%. Fracture classification, method of repair, gender, and surgical duration were significant risk factors.

  18. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  19. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  1. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  2. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  4. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  5. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  6. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  7. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  8. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  9. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doube, M; Firth, E C; Boyde, A; Bushby, A J

    2010-06-03

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE) and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E) at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  10. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A.; John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim; Vollandt, Ruediger

    2005-01-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  13. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  14. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  16. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  17. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    already scheduled for hip surgery. Lu et al. (1997) used an instrumented massive proximal femoral prosthesis along with electromyographic measurements to demonstrate that femoral forces depend on muscular activity. These analyses of in vivo bone mechanics are valuable. The invasive nature of the procedures involved, however, limits both the number of subjects and the number of strain gauge locations. Further, the results of these studies may be confounded by the inclusion of subjects with pathological conditions. Gross et al. (1992) measured strain at three locations on the equine third metacarpal and used those data to construct a computer model of the internal strain environment of the bone. An analogous placement of multiple gauges in living humans would be difficult and potentially hazardous because of the depth of soft tissue overlying the tibia and femur.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  19. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  20. Bone Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  1. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  2. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  3. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...

  4. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs

  6. Treated unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course

  7. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  8. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  9. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  10. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  11. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  12. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  13. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  14. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  16. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  17. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758) and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, Aris; Chatzis, Theodoros; Katsoulos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials' length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species. PMID:25530882

  18. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...

  19. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  20. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  1. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  2. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  3. Radionuclide bone image in growing and stable bone island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  10. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  11. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response.......9 Versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in post men opausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance......, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption...

  12. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...... from that of femur and rib within the single skeleton (P bone and the 1st molar. The intraskeletal variation may reflect differences...

  13. Bone and glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the most frequent cause of osteoporosis in young people. Bone loss and fracture risk increase rapidly after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and are proportional to dose and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurement, as it is also related to impaired bone quality and increased risk of falls. Prevention should be considered in all patients beginning corticosteroid therapy, especially as the underlying inflammation in itself impairs bone quality. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide have shown efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Several national and international guidelines are available to improve management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains inadequate. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the progression of the underlying inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  15. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  16. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  17. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  18. Treated unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A

    2013-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  20. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.D.; Nesbit, M.E.; Griffiths, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)

  3. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  6. Effect of low levels of dietary available phosphorus on phosphorus utilization, bone mineralization, phosphorus transporter mRNA expression and performance in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Bishwo B; Regassa, Alemu; Nyachoti, Charles M; Kim, Woo K

    2017-06-03

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary levels of available phosphorus (aP) on P excretion, bone mineralization, performance and the mRNA expression of sodium-dependent P transporters in growing pigs. Sixty-day old growing pigs (n = 54) with an average initial BW of 19.50 ± 1.11 kg were randomly allocated to a control diet (C) containing 0.23% available phosphorus (aP), T1 containing 0.17% aP and T2 containing 0.11% aP. There were 6 pens per treatment with 3 pigs per pen. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly. At the end of each week, one pig from each pen was housed in a metabolic crate for 24 h to collect fecal and urine samples and then sacrificed to obtain third metacarpal (MC3) bones and jejunal and kidney samples. Bones were scanned by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Fecal and urine samples were sub-sampled and analyzed for P content. The expression of P transporter mRNA in jejunum and kidney samples was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed using GLM procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute version 9.2). Pigs fed the T2 diet had reduced (P reduced (P reduced (P reduced ADG, bone mineralization and urinary P level, but moderate reduction in dietary P up to 0.17% aP in the diet has the potential to reduce environmental pollution by reducing P concentration in swine manure and without compromising performance.

  7. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  8. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  9. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...

  10. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  11. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taconis, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  13. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  14. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  15. Fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Young Sook

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series

  16. Prebiotics and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.

  17. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  18. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  19. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  20. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  1. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  2. Solitary (unicameral) bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struhl, S.; Edelson, C.; Pritzker, H.; Seimon, L.P.; Dorfman, H.D.; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    1989-01-01

    The fallen fragment sign is a prominent radiologic feature in a minority of cases of unicameral bone cyst (20% in this series). This sign is always associated with pathologic fracture. Intramedullary fracture fragments may be single or multiple and may or may not be entirely dislodged from overlying periosteum. The finding appears limited to unicameral bone cysts in patients with open physes. When present, the fallen fragment is a pathognomonic finding as it defines the interior of the cyst as nonsolid. (orig./GDG)

  3. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  4. Significance of bone scintollography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wioland, M.; Milhaud, G.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity enables visualisation of the principal organs in the forms of scintiscans, introduces a new order of sensitivity in quantitative hormonal analysis, thanks to radio-immunology and remains unrivalled in compartmental analyses of the various metabolism. The diagnosis of local skeletal conditions is reviewed and the indications for this quantitative examination are described for the diagnosis of numerous bone metabolic diseases. Finally, mono- and bi- photonic absorptiometry, the latest developments in isotopic techniques, are introduced. They are likely to provide numerical data on the state of mineralisation of bone tissue. The use of these nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and surveillance of osteoporosis is detailed [fr

  5. Hydrated disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishwani, A.H.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    A case of primary hydatid disease of the right femur is reported that presented with pathological fracture and was diagnosed at the time of exploration for biopsy. The patient was treated by removal of all cysts, irrigation with colloidal solution, bone grafting and immobilization of the fracture followed by four cycles of oral Albendazole. Eosinophilia and serological tests reverted to normal but the patient died due to acute myocardial infarction six months later. This uncommon condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures, bone pain or osteolytic lesions, especially in patients of rural and farmer background.(author)

  6. Frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone and implications for the carpal sheath of the digital flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, G J; Wright, I M

    2014-09-01

    Accurate radiological and ultrasonographic descriptions of frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) are lacking, and implications of these fractures for the carpal sheath and its contents have not previously been reported. Aims were as follows: 1) to describe the location and radiological features of frontal plane fractures of the ACB; 2) to document communication of displaced fractures with the carpal sheath and consequent injury to the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT); 3) to describe ultrasonographic identification of lesions; and 4) to report tenoscopic evaluation and treatment. Retrospective case series. Analysis of frontal plane fractures of the ACB referred to a single hospital between 2006 and 2012, including review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and tenoscopic images. Nine fractures were identified, of which 8 displaced fractures all communicated with the carpal sheath. Comminuted fragments and/or protruding fracture margins lacerated the lateral margin of the enclosed DDFT. This was identifiable ultrasonographically and confirmed at tenoscopy in 7 cases. Treatment in these horses consisted of removal of torn tendon tissue together with fragmentation and protuberant fracture edges, and 7 of 7 cases returned to work. One horse with a nondisplaced fracture was managed with immobilisation; the fracture healed, and the horse returned to work. One horse with a displaced fracture was retired to stud. Frontal plane fractures of the ACB occur palmar to the groove in its lateral margin for the tendon of insertion of ulnaris lateralis. Comminuted fragments can displace distally within the carpal sheath to a mid-metacarpal level or abaxially to lie extrathecally, lateral to the parent bone. Displaced fractures communicate with the carpal sheath and traumatise the DDFT. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  8. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  13. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  14. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  16. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  17. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  18. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  20. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  1. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  2. Electron Microscopy of Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young

  3. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr

  4. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  5. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  6. Wounded to the bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherie, Alexandra; Jørkov, M L S; Smith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300–1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones. Each was photographed...

  7. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  8. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  9. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  10. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  11. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  12. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  13. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  14. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  16. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.

  17. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  19. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  20. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    OI Issues: Understanding Bone Structure Introduction: Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame ...

  1. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-01-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with 99m TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  3. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  4. Alterations to the subchondral bone architecture during osteoarthritis : bone adaptation versus endochondral bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this

  5. Bone metastases from gastric cancer. Clinical evaluation on bone scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-07-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N/sub 0/ or N/sub 1/ regional lymph node metastases, highly differentiated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone metastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer.

  6. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  7. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  8. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Straehl

    Full Text Available Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua, with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  9. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of 3 H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 3 H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of 45 Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, 45 Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of 45 Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products

  10. Metastases to bone in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, P.T.; Azouz, E.M.; Hoeffel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a relatively common intracranial neoplasm in childhood. Its extraneural spread was, until recently, thought to be a rare occurrence. Metastases are most commonly to bone. Five patients with medulloblastoma metastatic to bone are presented, and findings are compared to those of previous reports. Two of the five cases showed patchy extensive osteosclerosis of the pelvis and/or proximal femora. One case had concurrent lymph node involvement. In patients with past or present medulloblastoma and bone pain, metastases to bone should be excluded. Medulloblastoma metastatic to bone is a rare cause of extensive osteosclerosis. (orig.)

  11. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  13. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  14. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  15. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  16. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Sciences, Otsu (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.).

  17. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  18. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  19. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  20. Occipital bone lacunae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, P.; Sciascia, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with lacunar alterations of the squamous occipital bone were studied in various radiographic projections; in many cases studies were also performed. In 7 cases lacunae in the cerebral fossa were observed, with an average diameter of 3 cm. These defects were due to a thinning of the inner table of the theca. In 9 cases smaller lacunae were demonstrated bilaterally, which were more radiolucent, isolated or confluent, located in the area corresponding to the internal occipital protuberance at the ridges of cruciform eminence. The latter were representative of diploic venous lakes, as the best demonstrated in lateral projection. This kind of lacunae are considered as anatomic variants, because no bone destruction is demonstrable, as confirmed by technetium scintigraphy

  1. Risk estimates for bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone sarcoma data for 226 228 Ra and 224 Ra are analyzed within the dosage ranges where the observed risk is zero. The uncertainty in the risk may be effectively illustrated by using pairs of functions based on a statistically-based measure of confidence. For radiation protection, the appropriate measure of risk is cumulative incidence in the presence of competing risks, as this takes into account the reduction of radiation effects brought about by natural mortality

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  3. HIV and bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dockrell, David; Bowman, Christine; McCloskey, Eugene

    2010-11-01

    Advances in management have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This decrease in mortality, initially the result of improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections but later mediated by the use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to the need to consider long-term complications of the disease itself, or its treatment. Bone disease is increasingly recognised as a concern. The prevalence of reduced BMD and possibly also fracture incidence are increased in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative controls. There are many potential explanations for this - an increased prevalence of established osteoporosis risk factors in the HIV-positive population, a likely direct effect of HIV infection itself and a possible contributory role of ARV therapy. At present, the assessment of bone disease and fracture risk remains patchy, with little or no guidance on identifying those at increased risk of reduced BMD or fragility fracture. Preventative and therapeutic strategies with bone specific treatments need to be developed. Limited data suggest bisphosphonates may be beneficial in conjunction with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients but larger studies of longer duration are needed. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these and other treatments needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Long bone reconstruction using multilevel lengthening of bone defect fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzunov, Dmitry Y

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.

  5. Denosumab for bone diseases: translating bone biology into targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourdi, Elena; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hamann, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2011-12-01

    Signalling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) through RANK is a critical pathway to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and, hence, a master regulator of bone resorption. Increased RANKL activity has been demonstrated in diseases characterised by excessive bone loss such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteolytic bone metastases. The development and approval of denosumab, a fully MAB against RANKL, has heralded a new era in the treatment of bone diseases by providing a potent, targeted and reversible inhibitor of bone resorption. This article summarises the molecular and cellular biology of the RANKL/RANK system and critically reviews preclinical and clinical studies that have established denosumab as a promising novel therapy for metabolic and malignant bone diseases. We will discuss the potential indications for denosumab along with a critical review of safety and analyse its potential within the concert of established therapies.

  6. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  7. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  8. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E.; Silva, Barbara C.; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  9. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  10. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  12. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  13. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  14. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  15. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  16. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  17. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  18. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverson, G.; Warren, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  19. Stress fractures and bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method

  20. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  1. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  2. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  3. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  4. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  5. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  7. The Dragon Bone Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.

  8. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki

    1986-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  9. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  10. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  11. Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Weiguo; Jin, Xingliang; Tan, Yi; Xiao, Linda; Padula, Matthew P.; Bishop, David P.; Reedy, Brian; Ong, Madeleine; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Qu, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. PMID:28930133

  12. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using ... ing of a HA powder in a chitosan solution and coating of. HA particle .... system and the cell parameters were calculated using the.

  13. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  14. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  15. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  16. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  17. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  18. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the following methods: a) one or more screws inserted across the break to hold it. b) a steel plate held by screws drilled into the bone. c) a long fluted metal pin with holes in it, is driven down the shaft of the bone ...

  19. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kiminori; Kure, Yoshio; Suzuki, Akira; Sekino, Haruo; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Akihiko

    1990-01-01

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  20. Radioisotope bone scanning in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenburrow, D.P.; Bowring, C.S.; Vennart, W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of radionuclide activity in the living equine skeleton, using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals and a hand-held radiation detector, is reported. Pathological changes in bone can be detected and subsequent development monitored. The availability and use of this diagnostic technique in equine practice is discussed

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  2. Multicentric epitheloid haemangioendothelioma of bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fracture of the right tibia as a complication of EHE. Diagnosis was suspected on radiographs and confirmed on histology. Whole-body bone scintigraphy and CT scan of the chest were performed, which confirmed multiple bone lesions and metastases to the lungs. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (1) 2007: pp.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears ...

  4. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  5. Complications of occipital bone pneumatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Mary; Roche, Jim; Biggs, Michael; Forer, Martin; Fagan, Paul; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C 1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  6. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  7. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  8. Management Strategy for Unicameral Bone Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Chuo; Yin-Chih Fu; Song-Hsiung Chien; Gau-Tyan Lin; Gwo-Jaw Wang

    2003-01-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of t...

  9. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  10. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2......Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  11. Antiepileptic drugs and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labban Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and fractures. With the current estimates of 50 million people worldwide with epilepsy together with the rapid increase in utilization of these medications for other indications, bone disease associated with the use of anti-epileptic medications is emerging as a serious health threat for millions of people. Nevertheless, it usually goes unrecognized and untreated. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone disease associated with anti-epileptic use, including effect of anti-epileptic agents on bone turnover and fracture risk, highlighting various strategies for prevention of bone loss and associated fractures a rapidly increasing vulnerable population.

  12. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G E [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  13. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Shang Yanning; Yu Weimin; Li Yongfa; Wang Yongchun; Wang Wu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  14. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.V.; Chantseva, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  15. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  16. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  17. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  18. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  19. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  20. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  1. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  2. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  4. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  6. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Na1 8F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1 8F , and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9 9mT c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  7. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Chowhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry.

  8. Evaluation of bone diseases using dynamic bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Tamura, Kenji; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Kajita, Akiyoshi

    1983-12-01

    Dynamic bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was performed on 96 patients with various bone diseases. The dynamic scintigrams obtained were then used to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant (49 cases) and benign (8 cases) diseases. Short-term local deposition of the tracer in all cases of malignant bone diseases was observed in vascular (10-40 sec. after injection), and blood pool (1-3 min. after injection) phases. In the cases of malignant bone tumors where osteosclerotic lesions were present, tracer accumulation appeared in the blood pool phase. If osteolytic lesions were present, accumulation appeared in the vascular phase, and when the lesion was larger than 2 cm, accumulation was frequently found in the arterial phase. Scintigraphic differentiation of early primary and metastatic bone tumors from other lesions was facilitated by performing the dynamic scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. Dynamic bone scintigraphy also allowed early diagnosis of avascular necrosis (14 cases) prior to the appearance of minimally abnormal X-ray findings, especially in cases of corticosteroid-induced necrosis.

  9. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  10. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  11. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  12. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and

  13. Insulin resistance and bone: a biological partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.

  14. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  15. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  16. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  17. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (繁體中文) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  20. Systemic therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripekova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complications of bone metastases can seriously influence quality of life of the patients including of their independence in activities of daily living. Bisfosfonates are reducing skeletal morbidity in solid tumors and in multiple myeloma by 30 - 50% (1). They are not only used in active antineoplastic therapy in the prevention of skeletal complications by bone metastases but they are also significantly useful in prevention of the decrease of osseous mass by hormonal manipulation. Preclinical and in part clinical data suppose that there is some role of bisfosfonates in prevention of formation of metastases by early cancer. Denosumab is fully humanized antibody against RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand) which is very important in pathogenesis of bone resorption induced by osteoclasts. In this work we discuss about pathological mechanisms of bone resorption in multiple myeloma and solid tumors, we resume data from randomized clinical trials and we focus on the application of anti resorption therapy in clinical practice. (author)

  1. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Gahl, G.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    25 patients with chronic renal disease are investigated. In 16 cases with conservative treatment the bone scintigram showed pathological uptake according to the creatinine level, mainly in the joints of iliosacrum, hip, knee and ankles. In three patients increased uptake in the skull was found. The bone uptake found by scintigraphy was highly pronounced in the patients treated by dialysis. The most frequently involved regions were the joints of iliocacrum and hip, facial cranium, skull, pelvis and metatarsus. The count-rate ratio of cranium to chest was significantly increased in 6 patients. The investigations 6 months later showed in 4 cases a further increase compared with the first values. Count-rates of the skull were found to be comparable to the highly increased uptake in Paget's disease. Bone scintigraphy is a suitable method to estimate semiquantitatively the bone turnover in renal disease. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths ... the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  10. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are good for your heart, swimming and biking DO NOT increase bone density. Other Lifestyle Changes ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise and Physical Fitness ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  13. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is a bony destructive lesion involving alveolar bone of the Jaws. Early diagnosis and surgical ... radiographic examination, these lesions should be biopsied.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  2. Digital Astronaut: Bone Remodeling Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant progress has been made with regard to the plan outlined in the 2014 report for building in the effects of exercise induced loading on preserving bone...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  6. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-07

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might

  7. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing

  8. BONE CALCIUM AND STRONTIUM DISCRIMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, L.; Armstrong, W. D.

    1964-04-15

    The effect of the fluoride content of the skeleton on the deposition of Sr/sup 87/ and Ca/sup 45/ in calcified tissues was investigated in rats and in samples of fat-free or ashed bone. Results indicate that the fluoride parameters investigated did not influence the ratio of Ca/sup 45//Sr/sup 87/ deposition in bone. (C.H)

  9. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  10. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  11. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cas...

  12. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered

  13. Bone culture research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  14. Bone health in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hoyos, Marta; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2017-07-21

    Patients with Down syndrome have a number of risk factors that theoretically could predispose them to osteoporosis, such as early aging, development disorders, reduced physical activity, limited sun exposure, frequent comorbidities and use of drug therapies which could affect bone metabolism. In addition, the bone mass of these people may be affected by their anthropometric and body composition peculiarities. In general terms, studies in adults with Down syndrome reported that these people have lower areal bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) than the general population. However, most of them have not taken the smaller bone size of people with Down syndrome into account. In fact, when body mineral density is adjusted by bone size and we obtain volumetric body mineral density (g/cm 3 ), the difference between both populations disappears. On the other hand, although people with Down syndrome have risk factor of hypovitaminosis D, the results of studies regarding 25(OH)D in this population are not clear. Likewise, the studies about biochemical bone markers or the prevalence of fractures are not conclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  16. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  17. THE PATHOLOGY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Leguit , Roos; Van Den Tweel , Jan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerable between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children a...

  18. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  19. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  20. [Bone remodeling and modeling/mini-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio

    Modeling, adapting structures to loading by changing bone size and shapes, often takes place in bone of the fetal and developmental stages, while bone remodeling-replacement of old bone into new bone-is predominant in the adult stage. Modeling can be divided into macro-modeling(macroscopic modeling)and mini-modeling(microscopic modeling). In the cellular process of mini-modeling, unlike bone remodeling, bone lining cells, i.e., resting flattened osteoblasts covering bone surfaces will become active form of osteoblasts, and then, deposit new bone onto the old bone without mediating osteoclastic bone resorption. Among the drugs for osteoporotic treatment, eldecalcitol(a vitamin D3 analog)and teriparatide(human PTH[1-34])could show mini-modeling based bone formation. Histologically, mature, active form of osteoblasts are localized on the new bone induced by mini-modeling, however, only a few cell layer of preosteoblasts are formed over the newly-formed bone, and accordingly, few osteoclasts are present in the region of mini-modeling. In this review, histological characteristics of bone remodeling and modeling including mini-modeling will be introduced.