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Sample records for metabolizing enzymes reduce

  1. Human microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics: well-known and promising members of the SDR superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarydová, Lucie; Wsól, Vladimír

    2012-05-01

    The best known, most widely studied enzyme system in phase I biotransformation is cytochrome P450 (CYP), which participates in the metabolism of roughly 9 of 10 drugs in use today. The main biotransformation isoforms of CYP are associated with the membrane of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). Other enzymes that are also active in phase I biotransformation are carbonyl reducing enzymes. Much is known about the role of cytosolic forms of carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics, but their microsomal forms have been mostly poorly studied. The only well-known microsomal carbonyl reducing enzyme taking part in the biotransformation of xenobiotics is 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Physiological roles of microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes are better known than their participation in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This review is a summary of the fragmentary information known about the roles of the microsomal forms. Besides 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, it has been reported, so far, that retinol dehydrogenase 12 participates only in the detoxification of unsaturated aldehydes formed upon oxidative stress. Another promising group of microsomal biotransformation carbonyl reducing enzymes are some members of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Generally, it is clear that this area is, overall, quite unexplored, but carbonyl reducing enzymes located in the ER have proven very interesting. The study of these enzymes could shed new light on the metabolism of several clinically used drugs or they could become an important target in connection with some diseases.

  2. Persistent overexpression of phosphoglycerate mutase, a glycolytic enzyme, modifies energy metabolism and reduces stress resistance of heart in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Okuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure is associated with changes in cardiac energy metabolism. Glucose metabolism in particular is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We examined the effects of persistent overexpression of phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (Pgam2, a glycolytic enzyme, on cardiac energy metabolism and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing Pgam2 in a heart-specific manner were generated, and cardiac energy metabolism and function were analyzed. Cardiac function at rest was normal. The uptake of analogs of glucose or fatty acids and the phosphocreatine/βATP ratio at rest were normal. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis revealed an increase in the levels of a few metabolites immediately upstream and downstream of Pgam2 in the glycolytic pathway, whereas the levels of metabolites in the initial few steps of glycolysis and lactate remained unchanged. The levels of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle were altered. The capacity for respiration by isolated mitochondria in vitro was decreased, and that for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vitro was increased. Impaired cardiac function was observed in response to dobutamine. Mice developed systolic dysfunction upon pressure overload. CONCLUSIONS: Constitutive overexpression of Pgam2 modified energy metabolism and reduced stress resistance of heart in mice.

  3. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  4. Enzymes and Inhibitors in Neonicotinoid Insecticide Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A.; Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19 and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19 and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI and 4-hydroxy-thiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating the brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites. PMID:19391582

  5. Computational Functional Analysis of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Carolina; Have, Arjen Ten; Prados, María B; Beligni, María V

    2017-01-01

    The computational analysis of enzymes that participate in lipid metabolism has both common and unique challenges when compared to the whole protein universe. Some of the hurdles that interfere with the functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes that are common to other pathways include the definition of proper starting datasets, the construction of reliable multiple sequence alignments, the definition of appropriate evolutionary models, and the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees with high statistical support, particularly for large datasets. Most enzymes that take part in lipid metabolism belong to complex superfamilies with many members that are not involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, some enzymes that do not have sequence similarity catalyze similar or even identical reactions. Some of the challenges that, albeit not unique, are more specific to lipid metabolism refer to the high compartmentalization of the routes, the catalysis in hydrophobic environments and, related to this, the function near or in biological membranes.In this work, we provide guidelines intended to assist in the proper functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes, based on previous experiences related to the phospholipase D superfamily and the annotation of the triglyceride synthesis pathway in algae. We describe a pipeline that starts with the definition of an initial set of sequences to be used in similarity-based searches and ends in the reconstruction of phylogenies. We also mention the main issues that have to be taken into consideration when using tools to analyze subcellular localization, hydrophobicity patterns, or presence of transmembrane domains in lipid metabolic enzymes.

  6. Non-metabolic functions of glycolytic enzymes in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Li, S

    2017-05-11

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet the requirement for survival and rapid growth. One hallmark of cancer metabolism is elevated aerobic glycolysis and reduced oxidative phosphorylation. Emerging evidence showed that most glycolytic enzymes are deregulated in cancer cells and play important roles in tumorigenesis. Recent studies revealed that all essential glycolytic enzymes can be translocated into nucleus where they participate in tumor progression independent of their canonical metabolic roles. These noncanonical functions include anti-apoptosis, regulation of epigenetic modifications, modulation of transcription factors and co-factors, extracellular cytokine, protein kinase activity and mTORC1 signaling pathway, suggesting that these multifaceted glycolytic enzymes not only function in canonical metabolism but also directly link metabolism to epigenetic and transcription programs implicated in tumorigenesis. These findings underscore our understanding about how tumor cells adapt to nutrient and fuel availability in the environment and most importantly, provide insights into development of cancer therapy.

  7. Nitrile Metabolizing Enzymes in Biocatalysis and Biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Virender; Thakur, Neerja; Savitri

    2018-01-30

    Nitrile metabolizing enzymes, i.e., aldoxime dehydratase, hydroxynitrile lyase, nitrilase, nitrile hydratase, and amidase, are the key catalysts in carbon nitrogen triple bond anabolism and catabolism. Over the past several years, these enzymes have drawn considerable attention as prominent biocatalysts in academia and industries because of their wide applications. Research on various aspects of these biocatalysts, i.e., sources, screening, function, purification, molecular cloning, structure, and mechanisms, has been conducted, and bioprocesses at various scales have been designed for the synthesis of myriads of useful compounds. This review is focused on the potential of nitrile metabolizing enzymes in the production of commercially important fine chemicals such as nitriles, carboxylic acids, and amides. A number of opportunities and challenges of nitrile metabolizing enzymes in bioprocess development for the production of bulk and fine chemicals are discussed.

  8. Low source-sink ratio reduces reserve starch in grapevine woody canes and modulates sugar transport and metabolism at transcriptional and enzyme activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica; Noronha, Henrique; Dai, Zhanwu; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2017-05-19

    Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation. Starch concentration was significantly higher in canes from 6L (42.13 ± 1.44 mg g DW -1 ) and 12L (43.50 ± 2.85 mg g DW -1 ) than in 2L (22.72 ± 3.10 mg g DW -1 ) plants. Moreover, carbon limitation promoted a transcriptional adjustment of genes involved in starch metabolism in grapevine woody tissues, including a decrease in the expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate translocator, VvGPT1. Contrarily, the transcript levels of the gene coding the catalytic subunit VvAGPB1 of the VvAGPase complex were higher in canes from 2L plants than in 6L and 12L, which positively correlated with the biochemical activity of this enzyme. Sucrose concentration increased in canes from 2L to 6L and 12L plants, and the amount of total phenolics followed the same trend. Expression studies showed that VvSusy transcripts decreased in canes from 2L to 6L and 12L plants, which correlated with the biochemical activity of insoluble invertase, while the expression of the sugar transporters VvSUC11 and VvSUC12, together with VvSPS1, which codes an enzyme involved in sucrose synthesis, increased. Thus, sucrose seems to control starch accumulation through the adjustment of the cane sink strength.

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids--genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Lin, Ge; Chou, Ming W

    2004-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widely distributed in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Because of their abundance and potent toxicities, the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce genotoxicities, particularly carcinogenicity, were extensively studied for several decades but not exclusively elucidated until recently. To date, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced genotoxicities were revealed to be elicited by the hepatic metabolism of these naturally occurring toxins. In this review, we present updated information on the metabolism, metabolizing enzymes, and the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert genotoxicity and tumorigenicity.

  10. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Peters, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. Clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result if the liver is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver.

  11. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Lee, Dong-Goo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Jin-Suk; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the intestine of mouse, rat and human. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mouse, rat and human were ca. 60% of 22690 sequences, 40% of 8739 and 47% of 12559, respectively. Total genes of metabolizing enzymes subjected in this study were 95, 33 and 68 genes in mouse, rat and human, respectively. Of phase I enzymes, the mouse exhibited abundant gene expressions for Cyp3a25, Cyp4v3, Cyp2d26, followed by Cyp2b20, Cyp2c65 and Cyp4f14, whereas, the rat showed higher expression profiles of Cyp3a9, Cyp2b19, Cyp4f1, Cyp17a1, Cyp2d18, Cyp27a1 and Cyp4f6. However, the highly expressed P450 enzymes were CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F3, CYP2C18, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A7, CYP11B1 and CYP2B6 in the human. For phase II enzymes, glucuronosyltransferase Ugt1a6, glutathione S-transferases Gstp1, Gstm3 and Gsta2, sulfotransferase Sult1b1 and acyltransferase Dgat1 were highly expressed in the mouse. The rat revealed predominant expression of glucuronosyltransferases Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7, sulfotransferase Sult1b1, acetyltransferase Dlat and acyltransferase Dgat1. On the other hand, in human, glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, glutathione S-transferases MGST3, GSTP1, GSTA2 and GSTM4, sulfotransferases ST1A3 and SULT1A2, acetyltransferases SAT1 and CRAT, and acyltransferase AGPAT2 were dominantly detected. Therefore, current data indicated substantial interspecies differences in the pattern of intestinal gene expression both for P450 enzymes and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. This genomic database is expected to improve our understanding of interspecies variations in estimating intestinal prehepatic clearance of oral drugs.

  12. Metabolic Enzymes of Cocaine Metabolite Benzoylecgonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiabin; Zheng, Xirong; Zhan, Max; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zheng, Fang

    2016-08-19

    Cocaine is one of the most addictive drugs without a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Enzyme therapy using an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme is recognized as the most promising approach to cocaine overdose treatment. The actual enzyme, known as RBP-8000, under current clinical development for cocaine overdose treatment is our previously designed T172R/G173Q mutant of bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE). The T172R/G173Q mutant is effective in hydrolyzing cocaine but inactive against benzoylecgonine (a major, biologically active metabolite of cocaine). Unlike cocaine itself, benzoylecgonine has an unusually stable zwitterion structure resistant to further hydrolysis in the body and environment. In fact, benzoylecgonine can last in the body for a very long time (a few days) and, thus, is responsible for the long-term toxicity of cocaine and a commonly used marker for drug addiction diagnosis in pre-employment drug tests. Because CocE and its mutants are all active against cocaine and inactive against benzoylecgonine, one might simply assume that other enzymes that are active against cocaine are also inactive against benzoylecgonine. Here, through combined computational modeling and experimental studies, we demonstrate for the first time that human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is actually active against benzoylecgonine, and that a rationally designed BChE mutant can not only more efficiently accelerate cocaine hydrolysis but also significantly hydrolyze benzoylecgonine in vitro and in vivo. This sets the stage for advanced studies to design more efficient mutant enzymes valuable for the development of an ideal cocaine overdose enzyme therapy and for benzoylecgonine detoxification in the environment.

  13. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  14. Primordial-like enzymes from bacteria with reduced genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Matteo P; Brewster, Jodi L; Hall, Kelsi R; Evans, Gary B; Patrick, Wayne M

    2017-08-01

    The first cells probably possessed rudimentary metabolic networks, built using a handful of multifunctional enzymes. The promiscuous activities of modern enzymes are often assumed to be relics of this primordial era; however, by definition these activities are no longer physiological. There are many fewer examples of enzymes using a single active site to catalyze multiple physiologically-relevant reactions. Previously, we characterized the promiscuous alanine racemase (ALR) activity of Escherichia coli cystathionine β-lyase (CBL). Now we have discovered that several bacteria with reduced genomes lack alr, but contain metC (encoding CBL). We characterized the CBL enzymes from three of these: Pelagibacter ubique, the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) and Thermotoga maritima. Each is a multifunctional CBL/ALR. However, we also show that CBL activity is no longer required in these bacteria. Instead, the wMel and T. maritima enzymes are physiologically bi-functional alanine/glutamate racemases. They are not highly active, but they are clearly sufficient. Given the abundance of the microorganisms using them, we suggest that much of the planet's biochemistry is carried out by enzymes that are quite different from the highly-active exemplars usually found in textbooks. Instead, primordial-like enzymes may be an essential part of the adaptive strategy associated with streamlining. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  16. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0314 TITLE: Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0314 Cancer Chemoresistance 5b...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT OXCT1 is a key enzyme in ketone body metabolism

  17. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3360 Section 862.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  18. Interplay of drug metabolizing enzymes with cellular transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Höferl, Martina; Jäger, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic substances and their metabolites are substrates for drug metabolizing enzymes and cellular transporters. These proteins may not only contribute to bioavailability of molecules but also to uptake into organs and, consequently, to overall elimination. The coordinated action of uptake transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and efflux pumps, therefore, is a precondition for detoxification and elimination of drugs. As the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to predict alterations in drug disposal, adverse drug reactions and, finally, drug-drug interactions, this review illustrates the interplay between selected uptake/efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes.

  19. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  20. Integration of Genome Scale Metabolic Networks and Gene Regulation of Metabolic Enzymes With Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Elaina M.; Leoncikas, Vytautas; Fisher, Ciarán P.; Moore, J. Bernadette; Plant, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The scope of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can be expanded by assimilation of the mechanistic models of intracellular processes from systems biology field. The genome scale metabolic networks (GSMNs) represent a whole set of metabolic enzymes expressed in human tissues. Dynamic models of the gene regulation of key drug metabolism enzymes are available. Here, we introduce GSMNs and review ongoing work on integration of PBPK, GSMNs, and metabolic gene regulation. We demonstrate example models. PMID:28782239

  1. Modeling metabolic response to changes of enzyme amount in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the work of Hynne et al. (2001), in an in silico model of glycolysis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is established by introducing an enzyme amount multiple factor (.) into the kinetic equations. The model is aimed to predict the metabolic response to the change of enzyme amount. With the help of .α, the amounts of ...

  2. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  4. Interplay of metabolizing enzymes and transporter of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hwee Ying; Ho, Qin Shi; Wong, Kim Ping

    2016-01-01

    1. Xenobiotics are metabolized and eliminated through the coordinated interplay of their metabolizing enzymes and transporters. However, these two activities in vitro are measured separately, with the addition of ATP as a pre-requisite. 2. We propose a human renal cell-line model which integrates the sulfate and glutathione conjugation of xenobiotics with the efflux of their respective conjugates. Sulfation and glutathionylation represent two major Phase II detoxification of xenobiotics in man. The reactions are catalyzed, respectively, by phenolsulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase followed by extrusion of their respective conjugates. 3. Using Ko-143, a specific inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we identified this transporter to be responsible for the efflux of p-cresol sulfate, harmol sulfate and the glutathione conjugate of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. 4. The conjugation-cum-efflux was inhibited by oligomycin and uncouplers, which highlights the role of cellular mitochondria in providing ATP for the biosynthesis of their conjugating agents, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and reduced glutathione as well as for the transport function of BCRP. 5. The human 786-O renal cell-line provides a "3-in-1" system linking ATP biosynthesis to metabolism of xenobiotics and their ultimate transport and elimination by BCRP; this integrated system was not apparent in other human cell-lines examined.

  5. Action of ionizing radiation on the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasova, L.S.; Mironova, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    It follows from data reported in literature and those obtained in our laboratory that ionizing radiation does not drastically change the activity of enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism in tissues of an animal organism. The data are reported on the effect of a whole-body single, fractionated or continuous irradiation of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and the accompanying interrelated co-operative redistributions within the processes of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, and the pentose route of their conversion. The dependence of the postirradiation changes in the activity of enzymes on the neuroendocrine system response to irradiation has been demonstrated

  6. Erythritol reduces small intestinal glucose absorption, increases muscle glucose uptake, improves glucose metabolic enzymes activities and increases expression of Glut-4 and IRS-1 in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Mopuri, Ramgopal; Nagiah, Savania; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-08-02

    Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.

  7. Cortisol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Zeev Blumenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess the activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, using a fully quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS method. Design We investigated the glucocorticoid degradation pathways that include llβ-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (llβ-HSD type 1, 5α-reductase (5α-R and 5β-reductase (5β-R, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20α- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD and 20β-HSD, respectively in young nonobese women with PCOS, using a fully quantitative GCMS method. Setting This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Israel. Patients This study group consisted of 13 young women, aged 20.1 ±2.8 years (mean ± SD, with the body mass index (BMI of 22.6 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 , diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 healthy young women matched for weight, height, and BMI. Interventions Urine samples were analyzed using GCMS. We measured urinary steroid metabolites that represent the products and substrates of the study enzymes and calculated the product/substrate ratios to represent enzyme activity. Main Outcome Measures The calculation of enzymatic activity, based on glucocorticoid degradation metabolites, was done by GCMS in PCOS vs. controls. Results All glucocorticoid degradation metabolites were higher in the PCOS group than in controls. Of the adrenal enzymes, the activities of 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase were reduced, whereas the activity of 17,20-lyase was enhanced in PCOS. Of the degradation enzymes, the activity of 11β-HSD type 1 was reduced in women with PCOS only when calculated from cortoles and cortolones ratios. The activities of 5α-R/5β-R were increased only when calculating the 11-hydroxy metabolites of androgens. The activity of 20α-HSD was elevated in the patients with PCOS and its relation with the substrate levels was lost. Conclusions We

  8. Sex Differences in the Expression of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

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    Waxman, David J.; Holloway, Minita G.

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characterize many drugs and contribute to individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. Sex-based differences in drug metabolism are the primary cause of sex-dependent pharmacokinetics and reflect underlying sex differences in the expression of hepatic enzymes active in the metabolism of drugs, steroids, fatty acids and environmental chemicals, including cytochromes P450 (P450s), sulfotransferases, glutat...

  9. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiment K-6-21. Effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neutransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in motor and somatosensory cerebral cortex. Part 1: Metabolic enzymes of individual muscle fibers; part 2: metabolic enzymes of hippocampus and spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, O.; Mcdougal, D., Jr.; Nemeth, Patti M.; Maggie, M.-Y. Chi; Pusateri, M.; Carter, J.; Manchester, J.; Norris, Beverly; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme patterns composed by the individual fibers within the flight muscles. In spite of the limitation in numbers of muscles examined, it is apparent that: (1) that the size of individual fibers (i.e., their dry weight) was reduced about a third, (2) that this loss in dry mass was accompanied by changes in the eight enzymes studied, and (3) that these changes were different for the two muscles, and different for the two enzyme groups. In the soleus muscle the absolute amounts of the three enzymes of oxidative metabolism decreased about in proportion to the dry weight loss, so that their concentration in the atrophic fibers was almost unchanged. In contrast, there was little loss among the four enzymes of glycogenolysis - glycolysis so that their concentrations were substantially increased in the atrophic fibers. In the TA muscle, these seven enzymes were affected in just the opposite direction. There appeared to be no absolute loss among the oxidative enzymes, whereas the glycogenolytic enzymes were reduced by nearly half, so that the concentrations of the first metabolic group were increased within the atrophic fibers and the concentrations of the second group were only marginally decreased. The behavior of hexokinase was exceptional in that it did not decrease in absolute terms in either type of muscle and probably increased as much as 50 percent in soleus. Thus, their was a large increase in concentration of this enzyme in the atrophied fibers of both muscles. Another clear-cut finding was the large increase in the range of activities of the glycolytic enzymes among individual fibers of TA muscles. This was due to the emergence of TA fibers with activities for enzymes of this group extending down to levels as low as

  11. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

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    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  12. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-12-02

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  13. [Interaction between CYP450 enzymes and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine as well as enzyme activity assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-lin; Su, Lian-lin; Ji, De; Gu, Wei; Mao, Chun-qin

    2015-09-01

    Drugs are exogenous compounds for human bodies, and will be metabolized by many enzymes after administration. CYP450 enzyme, as a major metabolic enzyme, is an important phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. In human bodies, about 75% of drug metabolism is conducted by CYP450 enzymes, and CYP450 enzymes is the key factor for drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) -TCM, TCM-medicine and other drug combination. In order to make clear the interaction between metabolic enzymes and TCM metabolism, we generally chose the enzymatic activity as an evaluation index. That is to say, the enhancement or reduction of CYP450 enzyme activity was used to infer the inducing or inhibitory effect of active ingredients and extracts of traditional Chinese medicine on enzymes. At present, the common method for measuring metabolic enzyme activity is Cocktail probe drugs, and it is the key to select the suitable probe substrates. This is of great significance for study drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) process in organisms. The study focuses on the interaction between TCMs, active ingredients, herbal extracts, cocktail probe substrates as well as CYP450 enzymes, in order to guide future studies.

  14. Aspartate aminotransferase – key enzyme in the human systemic metabolism

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    Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ - nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms - cytoplasmic (AST1 and mitochondrial (AST2, that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys – 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate. The differences in the primary structure of AST isoforms determine their physico-chemical, kinetic and immunological properties. Because of the low concentration of L-aspartate (L-Asp in the blood, AST is the only enzyme, which supply of this amino acid as a substrate for many metabolic processes, such as urea cycle or purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in the liver, synthesis of L-arginine in the kidney and purine nucleotide cycle in the brain and the skeletal muscle. AST is also involved in D-aspartate production that regulates the metabolic activity at the auto-, para- and endocrine level. Aspartate aminotransferase is a part of the malate-aspartate shuttle in the myocardium, is involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidney, glyceroneogenesis in the adipose tissue, and synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuro-glial pathway in the brain. Recently, the significant role of AST in glutaminolysis - normal metabolic pathway in tumor cells, was demonstrated. The article is devoted the role of AST, known primarily as a diagnostic liver enzyme, in metabolism of various human tissues and organs.

  15. Flavonoids as modulators of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Trifan, Adriana; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds found in plants and in plant-derived foods and beverages, have been extensively studied with regard to their capacity to modulate metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro, flavonoids predominantly inhibit the major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP450 3A4 and the enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of procarcinogens (CYP1 enzymes) and upregulate the enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)). Flavonoids have been reported to inhibit ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated proteins, breast cancer-resistance protein) that contribute to the development of MDR. P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that limits drug bioavailability and also induces MDR, was differently modulated by flavonoids. Flavonoids and their phase II metabolites (sulfates, glucuronides) inhibit organic anion transporters involved in the tubular uptake of nephrotoxic compounds. In vivo studies have partially confirmed in vitro findings, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of flavonoids are complex and difficult to predict in vivo. Data summarized in this review strongly support the view that flavonoids are promising candidates for the enhancement of oral drug bioavailability, chemoprevention, and reversal of MDR. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  17. EnzDP: improved enzyme annotation for metabolic network reconstruction based on domain composition profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam-Ninh; Srihari, Sriganesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Chong, Ket-Fah

    2015-10-01

    Determining the entire complement of enzymes and their enzymatic functions is a fundamental step for reconstructing the metabolic network of cells. High quality enzyme annotation helps in enhancing metabolic networks reconstructed from the genome, especially by reducing gaps and increasing the enzyme coverage. Currently, structure-based and network-based approaches can only cover a limited number of enzyme families, and the accuracy of homology-based approaches can be further improved. Bottom-up homology-based approach improves the coverage by rebuilding Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles for all known enzymes. However, its clustering procedure relies firmly on BLAST similarity score, ignoring protein domains/patterns, and is sensitive to changes in cut-off thresholds. Here, we use functional domain architecture to score the association between domain families and enzyme families (Domain-Enzyme Association Scoring, DEAS). The DEAS score is used to calculate the similarity between proteins, which is then used in clustering procedure, instead of using sequence similarity score. We improve the enzyme annotation protocol using a stringent classification procedure, and by choosing optimal threshold settings and checking for active sites. Our analysis shows that our stringent protocol EnzDP can cover up to 90% of enzyme families available in Swiss-Prot. It achieves a high accuracy of 94.5% based on five-fold cross-validation. EnzDP outperforms existing methods across several testing scenarios. Thus, EnzDP serves as a reliable automated tool for enzyme annotation and metabolic network reconstruction. Available at: www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~nguyennn/EnzDP .

  18. Reduced caloric intake during endotoxemia reduces arginine availability and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeze, Martijn; Bruins, Maaike J; Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E

    2010-04-01

    Inadequate caloric intake increases the risk of sepsis-induced complications. Metabolic changes during sepsis indicate that the availability of the amino acid l-arginine decreases. Availability of arginine may further decrease during reduced caloric intake, which thereby limits the adaptive response of arginine-nitric oxide metabolism during sepsis. We tested the hypothesis that reduced caloric intake during endotoxemia, as an experimental model for sepsis, further reduces arginine availability. In a randomized trial, a 7-d reduced caloric intake feed regimen (RE; n = 9) was compared with a normal control feed regimen (CE; n = 9), before 24 h of endotoxemia, as a model for sepsis. Whole-body arginine-nitric oxide metabolism and protein metabolism were measured by using a stable-isotope infusion of [(15)N(2)]arginine, [(13)C-(2)H(2)]citrulline, [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine, and [(2)H(2)]tyrosine. Plasma pyruvate and lactate concentrations were determined by fully automated HPLC. Pre-endotoxin arginine appearance was significantly lower in the RE group than in the CE group (P = 0.002). During endotoxemia, arginine appearance increased in the CE animals but not in the RE animals (P = 0.04). In addition, nitric oxide production was significantly lower in the RE animals (P endotoxemia in the RE group than in the CE group (P endotoxemia but increased significantly during endotoxemia in the RE group (P = 0.04). A well-nourished condition before prolonged endotoxemia results in a better ability to adapt to endotoxin-induced metabolic deterioration of arginine-nitric oxide metabolism than does reduced caloric intake before endotoxemia.

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  20. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bergen

    Full Text Available The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine, has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3. Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  1. Reduced Renal Methylarginine Metabolism Protects against Progressive Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Boruc, Olga; Bruce-Cobbold, Claire; Cutillas, Pedro; Dormann, Dirk; Faull, Peter; Grossman, Rebecca C.; Khadayate, Sanjay; Mas, Valeria R.; Nitsch, Dorothea D.; Wang, Zhen; Norman, Jill T.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Wheeler, David C.; Leiper, James

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is diminished in many patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, and elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with poor outcomes. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) is a methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme that reduces ADMA levels. We reported previously that a DDAH1 gene variant associated with increased renal DDAH1 mRNA transcription and lower plasma ADMA levels, but counterintuitively, a steeper rate of renal function decline. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced renal-specific ADMA metabolism protects against progressive renal damage. Renal DDAH1 is expressed predominately within the proximal tubule. A novel proximal tubule–specific Ddah1 knockout (Ddah1PT−/−) mouse demonstrated tubular cell accumulation of ADMA and lower NO concentrations, but unaltered plasma ADMA concentrations. Ddah1PT−/− mice were protected from reduced kidney tissue mass, collagen deposition, and profibrotic cytokine expression in two independent renal injury models: folate nephropathy and unilateral ureteric obstruction. Furthermore, a study of two independent kidney transplant cohorts revealed higher levels of human renal allograft methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme gene expression associated with steeper function decline. We also report an association among DDAH1 expression, NO activity, and uromodulin expression supported by data from both animal and human studies, raising the possibility that kidney DDAH1 expression exacerbates renal injury through uromodulin-related mechanisms. Together, these data demonstrate that reduced renal tubular ADMA metabolism protects against progressive kidney function decline. Thus, circulating ADMA may be an imprecise marker of renal methylarginine metabolism, and therapeutic ADMA reduction may even be deleterious to kidney function. PMID:25855779

  2. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Ron; Billington, Richard; Fulcher, Carol A; Keseler, Ingrid M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Midford, Peter E; Ong, Quang; Ong, Wai Kit; Paley, Suzanne; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Karp, Peter D

    2018-01-04

    MetaCyc (https://MetaCyc.org) is a comprehensive reference database of metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. It contains more than 2570 pathways derived from >54 000 publications, making it the largest curated collection of metabolic pathways. The data in MetaCyc is strictly evidence-based and richly curated, resulting in an encyclopedic reference tool for metabolism. MetaCyc is also used as a knowledge base for generating thousands of organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs), which are available in the BioCyc (https://BioCyc.org) and other PGDB collections. This article provides an update on the developments in MetaCyc during the past two years, including the expansion of data and addition of new features. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes: important regulators of cancer metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yang,1 Huizhong Su,1 Tomoyoshi Soga,2 Kamil R Kranc,3 Patrick J Pollard1 1Cancer Biology and Metabolism Group, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Mizukami, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan; 3MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs regulate the stability of HIF protein by post-translational hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues in its α subunit in an oxygen-dependent manner. Trans-4-prolyl hydroxylation of HIFα under normal oxygen (O2 availability enables its association with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor pVHL E3 ligase complex, leading to the degradation of HIFα via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Due to the obligatory requirement of molecular O2 as a co-substrate, the activity of PHDs is inhibited under hypoxic conditions, resulting in stabilized HIFα, which dimerizes with HIFβ and, together with transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, activates the transcription of its target genes. As a key molecular regulator of adaptive response to hypoxia, HIF plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and its overexpression has been detected in various cancers. The HIF1α isoform in particular has a strong impact on cellular metabolism, most notably by promoting anaerobic, whilst inhibiting O2-dependent, metabolism of glucose. The PHD enzymes also seem to have HIF-independent functions and are subject to regulation by factors other than O2, such as by metabolic status, oxidative stress, and abnormal levels of endogenous metabolites (oncometabolites that have been observed in some types of cancers. In this review, we aim to summarize current understandings of the function and regulation of PHDs in cancer with an emphasis on their roles in metabolism. Keywords: prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD

  4. [Metabolic detoxification of bakuchiol is mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-fang; Shen, Guo-lin; Jiao, Shi-yong; Li, Hua; Wang, Qi

    2012-06-18

    To analyze cytochrome P450 (CYP) phenotyping for bakuchiol metabolism and study the mechanism of detoxification of bakuchiol by human liver microsomes (HLM) in vitro. The CYP phenotyping for bakuchiol metabolism was determined using HLM combined with CYP specific inhibitors and recombinant human CYP isoforms. The relative activities of CYP isoforms were determined by analyzing the formation of the substrate metabolites using HPLC-MS/MS, in presence or absence of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) which was CYP enzymes' broad spectrum inhibitor. The residual concentrations of bakuchiol in microsomal incubates were determined using HPLC to investigate ABT's effect on the metabolism of bakuchiol. The effects of CYP enzymes on the nephrotoxicity of bakuchiol were investigated using human kidney-2(HK-2) by MTT assay, in presence or absence of ABT. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in HLM were involved in bakuchiol metabolism, among which CYP2C19 showed the highest metabolic rate. Co-incubation with ABT (2.5 mmol/L) could inhibit more than 90% of the enzyme activities for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. ABT (2.5 mmol/L) could inhibit the HLM metabolism of bakuchiol with inhibition ratio 83.24%±2.13%. When preincubated with ABT, the metabolic detoxification of bakuchiol by HLM was significantly reduced (Pdetoxification of bakuchiol by HLM is associated with bakuchiol metabolism by CYP enzymes to form non toxic or lower toxic metabolites. The broad spectrum inhibitor of CYP could inverse the detoxification of HLM.

  5. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (PJava green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer.

  6. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D.

    1990-01-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of [2H5]phenylalanine, [1-13C]propionate, and [1-13C]leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD

  7. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  8. Genetic Polymorphism of Folate and Methionine Metabolizing Enzymes and their Susceptibility to Malignant Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.E.; Aziz, M.; Kotb, M.

    2005-01-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymorphisms in the genes of folate metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer. In the present study, 2 polymorphisms were evaluated for a folate metabolic enzyme, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and one was evaluated for methionine synthase (MS). The 2 polymorphisms MTHFR 677 C-7T and MTHFR 1298 A-7C, are reported to reduce the enzyme activity, which causes intracellular accumulation of 5, 10 vm ethylene-tetrahydrofolate and results in a reduced incidence of DNA double strand breakage. The MS 2756 A-7G polymorphism also reduces the enzyme activity and results in the hypo methylation of DNA. Patients and Methods: To test this hypothesis, genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway were investigated using the DNA from a case-control study on 31 patients having malignant lymphoma from the Oncology Outpatient Clinic of the New Children's Hospital, Cairo University and 30 controls who were actually normal children attending for vaccination to the same hospital. We found that there is a higher susceptibility with the MTHFR 677CC and MTHFR 1298 AA genotypes (OR=4.3, 95% CI 1.12-16). When those harbor at least one variant allele in either polymorphism of MTHFR they were defined as reference. For the MS 2756 AG genotype polymorphism there was also a higher susceptibility to developing malignant lymphoma (OR=2.6; 95% CI 1.16.4). Results suggest that folate and methionine metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma. Further studies to confirm this association and detailed biologic mechanisms are now required

  9. Mutant Metabolic Enzymes Are at the Origin of Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Hai; Bigner, Darell D.; Velculescu, Victor; Parsons, D.Williams

    2009-01-01

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) metabolic enzymes IDH1 and IDH2 have been found to be frequent and early genetic alterations in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. All mutations identified to date affect a single amino acid located within the isocitrate binding site (R132 of IDH1 and the analogous R172 residue of IDH2). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations define a specific subtype of gliomas and may have significant utility for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with the...

  10. Enzymes of yeast polyphosphate metabolism: structure, enzymology and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Enzyme Regulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Photosynthesis : Studies on Thioredoxin-Linked Enzymes of KalanchoE daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, S W; Buchanan, B B

    1983-07-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) were identified and purified from the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalanchoë daigremontiana. FBPase and SBPase showed respective molecular weights of 180,000 and 76,000, and exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with their counterparts from chloroplasts of C(3) (spinach) and C(4) (corn) plants. Based on Western blot analysis, FBPase was composed of four identical 45,000-dalton subunits and SBPase of two identical 38,000-dalton subunits. Immunological evidence, together with physical properties, indicated that both enzymes were of chloroplast origin.Kalanchoë FBPase and SBPase could be activated by thioredoxin f reduced chemically by dithiothreitol or photochemically by a reconstituted Kalanchoë ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. Both enzymes were activated synergistically by reduced thioredoxin f and thier respective substrates.Kalanchoë FBPase could be partially activated by Mg(2+) at concentrations greater than 10 millimolar; however, such activation was considerably less than that observed in the presence of reduced thioredoxin and Ca(2+), especially in the pH range between 7.8 and 8.3. In contrast to FBPase, Kalanchoë SBPase exhibited an absolute requirement for a dithiol such as reduced thioredoxin irrespective of Mg(2+) concentration. However, like FBPase, increased Mg(2+) concentrations enhanced the thioredoxin-linked activation of this enzyme.In conjunction with these studies, an NADP-linked malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) was identified in cell-free preparations of Kalanchoë leaves which required reduced thioredoxin m for activity.These results indicate that Kalanchoë FBPase, SBPase, and NADP-MDH share physical and regulatory properties with their equivalents in C(3) and C(4) plants. In contrast to previous evidence, all three enzymes appear to have the capacity to be photoregulated in chloroplasts of CAM plants, thereby providing a means for the

  12. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  13. Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme Reduces with Treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme Reduces with Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Nigerian Patients: Indication for. Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring. Ige O.a, Edem V.F.b and Arinola O.G.b,*. aDepartment of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria b Department of Chemical Pathology,. University of ...

  14. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Gerlt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of entries in the sequence databases continues to increase exponentially – the UniProt database is increasing with a doubling time of ∼4 years (2% increase/month. Approximately 50% of the entries have uncertain, unknown, or incorrect function annotations because these are made by automated methods based on sequence homology. If the potential in complete genome sequences is to be realized, strategies and tools must be developed to facilitate experimental assignment of functions to uncharacterized proteins discovered in genome projects. The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; previously supported by U54GM093342 from the National Institutes of Health, now supported by P01GM118303 developed web tools for visualizing and analyzing (1 sequence and function space in protein families (EFI-EST and (2 genome neighbourhoods in microbial and fungal genomes (EFI-GNT to assist the design of experimental strategies for discovering the in vitro activities and in vivo metabolic functions of uncharacterized enzymes. The EFI developed an experimental platform for large-scale production of the solute binding proteins (SBPs for ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and their screening with a physical ligand library to identify the identities of the ligands for these transport systems. Because the genes that encode transport systems are often co-located with the genes that encode the catabolic pathways for the transported solutes, the identity of the SBP ligand together with the EFI-EST and EFI-GNT web tools can be used to discover new enzyme functions and new metabolic pathways. This approach is demonstrated with the characterization of a novel pathway for ethanolamine catabolism.

  15. Rhodanese functions as sulfur supplier for key enzymes in sulfur energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussignargues, Clément; Giuliani, Marie-Cécile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

    2012-06-08

    How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus.

  16. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Edith E., E-mail: ed.mueller@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Mayr, Johannes A., E-mail: h.mayr@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Zimmermann, Franz A., E-mail: f.zimmermann@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Feichtinger, Rene G., E-mail: r.feichtinger@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stanger, Olaf, E-mail: o.stanger@rbht.nhs.uk [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Sperl, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.sperl@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Kofler, Barbara, E-mail: b.kofler@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  17. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam B. Virgolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH. To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake.

  19. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  20. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Last, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S133-S140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enzyme * metabolism * radiometric assay * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  2. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  3. Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients--either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.

  4. Key Metabolic Enzymes Underlying Astrocytic Upregulation of GABAergic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław T. Kaczor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic plasticity is recognized as a key mechanism of shaping the activity of the neuronal networks. However, its description is challenging because of numerous neuron-specific mechanisms. In particular, while essential role of glial cells in the excitatory plasticity is well established, their involvement in GABAergic plasticity only starts to emerge. To address this problem, we used two models: neuronal cell culture (NC and astrocyte-neuronal co-culture (ANCC, where we chemically induced long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses (iLTP. iLTP could be induced both in NC and ANCC but in ANCC its extent was larger. Importantly, this functional iLTP manifestation was accompanied by an increase in gephyrin puncta size. Furthermore, blocking astrocyte Krebs cycle with fluoroacetate (FA in ANCC prevented enhancement of both mIPSC amplitude and gephyrin puncta size but this effect was not observed in NC, indicating a key role in neuron-astrocyte cross-talk. Blockade of monocarboxylate transport with α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CIN abolished iLTP both in NC and ANCC and in the latter model prevented also enlargement of gephyrin puncta. Similarly, blockade of glycogen phosphorylase with BAYU6751 prevented enlargement of gephyrin puncta upon iLTP induction. Finally, block of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoxide (MSO nearly abolished mIPSC increase in both NMDA stimulated cell groups but did not prevent enlargement of gephyrin puncta. In conclusion, we provide further evidence that GABAergic plasticity is strongly regulated by astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms involve key metabolic enzymes. Considering the strategic role of GABAergic interneurons, the plasticity described here indicates possible mechanism whereby metabolism regulates the network activity.

  5. Methyl supply, methyl metabolizing enzymes and colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, John D

    2002-08-01

    A low intake of vegetables (but not fruit) is established as a risk factor for colon cancer. Although there are a multitude of active agents that may explain this, one important candidate is folate. Among studies specifically examining intake of folate derived from food and supplements, higher intake is generally associated with lower risk of both adenomas and cancer. Other nutrients associated with the folate pathway-methionine, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12-or that impact the pathway-alcohol-have also been shown to influence risk in predictable ways. Polymorphisms in enzymes involved in the metabolism of folate also are associated with modification in risk, but essentially only in the presence of low intakes of folate and related nutrients. The consistency of the above evidence suggests that folate is an active agent, not just a marker for the intake of other effectors found in vegetables and multivitamin preparations. There are at least two mechanisms that may explain these findings: folate is central both to the provision of S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor, and to the provision of nucleotides for DNA synthesis and repair. Fortification of food with folate, as well as intake from multivitamin and pharmacological sources, may increasingly contribute to the primary prevention of colorectal neoplasia although it is possible that there is such a condition as having too much folate.

  6. "Slave" metabolites and enzymes. A rapid way of delineating metabolic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2000-01-01

    Although control of fluxes and concentrations tends to be distributed rather than confined to a single rate-limiting enzyme, the extent of control can differ widely between enzymes in a metabolic network. In some cases, there are enzymes that lack control completely. This paper identifies one

  7. Loss of malic enzymes leads to metabolic imbalance and altered levels of trehalose and putrescine in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Smallbone, Laura Anne; diCenzo, George C; Morton, Richard; Finan, Turlough M

    2016-07-26

    Malic enzymes decarboxylate the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate malate to the glycolytic end-product pyruvate and are well positioned to regulate metabolic flux in central carbon metabolism. Despite the wide distribution of these enzymes, their biological roles are unclear in part because the reaction catalyzed by these enzymes can be by-passed by other pathways. The N2-fixing alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti contains both a NAD(P)-malic enzyme (DME) and a separate NADP-malic enzyme (TME) and to help understand the role of these enzymes, we investigated growth, metabolomic, and transcriptional consequences resulting from loss of these enzymes in free-living cells. Loss of DME, TME, or both enzymes had no effect on growth with the glycolytic substrate, glucose. In contrast, the dme mutants, but not tme, grew slowly on the gluconeogenic substrate succinate and this slow growth was further reduced upon the addition of glucose. The dme mutant strains incubated with succinate accumulated trehalose and hexose sugar phosphates, secreted malate, and relative to wild-type, these cells had moderately increased transcription of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and pathways that divert metabolites away from the TCA cycle. While tme mutant cells grew at the same rate as wild-type on succinate, they accumulated the compatible solute putrescine. NAD(P)-malic enzyme (DME) of S. meliloti is required for efficient metabolism of succinate via the TCA cycle. In dme mutants utilizing succinate, malate accumulates and is excreted and these cells appear to increase metabolite flow via gluconeogenesis with a resulting increase in the levels of hexose-6-phosphates and trehalose. For cells utilizing succinate, TME activity alone appeared to be insufficient to produce the levels of pyruvate required for efficient TCA cycle metabolism. Putrescine was found to accumulate in tme cells growing with succinate, and whether this is related to altered levels of NADPH requires

  8. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea. PMID:28703743

  9. Drug metabolizing enzyme systems and their relationship to toxic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.R.; Ravindranath, V.; Burka, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism and toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3-MF) are described. The major product of metabolic activation of 3-MF appears to be disemicarbazones. Cursory description of toxic effects of 3-MF on lung and kidneys are provided. 18 refs

  10. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids

  11. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO 2 . Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions

  12. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jian; Li, Yuhuan; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wu, Jinjun; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-09-01

    Kaempferol is a well-known flavonoid; however, it lacks extensive pharmacokinetic studies. Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters play an important role in the disposition of flavonoids. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters determine the in vivo exposure of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic analysis in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that kaempferol was mostly biotransformed to conjugates, namely, kaempferol-3-glucuronide (K-3-G), kaempferol-7-glucuronide (K-7-G), and kaempferol-7-sulfate, in plasma. K-3-G represented the major metabolite. Compared with that in wild-type mice, pharmacokinetics in knockout FVB mice demonstrated that the absence of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the conjugates. The lack of MRP1 resulted in a much lower AUC of the conjugates. Intestinal perfusion in rats revealed that the glucuronide conjugates were mainly excreted in the small intestine, but 7-sulfate was mainly excreted in the colon. In Caco-2 monolayers, K-7-G efflux toward the apical (AP) side was significantly higher than K-3-G efflux. In contrast, K-3-G efflux toward the basolateral (BL) side was significantly higher than K-7-G efflux. The BL-to-AP efflux was significantly reduced in the presence of the MRP2 inhibitor LTC4. The AP-to-BL efflux was significantly decreased in the presence of the BL-side MRPs inhibitor MK571. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs).

  13. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław eKaczor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal cultures: nominally astrocyte-free neuronal culture (NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC and miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of respective enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of neuronal culture with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (with MSO strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (BAYU6751 or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle,fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  14. Determination of key enzymes for threonine synthesis through in vitro metabolic pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Meng, Qinglong; Ma, Hongwu; Liu, Yongfei; Cao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei; Jiang, Wenxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-06-13

    The overexpression of key enzymes in a metabolic pathway is a frequently used genetic engineering strategy for strain improvement. Metabolic control analysis has been proposed to quantitatively determine key enzymes. However, the lack of quality data often makes it difficult to correctly identify key enzymes through control analysis. Here, we proposed a method combining in vitro metabolic pathway analysis and proteomics measurement to find the key enzymes in threonine synthesis pathway. All enzymes in the threonine synthesis pathway were purified for the reconstruction and perturbation of the in vitro pathway. Label-free proteomics technology combined with APEX (absolute protein expression measurements) data analysis method were employed to determine the absolute enzyme concentrations in the crude enzyme extract obtained from a threonine production strain during the fastest threonine production period. The flux control coefficient of each enzyme in the pathway was then calculated by measuring the flux changes after titration of the corresponding enzyme. The isoenzyme LysC catalyzing the first step in the pathway has the largest flux control coefficient, and thus its concentration change has the biggest impact on pathway flux. To verify that the key enzyme identified through in vitro pathway analysis is also the key enzyme in vivo, we overexpressed LysC in the original threonine production strain. Fermentation results showed that the threonine concentration was increased 30% and the yield was increased 20%. In vitro metabolic pathways simulating in vivo cells can be built based on precise measurement of enzyme concentrations through proteomics technology and used for the determination of key enzymes through metabolic control analysis. This provides a new way to find gene overexpression targets for industrial strain improvement.

  15. A robust and efficient method for estimating enzyme complex abundance and metabolic flux from expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brandon E; Sadagopan, Narayanan; Wang, Yiping; Smallbone, Kieran; Myers, Christopher R; Xi, Hongwei; Locasale, Jason W; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-12-01

    A major theme in constraint-based modeling is unifying experimental data, such as biochemical information about the reactions that can occur in a system or the composition and localization of enzyme complexes, with high-throughput data including expression data, metabolomics, or DNA sequencing. The desired result is to increase predictive capability and improve our understanding of metabolism. The approach typically employed when only gene (or protein) intensities are available is the creation of tissue-specific models, which reduces the available reactions in an organism model, and does not provide an objective function for the estimation of fluxes. We develop a method, flux assignment with LAD (least absolute deviation) convex objectives and normalization (FALCON), that employs metabolic network reconstructions along with expression data to estimate fluxes. In order to use such a method, accurate measures of enzyme complex abundance are needed, so we first present an algorithm that addresses quantification of complex abundance. Our extensions to prior techniques include the capability to work with large models and significantly improved run-time performance even for smaller models, an improved analysis of enzyme complex formation, the ability to handle large enzyme complex rules that may incorporate multiple isoforms, and either maintained or significantly improved correlation with experimentally measured fluxes. FALCON has been implemented in MATLAB and ATS, and can be downloaded from: https://github.com/bbarker/FALCON. ATS is not required to compile the software, as intermediate C source code is available. FALCON requires use of the COBRA Toolbox, also implemented in MATLAB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    We have examined, in the livers of rats carried aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite, the activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition to the enzyme studies, the levels of glycogen and of the individual fatty acids in hepatic lipids were determined. Livers from flight and ground control rats at recovery (R0) and 25 days after recovery (R25) were used for these analyses. For all parameters measured, the most meaningful comparisons are those made between flight stationary (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) animals at R0. When these two groups of flight rats were compared at R0, statistically significant decreases in the activity levels of glycogen phosphorylase, α-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in the palmitoyl CoA desaturase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened by the fact that all enzyme activities showing alterations at R0 returned to normal 25 days postflight. When liver glycogen and total fatty acids of the two sets of flight animals were determined, significant differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed. The weightless group (FS) at R0 contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did the centrifuged controls (FC) and a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate was noted. These metabolic alterations, both in enzyme levels and in hepatic constituents, appear to be characteristic of the weightless condition. Our data seem to justify the conclusion that centrifugation during flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  17. Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

    2013-03-01

    The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups.

  18. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  19. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  20. Expression and Regulation of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered drugs must pass through the intestinal wall and then through the liver before reaching systemic circulation. During this process drugs are subjected to different processes that may determine the therapeutic value. The intestinal barrier with active drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in enterocytes plays an important role in the determination of drug bioavailability. Accumulating information demonstrates variable distribution of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters along the human gastrointestinal tract (GI), that creates specific barrier characteristics in different segments of the GI. In this review, expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the healthy and diseased human GI as well as their regulatory aspects: genetic, miRNA, DNA methylation are outlined. The knowledge of unique interplay between drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in specific segments of the GI tract allows more precise definition of drug release sites within the GI in order to assure more complete bioavailability and prediction of drug interactions.

  1. METABOLISM OF SULFATE-REDUCING PROKARYOTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HANSEN, TA

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic

  2. Estrogen metabolizing enzymes : biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursen, Majorie Beatrix Maria van

    2005-01-01

    In the etiology of breast cancer, estrogens and its metabolites play a key role as tumor initiators and promoters. Co-expression of estrogen synthesizing enzymes (aromatase and steroid sulfatase) and estrogen metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in breast tissue makes it plausible that locally

  3. Proteolytic regulation of metabolic enzymes by E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes: lessons from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms use diverse mechanisms to control metabolic rates in response to changes in the internal and/or external environment. Fine metabolic control is a highly responsive, energy-saving process that is mediated by allosteric inhibition/activation and/or reversible modification of preexisting metabolic enzymes. In contrast, coarse metabolic control is a relatively long-term and expensive process that involves modulating the level of metabolic enzymes. Coarse metabolic control can be achieved through the degradation of metabolic enzymes by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in which substrates are specifically ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here, we review select multi-protein E3 ligase complexes that directly regulate metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The first part of the review focuses on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ligase complexes. In addition to their primary roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway that eliminates misfolded proteins, recent quantitative proteomic analyses identified native substrates of Hrd1 and Doa10 in the sterol synthesis pathway. The second part focuses on the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, an abundant prototypical multi-protein E3 ligase complex. While the best-known roles of the SCF complex are in the regulation of the cell cycle and transcription, accumulating evidence indicates that the SCF complex also modulates carbon metabolism pathways. The increasing number of metabolic enzymes whose stability is directly regulated by the UPS underscores the importance of the proteolytic regulation of metabolic processes for the acclimation of cells to environmental changes.

  4. The Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Biosynthetic Enzyme Has Distinct Catalytic and Metabolic Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frej, Anna D; Clark, Jonathan; Le Roy, Caroline I; Lilla, Sergio; Thomason, Peter A; Otto, Grant P; Churchill, Grant; Insall, Robert H; Claus, Sandrine P; Hawkins, Phillip; Stephens, Len; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-05-15

    Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in an inositol auxotrophy that can be rescued only partially by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1(-) mutant resulted in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis, and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalized decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 that is independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterize this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) and having homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins was identified. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Frej et al.

  5. Effects of resveratrol on drug? and carcinogen?metabolizing enzymes, implications for cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Ariane R.; Chow, H?H. Sherry; Martinez, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grape skins and peanuts that has demonstrated many health benefits including protection against aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, neurological decline, and cancer. The anticancer properties of resveratrol have been attributed to a variety of mechanisms, including its general inhibition of phase I metabolism and induction of phase II metabolism. The effects of resveratrol on these enzymes, however, are still unclear, as in?vitro evidence...

  6. A Kinetic Modelling of Enzyme Inhibitions in the Central Metabolism of Yeast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbawati; Kalondeng, A.; Aris, N.; Erawaty, N.; Azis, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic regulation plays an important role in the metabolic engineering of a cellular process. It is conducted to improve the productivity of a microbial process by identifying the important regulatory nodes of a metabolic pathway such as fermentation pathway. Regulation of enzymes involved in a particular pathway can be held to improve the productivity of the system. In the central metabolism of yeast cell, some enzymes are known as regulating enzymes that can be inhibited to increase the production of ethanol. In this research we study the kinetic modelling of the enzymes in the central pathway of yeast metabolism by taking into consideration the enzyme inhibition effects to the ethanol production. The existence of positive steady state solution and the stability of the system are also analysed to study the property and dynamical behaviour of the system. One stable steady state of the system is produced if some conditions are fulfilled. The conditions concern to the restriction of the maximum reactions of the enzymes in the pyruvate and acetaldehyde branch points. There exists a certain time of fermentation reaction at which a maximum and a minimum ethanol productions are attained after regulating the system. Optimal ethanol concentration is also produced for a certain initial concentration of inhibitor.

  7. Reciprocal regulation of p53 and malic enzymes modulates metabolism and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Du, Wenjing; Mancuso, Anthony; Wellen, Kathryn E; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-31

    Cellular senescence both protects multicellular organisms from cancer and contributes to their ageing. The pre-eminent tumour suppressor p53 has an important role in the induction and maintenance of senescence, but how it carries out this function remains poorly understood. In addition, although increasing evidence supports the idea that metabolic changes underlie many cell-fate decisions and p53-mediated tumour suppression, few connections between metabolic enzymes and senescence have been established. Here we describe a new mechanism by which p53 links these functions. We show that p53 represses the expression of the tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-associated malic enzymes ME1 and ME2 in human and mouse cells. Both malic enzymes are important for NADPH production, lipogenesis and glutamine metabolism, but ME2 has a more profound effect. Through the inhibition of malic enzymes, p53 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation. Downregulation of ME1 and ME2 reciprocally activates p53 through distinct MDM2- and AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated mechanisms in a feed-forward manner, bolstering this pathway and enhancing p53 activation. Downregulation of ME1 and ME2 also modulates the outcome of p53 activation, leading to strong induction of senescence, but not apoptosis, whereas enforced expression of either malic enzyme suppresses senescence. Our findings define physiological functions of malic enzymes, demonstrate a positive-feedback mechanism that sustains p53 activation, and reveal a connection between metabolism and senescence mediated by p53.

  8. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-12-14

    Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic pathways. A graph-theoretic analysis of E.coli's metabolic network shows that localized enzymes, in contrast to non-localized ones, form a tree-like hierarchical structure, have a higher within-group connectivity, and are traversed by a higher number of feed-forward and feedback loops than their non-localized counterparts. A Gene Ontology analysis of these enzymes reveals an enrichment of terms related to essential metabolic functions in growing cells. Given that these findings suggest a distinct metabolic role for localization, we studied the dynamics of cellular localization of the cell wall synthesizing enzymes in B. subtilis and found that enzymes localize during exponential growth but not during stationary growth. We conclude that active biochemical pathways inside the cytoplasm are organized spatially following a rule where their first or their last enzymes localize to effectively connect the different active pathways and thus could reflect the activity state of the cell's metabolic network.

  9. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID

  10. Effect of metabolic enzyme on organic acids in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), were examined during the process of leaf development in 'Dangshansuli' pear. The citric acid content exhibited an overall slightly decreasing trend and the malic acid content exhibited an overall appreciably increasing trend in developing ...

  11. Modeling metabolic response to changes of enzyme amount in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... In this work, we first introduced the enzyme parameter (ɑ) into the kinetic equations and consequently established an in silico glycolysis model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in XML format (Figure 1), based on the work of Hynn et al. (2001). Equation 1 shows how the ɑis introduced into the kinetic equation.

  12. Characterisation of a major enzyme of bovine nitrogen metabolism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathomu, LM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of cellular protein metabolism (Curthoys & Watford, 1995; Meister, 1974). Glutamine functions as a major inter-organ transport form of nitrogen, carbon and serves as a source of energy between tissues such as brain, liver, kidney and even muscles...

  13. Novel TPP-riboswitch activators bypass metabolic enzyme dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lünse, Christina E; Scott, Fraser J; Suckling, Colin J; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Riboswitches are conserved regions within mRNA molecules that bind specific metabolites and regulate gene expression. TPP-riboswitches, which respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), are involved in the regulation of thiamine metabolism in numerous bacteria. As these regulatory RNAs are often modulating essential biosynthesis pathways they have become increasingly interesting as promising antibacterial targets. Here, we describe thiamine analogs containing a central 1,2,3-triazole group to induce repression of thiM-riboswitch dependent gene expression in different E. coli strains. Additionally, we show that compound activation is dependent on proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of thiamine uptake and synthesis. The most promising molecule, triazolethiamine (TT), shows concentration dependent reporter gene repression that is dependent on the presence of thiamine kinase ThiK, whereas the effect of pyrithiamine (PT), a known TPP-riboswitch modulator, is ThiK independent. We further show that this dependence can be bypassed by triazolethiamine-derivatives that bear phosphate-mimicking moieties. As triazolethiamine reveals superior activity compared to pyrithiamine, it represents a very promising starting point for developing novel antibacterial compounds that target TPP-riboswitches. Riboswitch-targeting compounds engage diverse endogenous mechanisms to attain in vivo activity. These findings are of importance for the understanding of compounds that require metabolic activation to achieve effective riboswitch modulation and they enable the design of novel compound generations that are independent of endogenous activation mechanisms.

  14. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  15. [Metformin and AMPK: an old drug and a new enzyme in the context of metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro Júnior, Augusto Cézar; Ugolini, Michelle Remião; Santomauro, Ana Teresa; Souto, Ricardo Peres do

    2008-02-01

    Metformin is one of the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic agents worldwide. However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group studies have shown that metformin administration and lifestyle-intervention (diet and exercise) reduce the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2). A possible biochemical connection between both therapies may be the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This enzyme was originally described as a sensor of cellular energy status, being activated in exercise. On the other hand, several experimental evidences indicate that AMPK may be an important target of metformin action. This paper discusses various ways for AMPK regulation, suggesting a possible mechanism for its activation by metformin that involves the production of reactive nitrogen species. AMPK activation determines a wide variety of physiological effects, including enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and enhanced lipid catabolism. Thus, it may be a key player not only in the prevention and treatment of DM2, but also in the development of new treatments for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding of AMPK activation by metformin draws attention to this enzyme as an important pharmacological target.

  16. GABA-shunt enzymes activity in GH3 cells with reduced level of PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Antoni, E-mail: antoni.kowalski@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Str., 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Zylinska, Ludmila, E-mail: ludmila.zylinska@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Str., 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Boczek, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.boczek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Str., 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Rebas, Elzbieta, E-mail: elzbieta.rebas@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Str., 92-215 Lodz (Poland)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Suppression of PMCA2 or PMCA3 slows down proliferation of GH3 cells. {yields} PMCA2 suppression lowers the activity of GABA-shunt enzymes. {yields} PMCA3 suppression increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65. {yields} PMCA2 and PMCA3 function appears to be linked to regulation of GABA metabolism. -- Abstract: GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid) is important neurotransmitter and regulator of endocrine functions. Its metabolism involves three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67), GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). As many cellular processes GABA turnover can depend on calcium homeostasis, which is maintained by plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs). In excitable cells PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms are particularly important. In this study we focused on GABA-metabolizing enzymes expression and activity in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells with suppressed expression of PMCA2 or PMCA3. We observed that PMCA3-reduced cells have increased GAD65 expression. Suppression of PMCA2 caused a decrease in total GAD and GABA-T activity. These results indicate that PMCA2 and PMCA3 presence may be an important regulatory factor in GABA metabolism. Results suggest that PMCA2 and PMCA3 function is rather related to regulation of GABA synthesis and degradation than supplying cells with metabolites, which can be potentially energetic source.

  17. Multifaceted roles of metabolic enzymes of the Paracoccidioides species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi, and are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a serious disease of multiple organs. The large number of tissues colonized by this fungus suggests the presence of a variety of surface molecules involved in adhesion. A surprising finding is that the majority of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle in Paracoccidioides spp. has adhesive properties that aid in the interaction with the host extracellular matrix, and so act as ‘moonlighting’ proteins. Moonlighting proteins have multiple functions and add another dimension to cellular complexity, while benefiting cells in several ways. This phenomenon occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. For example, moonlighting proteins from the glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle can play roles in bacterial pathogens, either by acting as proteins secreted in a conventional pathway or not and/or as cell surface component that facilitate adhesion or adherence . This review outlines the multifuncionality exposed by a variety of Paracoccidioides spp. enzymes including aconitase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, triose phosphate isomerase, fumarase and enolase. The roles that moonlighting activities play in the virulence characteristics of this fungus and several other human pathogens during their interactions with the host are discussed.

  18. Reduced levels of neurotransmitter-degrading enzyme PRCP promote obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The level of neurotransmitters present in the synaptic cleft is a function of the delicate balance among neurotransmitter synthesis, recycling, and degradation. While much is known about the processes controlling neurotransmitter synthesis and release, the enzymes that degrade peptide neurotransmitters are poorly understood. A new study in this issue of the JCI reveals the important role of neuropeptide degradation in regulating obesity (see the related article beginning on page 2291). Wallin...

  19. Liver enzymes and markers of inflammation in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udenze Ifeoma Christiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in people with metabolic syndrome and to determine the association between the liver enzymes and obesity, insulin resistance, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 50 adult men and women with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched males and females without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the student′s t-test. Regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the liver enzymes ALP (P = 0.031, ALT (P = 0.019, and GGT (P = 0.037, as well as in the inflammatory markers CRP (P = 0.019 and the cytokine IL-6 (P = 0.040 between the two study groups. ALP and ALT showed significant correlation with waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, and waist/hip ratio (P < 0.05. Multivariate regression also identified ALT, AST, and ALP to be associated with IL-6 and CRP (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Liver enzyme levels were increased in metabolic syndrome and associated with obesity, fasting insulin, and CRP. Elevated liver enzymes may indicate dysmetabolism and increased

  20. Enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; López-Maside, Laura; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Sixto-Leal, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids. Simultaneously, glutamate is converted in 2-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain ketoacids to produce branched-chain acyl-coA intermediates, which then follow separate catabolic pathways. Human tissue distribution and function of most of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid catabolism is unknown. Congenital deficiencies of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism are generally rare disorders. Some of them are associated with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and respiratory chain dysfunction that may contribute to their clinical phenotype. The biochemical phenotype is characterized by accumulation of the substrate to the deficient enzyme and its carnitine and/or glycine derivatives. It was established at the beginning of the twentieth century that the plasma level of the branched-chain amino acids is increased in conditions associated with insulin resistance such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the potential clinical relevance of this elevation is uncertain.

  1. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex......, since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed...

  2. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets--"Sand Out and Gold Stays".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: (1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune, and other tissues; (2) our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, and histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and (3) histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization/ differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of "Sand out and Gold stays," where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity.

  3. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets – “Sand out and Gold Stays”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y.; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T.; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: 1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune and other tissues; 2) Our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and 3) Histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and Treg polarization/differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of “sand out and gold stays,” where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity. PMID:26746407

  4. Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHF...

  5. Reciprocal regulation of p53 and malic enzymes modulates metabolism and senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Peng; Du, Wenjing; Mancuso, Anthony; Wellen, Kathryn E.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Cellular senescence both protects multicellular organisms from cancer and contributes to their aging 1 . The preeminent tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of senescence, but how p53 carries out this function remains poorly understood 1?3 . Additionally, while increasing evidence supports the notion that metabolic changes underlie many cell fate decisions and p53-mediated tumor suppression, few connections between metabolic enzymes and senescence have...

  6. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  7. Dissecting the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to the knockout of a major metabolic enzyme in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Christopher P.; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E.; Feist, Adam M.

    2018-01-01

    robustness, regulation, and areas of kinetic limitation. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and highresolution C-13-metabolic flux analysis were performed on 10 adaptively evolved pgi knockouts of Escherichia coli. Pgi catalyzes the first reaction in glycolysis, and its loss results in major......Unraveling the mechanisms of microbial adaptive evolution following genetic or environmental challenges is of fundamental interest in biological science and engineering. When the challenge is the loss of a metabolic enzyme, adaptive responses can also shed significant insight into metabolic......, which corresponded to elevated flux from pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate. The overall energy metabolism was found to be strikingly robust, and what have been previously described as latently activated Entner-Doudoroff and glyoxylate shunt pathways are shown here to represent no real increases...

  8. A systems biology framework for modeling metabolic enzyme inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because metabolism is fundamental in sustaining microbial life, drugs that target pathogen-specific metabolic enzymes and pathways can be very effective. In particular, the metabolic challenges faced by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, residing in the infected host provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Results We developed a mathematical framework to simulate the effects on the growth of a pathogen when enzymes in its metabolic pathways are inhibited. Combining detailed models of enzyme kinetics, a complete metabolic network description as modeled by flux balance analysis, and a dynamic cell population growth model, we quantitatively modeled and predicted the dose-response of the 3-nitropropionate inhibitor on the growth of M. tuberculosis in a medium whose carbon source was restricted to fatty acids, and that of the 5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl adenosine inhibitor in a medium with low-iron concentration. Conclusion The predicted results quantitatively reproduced the experimentally measured dose-response curves, ranging over three orders of magnitude in inhibitor concentration. Thus, by allowing for detailed specifications of the underlying enzymatic kinetics, metabolic reactions/constraints, and growth media, our model captured the essential chemical and biological factors that determine the effects of drug inhibition on in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis cells.

  9. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...... doses, which by far exceed the human exposure levels, the effect on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes was still very minor. The role of singly administered flavonoids in the protection against cancer and heart disease is thus expected to be limited....

  10. Nerve agent hydrolysis activity designed into a human drug metabolism enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Hemmert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP nerve agents are potent suicide inhibitors of the essential neurotransmitter-regulating enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Due to their acute toxicity, there is significant interest in developing effective countermeasures to OP poisoning. Here we impart nerve agent hydrolysis activity into the human drug metabolism enzyme carboxylesterase 1. Using crystal structures of the target enzyme in complex with nerve agent as a guide, a pair of histidine and glutamic acid residues were designed proximal to the enzyme's native catalytic triad. The resultant variant protein demonstrated significantly increased rates of reactivation following exposure to sarin, soman, and cyclosarin. Importantly, the addition of these residues did not alter the high affinity binding of nerve agents to this protein. Thus, using two amino acid substitutions, a novel enzyme was created that efficiently converted a group of hemisubstrates, compounds that can start but not complete a reaction cycle, into bona fide substrates. Such approaches may lead to novel countermeasures for nerve agent poisoning.

  11. Metabolic Activation of Heterocyclic Amines and Expression of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh S; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Itotani, Yuumi; Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Heterocyclic amines get entry into human body mainly through ingestion of pan-fried meats cooked at high temperatures. Exposure of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingested xenobiotics prior to delivery to the liver may lead to metabolic activation, which may explain the high incidence of GIT carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study investigated the mutagenic activation of 2 heterocyclic amines, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-prydo[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), in the GIT of rats. In addition, the constitutive mRNA expression profiles of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in the GIT of rats were examined. Metabolic activation of 2-AA was detected in all GIT tissues except the duodenum and rectum, and it was detected at high levels in the ileum and cecum. Furthermore, we revealed high metabolic activation of 2-AA and Trp-P-2 in the jejunum. The mRNA expression of phase I and II enzymes in rat GIT corresponded with their mutagenic activation ability. In conclusion, our results suggest that different expression levels of XME among GIT tissues may contribute to the tissue-specific differences in metabolic activation of xenobiotics such as heterocyclic amines in rats. This study declares mutagenic activation of 2 heterocyclic amines namely 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-prydo[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats. In addition, results obtained in this study suggest that GIT tissue-specific expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may contribute to the tissue-specific mutagenesis/carcinogenesis. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia – host cell interactions in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under non-homeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during intestinal protozoan infections. Results RNA expression analyses of major arginine-metabolizing enzymes revealed the arginine-utilizing pathways in human IECs (differentiated Caco-2 cells) grown in vitro. Most genes were constant or down-regulated (e.g. arginase 1 and 2) upon interaction with Giardia, whereas inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were up-regulated within 6 h of infection. Giardia was shown to suppress cytokine-induced iNOS expression, thus the parasite has both iNOS inducing and suppressive activities. Giardial arginine consumption suppresses NO production and the NO-degrading parasite protein flavohemoglobin is up-regulated in response to host NO. In addition, the secreted, arginine-consuming giardial enzyme arginine deiminase (GiADI) actively reduces T-cell proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, the effects on NO production and T cell proliferation could be reversed by addition of external arginine or citrulline. Conclusions Giardia affects the host’s arginine metabolism on many different levels. Many of the effects can be reversed by addition of arginine or citrulline, which could be a beneficial supplement in oral rehydration therapy. PMID:24228819

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  14. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    . As a case study we applied the protocol to grapevine leaf samples infected with plant pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', known to alter carbohydrate metabolism in grapevine. The described adaptations may be useful for determination of metabolic fingerprints for physiological phenotyping...... assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf...

  15. Thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes: from enzymology to metabolic regulation, drug design and disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria I; Tylicki, Adam; Lukashev, Nikolay V

    2013-12-01

    Bringing a knowledge of enzymology into research in vivo and in situ is of great importance in understanding systems biology and metabolic regulation. The central metabolic significance of thiamin (vitamin B1 ) and its diphosphorylated derivative (thiamin diphosphate; ThDP), and the fundamental differences in the ThDP-dependent enzymes of metabolic networks in mammals versus plants, fungi and bacteria, or in health versus disease, suggest that these enzymes are promising targets for biotechnological and medical applications. Here, the in vivo action of known regulators of ThDP-dependent enzymes, such as synthetic structural analogs of the enzyme substrates and thiamin, is analyzed in light of the enzymological data accumulated during half a century of research. Mimicking the enzyme-specific catalytic intermediates, the phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids selectively inhibit particular ThDP-dependent enzymes. Because of their selectivity, use of these compounds in cellular and animal models of ThDP-dependent enzyme malfunctions improves the validity of the model and its predictive power when compared with the nonselective and enzymatically less characterized oxythiamin and pyrithiamin. In vitro studies of the interaction of thiamin analogs and their biological derivatives with potential in vivo targets are necessary to identify and attenuate the analog selectivity. For both the substrate and thiamin synthetic analogs, in vitro reactivities with potential targets are highly relevant in vivo. However, effective concentrations in vivo are often higher than in vitro studies would suggest. The significance of specific inihibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes for the development of herbicides, antibiotics, anticancer and neuroprotective strategies is discussed. © 2013 FEBS.

  16. Enzymes of energy metabolism in hatchlings of amazonian freshwater turtles (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WP. Duncan

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.

  17. Characterization of drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We believe that this is the first work that reports these variants among those populations. The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are a subfamily of hemoproteins, playing a critical role in the metabolism of many drugs. Several genetic polymorphisms which depend on ethnic groups can alter CYP activity and then affect the.

  18. Expression of two drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450-enzymes in human salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, C; Hansen, C; Torpet, L A

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The oral cavity is constantly lubricated by saliva and even small amounts of xenobiotics and / or their metabolites in the saliva may affect the oral mucosa. Our aim was therefore to clarify if xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are expressed in salivary glands. METHODS...

  19. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput s...

  20. MUREIN-METABOLIZING ENZYMES FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI - EXISTENCE OF A 2ND LYTIC TRANSGLYCOSYLASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENGEL, H; SMINK, AJ; VANWIJNGAARDEN, L; KECK, W

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the soluble lytic transglycosylase, a murein-metabolizing enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa (Slt70), Escherichia coli possesses a second lytic transglycosylase, which has been described as a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt; 35 kDa; EC 3.2.1.-). The mlt gene, which

  1. Enzyme allocation problems in kinetic metabolic networks: Optimal solutions are elementary flux modes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, G.; Steuer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 347, APR 2014 (2014), s. 182-190 ISSN 0022-5193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : metabolic optimization * enzyme kinetics * oriented matroid * elementary vector * conformal sum Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.116, year: 2014

  2. The importance of sourcing enzymes from non-conventional fungi for metabolic engineering and biomass breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Susanna; Wilken, St Elmo; Knop, Doriv; Solomon, Kevin V; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    A wealth of fungal enzymes has been identified from nature, which continue to drive strain engineering and bioprocessing for a range of industries. However, while a number of clades have been investigated, the vast majority of the fungal kingdom remains unexplored for industrial applications. Here, we discuss selected classes of fungal enzymes that are currently in biotechnological use, and explore more basal, non-conventional fungi and their underexploited biomass-degrading mechanisms as promising agents in the transition towards a bio-based society. Of special interest are anaerobic fungi like the Neocallimastigomycota, which were recently found to harbor the largest diversity of biomass-degrading enzymes among the fungal kingdom. Enzymes sourced from these basal fungi have been used to metabolically engineer substrate utilization in yeast, and may offer new paths to lignin breakdown and tunneled biocatalysis. We also contrast classic enzymology approaches with emerging 'omics'-based tools to decipher function within novel fungal isolates and identify new promising enzymes. Recent developments in genome editing are expected to accelerate discovery and metabolic engineering within these systems, yet are still limited by a lack of high-resolution genomes, gene regulatory regions, and even appropriate culture conditions. Finally, we present new opportunities to harness the biomass-degrading potential of undercharacterized fungi via heterologous expression and engineered microbial consortia. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on the Metabolic Regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli by Enzyme Activities and Intracellular Metabolite Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor ‘Aini, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the cell growth characteristics, enzyme activities, intracellular metabolite concentrations was made to investigate the metabolic regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli based on batch culture and continuous culture which was performed at the dilution rate of 0.2h-1. The enzymatic study identified that pathways of pentose phosphate, ED pathway and glyoxylate shunt were all active in pgi mutant. The glycolysis enzymes i.e glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphatase, pyruvate kinase, triose phosphate isomerase were down regulated implying that the inactivation of pgi gene reduced the carbon flux through glycolytic pathway. Meanwhile, the pentose phosphate pathway was active as a major route for intermediary carbohydrate metabolism instead of glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway generates most of the major reducing co-factor NADPH as shown by the increased of NADPH/NADP+ ratio in the mutant when compared with the parent strain. The fermentative enzymes such as acetate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were down regulated in the mutant. Knockout of pgi gene results in the significant increase in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and decrease in the concentration of oxaloacetate. The slow growth rate of the mutant was assumed to be affected by the accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and imbalance of NADPH reoxidation.

  4. Cloning of the Malic Enzyme Gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum and Role of the Enzyme in Lactate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdon, Pierre; Baucher, Marie-France; Lindley, Nic D.; Guyonvarch, Armel

    2000-01-01

    Malic enzyme is one of at least five enzymes, known to be present in Corynebacterium glutamicum, capable of carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions coupling glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, no information is available concerning the physiological role of the malic enzyme in this bacterium. The malE gene from C. glutamicum has been cloned and sequenced. The protein encoded by this gene has been purified to homogeneity, and the biochemical properties have been established. Biochemical characteristics indicate a decarboxylation role linked to NADPH generation. Strains of C. glutamicum in which the malE gene had been disrupted or overexpressed showed no detectable phenotype during growth on either acetate or glucose, but showed a significant modification of growth behavior during lactate metabolism. The wild type showed a characteristic brief period of exponential growth on lactate followed by a linear growth period. This growth pattern was further accentuated in a malE-disrupted strain (ΔmalE). However, the strain overexpressing malE maintained exponential growth until all lactate had been consumed. This strain accumulated significantly larger amounts of pyruvate in the medium than the other strains. PMID:10877795

  5. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryan Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP, decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231 breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24 h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10 µM of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC protein levels, although other protein levels were

  6. Incorporation of enzyme concentrations into FBA and identification of optimal metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhasis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present article, we propose a method for determining optimal metabolic pathways in terms of the level of concentration of the enzymes catalyzing various reactions in the entire metabolic network. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction fluxes in a pathway based on steady state condition. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients corresponding to concentration of enzymes catalyzing reactions in the pathway. Finally, the rate of yield of the target metabolite, starting with a given substrate, is maximized in order to identify an optimal pathway through these weighting coefficients. Results The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated on two synthetic systems existing in the literature, two pentose phosphate, two glycolytic pathways, core carbon metabolism and a large network of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of various organisms belonging to different phylogeny. A comparative study with the existing extreme pathway analysis also forms a part of this investigation. Biological relevance and validation of the results are provided. Finally, the impact of the method on metabolic engineering is explained with a few examples. Conclusions The method may be viewed as determining an optimal set of enzymes that is required to get an optimal metabolic pathway. Although it is a simple one, it has been able to identify a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and the optimal pathway of core carbon metabolic network that is closer to some earlier investigations than that obtained by the extreme pathway analysis. Moreover, the present method has identified correctly optimal pathways for pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways. It has been mentioned using some examples how the method can suitably be used in the context of metabolic engineering.

  7. Requirement of a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme for growth of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2010-10-01

    Sphingolipids play critical roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened for yeast mutants showing high sensitivity to Aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, and found that a lack of SAC1 encoding phosphoinositides phosphatase causes high sensitivity to the inhibitor. Double mutation analysis involving the SAC1 and non-essential sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme genes revealed that csg1Δ, csg2Δ, ipt1Δ or scs7Δ causes synthetic lethality with deletion of SAC1. As previously reported, SAC1-repressed cells exhibited a reduced cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) level, and overexpression of PSS1 encoding PS synthase complemented the growth defects of scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells under SAC1-repressive conditions. Furthermore, repression of PSS1 expression resulted in synthetic growth defect with the deletion of CSG1, IPT1 or SCS7. The growth defects of scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells under SAC1- or PSS1-repressive conditions were also complemented by overexpression of Arf-GAP AGE1, which encodes a protein related to membrane trafficking. Under SAC1-repressive conditions, scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells showed defects in vacuolar morphology, which were complemented by overexpression of each of PSS1 and AGE1. These results suggested that a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme is required for yeast cell growth under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids.

  8. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled o...

  9. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Grover L; Holden, Hazel M; Maurice, Martin St

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is the major cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin-dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature and are involved in a myriad of metabolic processes including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The cofactor, itself, is composed of a ureido ring, a tetrahydrothiophene ring, and a valeric acid side chain. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes is critically important for translational research in light of the fact that some of these enzymes serve as targets for anti-obesity agents, antibiotics, and herbicides. Prior to 1990, however, there was a dearth of information regarding the molecular architectures of biotin-dependent enzymes. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of three-dimensional structures reported for these proteins. Here we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of biotin-dependent enzymes. In addition, we provide a critical analysis of what these structures have and have not revealed about biotin-dependent catalysis. PMID:22969052

  10. The effect of exogenous calcium on mitochondria, respiratory metabolism enzymes and ion transport in cucumber roots under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Lu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Lingyun; Yang, Yanjuan; Yuan, Yinghui; Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-25

    Hypoxia induces plant stress, particularly in cucumber plants under hydroponic culture. In plants, calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and growth. The ultimate goal of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous calcium on the mitochondrial antioxidant system, the activity of respiratory metabolism enzymes, and ion transport in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) roots under hypoxic conditions. Our experiments revealed that exogenous calcium reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria under hypoxia. Exogenous calcium also enhances the accumulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We utilized fluorescence and ultrastructural cytochemistry methods to observe that exogenous calcium increases the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in root cells by increasing the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase and tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and H(+)-PPase. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxic stress has an immediate and substantial effect on roots. Exogenous calcium improves metabolism and ion transport in cucumber roots, thereby increasing hypoxia tolerance in cucumber.

  11. The effect of NADP-dependent malic enzyme expression and anaerobic C4 metabolism in Escherichia coli compared with other anaplerotic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y-D; Kwon, O-H; Lee, H-S; Kim, P

    2007-12-01

    To understand the modification of C4-metabolism under anaerobic glycolysis condition by overexpressing anaplerotic enzymes, which mediating carboxylation of C3 into C4 metabolites, in Escherichia coli. Anaplerotic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (MaeB), as well as the other anaplerotic enzymes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (Ppc), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) and NAD-dependent malic enzyme (MaeA), were artificially expressed and their C4 metabolism was compared in E. coli. Increasing MaeB expression enhanced the production of C4 metabolites by 2.4 times compared to the wild-type strain in anaerobic glucose medium with bicarbonate supplementation. In MaeB expression, C4 metabolism by supplementing 10 g l(-1) of NaHCO(3) was three times than that by no supplementation, which showed the greatest response to increased CO(2) availability among the tested anaplerotic enzyme expressions. The higher C4 metabolism was achieved in E. coli expressing increased levels of the NADPH-dependent MaeB. The greatest increase in the C4 metabolite ratio compared to the other tested enzymes were also found in E. coli with enhanced MaeB expression as CO(2) availability increased. The higher C4 metabolites and related biomolecule productions can be accomplished by MaeB overexpression in metabolically engineered E. coli.

  12. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1- 14 C glucose and 6- 14 C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14 CO 2 from 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1- 14 C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6- 14 C glucose. (auth.)

  13. Effects of resveratrol on drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, implications for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Ariane R; Chow, H-H Sherry; Martinez, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grape skins and peanuts that has demonstrated many health benefits including protection against aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, neurological decline, and cancer. The anticancer properties of resveratrol have been attributed to a variety of mechanisms, including its general inhibition of phase I metabolism and induction of phase II metabolism. The effects of resveratrol on these enzymes, however, are still unclear, as in vitro evidence often contrasts with animal studies and clinical trials. Reasons for these variances could include the low bioavailability of resveratrol and the effects of resveratrol metabolites. Due to resveratrol's interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, individuals concurrently taking pharmacological doses of resveratrol with other supplements or medications could potentially experience nutrient-drug interactions. This review summarizes the known effects of resveratrol and its main metabolites on drug metabolism in order to help characterize which populations might benefit from resveratrol for the prevention of cancer, as well as those that may need to avoid supplementation due to potential drug interactions.

  14. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  15. Reactions and enzymes in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Bernard; Pedretti, Alessandro; Vistoli, Giulio

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we offer an overview of the compared quantitative importance of biotransformation reactions in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, based on a meta-analysis of current research interests. Also, we assess the relative significance the enzyme (super)families or categories catalysing these reactions. We put the facts unveiled by the analysis into a drug discovery context and draw some implications. The results confirm the primary role of cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidations and UDP-glucuronosyl-catalysed glucuronidations, but they also document the marked significance of several other reactions. Thus, there is a need for several drug discovery scientists to better grasp the variety of drug metabolism reactions and enzymes and their consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing

    2015-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones.

  17. Photoperiodism and enzyme activity: towards a model for the control of circadian metabolic rhythms in the crassulacean Acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O; Morel, C

    1974-04-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system.

  18. Targeting of ECM molecules and their metabolizing enzymes and receptors for the treatment of CNS diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, Vladimir; Walmod, Peter Schledermann; Filippov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, their receptors at the cell surface, and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) involved in cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions are implicated in processes related to major diseases of the central nervous system including Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy......, schizophrenia, addiction, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. There are multiple strategies for targeting the ECM molecules and their metabolizing enzymes and receptors with antibodies, peptides, glycosaminoglycans, and other natural and synthetic compounds. ECM-targeting treatments include...

  19. Characterization of Genes Encoding Key Enzymes Involved in Anthocyanin Metabolism of Kiwifruit during Storage Period

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Boqiang; Xia, Yongxiu; Wang, Yuying; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    ‘Hongyang’ is a red fleshed kiwifruit with high anthocyanin content. In this study, we mainly investigated effects of different temperatures (25 and 0°C) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in harvested kiwifruit, and characterized the genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism, as well as evaluated the mode of the action, by which low temperature regulates anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Hongyang’ kiwifruit during storage period. The results showed that low temperature could effectiv...

  20. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  1. Oxidative bioelectrocatalysis: From natural metabolic pathways to synthetic metabolons and minimal enzyme cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-05-01

    Anodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells are more complex than cathodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells, because laccase and bilirubin oxidase can individually catalyze four electron reduction of oxygen to water, whereas most anodic enzymes only do a single two electron oxidation of a complex fuel (i.e. glucose oxidase oxidizing glucose to gluconolactone while generating 2 electrons of the total 24 electrons), so enzyme cascades are typically needed for complete oxidation of the fuel. This review article will discuss the lessons learned from natural metabolic pathways about multi-step oxidation and how those lessons have been applied to minimal or artificial enzyme cascades. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of prolonged recombinant human erythropoietin administration on muscle membrane transport systems and metabolic marker enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C; Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L

    2007-01-01

    on the expression of muscle membrane transport proteins. Likewise, improvements in performance may involve upregulation of metabolic enzymes. Since Epo is known to augment performance we tested the effect of rHuEpo on some marker enzymes that are related to aerobic capacity. For these purposes eight subjects...... performance by approximately 54%. Membrane transport systems and carbonic anhydrases involved in pH regulation remained unchanged. Of the Na(+), K(+)-pump isoforms only the density of the alpha2 subunit was decreased (by 22%) after treatment. The marker enzymes cytochrom c and hexokinase remained unchanged......Adaptations to chronic hypoxia involve changes in membrane transport proteins. The underlying mechanism of this response may be related to concomitant occurring changes in erythropoietin (Epo) levels. We therefore tested the direct effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment...

  3. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Acosta, Gisela; Pebet, Matias; Chaunavel, Alain; Marin, Benoît; Labrousse, François; Denizot, Yves

    2010-07-01

    Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system derived from glial cells. They show cellular heterogeneity and lack specific diagnostic markers. Although a possible role for the eicosanoid cascade has been suggested in glioma tumorigenesis, the relationship between enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism, with histological tumor type has not yet been determined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure and compare transcript levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways between oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Arachidonic acid metabolism-related enzymes and receptor transcripts (i) were underexpressed in classical oligodendrogliomas compared to astrocytomas and/or glioblastomas, (ii) differed between astrocytomas and glioblastomas and (iii) had an intermediate expression in mixed oligoastrocytomas. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated both in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways differed significantly in gliomas according to the histological type. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes in a rat valproate-induced autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Jingquan; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Xuelai; Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Hao, Yanqiu; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yonggang; Wu, Lijie

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether the decreased level of serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with autism is associated with the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes, we selected rats that were exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) as a model of autism. We observed the serum levels of PUFAs and the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes, including Δ5-desaturase, Δ6-desaturase and elongase (Elovl2), in VPA-exposed and control rats on postnatal day 35 (PND35) and conducted sex dimorphic analysis. We found that the levels of serum PUFAs and related liver metabolic enzymes in the VPA rats were significantly reduced, in association with autism-like behavioral changes, the abnormal expression of apoptosis-related proteins and hippocampal neuronal injury, compared to the control rats and showed sex difference in VPA group. This finding indicated that rats exposed to VPA at the embryonic stage may exhibit reduced synthesis of serum PUFAs due to the down-regulation of liver metabolic enzymes, thereby inducing nervous system injury and behavioral changes, which is affected by sex in the meantime. Copyright © 2015 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of lemongrass oil and citral on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg and 400 LO (400 mg/kg and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg, on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the effects of LO and citral on the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen were determined. The results showed that rats treated with 400 LO or citral had significantly reduced hepatic testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities. In addition, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity was significantly increased by citral, and Uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP glucurosyltransferase activity was significantly increased by 400 LO in the rat liver. Treatment with 400 LO or citral reduced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the liver. After acetaminophen treatment, however, LO and citral treatment resulted in little or no change in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and acetaminophen-protein adducts content in the liver. Our results indicate that LO and citral may change the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and reduce oxidative stress in the liver. However, LO and citral may not affect the detoxification of acetaminophen.

  6. Gene expression analysis of a critical enzyme in intermediary metabolism in oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, K.

    2016-02-01

    A key regulatory component in the Krebs cycle pathway is the mitochondrial aconitase enzyme which has been posited to balance energy needs and oxidative growth total storage via citrate utilization. The presence of a cytosolic aconitase (cAcon) activity which serves as a competitor for citrate substrate has been recognized for years. cAcon is a dual function protein with mutually exclusive roles as a post transcriptional regulator of animal cell iron metabolism or as the cytosolic isoform of the iron sulfur enzyme aconitase. We are interested in establishing the role of this orthologue in Perkinsus marnius metabolism through demonstrating its function as aconitase, by looking at gene expression under certain environmental conditions. P. marinus is a close evolutionary relative of the dinoflagellates and is the causative agent of Dermo disease, which has significantly impacted oyster populations along the eastern seaboard. An understanding of intermediary metabolism will yield important insights into how c-aconitase may be involved in stress response systems such as oxidative tension and metabolite deficiency, which could be used to help aquaculturists alleviate the severe impact of "dermo" on the on the oyster population. This study will present data regarding our preliminary analysis of the gene aconitase and its role in intermediary metabolism.

  7. Selection Finder (SelFi: A computational metabolic engineering tool to enable directed evolution of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hassanpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution of enzymes consists of an iterative process of creating mutant libraries and choosing desired phenotypes through screening or selection until the enzymatic activity reaches a desired goal. The biggest challenge in directed enzyme evolution is identifying high-throughput screens or selections to isolate the variant(s with the desired property. We present in this paper a computational metabolic engineering framework, Selection Finder (SelFi, to construct a selection pathway from a desired enzymatic product to a cellular host and to couple the pathway with cell survival. We applied SelFi to construct selection pathways for four enzymes and their desired enzymatic products xylitol, D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, methanol, and aniline. Two of the selection pathways identified by SelFi were previously experimentally validated for engineering Xylose Reductase and RuBisCO. Importantly, SelFi advances directed evolution of enzymes as there is currently no known generalized strategies or computational techniques for identifying high-throughput selections for engineering enzymes.

  8. Highlighting the Need for Systems-level Experimental Characterization of Plant Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karl Magnus Engqvist

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biology of living organisms is determined by the action and interaction of a large number of individual gene products, each with specific functions. Discovering and annotating the function of gene products is key to our understanding of these organisms. Controlled experiments and bioinformatic predictions both contribute to functional gene annotation. For most species it is difficult to gain an overview of what portion of gene annotations are based on experiments and what portion represent predictions. Here, I survey the current state of experimental knowledge of enzymes and metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as eleven economically important crops and forestry trees – with a particular focus on reactions involving organic acids in central metabolism. I illustrate the limited availability of experimental data for functional annotation of enzymes in most of these species. Many enzymes involved in metabolism of citrate, malate, fumarate, lactate, and glycolate in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. Furthermore, enzymes involved in key biosynthetic pathways which shape important traits in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. I argue for the development of novel high-throughput platforms with which limited functional characterization of gene products can be performed quickly and relatively cheaply. I refer to this approach as systems-level experimental characterization. The data collected from such platforms would form a layer intermediate between bioinformatic gene function predictions and in-depth experimental studies of these functions. Such a data layer would greatly aid in the pursuit of understanding a multiplicity of biological processes in living organisms.

  9. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Emma L; Elliott, Faye; Forman, David; Barrett, Jennifer H; Wilkie, Murray J V; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C; Wolf, Roland; Bishop, Timothy; Smith, Gillian

    2010-05-01

    We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, in a case-control study [317 CRA cases (308 cases genotyped), 296 controls]. Findings significant at a nominal 5% level are reported. CRA risk was inversely associated with fruit (P=0.02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99], whereas CYP2D6*4 homozygotes (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.18-6.27) and GSTM1 'null' individuals (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.98) were at increased risk. The protective effect of fruit consumption was confined to GSTP1 (Ala114Val) reference allele homozygotes (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.03 for interaction). CRA risk was not associated with meat consumption, although a significant interaction between red meat consumption and EPHX1 (His139Arg) genotype was noted (P=0.02 for interaction). We report the novel associations between P450 genotype and CRA risk, and highlight the risk association with GSTM1 genotype, common to our CRA and cancer case-control series. In addition, we report a novel modifying influence of GSTP1 genotype on dietary chemoprevention. These novel findings require independent confirmation.

  10. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis by reduced overconsumption of amino acids and increased catalytic activities of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol(-1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h(-1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h(-1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus. Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times. Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism by varying the growth conditions.

  11. OVER-EXPRESSION OF GENE ENCODING FATTY ACID METABOLIC ENZYMES IN FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 have important nutritional benefits in humans. EPA and DHA are mainly derived from fish, but the decline in the stocks of major marine capture fishes could result in these fatty acids being consumed less. Farmed fish could serve as promising sources of EPA and DHA, but they need these fatty acids in their diets. Generation of fish strains that are capable of synthesizing enough amounts of EPA/DHA from the conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3 rich oils can supply a new EPA/DHA source. This may be achieved by over-expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in HUFA biosynthesis. In aquaculture, the successful of this technique would open the possibility to reduce the enrichment of live food with fish oils for marine fish larvae, and to completely substitute fish oils with plant oils without reducing the quality of flesh in terms of EPA and DHA contents. Here, three genes, i.e. Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD, Δ5-desaturase-like (OmΔ5FAD and elongase-like (MELO encoding EPA/DHA metabolic enzymes derived from masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou were individually transferred into zebrafish (Danio rerio as a model to increase its ability for synthesizing EPA and DHA. Fatty acid analysis showed that EPA content in whole body of the second transgenic fish generation over-expressing OmΔ6FAD gene was 1.4 fold and that of DHA was 2.1 fold higher (P<0.05 than those in non-transgenic fish. The EPA content in whole body of transgenic fish over-expressing OmΔ5FAD gene was 1.21-fold, and that of DHA was 1.24-fold higher (P<0.05 than those in nontransgenic fish. The same patterns were obtained in transgenic fish over-expressing MELO gene. EPA content was increased by 1.30-fold and DHA content by 1.33-fold higher (P<0.05 than those in non-transgenic fish. The results of studies demonstrated that fatty acid content of fish can be enhanced by over

  12. Carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea: current insights into unusual enzymes and pathways and their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräsen, Christopher; Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

    2014-03-01

    The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many "classical" pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of "new," unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented.

  13. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Damavandi, Mahnaz; Ho, Han Kiat; Kang, Tse Siang

    2016-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC). This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA), derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS) to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  14. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  15. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC. This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA, derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  16. Effects of Arctium lappa aqueous extract on lipid profile and hepatic enzyme levels of sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arctium lappa is known to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects in traditional medicine. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to study the effects of A. lappa root extract (AE on lipid profile and hepatic enzyme levels in sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome (MS in female rats. The study used 40 adult female Wistar rats weighing 150 g-250 g randomly divided into five groups: control, metabolic syndrome (MS, metabolic syndrome+AE at 50,100, 200 mg/kg. MS was induced by administering 50% sucrose in drinking water for 6 weeks. AE was intra-peritoneally administered daily at doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg for two sequential weeks at the end of the fourth week in metabolic syndrome rats. Twenty-four hours after the last administration of AE, blood was collected and centrifuged, and then the serum was used for the measurement of lipid profile and hepatic enzyme. Serum glucose, insulin, fasting insulin resistance index, body weight, water intake, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes were significantly increased although food intake was decreased in MS rats compared to the control rats. The lipids and liver enzymes were reduced by AE extracts in the MS group. This study showed that the A. lappa root aqueous extract exhibits a hypolipidemic activity of hyperlipidemic rats. This activity is practically that of a triple-impact antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective.

  17. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Jeremias, Isabela C; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Freitas, Karolina V; Antonini, Rafaela; Scaini, Giselli; Rezin, Gislaine T; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  18. The many consequences of chemical- and genetic-based modulation of drug metabolizing enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, M; Biagi, G L; Cantelli-Forti, G

    1999-01-01

    The induction or inhibition of the metabolizing enzyme activities by a great deal of substances (including drugs) influence their toxicological or pharmacological outcomes as well as that of other xenobiotics or drugs to which human is simultaneously exposed. The dual bioactivating/detoxificating nature of both phase I and phase II enzymes poses such modulation as an unavoidable unhealthy phenomenon. Therefore, the proposed strategies in preventive medicine which foresee boosting or depressing enzymatic effects such as those in the field of cancer chemoprevention, should be carefully reconsidered before their credibility would be compromised. As the phenotypic features, genetic polymorphisms leading to the occurrence of high or low metabolizers in the population, each at high risk to certain forms of toxicity, behave as a sort of "constitutive" enzymatic modulation. Thus, considering the double-edged sword nature (detoxi-toxicant) of these catalysts towards ubiquitous environmental pollutants, the search for individual susceptibility by means of the genotypic analysis represents a very intriguing problem. However, the knowledge of the "overall" metabolic fingerprint associated to the phenotypic analysis in a single person could offer an interesting way to (partially) control human risk by making suitable (well aimed) modifications of determined life-styles (e.g. stop smoking or drinking) or particular dietetic practices (e.g. stop eating high cooked meat or fish) as well as selecting personalised drug adjustments by physicians either in terms of dosage or fitting drug.

  19. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela K. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  20. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E

    2007-01-01

    Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...

  1. Reduced metabolism in the hypothalamus of the anorecticanx/anxmouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulrika; Lindfors, Charlotte; Svedberg, Marie; Johansen, Jeanette E; Häggkvist, Jenny; Schalling, Martin; Wibom, Rolf; Katz, Abram; Nilsson, Ida A K

    2017-04-01

    The anorectic anx/anx mouse exhibits a mitochondrial complex I dysfunction that is related to aberrant expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and transmitters regulating food intake. Hypothalamic activity, i.e. neuronal firing and transmitter release, is dependent on glucose utilization and energy metabolism. To better understand the role of hypothalamic activity in anorexia, we assessed carbohydrate and high-energy phosphate metabolism, in vivo and in vitro , in the anx/anx hypothalamus. In the fasted state, hypothalamic glucose uptake in the anx/anx mouse was reduced by ~50% of that seen in wild-type (wt) mice ( P  hypothalamus ATP and glucose 6-P contents were similar to those in wt hypothalamus, whereas phosphocreatine was elevated (~2-fold; P  hypothalamus had elevated total AMPK (~25%; P  hypothalamus. Interestingly, the activation state of AMPK (ratio of phosphorylated AMPK/total AMPK) was significantly decreased in hypothalamus of the anx/anx mouse (~60% of that in wt; P  hypothalamus. These data demonstrate that carbohydrate and high-energy phosphate utilization in the anx/anx hypothalamus are diminished under basal and stress conditions. The decrease in hypothalamic metabolism may contribute to the anorectic behavior of the anx/anx mouse, i.e. its inability to regulate food intake in accordance with energy status. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Genes encoding hub and bottleneck enzymes of the Arabidopsis metabolic network preferentially retain homeologs through whole genome duplication

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    Qi Xiaoquan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome duplication (WGD occurs widely in angiosperm evolution. It raises the intriguing question of how interacting networks of genes cope with this dramatic evolutionary event. Results In study of the Arabidopsis metabolic network, we assigned each enzyme (node with topological centralities (in-degree, out-degree and between-ness to measure quantitatively their centralities in the network. The Arabidopsis metabolic network is highly modular and separated into 11 interconnected modules, which correspond well to the functional metabolic pathways. The enzymes with higher in-out degree and between-ness (defined as hub and bottleneck enzymes, respectively tend to be more conserved and preferentially retain homeologs after WGD. Moreover, the simultaneous retention of homeologs encoding enzymes which catalyze consecutive steps in a pathway is highly favored and easily achieved, and enzyme-enzyme interactions contribute to the retention of one-third of WGD enzymes. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that the hub and bottleneck enzymes of metabolic network obtain great benefits from WGD, and this event grants clear evolutionary advantages in adaptation to different environments.

  3. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng (Pitt)

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  4. cuRRBS: simple and robust evaluation of enzyme combinations for reduced representation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Herranz, Daniel E; Ribeiro, António J M; Krueger, Felix; Thornton, Janet M; Reik, Wolf; Stubbs, Thomas M

    2017-11-16

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification in many species that is critical for development, and implicated in ageing and many complex diseases, such as cancer. Many cost-effective genome-wide analyses of DNA modifications rely on restriction enzymes capable of digesting genomic DNA at defined sequence motifs. There are hundreds of restriction enzyme families but few are used to date, because no tool is available for the systematic evaluation of restriction enzyme combinations that can enrich for certain sites of interest in a genome. Herein, we present customised Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (cuRRBS), a novel and easy-to-use computational method that solves this problem. By computing the optimal enzymatic digestions and size selection steps required, cuRRBS generalises the traditional MspI-based Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) protocol to all restriction enzyme combinations. In addition, cuRRBS estimates the fold-reduction in sequencing costs and provides a robustness value for the personalised RRBS protocol, allowing users to tailor the protocol to their experimental needs. Moreover, we show in silico that cuRRBS-defined restriction enzymes consistently out-perform MspI digestion in many biological systems, considering both CpG and CHG contexts. Finally, we have validated the accuracy of cuRRBS predictions for single and double enzyme digestions using two independent experimental datasets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of key arachidonic acid metabolism enzymes during fracture healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ni Lin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the localization of critical enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism during the initial and regenerative phases of mouse femur fracture healing. Previous studies found that loss of cyclooxygenase-2 activity impairs fracture healing while loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity accelerates healing. These diametric results show that arachidonic acid metabolism has an essential function during fracture healing. To better understand the function of arachidonic acid metabolism during fracture healing, expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1, cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H was localized by immunohistochemistry in time-staged fracture callus specimens. All four enzymes were detected in leukocytes present in the bone marrow and attending inflammatory response that accompanied the fracture. In the tissues surrounding the fracture site, the proportion of leukocytes expressing COX-1, COX-2, or LTA4H decreased while those expressing 5-LO remained high at 4 and 7 days after fracture. This may indicate an inflammation resolution function for 5-LO during fracture healing. Only COX-1 was consistently detected in fracture callus osteoblasts during the later stages of healing (day 14 after fracture. In contrast, callus chondrocytes expressed all four enzymes, though 5-LO appeared to be preferentially expressed in newly differentiated chondrocytes. Most interestingly, osteoclasts consistently and strongly expressed COX-2. In addition to bone surfaces and the growth plate, COX-2 expressing osteoclasts were localized at the chondro-osseous junction of the fracture callus. These observations suggest that arachidonic acid mediated signaling from callus chondrocytes or from callus osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction regulate fracture healing.

  7. Genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, C

    2000-09-01

    Environmental factors such as smoking cigarette, diets and alcohol may interact with genetic factors, which put one individual at a greater or lesser risk of a particular cancer than another. Advances in molecular biology have allowed many allelic variants of several drug metabolizing enzymes so that individuals with the susceptible genotypes can be determined easily. Many pieces of research have focused on the relationship between the distribution of polymorphic variants of different forms of the metabolic enzymes and colorectal cancer susceptibility because of importance roles of the metabolic enzymes in the activation of many procarcinogens or chemicals. In this respect five groups of the metabolic enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/CYP1A2, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), N-acetyltransferases (NATs), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), have been discussed here. A positive association between development of colorectal cancer and the mutant homozygous genotype in Msp1 polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene has been reported in Japanese in Hawaii. The relation between genetic polymorphisms in GSTs and cancer risk has also taken an interest. At least nine studies have demonstrated the relation between the GST polymorphisms and colorectal cancer. Two of these studies suggested an increased risk of approximately 2-fold among those with the GSTM1 null genotype, while others found no risk increase. None of these studies examined the combined effect of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms. Either NAT2 or CYP1A2 alone have been slightly associated with colorectal cancer. When CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotype were combined, a significant increased risk (odds ratio of 2.8) was seen among well done meat consumers with the rapid-rapid phenotype. Two published studies have found that the risk of colorectal cancer can be enhanced (2-3 fold) in alcohol drinkers with heterozygous genotype of ALDH2 in two Japanese populations recently. Findings from three

  8. Impaired metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martin; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    lipids for energy production. Such changes reflect alterations in membrane composition and dysregulation of sphingolipids signaling during senescence. This study establishes a new concept connecting oxidative protein modifications with the altered cellular metabolism associated with the senescent...... is assured by resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. During senescence their replication and differentiation is compromised contributing to sarcopenia. In this study we have addressed the impact of oxidatively modified proteins in the impaired metabolism of senescent human satellite cells....... By using a targeted proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during replicative senescence of satellite cells...

  9. Novel role of a triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme: DGAT1 at the crossroad between triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Bauer, Raimund; Patankar, Jay V; Iqbal, Jahangir; Obrowsky, Sascha; Boverhof, Renze; Doktorova, Marcela; Scheicher, Bernhard; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Kolb, Dagmar; Turnbull, Andrew V; Zimmer, Andreas; Hoefler, Gerald; Hussain, M Mahmood; Groen, Albert K; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-09-01

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis. Here we show that genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 in mice alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol absorption, as assessed by acute cholesterol uptake, was significantly decreased in the small intestine and liver upon DGAT1 deficiency/inhibition. Ablation of DGAT1 in the intestine (I-DGAT1(-/-)) alone is sufficient to cause these effects. Consequences of I-DGAT1 deficiency phenocopy findings in whole-body DGAT1(-/-) and DGAT1 inhibitor-treated mice. We show that deficiency/inhibition of DGAT1 affects cholesterol metabolism via reduced chylomicron size and increased trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion. These effects are independent of cholesterol uptake at the apical surface of enterocytes but mediated through altered dietary fatty acid metabolism. Our findings provide insight into a novel role of DGAT1 and identify a pathway by which intestinal DGAT1 deficiency affects whole-body cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Targeting intestinal DGAT1 may represent a novel approach for treating hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving nutrient values of palm kernel cake (PKC by reducing shell contamination and enzymes supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinurat AP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC in poultry feed is limited due to shell contamination and its low nutritive values, despite the increase of PKC production. Therefore, a series of experiment was conducted in order to improve nutritive values of palm kernel cake (PKC by sieving and enzyme supplementation. First experiment was designed to reduce shell content using shiever with different diameters (1, 2 and 4 mm. Shell content was measured manually to determine the effect of the sieving. The second experiment was carried out by blowing the after sieving at 2 mm shieve PKC, to produced heavy, medium and light fractions. The shell content and nutrient contents of the medium and light fractions were compared to those of unsieved PKC. In the third experiment, the sieved PKC was supplemented with 2 enzymes with different concentrations, i.e., BS4 at 10, 15 and 20 ml/kg PKC and a commercial multi enzymes at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg PKC. Digestibility of nutrients (dry matter, crude protein and TME were measured by force feeding method with six replications for each sample. Results of the study showed that sieving with 2 mm diameter siever without blowing was effective in reducing about 50% of PKC shell and improved crude protein, ether extract and amino acids, contents and reduced the crude fiber content of the PKC. Supplementation of enzymes improved the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the true metabolisable energy (TME of the PKC. Optimum improvement was obtained when PKC was supplemented with 20 ml BS4 enzymes/kg PKC. Similar improvement was obtained by supplementation of commercial multi enzymes at 2 g/kg PKC. Therefore, in order to improve the nutritive values of PKC, it is suggested to sieve the PKC followed by supplementation of enzyme prior to feeding.

  11. Mechanistic and structural insight into promiscuity based metabolism of cardiac drug digoxin by gut microbial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Jaiswal, Shubham K; Dhoke, Gaurao V; Srivastava, Gopal N; Sharma, Ashok K; Sharma, Vineet K

    2017-12-23

    The recent advances in microbiome studies have revealed the role of gut microbiota in altering the pharmacological properties of oral drugs, which contributes to patient-response variation and undesired effect of the drug molecule. These studies are essential to guide us for achieving the desired efficacy and pharmacological activity of the existing drug molecule or for discovering novel and more effective therapeutics. However, one of the main limitations is the lack of atomistic details on the binding and metabolism of these drug molecules by gut-microbial enzymes. Therefore, in this study, for a well-known and important FDA-approved cardiac glycoside drug, digoxin, we report the atomistic details and energy economics for its binding and metabolism by the Cgr2 protein of Eggerthela lenta DSM 2243. It was observed that the binding pocket of digoxin to Cgr2 primarily involved the negatively charged polar amino acids and a few non-polar hydrophobic residues. The drug digoxin was found to bind Cgr2 at the same binding site as that of fumarate, which is the proposed natural substrate. However, digoxin showed a much lower binding energy (17.75 ±2 Kcal mol -1 ) than the binding energy (42.17 ±2 Kcal mol -1 ) of fumarate. This study provides mechanistic insights into the structural and promiscuity-based metabolism of widely used cardiac drug digoxin and presents a methodology, which could be useful to confirm the promiscuity-based metabolism of other orally administrated drugs by gut microbial enzymes and also help in designing strategies for improving the efficacy of the drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Extracts on Advanced Glycation End Product Formation and Key Enzymes Related to Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Hung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome typically includes Type 2 diabetes associated with hyperglycemia, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It is highly related to oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycated end products (AGEs and key enzymes, such as carbohydrate digesting enzymes like pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE. This study used an in vitro approach to assess the potential of four extracts of Siegesbeckia orientalis linne on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. In this research, S. orientailis was firstly extracted by ethanol. The ethanol extract (SE was then partitioned sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol, and these extracts were named SE-Hex, SE-EA and SE-MeOH, respectively. The experimental results showed that SE-EA had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 76.9 ± 1.8 mg/g and the total flavonoids content (TFC, 5.3 ± 0.3 mg/g. This extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, including DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 161.8 ± 2.4 μg/mL, ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 13.9 ± 1.5 μg/mL and reducing power. For anti-glycation activities, SE-EA showed the best results in the inhibition of AGEs, as well as inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 362.3 ± 9.2 μg/mL and α-amylase (IC50 = 119.0 ± 17.7 μg/mL. For anti-obesity activities, SE-EA indicated the highest suppression effect on pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 3.67 ± 0.52 mg/mL. Finally, for anti-hypertension activity, SE-EA also demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on ACE (IC50 = 626.6 ± 15.0 μg/mL. Close relationships were observed among the parameters of TPC, antioxidant activities, inhibitory activities on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and ACE (R > 0.9. Moderate correlations were found among the parameters of TFC, antioxidant activities, and suppression of dicarbonyl compounds formation (R = 0.5–0.9. Taken

  13. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Cryo-EM to Map Small Ligands on Dynamic Metabolic Enzymes: Studies with Glutamate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgnia, Mario J; Banerjee, Soojay; Merk, Alan; Matthies, Doreen; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Earl, Lesley A; Falconieri, Veronica; Subramaniam, Sriram; Milne, Jacqueline L S

    2016-06-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods are now being used to determine structures at near-atomic resolution and have great promise in molecular pharmacology, especially in the context of mapping the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein complexes that display conformational flexibility. We illustrate this here using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a 336-kDa metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Dysregulation of GDH leads to a variety of metabolic and neurologic disorders. Here, we report near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures, at resolutions ranging from 3.2 Å to 3.6 Å for GDH complexes, including complexes for which crystal structures are not available. We show that the binding of the coenzyme NADH alone or in concert with GTP results in a binary mixture in which the enzyme is in either an "open" or "closed" state. Whereas the structure of NADH in the active site is similar between the open and closed states, it is unexpectedly different at the regulatory site. Our studies thus demonstrate that even in instances when there is considerable structural information available from X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM methods can provide useful complementary insights into regulatory mechanisms for dynamic protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  15. Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

    2014-12-22

    Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. 'indicator model' and 'trade-off model'). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of dibutyl phthalate on lipid metabolism and drug metabolising enzyme system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Mitsuo; Ariyoshi, Toshihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the liver constituents and the drug metabolizing enzyme system were investigated in rats. 1. In the experiments at a single oral dose of DBP (630 or 1260 mg/kg), the glycogen content was decreased only at the high dose, but no effects were observed on the contents of glycogen, triglyceride, microsomal protein and cytochromes, and on the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. In the repeated oral dose of DBP (630 or 1260 mg/kg/day) for 5 days, the ratio of liver weight to body weight was increased in both female and male rats, whereas the increases of cytochrome P-450 content and aniline hydroxylase activity were noted only in male rats. However, the contents of liver triglyceride, phospholipids, and cholesterol were unchanged. On the other hand, serum cholesterol content which showed the tendency to be decreased at the low dose was significantly decreased at the high dose. 3. In the incorporation of 1- 14 C-acetate into liver and serum lipids after repeated oral dose of DBP (630 mg/kg/day) for 5 days in male rats, the incorporation into triglyceride showed tendency to be increased, whereas the incorporation into cholesterol and cholesterol ester remained unchanged in vivo and in vitro. (auth.)

  18. Gene expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine during fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Meijde Jolanda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fasting has dramatic effects on small intestinal transport function. However, little is known on expression of intestinal transport and phase I/II metabolism genes during fasting and the role the fatty acid-activated transcription factor PPARα may play herein. We therefore investigated the effects of fasting on expression of these genes using Affymetrix GeneChip MOE430A arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Results After 24 hours of fasting, expression levels of 33 of the 253 analyzed transporter and phase I/II metabolism genes were changed. Upregulated genes were involved in transport of energy-yielding molecules in processes such as glycogenolysis (G6pt1 and mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids (Cact, Mrs3/4, Fatp2, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1. Other induced genes were responsible for the inactivation of the neurotransmitter serotonin (Sert, Sult1d1, Dtd, Papst2, formation of eicosanoids (Cyp2j6, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1, or for secretion of cholesterol (Abca1 and Abcg8. Cyp3a11, typically known because of its drug metabolizing capacity, was also increased. Fasting had no pronounced effect on expression of phase II metabolic enzymes, except for glutathione S-transferases which were down-regulated. Time course studies revealed that some genes were acutely regulated, whereas expression of other genes was only affected after prolonged fasting. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were PPARα-dependently upregulated upon fasting. Conclusion We have characterized the response to fasting on expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine. Differentially expressed genes are involved in a variety of processes, which functionally can be summarized as a increased oxidation of fat and xenobiotics, b increased cholesterol secretion, c increased susceptibility to electrophilic stressors, and d reduced intestinal motility. This knowledge increases our understanding of gut physiology, and may be of relevance

  19. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-11-03

    Passive exoskeletons that assist with human locomotion are often lightweight and compact, but are unable to provide net mechanical power to the exoskeletal wearer. In contrast, powered exoskeletons often provide biologically appropriate levels of mechanical power, but the size and mass of their actuator/power source designs often lead to heavy and unwieldy devices. In this study, we extend the design and evaluation of a lightweight and powerful autonomous exoskeleton evaluated for loaded walking in (J Neuroeng Rehab 11:80, 2014) to the case of unloaded walking conditions. The metabolic energy consumption of seven study participants (85 ± 12 kg body mass) was measured while walking on a level treadmill at 1.4 m/s. Testing conditions included not wearing the exoskeleton and wearing the exoskeleton, in both powered and unpowered modes. When averaged across the gait cycle, the autonomous exoskeleton applied a mean positive mechanical power of 26 ± 1 W (13 W per ankle) with 2.12 kg of added exoskeletal foot-shank mass (1.06 kg per leg). Use of the leg exoskeleton significantly reduced the metabolic cost of walking by 35 ± 13 W, which was an improvement of 10 ± 3% (p = 0.023) relative to the control condition of not wearing the exoskeleton. The results of this study highlight the advantages of developing lightweight and powerful exoskeletons that can comfortably assist the body during walking.

  20. In vivo metabolism of brain natriuretic peptide in the rat involves endopeptidase 24.11 and angiotensin converting enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanneste, Y.; Pauwels, S.; Lambotte, L.; Deschodt-Lanckman, M.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was studied in rats infused with 125I-BNP. During the infusion, the intact peptide was progressively converted to labelled degradative products, separated into nine peaks of radioactivity on HPLC, and accounting for approximately 70% of total plasma radioactivity at the plateau phase. After stopping the infusion, intact BNP disappeared with a half-life of 1.23 +/- 0.35 min whereas the labelled fragments accounted for progressively greater proportion of total activity. The degradation of BNP was significantly reduced by phosphoramidon (t1/2, 11.28 +/- 0.49 min) and captopril (t1/2, 6.99 +/- 0.34 min). A maximal effect was observed when both protease inhibitors were given simultaneously (t1/2, 15.3 +/- 0.48 min). When 125I-BNP was incubated in vitro with purified endopeptidase 24.11 (E-24.11) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), there was a time-dependent disappearance of the intact peptide associated with the generation of six labelled fragments, corresponding to fragments found in vivo. In serum the peptide was rapidly degraded with a half-life of 4.6 +/- 0.1 min, and the pattern of labelled fragments was similar to that observed during in vitro incubation with ACE. Captopril significantly reduced the rate of degradation of BNP in serum. The results allow to associate two define enzyme activities, namely E-24.11 and ACE, with the metabolism of BNP in vitro. They also indicate that, despite a close homology between ANP and BNP, the two peptides undergo different pathways of clearance

  1. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming; He, Chunyan; Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao; Wan, Yu; Yue, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4 μg/h, 7 days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBPα (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. - Highlights: • The transcription of heart Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2j genes is sexually dimorphic. • There are no sex differences in the mRNA levels of heart COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1. • GHR-STAT5B pathway is involved in sexually dimorphic transcription of heart Cpy2j genes. • Heart CYPs-mediated metabolism pathway of arachidonic acid may be sex

  2. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  3. Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K

    2012-09-01

    Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

  4. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.

  5. Sirtuin Lipoamidase Activity Is Conserved in Bacteria as a Regulator of Metabolic Enzyme Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Rowland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is an essential metabolic cofactor added as a posttranslational modification on several multimeric enzyme complexes. These protein complexes, evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, are core regulators of cellular metabolism. While the multistep enzymatic process of adding lipoyl modifications has been well characterized in Escherichia coli, the enzyme required for the removal of these lipoyl moieties (i.e., a lipoamidase or delipoylase has not yet been identified. Here, we describe our discovery of sirtuins as lipoamidases in bacteria and establish their conserved substrates. Specifically, by using a series of knockout, overexpression, biochemical, in vitro, proteomic, and functional assays, we determined the substrates of sirtuin CobB in E. coli as components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDH, and glycine cleavage (GCV complexes. In vitro assays provided direct evidence for this specific CobB activity and its NAD+ dependence, a signature of all sirtuins. By designing a targeted quantitative mass spectrometry method, we further measured sirtuin-dependent, site-specific lipoylation on these substrates. The biological significance of CobB-modulated lipoylation was next established by its inhibition of both PDH and KDH activities. By restricting the carbon sources available to E. coli, we demonstrated that CobB regulates PDH and KDH under several growth conditions. Additionally, we found that SrtN, the sirtuin homolog in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, can also act as a lipoamidase. By demonstrating the evolutionary conservation of lipoamidase activity across sirtuin homologs, along with the conservation of common substrates, this work emphasizes the significance of protein lipoylation in regulating central metabolic processes.

  6. Discovery of a sesamin-metabolizing microorganism and a new enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Takuto; Fujiki, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    Sesamin is one of the major lignans found in sesame oil. Although some microbial metabolites of sesamin have been identified, sesamin-metabolic pathways remain uncharacterized at both the enzyme and gene levels. Here, we isolated microorganisms growing on sesamin as a sole-carbon source. One microorganism showing significant sesamin-degrading activity was identified as Sinomonas sp. no. 22. A sesamin-metabolizing enzyme named SesA was purified from this strain and characterized. SesA catalyzed methylene group transfer from sesamin or sesamin monocatechol to tetrahydrofolate (THF) with ring cleavage, yielding sesamin mono- or di-catechol and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The kinetic parameters of SesA were determined to be as follows: Km for sesamin = 0.032 ± 0.005 mM, Vmax = 9.3 ± 0.4 (μmol⋅min−1⋅mg−1), and kcat = 7.9 ± 0.3 s−1. Next, we investigated the substrate specificity. SesA also showed enzymatic activity toward (+)-episesamin, (−)-asarinin, sesaminol, (+)-sesamolin, and piperine. Growth studies with strain no. 22, and Western blot analysis revealed that SesA formation is inducible by sesamin. The deduced amino acid sequence of sesA exhibited weak overall sequence similarity to that of the protein family of glycine cleavage T-proteins (GcvTs), which catalyze glycine degradation in most bacteria, archaea, and all eukaryotes. Only SesA catalyzes C1 transfer to THF with ring cleavage reaction among GcvT family proteins. Moreover, SesA homolog genes are found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings provide new insights into microbial sesamin metabolism and the function of GcvT family proteins. PMID:27444012

  7. Correlation of homocysteine metabolic enzymes gene polymorphism and mild cognitive impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population.

  8. Responses of digestive enzymes of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) to dietary cornstarch changes and metabolic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Cristina Ferro; de Aguiar, Lúcia Helena; Lundstedt, Lícia Maria; Moraes, Gilberto

    2007-08-01

    Digestive enzyme responses plus metabolic implications were studied in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed isoproteic diets containing 28% crude protein, 3300 kcal of gross energy/kg and different amounts of cornstarch (30, 40 and 50%). Amylase, maltase, acid protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin from the alimentary tract were assayed. Plasma, liver and white muscle metabolites were gauged to profile metabolism of the fish. The alimentary tract of tambaqui is compartmentalized morphologically and enzymatically. Amylase was present through the gut; acid protease was detected in stomach; maltase, trypsin and chymotrypsin were found in pyloric caeca and proximal and distal intestine sections. Increase of cornstarch levels from 40 to 50% in the diet resulted in an increase in amylase and maltase. Trypsin and chymotrypsin were unresponsive to starch levels. Acid protease follows the protein/carbohydrate ratio decrease. The increase of dietary cornstarch resulted in liver glycogenesis and the increase in plasma triglycerides is suggestive of lipogenesis. Digestive biochemical responses of tambaqui correlated with changes of feeding plus the analyses of metabolic profile are assumed as a tool for optimizing diet formulation and are a clue to other feeding optimizations for freshwater tropical species.

  9. Garlic oil attenuated nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating the metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase Ⅰ enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase Ⅱ enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes.

  10. Cell-wall invertases, key enzymes in the modulation of plant metabolism during defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proels, Reinhard Korbinian; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    Most plant-pathogen interactions do not result in pathogenesis because of pre-formed defensive plant barriers or pathogen-triggered activation of effective plant immune responses. The mounting of defence reactions is accompanied by a profound modulation of plant metabolism. Common metabolic changes are the repression of photosynthesis, the increase in heterotrophic metabolism and the synthesis of secondary metabolites. This enhanced metabolic activity is accompanied by the reduced export of sucrose or enhanced import of hexoses at the site of infection, which is mediated by an induced activity of cell-wall invertase (Cw-Inv). Cw-Inv cleaves sucrose, the major transport sugar in plants, irreversibly yielding glucose and fructose, which can be taken up by plant cells via hexose transporters. These hexose sugars not only function in metabolism, but also act as signalling molecules. The picture of Cw-Inv regulation in plant-pathogen interactions has recently been broadened and is discussed in this review. An interesting emerging feature is the link between Cw-Inv and the circadian clock and new modes of Cw-Inv regulation at the post-translational level. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  12. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  13. Quercetin-metabolizing CYP6AS enzymes of the pollinator Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Johnson, Reed M; Zangerl, Arthur R; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-12-01

    Although the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome contains far fewer cytochrome P450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism than other insect genomes sequenced to date, the CYP6AS subfamily, apparently unique to hymenopterans, has undergone an expansion relative to the genome of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). The relative dominance of this family in the honey bee genome is suggestive of a role in processing phytochemicals encountered by honey bees in their relatively unusual diet of honey (comprising concentrated processed nectar of many plant species) and bee bread (a mixture of honey and pollen from many plant species). In this study, quercetin was initially suggested as a shared substrate for CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, and CYP6AS4, by its presence in honey, extracts of which induce transcription of these three genes, and by in silico substrate predictions based on a molecular model of CYP6AS3. Biochemical assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 enzymes subsequently confirmed their activity toward this substrate. CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 metabolize quercetin at rates of 0.5+/-0.1, 0.5+/-0.1, 0.2+/-0.1, and 0.2+/-0.1 pmol quercetin/ pmol P450/min, respectively. Substrate dockings and sequence alignments revealed that the positively charged amino acids His107 and Lys217 and the carbonyl group of the backbone between Leu302 and Ala303 are essential for quercetin orientation in the CYP6AS3 catalytic site and its efficient metabolism. Multiple replacements in the catalytic site of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 and repositioning of the quercetin molecule likely account for the lower metabolic activities of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 compared to CYP6AS1 and CYP6AS3.

  14. Iron Sulfur and Molybdenum Cofactor Enzymes Regulate the Drosophila Life Cycle by Controlling Cell Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Leimkühler, Silke; Missirlis, Fanis

    2018-01-01

    Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism. Here, Fe-S cluster and Moco biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster is reviewed and the multiple biochemical and physiological functions of known Fe-S and Moco enzymes are described. We show that RNA interference of Mocs3 disrupts Moco biosynthesis and the circadian clock. Fe-S-dependent mitochondrial respiration is discussed in the context of germ line and somatic development, stem cell differentiation and aging. The subcellular compartmentalization of the Fe-S and Moco assembly machinery components and their connections to iron sensing mechanisms and intermediary metabolism are emphasized. A biochemically active Fe-S core complex of heterologously expressed fly Nfs1, Isd11, IscU, and human frataxin is presented. Based on the recent demonstration that copper displaces the Fe-S cluster of yeast and human ferredoxin, an explanation for why high dietary copper leads to cytoplasmic iron deficiency in flies is proposed. Another proposal that exosomes contribute to the transport of xanthine dehydrogenase from peripheral tissues to the eye pigment cells is put forward, where the Vps16a subunit of the HOPS complex may have a specialized role in concentrating this enzyme within pigment granules. Finally, we formulate a hypothesis that (i) mitochondrial superoxide mobilizes iron from the Fe-S clusters in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase; (ii) increased iron transiently displaces manganese on superoxide dismutase, which

  15. Δ9 desaturase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Key enzyme in the parasite metabolism. Cloning and overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Mariela R; Paulucci, Natalia S; Selva, Armentano; Garban, Hermes; de Lema, Mirta García

    2017-01-01

    Desaturases, key enzymes in the metabolism of fatty acids, regulate the physical and biochemical properties of membranes. They adjust the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to changes in the environmental. We demonstrated the existence of Δ9 desaturase activity in epimastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. In the present study, showed that this enzyme has an approximate molecular mass of 50kDa and a pI value of approximately 9. In order to characterize the Δ9 desaturase of Trypanosoma cruzi, (TcΔ9DES) we have cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene consists of 1300bp and encodes a peptide of 433 amino acids with a molecular weight of 50kDa. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed three clusters of histidine and two hydrophobic regions, characteristic of membrane-bound desaturases. Gene expression studies showed that TcΔ9DES was overexpressed as an active protein. Fatty acid analysis showed that the expressed protein was confirmed to be functional with Δ9 desaturase activity. This enzyme changed the fatty acid profile of TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli, decreasing the levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids and enhancing palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) and monounsaturated 18 carbons fatty acids. When [1-14C]palmitic or [1-14C]stearic acid was used as substrate, TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli exhibited high desaturase activity associated with increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the TcΔ9DES enzyme was actively expressed in E. coli. To check the commitment of TcΔ9DES against sterol biosynthesis inhibitors we tested the activity under ketoconazole effect. Native TcΔ9DES, showed a significant activity inhibition. Since TcΔ9DES has shown active participation under different environmental factors, among them, ketoconazole, we consider that it plays a critical role in the metabolism of the parasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron Sulfur and Molybdenum Cofactor Enzymes Regulate the Drosophila Life Cycle by Controlling Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Marelja

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron sulfur (Fe-S clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism. Here, Fe-S cluster and Moco biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster is reviewed and the multiple biochemical and physiological functions of known Fe-S and Moco enzymes are described. We show that RNA interference of Mocs3 disrupts Moco biosynthesis and the circadian clock. Fe-S-dependent mitochondrial respiration is discussed in the context of germ line and somatic development, stem cell differentiation and aging. The subcellular compartmentalization of the Fe-S and Moco assembly machinery components and their connections to iron sensing mechanisms and intermediary metabolism are emphasized. A biochemically active Fe-S core complex of heterologously expressed fly Nfs1, Isd11, IscU, and human frataxin is presented. Based on the recent demonstration that copper displaces the Fe-S cluster of yeast and human ferredoxin, an explanation for why high dietary copper leads to cytoplasmic iron deficiency in flies is proposed. Another proposal that exosomes contribute to the transport of xanthine dehydrogenase from peripheral tissues to the eye pigment cells is put forward, where the Vps16a subunit of the HOPS complex may have a specialized role in concentrating this enzyme within pigment granules. Finally, we formulate a hypothesis that (i mitochondrial superoxide mobilizes iron from the Fe-S clusters in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase; (ii increased iron transiently displaces manganese on superoxide

  17. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation mitigates the effect of lead on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Farah

    2013-06-01

    Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Human and animal exposure demonstrates that lead is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce lead-induced nephrotoxicity were not found suitable for clinical use. Recently, flaxseed oil (FXO), a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and lignans, has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cardiovascular and renal disorders. In view of this, the present study investigates the protective effect of FXO on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced renal damage. Rats were pre-fed normal diet and the diet rich in FXO for 14 days, and then, four doses of lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally while still on diet. Various serum parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), and oxidative stress were analyzed in rat kidney. PbAc nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. PbAc increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme, whereas it decreased malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and BBM enzyme activities. PbAc caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In contrast, FXO alone enhanced the enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM, and antioxidant defense system. FXO feeding to PbAc-treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to PbAc-elicited deleterious effects. In conclusion, dietary FXO supplementation ameliorated PbAc-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage by empowering antioxidant defense mechanism and improving BBM integrity and energy metabolism.

  18. DMET™ (Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters) microarray analysis of colorectal cancer patients with severe 5-fluorouracil-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiato, Enrica; Boldrin, Elisa; Amadori, Alberto; Saggioro, Daniela

    2013-08-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used since the 1980s, and it remains the backbone of many chemotherapeutic combination regimens. However, its use is often limited by the occurrence of severe toxicity. Although several reports have shown the detrimental effect of some dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene polymorphisms in patients undergoing 5-FU-based treatment, they account for only a minority of toxicities. Looking for new candidate genetic variants associated with 5-FU-induced toxicity, we used the innovative genotyping microarray Affymetrix Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET)™ Plus GeneChip that interrogates 1,936 genetic variants distributed in 231 genes involved in drug metabolism, excretion, and transport. To reduce variability, we analyzed samples from colorectal cancer patients who underwent fairly homogenous treatments (i.e., Machover or Folfox) and experienced G3 or G4 toxicity; control patients were matched for therapy and selected from those who did not disclose toxicity (G0-G1). Pharmacogenetic genotyping showed no significant difference in DPYD and TYMS genetic variants distribution between cases and controls. However, other polymorphisms could account for 5-FU-induced toxicity, with the CHST1 rs9787901 and GSTM3 rs1799735 having the strongest association. Although exploratory, this study suggests that genetic polymorphisms not directly related to 5-FU pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are involved in 5-FU-induced toxicity. Our data also indicates DMET™ microarray as a valid approach to discover new genetic determinants influencing chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

  19. The Effects of Space Flight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the levels of glycogen and of individual fatty acids were measured in livers of rats ex- posed to prolonged space flight (18.5 days) aboard COSMOS 986 Biosatellite. When flight stationary, (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) rats were compared at recovery (R(sub 0)), decrceases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha glycerphosphate, acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, acconitase and Epsilon-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened since all activities, showing alterations at R(sub 0), returned to normal 25 days post-flight. Differences were also seen in levels of two liver constituents. When glycogen and total fatty acids of the two groups of flight animals were determined, differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed, the FS group at R(sub 0) contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did controls ad a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate were noted. These metabolic alterations appear to be unique to the weightless condition. Our data justify the conclusion that centrifugation during space flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  20. Gene expression variability in human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Yang

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications.

  1. Tempol Supplementation Restores Diaphragm Force and Metabolic Enzyme Activities in mdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Burns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention. The enzymatic activities of muscle citrate synthase, phosphofructokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed using spectrophotometric assays. Dystrophic diaphragm displayed mechanical dysfunction and altered biochemical status. Chronic tempol supplementation in the drinking water increased diaphragm functional capacity and citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities, restoring all values to wild-type levels. Chronic supplementation with tempol recovers force-generating capacity and metabolic enzyme activity in mdx diaphragm. These findings may have relevance in the search for therapeutic strategies in neuromuscular disease.

  2. Modeling the role of covalent enzyme modification in Escherichia coli nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, Philip B; Wingreen, Ned S

    2010-01-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonium into the amino acid glutamine. GS is principally active when the cell is experiencing nitrogen limitation, and its activity is regulated by a bicyclic covalent modification cascade. The advantages of this bicyclic-cascade architecture are poorly understood. We analyze a simple model of the GS cascade in comparison to other regulatory schemes and conclude that the bicyclic cascade is suboptimal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis of the free glutamine pool. Instead, we argue that the lag inherent in the covalent modification of GS slows the response to an ammonium shock and thereby allows GS to transiently detoxify the cell, while maintaining homeostasis over longer times

  3. Tempol Supplementation Restores Diaphragm Force and Metabolic Enzyme Activities in mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David P; Ali, Izza; Rieux, Clement; Healy, James; Jasionek, Greg; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2017-12-06

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention. The enzymatic activities of muscle citrate synthase, phosphofructokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed using spectrophotometric assays. Dystrophic diaphragm displayed mechanical dysfunction and altered biochemical status. Chronic tempol supplementation in the drinking water increased diaphragm functional capacity and citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities, restoring all values to wild-type levels. Chronic supplementation with tempol recovers force-generating capacity and metabolic enzyme activity in mdx diaphragm. These findings may have relevance in the search for therapeutic strategies in neuromuscular disease.

  4. Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Chiara; Scordo, Maria G.; Cesareo, Eleonora; Pastore, Saveria; Mariani, Serena; Maiani, Gianluca; Stancato, Andrea; Loreti, Beatrice; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lubrano, Carla; Raskovic, Desanka; De Padova, Luigia; Genovesi, Giuseppe; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a poorly clinically and biologically defined environment-associated syndrome. Although dysfunctions of phase I/phase II metabolizing enzymes and redox imbalance have been hypothesized, corresponding genetic and metabolic parameters in MCS have not been systematically examined. Objectives: We sought for genetic, immunological, and metabolic markers in MCS. Methods: We genotyped patients with diagnosis of MCS, suspected MCS and Italian healthy controls for allelic variants of cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5), UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1), and glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1). Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, antioxidant (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and glutathione metabolizing (GST, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)) enzymes, whole blood chemiluminescence, total antioxidant capacity, levels of nitrites/nitrates, glutathione, HNE-protein adducts, and a wide spectrum of cytokines in the plasma were determined. Results: Allele and genotype frequencies of CYPs, UGT, GSTM, GSTT, and GSTP were similar in the Italian MCS patients and in the control populations. The activities of erythrocyte catalase and GST were lower, whereas Gpx was higher than normal. Both reduced and oxidised glutathione were decreased, whereas nitrites/nitrates were increased in the MCS groups. The MCS fatty acid profile was shifted to saturated compartment and IFNgamma, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, PDGFbb, and VEGF were increased. Conclusions: Altered redox and cytokine patterns suggest inhibition of expression/activity of metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in MCS. Metabolic parameters indicating accelerated lipid oxidation, increased nitric oxide production and glutathione depletion in combination with increased plasma inflammatory cytokines should be considered in biological definition and diagnosis of MCS.

  5. YCF1-mediated cadmium resistance in yeast is dependent on copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Lee, Jaekwon

    2014-10-01

    Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense.

  6. PAF and its metabolic enzymes in healthy volunteers: interrelations and correlations with basic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Stamatakis, George; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2012-01-01

    PAF (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), a potent inflammatory mediator, is synthesized via the remodeling and the de novo route, key enzymes of which are acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-AT) and DTT-insensitive CDP-choline:1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), respectively. PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and its extracellular isoform lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) catabolize PAF. This study evaluated PAF levels together with leukocyte PAF-CPT, lyso-PAF-AT, PAF-AH and Lp-PLA(2) activities in 106 healthy volunteers. Men had lower PAF levels and higher activity of both catabolic enzymes and lyso-PAF-AT than women (P-values PAF levels in men (r=-0.279, P=0.06) and lyso-PAF-AT in women (r=-0.280, P=0.05). In contrast, Lp-PLA(2) was positively correlated with age (r=0.201, P=0.04). Moreover, PAF-CPT was positively correlated with glucose (r=0.430, P=0.002) in women. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed three PAF metabolic patterns: (i) increased activities of PAF-CPT and PAF-AH, (ii) increased activities of PAF-CPT and lyso-PAF-AT and (iii) increased activity of Lp-PLA(2). The present study underlines the complexity of PAF's metabolism determinants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Involvement of microRNA in the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of about 20 nucleotides in length and participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA binds to 3'-UTR of its target mRNAs and thereby destabilizes the transcripts or suppresses the translation. It is expected that miRNAs could have diverse functions and therefore play a role in the gene expression caused by the drug treatment, which have yet to be determined. Demonstration of the participation of specific miRNA in the drug-mediated gene expression would make it a biomarker for the toxicological assessment and help an understanding of molecular machinery of the drug-drug interaction. Under these backgrounds, we investigated the change of miRNAs in the liver of mice treated with phenobarbital, a typical inducer for drug-metabolizing enzymes, and demonstrate the participation of miRNAs in the phenobarbital-regulated gene expression. We investigated the relationship between phenobarbital-mediated changes in miRNA and mRNA by using Agilent miRNA microarray and DNA microarray, followed by real time RT-PCR. From these experiments, it was suggested that the phenobarbital-induced changes in cyp2c29 and mrp3 are regulated by miR-30a and miR-29b, respectively. In addition, we obtained evidence that indicates a phenobarbital-mediated decrease in miR-122, a highly abundant liver-specific miRNA, leads to the activation of the transcription factor CAR and thereby induces drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  8. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  9. YCF1-Mediated Cadmium Resistance in Yeast Is Dependent on Copper Metabolism and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Results: Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. Innovation: These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Conclusion: Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1475–1489. PMID:24444374

  10. Rethinking the evolution of eukaryotic metabolism: novel cellular partitioning of enzymes in stramenopiles links serine biosynthesis to glycolysis in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Melania; Kagda, Meenakshi; Ah-Fong, Audrey M V; Judelson, Howard S

    2017-12-04

    An important feature of eukaryotic evolution is metabolic compartmentalization, in which certain pathways are restricted to the cytosol or specific organelles. Glycolysis in eukaryotes is described as a cytosolic process. The universality of this canon has been challenged by recent genome data that suggest that some glycolytic enzymes made by stramenopiles bear mitochondrial targeting peptides. Mining of oomycete, diatom, and brown algal genomes indicates that stramenopiles encode two forms of enzymes for the second half of glycolysis, one with and the other without mitochondrial targeting peptides. The predicted mitochondrial targeting was confirmed by using fluorescent tags to localize phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and pyruvate kinase in Phytophthora infestans, the oomycete that causes potato blight. A genome-wide search for other enzymes with atypical mitochondrial locations identified phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, phosphoserine aminotransferase, and phosphoserine phosphatase, which form a pathway for generating serine from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. Fluorescent tags confirmed the delivery of these serine biosynthetic enzymes to P. infestans mitochondria. A cytosolic form of this serine biosynthetic pathway, which occurs in most eukaryotes, is missing from oomycetes and most other stramenopiles. The glycolysis and serine metabolism pathways of oomycetes appear to be mosaics of enzymes with different ancestries. While some of the noncanonical oomycete mitochondrial enzymes have the closest affinity in phylogenetic analyses with proteins from other stramenopiles, others cluster with bacterial, plant, or animal proteins. The genes encoding the mitochondrial phosphoglycerate kinase and serine-forming enzymes are physically linked on oomycete chromosomes, which suggests a shared origin. Stramenopile metabolism appears to have been shaped through the acquisition of genes by descent and lateral or endosymbiotic gene transfer

  11. Assessing the impact of the 4CL enzyme complex on the robustness of monolignol biosynthesis using metabolic pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Punith; Wang, Jack P; Sederoff, Ronald; Chiang, Vincent; Williams, Cranos; Ducoste, Joel J

    2018-01-01

    Lignin is a polymer present in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It is a known barrier to pulping and the extraction of high-energy sugars from cellulosic biomass. The challenge faced with predicting outcomes of transgenic plants with reduced lignin is due in part to the presence of unique protein-protein interactions that influence the regulation and metabolic flux in the pathway. Yet, it is unclear why certain plants have evolved to create these protein complexes. In this study, we use mathematical models to investigate the role that the protein complex, formed specifically between Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5 enzymes, have on the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. The role of this Ptr4CL3-Ptr4CL5 enzyme complex on the steady state flux distribution was quantified by performing Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of this complex on the robustness and the homeostatic properties of the pathway were identified by performing sensitivity and stability analyses, respectively. Results from these robustness and stability analyses suggest that the monolignol biosynthetic pathway is resilient to mild perturbations in the presence of the Ptr4CL3-Ptr4CL5 complex. Specifically, the presence of Ptr4CL3-Ptr4CL5 complex increased the stability of the pathway by 22%. The robustness in the pathway is maintained due to the presence of multiple enzyme isoforms as well as the presence of alternative pathways resulting from the presence of the Ptr4CL3-Ptr4CL5 complex.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of SNP identification with the Restriction Enzyme-based Reduced Representation Library (RRL method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Ye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction Enzyme-based Reduced Representation Library (RRL method represents a relatively feasible and flexible strategy used for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP identification in different species. It has remarkable advantage of reducing the complexity of the genome by orders of magnitude. However, comprehensive evaluation for actual efficacy of SNP identification by this method is still unavailable. Results In order to evaluate the efficacy of Restriction Enzyme-based RRL method, we selected Tsp 45I enzyme which covers 266 Mb flanking region of the enzyme recognition site according to in silico simulation on human reference genome, then we sequenced YH RRL after Tsp 45I treatment and obtained reads of which 80.8% were mapped to target region with an 20-fold average coverage, about 96.8% of target region was covered by at least one read and 257 K SNPs were identified in the region using SOAPsnp software. Compared with whole genome resequencing data, we observed false discovery rate (FDR of 13.95% and false negative rate (FNR of 25.90%. The concordance rate of homozygote loci was over 99.8%, but that of heterozygote were only 92.56%. Repeat sequences and bases quality were proved to have a great effect on the accuracy of SNP calling, SNPs in recognition sites contributed evidently to the high FNR and the low concordance rate of heterozygote. Our results indicated that repeat masking and high stringent filter criteria could significantly decrease both FDR and FNR. Conclusions This study demonstrates that Restriction Enzyme-based RRL method was effective for SNP identification. The results highlight the important role of bias and the method-derived defects represented in this method and emphasize the special attentions noteworthy.

  13. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. PMID:24451681

  14. Towards area-based in vitro metabolic engineering: assembly of Pfs enzyme onto patterned microfabricated chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Angela T; Bentley, William E; Yi, Hyunmin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    We report an approach for spatially selective assembly of an enzyme onto selected patterns of microfabricated chips. Our approach is based on electrodeposition of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan onto selected electrode patterns and covalent conjugation of a target enzyme to chitosan upon biochemical activation of a genetically fused "pro-tag." We report assembly of S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs) fused with a C-terminal pentatyrosine pro-tag. Pfs is a member of the bacterial autoinducer-2 biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing the irreversible cleavage of S-adenosylhomocysteine. The assembled Pfs retains its catalytic activity and structure, as demonstrated by retained antibody recognition. Assembly is controlled by the electrode area, resulting in reproducible rates of catalytic conversion for a given area, and thus allowing for area-based manipulation of catalysis and small molecule biosynthesis. Our approach enables optimization of small molecule biosynthesis in 1-step as well as multistep enzymatic reactions, including entire metabolic pathways, and we envision a wide variety of potential applications.

  15. The relative importance of kinetic mechanisms and variable enzyme abundances for the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism--insights from mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Berndt, Nikolaus

    2016-03-02

    Adaptation of the cellular metabolism to varying external conditions is brought about by regulated changes in the activity of enzymes and transporters. Hormone-dependent reversible enzyme phosphorylation and concentration changes of reactants and allosteric effectors are the major types of rapid kinetic enzyme regulation, whereas on longer time scales changes in protein abundance may also become operative. Here, we used a comprehensive mathematical model of the hepatic glucose metabolism of rat hepatocytes to decipher the relative importance of different regulatory modes and their mutual interdependencies in the hepatic control of plasma glucose homeostasis. Model simulations reveal significant differences in the capability of liver metabolism to counteract variations of plasma glucose in different physiological settings (starvation, ad libitum nutrient supply, diabetes). Changes in enzyme abundances adjust the metabolic output to the anticipated physiological demand but may turn into a regulatory disadvantage if sudden unexpected changes of the external conditions occur. Allosteric and hormonal control of enzyme activities allow the liver to assume a broad range of metabolic states and may even fully reverse flux changes resulting from changes of enzyme abundances alone. Metabolic control analysis reveals that control of the hepatic glucose metabolism is mainly exerted by enzymes alone, which are differently controlled by alterations in enzyme abundance, reversible phosphorylation, and allosteric effects. In hepatic glucose metabolism, regulation of enzyme activities by changes of reactants, allosteric effects, and reversible phosphorylation is equally important as changes in protein abundance of key regulatory enzymes.

  16. Metabolic adaptations and reduced respiration of the copepod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results reveal a reduction by 96% of metabolic rate in deep-living, diapausing C5s relative to surface-dwelling, active individuals. Only 14.4% of this metabolic reduction is explained by the lower ambient temperature at depth and a Q10 value of 2.34. Therefore, the major fraction (81.6%) of the metabolic reduction is ...

  17. The relation of diet with PAF and its metabolic enzymes in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, P; Fragopoulou, E; Nomikos, T; Yannakoulia, M; Stamatakis, G; Panagiotakos, D B; Antonopoulou, S

    2015-02-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in atherosclerosis. Its key biosynthetic enzymes are lyso-PAF acetyltransferases (lyso-PAF-AT), responsible for PAF synthesis through the remodeling route and a specific CDP-choline:1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), responsible for its de novo biosynthesis. PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and its extracellular isoform lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ catabolize PAF. The impact of diet on PAF metabolism is ill-defined. The aim was to investigate associations between PAF, its enzymes and dietary factors. One-hundred and six (n = 106) healthy volunteers were recruited. Food-frequency questionnaires, dietary recalls, lifestyle and biochemical variables were collected. Food groups, macronutrient intake, a priori (MedDietScore) and a posteriori defined food patterns with PCA analysis, dietary antioxidant capacity (DAC), glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load were assessed. PAF was inversely correlated with antioxidant-rich foods (herbal drinks and coffee), the DAC as well as a dietary pattern characterized by legumes, vegetables, poultry and fish (all Ps PAF was positively correlated to % fat intake. Lyso-PAF-AT was also negatively associated with healthy patterns (fruits, nuts and herbal drinks, and a pattern rich in olive oil and whole-wheat products), as well as the DAC and % monounsaturated fatty acids. PAF-CPT was negatively associated with GI and coffee intake and positively with dietary cholesterol. PAF-AH was negatively associated with coffee and positively associated with alcohol consumption (all Ps PAF or its biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting potential new mechanisms of the diet-disease associations.

  18. Photoperiodism and enzyme rhythms: Kinetic characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1975-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod on Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poellniz, cv. Tom Thumb, has characteristics similar to its effect on flowering in this plant (although these two phenomena are not causally related). The photoperiodic control of CAM is based on (a) dependance on phytochrome, (b) an endogenous circadian rhythm of sensitivity to photoperiodic signals, (c) a balance between specific positive (increase in enzyme capacity) and negative (inhibitory substances) effects of the photoperiod. Variations in malate content, capacity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, and capacity of CAM inhibitors in young leaves were measured under photoperiodic conditions noninductive for CAM and after transfer into photoperiodic conditions inductive for CAM. Essential characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of CAM are: 1) lag time for malate accumulation; 2) after-effect of the inductive photoperiod on the malate accumulation, on the increase in PEP carboxylase capacity, and on the decrease in the level of long-day produced inhibitors; final levels of malate, enzyme capacity and inhibitor are proportional to the number of inductive day-night cycles; 3) cireadian rhythm in PEP carboxylase capacity with a fixed phase under noninductive photoperiods and a continuously shifting phase under inductive photoperiods, after complex advancing and delaying transients. Kinetic similarities indicate that photoperiodic control of different physiological functions, namely, CAM and flowering, may be achieved through similar mechanisms. Preliminary results with species of Bryophyllum and Sedum support this hypothesis. Phase relationships suggest different degrees of coupling between endogenous enzymic rhythm and photoperiod, depending on whether the plants are under long days or short days.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab protein from an herbivore reduces anti-oxidant enzyme activities in two spider species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    Full Text Available Cry proteins are expressed in rice lines for lepidopteran pest control. These proteins can be transferred from transgenic rice plants to non-target arthropods, including planthoppers and then to a predatory spider. Movement of Cry proteins through food webs may reduce fitness of non-target arthropods, although recent publications indicated no serious changes in non-target populations. Nonetheless, Cry protein intoxication influences gene expression in Cry-sensitive insects. We posed the hypothesis that Cry protein intoxication influences enzyme activities in spiders acting in tri-trophic food webs. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test our hypothesis with two spider species. We demonstrated that the movement of CryAb protein from Drosophila culture medium into fruit flies maintained on the CryAb containing medium and from the flies to the spiders Ummeliata insecticeps and Pardosa pseudoannulata. We also show that the activities of three key metabolic enzymes, acetylcholine esterase (AchE, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were significantly influenced in the spiders after feeding on Cry1Ab-containing fruit flies. We infer from these data that Cry proteins originating in transgenic crops impacts non-target arthropods at the physiological and biochemical levels, which may be one mechanism of Cry protein-related reductions in fitness of non-target beneficial predators.

  20. Association of metabolic syndrome with reduced central serotonergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Marquez, Rocio; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jorge; Medina-Serrano, Julio; Boyzo-Montes de Oca, Alfonso; Manjarrez-Gutierrez, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences between two groups of adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and normal controls in relation to brain serotonergic activity through intensity-dependent auditory-evoked potentials (IDAEPs) and plasma free fraction of L-tryptophan. Eighteen adolescents with MetS and thirteen controls were studied. Free fraction, bound and total plasma L-tryptophan, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, albumin and IDAEPs were determined. Glycemia, triglycerides were significantly elevated, and HDL-cholesterol in plasma was significantly reduced. Free fraction and free fraction/total L-tryptophan ratio were decreased. The slope of the amplitude/stimulus intensity function of the N1/P2 component significantly increased in adolescents with MetS. Decrease of free fraction of L-tryptophan in plasma and increase of the slope of the N1/P2 component suggest a low brain serotonin tone. Cortex responses are regulated by serotonergic innervations and may show a different behavior in young patients with MetS. Therefore, the slope of the N1/P2 component along with the free fraction of L-tryptophan in plasma, indicate that in adolescents with MetS the state of serotonergic brain activity is depressed and possibly related to psychiatric disorders.

  1. Levels of Key Enzymes of Methionine-Homocysteine Metabolism in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pérez-Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the role of key enzymes in the methionine-homocysteine metabolism (MHM in the physiopathology of preeclampsia (PE. Methods. Plasma and placenta from pregnant women (32 controls and 16 PE patients were analyzed after informed consent. Protein was quantified by western blot. RNA was obtained with RNA purification kit and was quantified by reverse transcritase followed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Identification of the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and A2756G methionine synthase (MTR SNP was performed using PCR followed by a high-resolution melting (HRM analysis. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH were measured in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS. The SNP association analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact test. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test. Results. RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR was significantly higher in patients with PE as compared with controls. Protein, SAM, and SAH levels showed no significant difference between preeclamptic patients and controls. No statistical differences between controls and PE patients were observed with the different SNPs studied. Conclusion. The RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR is elevated in placentas of PE patients, highlighting a potential compensation mechanism of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism in the physiopathology of this disease.

  2. Underlying mechanisms for syntrophic metabolism of essential enzyme cofactors in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Maezato, Yukari; Osterman, Andrei L; Nelson, William C

    2017-06-01

    Many microorganisms are unable to synthesize essential B vitamin-related enzyme cofactors de novo. The underlying mechanisms by which such microbes survive in multi-species communities are largely unknown. We previously reported the near-complete genome sequence of two ~18-member unicyanobacterial microbial consortia that maintain stable membership on defined medium lacking vitamins. Here we have used genome analysis and growth studies on isolates derived from the consortia to reconstruct pathways for biogenesis of eight essential cofactors and predict cofactor usage and precursor exchange in these communities. Our analyses revealed that all but the two Halomonas and cyanobacterial community members were auxotrophic for at least one cofactor. We also observed a mosaic distribution of salvage routes for a variety of cofactor precursors, including those produced by photolysis. Potentially bidirectional transporters were observed to be preferentially in prototrophs, suggesting a mechanism for controlled precursor release. Furthermore, we found that Halomonas sp. do not require cobalamin nor control its synthesis, supporting the hypothesis that they overproduce and export vitamins. Collectively, these observations suggest that the consortia rely on syntrophic metabolism of cofactors as a survival strategy for optimization of metabolic exchange within a shared pool of micronutrients.

  3. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M; Field, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. © 2016 Authors.

  4. A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PathoLogic program constructs Pathway/Genome databases by using a genome's annotation to predict the set of metabolic pathways present in an organism. PathoLogic determines the set of reactions composing those pathways from the enzymes annotated in the organism's genome. Most annotation efforts fail to assign function to 40–60% of sequences. In addition, large numbers of sequences may have non-specific annotations (e.g., thiolase family protein. Pathway holes occur when a genome appears to lack the enzymes needed to catalyze reactions in a pathway. If a protein has not been assigned a specific function during the annotation process, any reaction catalyzed by that protein will appear as a missing enzyme or pathway hole in a Pathway/Genome database. Results We have developed a method that efficiently combines homology and pathway-based evidence to identify candidates for filling pathway holes in Pathway/Genome databases. Our program not only identifies potential candidate sequences for pathway holes, but combines data from multiple, heterogeneous sources to assess the likelihood that a candidate has the required function. Our algorithm emulates the manual sequence annotation process, considering not only evidence from homology searches, but also considering evidence from genomic context (i.e., is the gene part of an operon? and functional context (e.g., are there functionally-related genes nearby in the genome? to determine the posterior belief that a candidate has the required function. The method can be applied across an entire metabolic pathway network and is generally applicable to any pathway database. The program uses a set of sequences encoding the required activity in other genomes to identify candidate proteins in the genome of interest, and then evaluates each candidate by using a simple Bayes classifier to determine the probability that the candidate has the desired function. We achieved 71% precision at a

  5. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho YY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yeon Cho,1 Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Jeong-Han Kim,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea; 2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1, were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 µM increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 µM did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1 in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. Keywords: honokiol, human hepatocytes, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

  6. Complete genome sequence of Thermus brockianus GE-1 reveals key enzymes of xylan/xylose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfers, Christian; Blank, Saskia; Wiebusch, Sigrid; Elleuche, Skander; Antranikian, Garabed

    2017-01-01

    Thermus brockianus strain GE-1 is a thermophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium that was isolated from the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland. Like other thermophiles, Thermus species are often used as model organisms to understand the mechanism of action of extremozymes, especially focusing on their heat-activity and thermostability. Genome-specific features of T. brockianus GE-1 and their properties further help to explain processes of the adaption of extremophiles at elevated temperatures. Here we analyze the first whole genome sequence of T. brockianus strain GE-1. Insights of the genome sequence and the methodologies that were applied during de novo assembly and annotation are given in detail. The finished genome shows a phred quality value of QV50. The complete genome size is 2.38 Mb, comprising the chromosome (2,035,182 bp), the megaplasmid pTB1 (342,792 bp) and the smaller plasmid pTB2 (10,299 bp). Gene prediction revealed 2,511 genes in total, including 2,458 protein-encoding genes, 53 RNA and 66 pseudo genes. A unique genomic region on megaplasmid pTB1 was identified encoding key enzymes for xylan depolymerization and xylose metabolism. This is in agreement with the growth experiments in which xylan is utilized as sole source of carbon. Accordingly, we identified sequences encoding the xylanase Xyn10, an endoglucanase, the membrane ABC sugar transporter XylH, the xylose-binding protein XylF, the xylose isomerase XylA catalyzing the first step of xylose metabolism and the xylulokinase XylB, responsible for the second step of xylose metabolism. Our data indicate that an ancestor of T. brockianus obtained the ability to use xylose as alternative carbon source by horizontal gene transfer.

  7. Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre-packaged reusable bioMEMS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolong; Lewandowski, Angela T; Yi, Hyunmin; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza; Bentley, William E; Rubloff, Gary W

    2008-03-01

    We report a biofunctionalization strategy for the assembly of catalytically active enzymes within a completely packaged bioMEMS device, through the programmed generation of electrical signals at spatially and temporally defined sites. The enzyme of a bacterial metabolic pathway, S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs), is genetically fused with a pentatyrosine "pro-tag" at its C-terminus. Signal responsive assembly is based on covalent conjugation of Pfs to the aminopolysaccharide, chitosan, upon biochemical activation of the pro-tag, followed by electrodeposition of the enzyme-chitosan conjugate onto readily addressable sites in microfluidic channels. Compared to traditional physical entrapment and surface immobilization approaches in microfluidic environments, our signal-guided electrochemical assembly is unique in that the enzymes are assembled under mild aqueous conditions with spatial and temporal programmability and orientational control. Significantly, the chitosan-mediated enzyme assembly can be reversed, making the bioMEMS reusable for repeated assembly and catalytic activity. Additionally, the assembled enzymes retain catalytic activity over multiple days, demonstrating enhanced enzyme stability. We envision that this assembly strategy can be applied to rebuild metabolic pathways in microfluidic environments for antimicrobial drug discovery.

  8. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and metabolism of steroids in COS-7 cells known as non-steroidogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Mitsuki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Miyazaki, Takuro; Shigeta, Daichi; Kano, Noriko; Lei, Xiao-Feng; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-Ri; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Akira; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    The COS-7 (CV-1 in Origin with SV40 genes) cells are known as non-steroidogenic cells because they are derived from kidney cells and the kidney is defined as a non-steroidogenic organ. Therefore, COS-7 cells are used for transfection experiments to analyze the actions of functional molecules including steroids. However, a preliminary study suggested that COS-7 cells metabolize [ 3 H]testosterone to [ 3 H]androstenedione. These results suggest that COS-7 cells are able to metabolize steroids. Therefore, the present study investigated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and the metabolism of steroids in COS-7 cells. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expressions of several kinds of steroidogenic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ 5 -Δ 4 isomerase, cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-reductase, cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 11β-hydroxylase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase in COS-7 cells. In addition, steroidogenic enzymes 3β-HSD, P4507α, 5α-reductase, P450c17, P450c21, P450c11β, and 17β-HSD actively metabolized various steroids in cultured COS-7 cells. Finally, we demonstrated that 17β-HSD activity toward androstenedione formation was greater than other steroidogenic enzyme activities. Our results provide new evidence that COS-7 cells express a series of steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs and actively metabolize a variety of steroids.

  9. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate improves metabolism and reduces muscle atrophy during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael E; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Qaisar, Rizwan; Sloane, Lauren; Rahman, Md M; Kinter, Michael; Van Remmen, Holly

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function during aging, is a major contributor to disability and frailty in the elderly. Previous studies found a protective effect of reduced histone deacetylase activity in models of neurogenic muscle atrophy. Because loss of muscle mass during aging is associated with loss of motor neuron innervation, we investigated the potential for the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor butyrate to modulate age-related muscle loss. Consistent with previous studies, we found significant loss of hindlimb muscle mass in 26-month-old C57Bl/6 female mice fed a control diet. Butyrate treatment starting at 16 months of age wholly or partially protected against muscle atrophy in hindlimb muscles. Butyrate increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and prevented intramuscular fat accumulation in the old mice. In addition to the protective effect on muscle mass, butyrate reduced fat mass and improved glucose metabolism in 26-month-old mice as determined by a glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, butyrate increased markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and whole-body oxygen consumption without affecting activity. The increase in mass in butyrate-treated mice was not due to reduced ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. However, butyrate reduced markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis and altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Our data is the first to show a beneficial effect of butyrate on muscle mass during aging and suggests HDACs contribute to age-related muscle atrophy and may be effective targets for intervention in sarcopenia and age-related metabolic disease. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Temporal repeatability of metabolic rate and the effect of organ mass and enzyme activity on metabolism in European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Martin Maagaard; Norin, Tommy; Malte, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in metabolic rate of fish can be pronounced and have been linked to various fitness-related behavioural and physiological traits, but the underlying causes for this variation have received far less attention than the consequences of it. In the present study we investigated whether European eels (Anguilla anguilla) displayed temporal repeatability of body-mass-corrected (residual) metabolic rate over a two-month period and if variations in organ mass and enzyme activity between individual fish could be the cause for the observed variation in metabolic rate. Both standard metabolic rate (SMR; Pearson's r=0.743) and routine metabolic rate (RMR; r=0.496) were repeatable over the two-month period. Repeatability of RMR is an interesting finding as it indicates that the level of spontaneous activity in respirometer-confined fish is not random. Cumulative organ mass (liver, heart, spleen and intestine; mean 1.6% total body mass) was found to explain 38% of the variation in SMR (r=0.613) with the liver (one of the metabolically most active organs) being the driver for the correlation between organ mass and metabolic rate. No relationships were found for either liver citrate synthase or cytochrome oxidase activity and metabolic rate in the European eels. Reasons for, and contributions to, the observed variation in metabolic rate are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  12. Polymorphisms in genes encoding acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes are unrelated to upper gastrointestinal health in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Huybers, Sylvie; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Background As acetylsalicylic acid is metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), interindividual differences in activity of these enzymes may modulate the effects and side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid. The objective of this study was to assess

  13. Polymorphisms in genes encoding acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes are unrelated to upper gastrointestinal health in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Huybers, S.; Peters, W.H.M.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As acetylsalicylic acid is metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), interindividual differences in activity of these enzymes may modulate the effects and side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid. The objective of this study was to assess

  14. Novel role of a triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme: DGAT1 at the crossroad between triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Bauer, Raimund; Patankar, Jay V.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Obrowsky, Sascha; Boverhof, Renze; Doktorova, Marcela; Scheicher, Bernhard; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Kolb, Dagmar; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Zimmer, Andreas; Hoefler, Gerald; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Groen, Albert K.; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis. Here we show that genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 in mice alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol absorption, as assessed by acute cholesterol uptake, was

  15. An MRM-based workflow for absolute quantitation of lysine-acetylated metabolic enzymes in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leilei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Cuiping; Qin, Xue; Yu, Hongxiu; Yang, Pengyuan

    2015-12-07

    As a key post-translational modification mechanism, protein acetylation plays critical roles in regulating and/or coordinating cell metabolism. Acetylation is a prevalent modification process in enzymes. Protein acetylation modification occurs in sub-stoichiometric amounts; therefore extracting biologically meaningful information from these acetylation sites requires an adaptable, sensitive, specific, and robust method for their quantification. In this work, we combine immunoassays and multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) technology to develop an absolute quantification for acetylation modification. With this hybrid method, we quantified the acetylation level of metabolic enzymes, which could demonstrate the regulatory mechanisms of the studied enzymes. The development of this quantitative workflow is a pivotal step for advancing our knowledge and understanding of the regulatory effects of protein acetylation in physiology and pathophysiology.

  16. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...... is barely within the lower range of the mean human plasma concentration of lycopene, which ranges from 70-1790 nM. Oxidative stress induced by the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and investigated by analyzing for malondialdehyde in plasma, was not found...

  17. Sex- and age-dependent gene expression in human liver: An implication for drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Takata, Ryo; Kito, Go; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2017-02-01

    Sex and age differences in hepatic expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes could cause variations in drug metabolism, but has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian population. In this study, the global expression of human hepatic genes was analyzed by microarrays in 40 Japanese subjects (27 males and 13 females). Thirty-five sex-biased genes were identified (P age-biased genes in two age groups, age-biased genes were related to transcription regulation and cell death. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the female-biased expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes BChE, CYP4X1, and SULT1E1 (≥1.5-fold, P drug-metabolizing enzyme genes indicated that expression of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in females in the ≥70 age group was less than in the age group (≥1.5-fold, P drug metabolism, with respect to sex and age. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Identification of binding sites on protein targeting to glycogen for enzymes of glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, N M; Jensen, T C; Shah, A S; Parekh, N N; Saltiel, A R; Brady, M J

    2000-11-10

    The activation of protein phosphastase-1 (PP1) by insulin plays a critical role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism. PTG is a PP1 glycogen-targeting protein, which also binds the PP1 substrates glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and phosphorylase kinase (Printen, J. A., Brady, M. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1997) Science 275, 1475-1478). Through a combination of deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, the regions on PTG responsible for binding PP1 and its substrates have been delineated. Mutagenesis of Val-62 and Phe-64 in the highly conserved (K/R)VXF PP1-binding motif to alanine was sufficient to ablate PP1 binding to PTG. Phosphorylase kinase, glycogen synthase, and phosphorylase binding all mapped to the same C-terminal region of PTG. Mutagenesis of Asp-225 and Glu-228 to alanine completely blocked the interaction between PTG and these three enzymes, without affecting PP1 binding. Disruption of either PP1 or substrate binding to PTG blocked the stimulation of PP1 activity in vitro against phosphorylase, indicating that both binding sites may be important in PTG action. Transient overexpression of wild-type PTG in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the insulin receptor caused a 50-fold increase in glycogen levels. Expression of PTG mutants that do not bind PP1 had no effect on glycogen accumulation, indicating that PP1 targeting is essential for PTG function. Likewise, expression of the PTG mutants that do not bind PP1 substrates did not increase glycogen levels, indicating that PP1 targeting glycogen is not sufficient for the metabolic effects of PTG. These results cumulatively demonstrate that PTG serves as a molecular scaffold, allowing PP1 to recognize its substrates at the glycogen particle.

  20. Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ≥ 6,1 mmol/L, TG ≥ 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in

  2. Metabolic mechanisms of methanol/formaldehyde in isolated rat hepatocytes: carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes versus oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, Stephanie L; Choi, Joanna; Dedina, Liana; O'Brien, Peter J

    2011-05-30

    Methanol (CH(3)OH), a common industrial solvent, is metabolized to toxic compounds by several enzymatic as well as free radical pathways. Identifying which process best enhances or prevents CH(3)OH-induced cytotoxicity could provide insight into the molecular basis for acute CH(3)OH-induced hepatoxicity. Metabolic pathways studied include those found in 1) an isolated hepatocyte system and 2) cell-free systems. Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening (ACMS) techniques demonstrated that CH(3)OH had little toxicity towards rat hepatocytes in 95% O(2), even at 2M concentration, whereas 50 mM was the estimated LC(50) (2h) in 1% O(2), estimated to be the physiological concentration in the centrilobular region of the liver and also the target region for ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity was attributed to increased NADH levels caused by CH(3)OH metabolism, catalyzed by ADH1, resulting in reductive stress, which reduced and released ferrous iron from Ferritin causing oxygen activation. A similar cytotoxic mechanism at 1% O(2) was previous found for ethanol. With 95% O(2), the addition of Fe(II)/H(2)O(2), at non-toxic concentrations were the most effective agents for increasing hepatocyte toxicity induced by 1M CH(3)OH, with a 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Iron chelators, desferoxamine, and NADH oxidizers and ATP generators, e.g. fructose, also protected hepatocytes and decreased ROS formation and cytotoxicity. Hepatocyte protein carbonylation induced by formaldehyde (HCHO) formation was also increased about 4-fold, when CH(3)OH was oxidized by the Fenton-like system, Fe(II)/H(2)O(2), and correlated with increased cytotoxicity. In a cell-free bovine serum albumin system, Fe(II)/H(2)O(2) also increased CH(3)OH oxidation as well as HCHO protein carbonylation. Nontoxic ferrous iron and a H(2)O(2) generating system increased HCHO-induced cytotoxicity and hepatocyte protein carbonylation. In addition, HCHO cytotoxicity was markedly increased by ADH1 and

  3. Skeletal Muscle Fibre-Specific Knockout of p53 Does Not Reduce Mitochondrial Content or Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Stocks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumour protein 53 (p53 has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, with whole-body p53 knockout mice displaying impairments in basal mitochondrial content, respiratory capacity, and enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of skeletal muscle-specific loss of p53 on mitochondrial content and enzyme activity. Mitochondrial protein content, enzyme activity and mRNA profiles were assessed in skeletal muscle of 8-week-old male muscle fibre-specific p53 knockout mice (p53 mKO and floxed littermate controls (WT under basal conditions. p53 mKO and WT mice displayed similar content of electron transport chain proteins I-V and citrate synthase enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. In addition, the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial morphology (MFN2, mitofillin, OPA1, DRP1, FIS1, fatty acid metabolism (β-HAD, ACADM, ACADL, ACADVL, carbohydrate metabolism (HKII, PDH, energy sensing (AMPKα2, AMPKβ2, and gene transcription (NRF1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were comparable in p53 mKO and WT mice (p > 0.05. Furthermore, p53 mKO mice exhibited normal mRNA profiles of targeted mitochondrial, metabolic and transcriptional proteins (p > 0.05. Thus, it appears that p53 expression in skeletal muscle fibres is not required to develop or maintain mitochondrial protein content or enzyme function in skeletal muscle under basal conditions.

  4. Dairy Consumption Lowers Systemic Inflammation and Liver Enzymes in Typically Low-Dairy Consumers with Clinical Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Christine E; Aguilar, David; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2016-01-01

    A 6-week cross-over study design was used to determine the effect of increased dairy consumption in typically low-dairy consumers (n = 37) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) on systemic inflammation and hepatic enzymes. This was a randomized study in which participants consumed low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz 1% milk, 6 oz nonfat yogurt, 4 oz 2% cheese) or a carbohydrate-based control (CNT) (1.5 oz granola bar and 12 oz 100% juice) for 6 weeks. After a 4-week washout, they were allocated to the alternate dietary treatment. Inflammatory status was assessed by fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant -1 (MCP-1). In addition, gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and TNF-α was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from a subset of 17 subjects (13 women, 3 men) at the end of each dietary period. Liver enzymes were also assessed to evaluate whether dairy components would affect hepatic function. Participants had lower concentrations of both hepatic alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.005) after the LFD period. No significant changes in any of the plasma inflammatory compounds were found when all data were analyzed together. In contrast, expression of IL-1b and IL-6 were reduced by 46% and 63%, respectively, compared to the control period. When stratified by gender, women had lower TNF-α, (p = 0.028) and MCP-1 (p = 0.001) following LFD consumption compared to CNT. In addition, hepatic steatosis index scores were significantly lower (p < 0.001) during the LFD period. We conclude that three dairy servings per day improved both liver function and systemic inflammation in subjects with MetS.

  5. Metabolic enzyme activities of abyssal and hadal fishes: pressure effects and a re-evaluation of depth-related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Yancey, P. H.

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic enzyme activities of muscle tissue have been useful and widely-applied indicators of whole animal metabolic capacity, particularly in inaccessible systems such as the deep sea. Previous studies have been conducted at atmospheric pressure, regardless of organism habitat depth. However, maximum reaction rates of some of these enzymes are pressure dependent, complicating the use of metabolic enzyme activities as proxies of metabolic rates. Here, we show pressure-related rate changes in lactate and malate dehydrogenase (LDH, MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in six fish species (2 hadal, 2 abyssal, 2 shallow). LDH maximal reaction rates decreased with pressure for the two shallow species, but, in contrast to previous findings, it increased for the four deep species, suggesting evolutionary changes in LDH reaction volumes. MDH maximal reaction rates increased with pressure in all species (up to 51±10% at 60 MPa), including the tide pool snailfish, Liparis florae (activity increase at 60 MPa 44±9%), suggesting an inherent negative volume change of the reaction. PK was inhibited by pressure in all species tested, including the hadal liparids (up to 34±3% at 60 MPa), suggesting a positive volume change during the reaction. The addition of 400 mM TMAO counteracted this inhibition at both 0.5 and 2.0 mM ADP concentrations for the hadal liparid, Notoliparis kermadecensis. We revisit depth-related trends in metabolic enzyme activities according to these pressure-related rate changes and new data from seven abyssal and hadal species from the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Results show that, with abyssal and hadal species, pressure-related rate changes are another variable to be considered in the use of enzyme activities as proxies for metabolic rate, in addition to factors such as temperature and body mass. Intraspecific increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes with depth of capture, independent of body mass, in two hadal snailfishes suggest improved nutritional

  6. The Krebs Cycle Enzyme Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 3A Couples Mitochondrial Metabolism to Synaptic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Berrak; Bao, Huan; Stawarski, Michal; Duraine, Lita R; Zuo, Zhongyuan; Lin, Yong Qi; Neely, G Gregory; Macleod, Gregory T; Chapman, Edwin R; Bellen, Hugo J

    2017-12-26

    Neurotransmission is a tightly regulated Ca 2+ -dependent process. Upon Ca 2+ influx, Synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane. This requires regulation at multiple levels, but the role of metabolites in SV release is unclear. Here, we uncover a role for isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a (idh3a), a Krebs cycle enzyme, in neurotransmission. Loss of idh3a leads to a reduction of the metabolite, alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG), causing defects in synaptic transmission similar to the loss of syt1. Supplementing idh3a flies with αKG suppresses these defects through an ATP or neurotransmitter-independent mechanism. Indeed, αKG, but not glutamate, enhances Syt1-dependent fusion in a reconstitution assay. αKG promotes interaction between the C2-domains of Syt1 and phospholipids. The data reveal conserved metabolic regulation of synaptic transmission via αKG. Our studies provide a synaptic role for αKG, a metabolite that has been proposed as a treatment for aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A moonlighting enzyme links Escherichia coli cell size with central metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert S Hill

    Full Text Available Growth rate and nutrient availability are the primary determinants of size in single-celled organisms: rapidly growing Escherichia coli cells are more than twice as large as their slow growing counterparts. Here we report the identification of the glucosyltransferase OpgH as a nutrient-dependent regulator of E. coli cell size. During growth under nutrient-rich conditions, OpgH localizes to the nascent septal site, where it antagonizes assembly of the tubulin-like cell division protein FtsZ, delaying division and increasing cell size. Biochemical analysis is consistent with OpgH sequestering FtsZ from growing polymers. OpgH is functionally analogous to UgtP, a Bacillus subtilis glucosyltransferase that inhibits cell division in a growth rate-dependent fashion. In a striking example of convergent evolution, OpgH and UgtP share no homology, have distinct enzymatic activities, and appear to inhibit FtsZ assembly through different mechanisms. Comparative analysis of E. coli and B. subtilis reveals conserved aspects of growth rate regulation and cell size control that are likely to be broadly applicable. These include the conservation of uridine diphosphate glucose as a proxy for nutrient status and the use of moonlighting enzymes to couple growth rate-dependent phenomena to central metabolism.

  8. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) induces apoptosis and alters metabolic enzyme activity in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Abby C.; Helliwell, Rachel J.A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Paxton, James W.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Tingle, Malcolm D.

    2003-01-01

    The anti-HIV drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the drug of choice for preventing maternal-fetal HIV transmission during pregnancy. Our aim was to assess the cytotoxic effects of AZT on human placenta in vitro. The mechanisms of AZT-induced effects were investigated using JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells and primary explant cultures from term and first-trimester human placentas. Cytotoxicity measures included trypan blue exclusion, MTT, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Apoptosis was measured with an antibody specific to cleaved caspase-3 and by rescue of cells by the general caspase inhibitor Boc-D-FMK. The effect of AZT on the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, β-glucuronidase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, and CYP reductase (CYPR) in the placenta was assessed using biochemical assays and immunoblotting. AZT increased ROS levels, decreased cellular proliferation rates, was toxic to mitochondria, and initiated cell death by a caspase-dependent mechanism in the human placenta in vitro. In the absence of serum, the effects of AZT were amplified in all the models used. AZT also increased the amounts of activity of GST, β-glucuronidase, and CYP1A, whereas UGT and CYPR were decreased. We conclude that AZT causes apoptosis in the placenta and alters metabolizing enzymes in human placental cells. These findings have implications for the safe administration of AZT in pregnancy with respect to the maintenance of integrity of the maternal-fetal barrier

  9. Characterization of Genes Encoding Key Enzymes Involved in Anthocyanin Metabolism of Kiwifruit during Storage Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boqiang; Xia, Yongxiu; Wang, Yuying; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    'Hongyang' is a red fleshed kiwifruit with high anthocyanin content. In this study, we mainly investigated effects of different temperatures (25 and 0°C) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in harvested kiwifruit, and characterized the genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism, as well as evaluated the mode of the action, by which low temperature regulates anthocyanin accumulation in 'Hongyang' kiwifruit during storage period. The results showed that low temperature could effectively enhance the anthocyanin accumulation of kiwifruit in the end of storage period (90 days), which related to the increase in mRNA levels of ANS1, ANS2, DRF1, DRF2 , and UGFT2 . Moreover, the transcript abundance of MYBA1-1 and MYB5-1 , the genes encoding an important component of MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex, was up-regulated, possibly contributing to the induction of specific anthocyanin biosynthesis genes under the low temperature. To further investigate the roles of AcMYB5-1/5-2/A1-1 in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, genes encoding the three transcription factors were transiently transformed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Overexpression of AcMYB5-1/5-2/A1-1 activated the gene expression of NtANS and NtDFR in tobacco. Our results suggested that low temperature storage could stimulate the anthocyanin accumulation in harvested kiwifruit via regulating several structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  10. [The role of smoking and metabolic enzyme polymorphisms in the organic solvent induced chronic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Ma, Y M; Cui, J Z; Zhao, D; Liu, A J; Hong, J; Lu, Y G; Wang, K J

    2016-03-20

    The organic solvents and other exogenous compounds of metabolic enzymes genetic variation may affect the risk of the toxic effect of organic solvents exposure. Therefore, this research we observed the glutathione transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTT1) deletion mutation genotype, two kinds of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEPHX) genetic polymorphism, organic solvents exposure and smoking effection in chronic cases of toxic encephalopathy (CTE) correlation. The object was 115 patients who had a long history of organic solvents exposure, were divieded into two groups: CTE (n=83) , no CET (n=32) according to clinical diagnosis. DNA was isolated from patients in white blood cells through the multiple-polymerase chain reaction to determine the loss of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype. two kinds of mEPHX polymorphism were analysised through the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). The relative risk has obviously improved when lack of GSTM1 genotypes to CTE (RR=2.35, 95% CI 2.35 0.96). in according to the patient's Smoking condition and classify genotype, patients lack of GSTM1 genotypes had a significantly higher risk CTE than GSTM1+genotype patients (RR=3.13, 95% CI 3.13 1.2) , both mEPHX polymorphisms had nothing to do with an increased risk of CTE. The GSTM1 genotypes played an important role in the organic solvent induced the CTE of susceptibility.it was Influenced by the interaction between smoking at the same time.

  11. Alteration of reducing powers in an isogenic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi)-disrupted Escherichia coli expressing NAD(P)-dependent malic enzymes and NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Lee, C H; Nam, S W; Kim, P

    2011-05-01

    To understand the intracellular reducing power metabolism, growth and intracellular NAD(P)H concentrations of a phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi)-disrupted Escherichia coli (KS002) were investigated with the expressions of redox enzymes. The isogenic pgi-mutation enabled E. coli to harbour two times both the intracellular NADPH and NADH at half the growth rate. The wild-type expressing NAD-dependent malic enzyme (maeA) was incapable of sufficient growth (malic enzyme (maeB) enabled wild-type and KS002 strains to grow without significant alteration. The alterations of reducing powers and the growth were analysed in the genetic engineered E. coli strains. The potential application of the cells with the high intracellular NAD(P)H level is discussed based on the results. Metabolic engineering strategy for higher reducing power regeneration is provided. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Their Constituents on Phase II Drug-metabolizing Enzymes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nurul Afifah Mohd; Ismail, Sabariah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Objective: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities. Materials and Methods: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM. Results: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59–22.76 μg/mL and 110.71–526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition. Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. SUMMARY Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin

  13. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-01-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 μM) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  14. alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate induced alterations in hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and liver morphology: implications concerning anticarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T B; Popp, J A; Graichen, M E; Dent, J G

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is a biliary toxin with anticarcinogenic properties. The studies described were designed to investigate the effects of continuous ANIT feeding on liver function. Male F-344 rats were fed ANIT at 0.01%, 0.022%, 0.047%, and 0.1% of the diet for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Microscopic evaluation of liver sections revealed time- and dose- dependent bile duct proliferation, bile duct cell hypertrophy, and focal hepatocytic necrosis. Liver derived serum enzyme activity and serum bilirubin concentrations were increased in a fashion which correlated closely with the histological observations. A dose dependent decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 content, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity, and benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity was observed after 2 and 4 weeks of feeding ANIT. However, these enzyme activities returned to control values at 6 weeks in all except the 0.1% group. ANIT increased microsomal epoxide hydrolase and cytosolic DT-diaphorase activity (200-6005 of control). The enhancement was dose related and peaked at 2 and 4 weeks for epoxide hydrolase and DT-diaphorase, respectively. Both epoxide hydrolase and DT-diaphorase activity remained elevated at 6 weeks. These results suggest that ANIT mediated anticarcinogenesis, previously hypothesized to be the result of reduced mixed function oxidase activity, also may be accounted for by enhanced epoxide hydrolase and DT-diaphorase activity.

  15. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  16. Intraspecific variation in aerobic metabolic rate of fish: relations with organ size and enzyme activity in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Tommy; Malte, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Highly active animals require a high aerobic capacity (i.e., a high maximum metabolic rate [MMR]) to sustain such activity, and it has been speculated that a greater capacity for aerobic performance is reflected in larger organs, which serve as energy processors but are also expensive to maintain and which increase the minimal cost of living (i.e., the basal or standard metabolic rate [SMR]). In this study, we assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in metabolic rate within a group of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and tested whether the observed variation in residual (body-mass-corrected) SMR, MMR, and absolute aerobic scope could be explained by variations in the residual size (mass) of metabolically active internal organs. Residual SMR was found to correlate positively with residual MMR, indicating a link between these two metabolic parameters, but no relationship between organ mass and metabolic rate was found for liver, heart, spleen, intestine, or stomach. Instead, activity in the liver of two aerobic mitochondrial enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and, to a lesser extent, citrate synthase, was found to correlate with whole-animal metabolic rate, indicating that causes for intraspecific variation in the metabolic rate of fish can be found at a lower organizational level than organ size.

  17. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...

  18. The metabolic syndrome: targeting dyslipidaemia to reduce coronary risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsberg, H.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex constellation of disorders, each one a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increasing prevalence of this condition is a major concern for healthcare providers both in Europe and North America. The concern surrounding

  19. Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in Use of Hydroxyurea: Association between Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Metabolizing Drug Enzymes and Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sètondji Cocou Modeste Alexandre Yahouédéhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated associations between SNPs in genes encoding metabolizing drug enzymes and laboratory parameters in sickle cell anemia patients under hydroxyurea (SCA-HU+. We evaluated hematologic and biochemical parameters by electronic methods and SNPs by PCR-RFLP and multiplex PCR in 35 SCA-HU+ patients and 67 SCA-HU− patients. The HbS, total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and fractions levels, and leukocyte, eosinophil, monocyte, and erythroblast counts were reduced in SCA-HU+ patients (pA and c1c2 + c2c2 of CYP2E1 −1293G>C/−1053C>T were higher in SCA-HU+ patients (pA, CYP2E1 −1293G>C/−1053C>T, and GSTT1 can be associated with alterations in lipid, inflammatory, renal, hemolytic, and hepatic profiles. However, further studies are needed to elucidate these associations.

  20. Nerolidol and Farnesol Inhibit Some Cytochrome P450 Activities but Did Not Affect Other Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in Rat and Human Hepatic Subcellular Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Špičáková

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenes, 15-carbon compounds formed from three isoprenoid units, are the main components of plant essential oils. Sesquiterpenes occur in human food, but they are principally taken as components of many folk medicines and dietary supplements. The aim of our study was to test and compare the potential inhibitory effect of acyclic sesquiterpenes, trans-nerolidol, cis-nerolidol and farnesol, on the activities of the main xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat and human liver in vitro. Rat and human subcellular fractions, relatively specific substrates, corresponding coenzymes and HPLC, spectrophotometric or spectrofluorometric analysis of product formation were used. The results showed significant inhibition of cytochromes P450 (namely CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A subfamilies activities by all tested sesquiterpenes in rat as well as in human hepatic microsomes. On the other hand, all tested sesquiterpenes did not significantly affect the activities of carbonyl-reducing enzymes and conjugation enzymes. The results indicate that acyclic sesquiterpenes might affect CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A mediated metabolism of concurrently administered drugs and other xenobiotics. The possible drug–sesquiterpene interactions should be verified in in vivo experiments.

  1. Sodium chlorate, a major water disinfection byproduct, alters brush border membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and impairs antioxidant system of Wistar rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Mahmood, Riaz

    2017-05-01

    Sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) is a widely used nonselective herbicide. It is also generated as a by-product during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaClO 3 on rat intestine. Adult male rats were randomly divided into five groups: control and remaining four groups were administered orally different doses of NaClO 3 and sacrificed 24 h after the treatment. The administration of NaClO 3 produced acute oxidative stress in the intestine, which manifested in the form of markedly enhanced malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl content and lowered total sulfhydryl groups and glutathione levels. The activities of several brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes were greatly reduced as compared to control. There were alterations in the activities of various enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and those involved in maintaining the antioxidant defense system. Histological studies support the biochemical results showing NaClO 3 dose-dependent increase in tissue damage. Thus, the present study shows that oral administration of NaClO 3 decreases the activities of BBM enzymes, induces oxidative stress, alters metabolic pathways, and impairs the antioxidant system of rat intestine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1607-1616, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modelling Gaucher disease progression: long-term enzyme replacement therapy reduces the incidence of splenectomy and bone complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dussen, Laura; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Dijkgraaf, Marcel Gw; Hollak, Carla Em

    2014-01-01

    Long-term complications and associated conditions of type 1 Gaucher Disease (GD) can include splenectomy, bone complications, pulmonary hypertension, Parkinson disease and malignancies. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) reverses cytopenia and reduces organomegaly. To study the effects of ERT on

  3. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentihna N. Kislitskaya

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence  of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive  age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA.  This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of  antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes.

  4. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8‐fold at 48 h; P < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  5. Flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in the Fe(III)-reducing organism Geobacter metallireducens via 13C isotopiclabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Chakraborty, Romy; Martin, Hector Garcia; Chu,Jeannie; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-08-13

    We analyzed the carbon fluxes in the central metabolism ofGeobacter metallireducens strain GS-15 using 13C isotopomer modeling.Acetate labeled in the 1st or 2nd position was the sole carbon source,and Fe-NTA was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The measured labeledacetate uptake rate was 21 mmol/gdw/h in the exponential growth phase.The resulting isotope labeling pattern of amino acids allowed an accuratedetermination of the in vivo global metabolic reaction rates (fluxes)through the central metabolic pathways using a computational isotopomermodel. The model indicated that over 90 percent of the acetate wascompletely oxidized to CO2 via a complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cyclewhile reducing iron. Pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase were present under these conditions, but enzymes in theglyoxylate shunt and malic enzyme were absent. Gluconeogenesis and thepentose phosphate pathway were mainly employed for biosynthesis andaccounted for less than 3 percent of total carbon consumption. The modelalso indicated surprisingly high reversibility in the reaction betweenoxoglutarate and succinate. This step operates close to the thermodynamicequilibrium possibly because succinate is synthesized via a transferasereaction, and its product, acetyl-CoA, inhibits the conversion ofoxoglutarate to succinate. These findings enable a better understandingof the relationship between genome annotation and extant metabolicpathways in G. metallireducens.

  6. Genetic polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing enzyme and alcohol dependence in Polish men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cichoż-Lach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence poses a serious medical and sociological problem. It is influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors, which may determine differences in alcohol metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of the enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism is highly ethnically and race dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences, if present, in the allele and genotype frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B, ADH1C and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS/CYP2E1 between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls and also to determine if these genotypes cause a difference in the age at which the patients become alcohol dependent. The allele and genotype frequencies of ADH1B, ADH1C, and CYP2E1 were determined in 204 alcohol dependent men and 172 healthy volunteers who do not drink alcohol (control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP methods on white cell DNA. ADH1B*1 (99.3% and ADH1C*1 (62.5% alleles and ADH1B*1/*1 (N = 201 and ADH1C*1/*1 (N = 85 genotypes were statistically more frequent among alcohol-dependent subjects than among controls (99.3 and 62.5%, N = 201 and 85 vs 94.5 and 40.7%, N = 153 and 32, respectively. Differences in the CYP2E1 allele and genotype distribution between groups were not significant. The persons with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes became alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes (28.08, 25.67 years vs 36.0, 45.05, 34.45 years, respectively. In the Polish men examined, ADH1C*1 and ADH1B*1 alleles and ADH1C*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*1 genotypes favor alcohol dependence. The ADH1B*2 allele may protect from alcohol dependence. However, subjects with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes become alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes.

  7. Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression through the life stages of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice S Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs. No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD 19, neonatal (postnatal day (PND 7, prepubescent (PND32, middle age (12 months, and old age (18 and 24 months in the C57BL/6J (C57 mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I, conjugation (Phase II and excretion (Phase III. In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs was observed at early (GD19, PND7 and to a lesser extent, later life stages (18 and 24 months. A number of female-specific XMETs exhibited a spike in expression centered at PND7. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis revealed dramatic differences in the expression of the XMETs, especially in the fetus and neonate that are partially dependent on gender-dependent factors. XMET expression can be used to predict life stage-specific responses to environmental chemicals and drugs.

  8. Macrophage enzyme and reduced inflammation drive brain correction of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB by stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Rebecca J; Ellison, Stuart M; Fil, Daniel; O'Leary, Claire; McDermott, John; Senthivel, Nishanthi; Langford-Smith, Alexander W W; Wilkinson, Fiona L; D'Souza, Zelpha; Parker, Helen; Liao, Aiyin; Rowlston, Samuel; Gleitz, Hélène F E; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Dickson, Patricia I; Bigger, Brian W

    2018-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB is a paediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. Absence of NAGLU leads to accumulation of partially degraded heparan sulphate within lysosomes and the extracellular matrix, giving rise to severe CNS degeneration with progressive cognitive impairment and behavioural problems. There are no therapies. Haematopoietic stem cell transplant shows great efficacy in the related disease mucopolysaccharidosis I, where donor-derived monocytes can transmigrate into the brain following bone marrow engraftment, secrete the missing enzyme and cross-correct neighbouring cells. However, little neurological correction is achieved in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB. We have therefore developed an ex vivo haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy approach in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB, using a high-titre lentiviral vector and the myeloid-specific CD11b promoter, driving the expression of NAGLU (LV.NAGLU). To understand the mechanism of correction we also compared this with a poorly secreted version of NAGLU containing a C-terminal fusion to IGFII (LV.NAGLU-IGFII). Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB haematopoietic stem cells were transduced with vector, transplanted into myeloablated mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB mice and compared at 8 months of age with mice receiving a wild-type transplant. As the disease is characterized by increased inflammation, we also tested the anti-inflammatory steroidal agent prednisolone alone, or in combination with LV.NAGLU, to understand the importance of inflammation on behaviour. NAGLU enzyme was substantially increased in the brain of LV.NAGLU and LV.NAGLU-IGFII-treated mice, with little expression in wild-type bone marrow transplanted mice. LV.NAGLU treatment led to behavioural correction, normalization of heparan sulphate and sulphation patterning, reduced inflammatory cytokine

  9. Effects of tin-protoporphyrin administration on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the juvenile rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The heme analogue tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnP) is a potent inhibitor of microsomal heme oxygenase. Administration of SnP to neonatal rats can prevent hyperbilirubinemia by blocking the postnatal increase of heme oxygenase activity. Apparently innocuous at therapeutic doses, it is of potential clinical value for chemoprevention of neonatal jaundice. We found that when 50-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with 50 mumol of SnP/kg sc for 6 days, hepatic microsomal cytochromes b5 and P-450 were significantly diminished. Cytochrome P-450 reductase, two P-450-dependent monooxygenases, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, and catalase, a peroxisomal hemoprotein, were also significantly diminished. These results suggested that SnP might significantly affect the metabolism of other xenobiotics. This possibility was confirmed by the finding that hexobarbital-induced sleep lasted 4 times longer in SnP-treated rats than in controls. Inhibition of protein synthesis by SnP was ruled out as the cause of hemoprotein loss when administration of [ 3 H]leucine to SnP-treated and control rats demonstrated that proteins of the microsomal, cytosolic, and plasma membrane fractions of the livers from both groups incorporated similar levels of leucine. When 55 FeCl 3 and [2- 14 C]glycine were administered to measure heme synthesis, heme extract from the livers of SnP-treated rats contained 4 times more label from iron and glycine than did heme from control livers. Despite the apparent increased rate of heme synthesis in SnP-treated rats, each of the three cell fractions demonstrated a significant loss of heme but contained sizable amounts of SnP. These findings suggest that SnP causes a decrease of functional hemoprotein and partial loss of enzymic activity by displacing intracellular heme

  10. The effects of dietary weight loss with or without exercise training on liver enzymes in obese metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straznicky, N E; Lambert, E A; Grima, M T; Eikelis, N; Nestel, P J; Dawood, T; Schlaich, M P; Masuo, K; Chopra, R; Sari, C I; Dixon, J B; Tilbrook, A J; Lambert, G W

    2012-02-01

    Insulin resistance and visceral adiposity are predisposing factors for fatty liver disease. The main objectives of this study were (i) to compare the effects of caloric restriction (CR) alone or together with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (CR+EX) on liver enzymes, a surrogate marker of liver injury, in obese metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects and (ii) to identify anthropometric, metabolic, cardiovascular and dietary predictors of changes in liver enzymes. Sedentary men and women (n = 63), aged 55 ± 6 (s.d.) years with body mass index 32.7 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) and confirmed MetS, were randomized to 12-week CR, CR+EX or no treatment (Control). Weight loss averaged 7.6% in the CR and 9.1% in the CR+EX group (time effect, p training did not confer significant incremental benefits in this study. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Beneficial effects of co-enzyme Q10 and rosiglitazone in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased fructose consumption is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome (MS. This study was performed to elucidate the role of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ and/or rosiglitazone (Rosi in fructose induced MS. Four groups of rats (n = 8–10 were fed on fructose-enriched diet (FED for 16 weeks. One served as FED-control while the remaining groups were treated with CoQ (10 mg/kg/day, Rosi (4 mg/kg/day or their combination during the last 6 weeks. Another group was fed on normal laboratory chow (normal control. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for estimation of markers related to MS. In addition, histological examination of liver, kidney and pancreas samples was done. Induction of the MS was associated with increased body weight gain (34% coupled with elevated levels of blood glucose (48%, insulin (86%, insulin resistance (270%, uric acid (69%, urea (155%, creatinine (129% and blood lipids with different degrees. Fructose-induced MS also reduced plasma catalase (62% and glutathione peroxidase (89% activities parallel to increased serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels. These changes were coupled by marked histological changes in the examined tissues. Treatment with CoQ or Rosi attenuated most of MS-induced changes. Besides, the combination of both agents further reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and urea levels, as well as, normalized serum levels of leptin and TNF-α. In addition, combined therapy of both agents elevated HDL-cholesterol level and glutathione peroxidase activity. In conclusion, the present study proves the benefits of co-supplementation of CoQ and Rosi in a fructose-induced model of insulin resistance.

  12. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline duri...

  13. Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations featured similar genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters: a DMET Plus microarray assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, SoJeong; An, Hyungmi; Lee, Howard; Lee, Sangin; Ieiri, Ichiro; Lee, Youngjo; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hirota, Takeshi; Fukae, Masato; Yoshida, Kenji; Nagatsuka, Shinichiro; Kimura, Miyuki; Irie, Shin; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Shin, Dong Wan; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Chung, Jae-Yong; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Interethnic differences in genetic polymorphism in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters are one of the major factors that cause ethnic differences in drug response. This study aimed to investigate genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolism, transport, and excretion among Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations, the three major East Asian ethnic groups. The frequencies of 1936 variants representing 225 genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters were determined from 786 healthy participants (448 Korean, 208 Japanese, and 130 Chinese) using the Affymetrix Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters Plus microarray. To compare allele or genotype frequencies in the high-dimensional data among the three East Asian ethnic groups, multiple testing, principal component analysis (PCA), and regularized multinomial logit model through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator were used. On microarray analysis, 1071 of 1936 variants (>50% of markers) were found to be monomorphic. In a large number of genetic variants, the fixation index and Pearson's correlation coefficient of minor allele frequencies were less than 0.034 and greater than 0.95, respectively, among the three ethnic groups. PCA identified 47 genetic variants with multiple testing, but was unable to discriminate ethnic groups by the first three components. Multinomial least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis identified 269 genetic variants that showed different frequencies among the three ethnic groups. However, none of those variants distinguished between the three ethnic groups during subsequent PCA. Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations are not pharmacogenetically distant from one another, at least with regard to drug disposition, metabolism, and elimination.

  14. Copy Number Alterations in Enzyme-Coding and Cancer-Causing Genes Reprogram Tumor Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwini Kumar; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2016-07-15

    Somatic copy number alterations frequently occur in the cancer genome affecting not only oncogenic or tumor suppressive genes, but also passenger and potential codriver genes. An intrinsic feature resulting from such genomic perturbations is the deregulation in the metabolism of tumor cells. In this study, we have shown that metabolic and cancer-causing genes are unexpectedly often proximally positioned in the chromosome and share loci with coaltered copy numbers across multiple cancers (19 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas). We have developed an analysis pipeline, Identification of Metabolic Cancer Genes (iMetCG), to infer the functional impact on metabolic remodeling from such coamplifications and codeletions and delineate genes driving cancer metabolism from those that are neutral. Using our identified metabolic genes, we were able to classify tumors based on their tissue and developmental origins. These metabolic genes were similar to known cancer genes in terms of their network connectivity, isoform frequency, and evolutionary features. We further validated these identified metabolic genes by (i) using gene essentiality data from several tumor cell lines, (ii) showing that these identified metabolic genes are strong indicators for patient survival, and (iii) observing a significant overlap between our identified metabolic genes and known cancer-metabolic genes. Our analyses revealed a hitherto unknown generic mechanism for large-scale metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells based on linear gene proximities between cancer-causing and -metabolic genes. We have identified 119 new metabolic cancer genes likely to be involved in rewiring cancer cell metabolism. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4058-67. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Metabolic regulation of phytoplasma malic enzyme and phosphotransacetylase supports the use of malate as an energy source in these plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Mariana; Golic, Adrián; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Andreo, Carlos S; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Mussi, María A; Drincovich, María F

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplasmas ('Candidatus Phytoplasma') are insect-vectored plant pathogens. The genomes of these bacteria are small with limited metabolic capacities making them dependent on their plant and insect hosts for survival. In contrast to mycoplasmas and other relatives in the class Mollicutes, phytoplasmas encode genes for malate transporters and malic enzyme (ME) for conversion of malate into pyruvate. It was hypothesized that malate is probably a major energy source for phytoplasmas as these bacteria are limited in the uptake and processing of carbohydrates. In this study, we investigated the metabolic capabilities of 'Candidatus (Ca.) phytoplasma' aster yellows witches'-broom (AYWB) malic enzyme (ME). We found that AYWB-ME has malate oxidative decarboxylation activity, being able to convert malate to pyruvate and CO2 with the reduction of either NAD or NADP, and displays distinctive kinetic mechanisms depending on the relative concentration of the substrates. AYWB-ME activity was strictly modulated by the ATP/ADP ratio, a feature which has not been found in other ME isoforms characterized to date. In addition, we found that the 'Ca. Phytoplasma' AYWB PduL-like enzyme (AYWB-PduL) harbours phosphotransacetylase activity, being able to convert acetyl-CoA to acetyl phosphate downstream of pyruvate. ATP also inhibited AYWB-PduL activity, as with AYWB-ME, and the product of the reaction catalysed by AYWB-PduL, acetyl phosphate, stimulated AYWB-ME activity. Overall, our data indicate that AYWB-ME and AYWB-PduL activities are finely coordinated by common metabolic signals, like ATP/ADP ratios and acetyl phosphate, which support their participation in energy (ATP) and reducing power [NAD(P)H] generation from malate in phytoplasmas. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Roles of the genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the immunology in high-risk drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Chun-Chin; Jin, Yi-Ru; Yeh, Wei-Hao; Wu, Yi-Ru; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol metabolism involves several enzymes and the individual genetic variations in the alcohol metabolism are related to the absorption, distribution, and elimination of alcohol and metabolites such as acetaldehyde. Therefore, the genetic variations of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes are responsible for the different toxicity of alcohol in several organs like liver and immunological systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the life styles such as drinking and smoking and the genetic variations of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes (ADH2, ALDH2, CYP2E1, and CAT) were associated with the immunological biomarkers. In this study, 105 high-risk drinkers and 102 low-risk drinkers who were excluded from the immune-related diseases and other critical diseases were enrolled to evaluate the immunological functions. Counts of white blood cells, mononuclear cells, and lymphocyte subpopulations, and liver and immunological function tests were measured. Genotypes of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes were assayed by a real-time PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Generally, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was higher than that of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in alcoholics; however, the activities of AST and ALT were simultaneously elevated in general hepatitis except for alcohol-induced hepatitis. Thus, the higher ratio of AST/ALT was used to be a marker for the alcohol-induced abnormal liver function. Glutamyltransferase (GGT) is produced by the liver cell microsomes and is a useful laboratory marker as an indicator of early liver cell damage. An increase in GGT concentration has been regarded as a marker of alcohol consumption or liver disease. In addition, the synergistic effects of smoking and drinking on the count of white blood cell (WBC) and mononuclear cells were found to be significant. Furthermore, there were higher OR to become high-risk drinkers in subjects with the combination of ALDH2 (*1/*1) genotype and either genotype of ADH2

  17. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents increase the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji; Tanaka, Yoshiko; Yoshimura, Teruki; Matuoka, Koozi; Anno, Takahiko

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol, on the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, i.e., phase I enzymes such as 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) and phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR), were investigated. Mice were fed with a diet containing thyme (0.5% or 2.0%) or treated orally with thymol (50-200 mg/kg) or carvacrol (50-200 mg/kg) once a day for 7 successive days, and then the enzyme activities in the livers were analyzed. Dietary administration of 2% thyme caused slightly but significantly higher ECOD, GST, and QR activities by 1.1-1.4-fold. Thymol (200 mg/kg) treatment resulted in significantly higher ECOD, GST, and QR activities by 1.3-1.9-fold, and carvacrol (200 mg/kg) treatment caused significantly higher ECOD, GST, and QR activities by 1.3-1.7-fold. Thymol-treated animals had significantly higher protein levels of GST alpha and GST micro, and carvacrol-treated animals had significantly higher levels of GST micro. These results imply that thyme contains bifunctional inducers (i.e., substances capable of inducing both phase I and phase II enzymes) and that thymol and carvacrol may account for the effects of thyme.

  18. Genetic diversity in proteolytic enzymes and amino acid metabolism among Lactobacillus helveticus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadbent, J.R.; Cai, H.; Larsen, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    of different strains to affect these characteristics can vary widely. Because these attributes are associated with enzymes involved in proteolysis or AA catabolism, we performed comparative genome hybridizations to a CNRZ 32 microarray to explore the distribution of genes encoding such enzymes across a bank...

  19. Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative damage in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Farooqui

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CP is a potent anti-cancer drug widely used against solid tumors. However, it exhibits pronounced adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. Several strategies were attempted to prevent CP hepatotoxicity but were not found suitable for therapeutic application. Nigella sativa has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain type of cardiovascular, kidney and liver diseases. Present study investigates whether N. sativa oil (NSO can prevent CP induced hepatotoxic effects. Rats were divided into four groups viz. control, CP, NSO and CPNSO. Animals in CPNSO and NSO group were administered NSO (2 ml/kg bwt, orally with or without single hepatotoxic dose of CP (6 mg/kg bwt, i.p. respectively. CP hepatotoxicity was recorded by increased serum ALT and AST activities. CP treatment caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the activities of various carbohydrate metabolism and membrane enzymes were altered by CP treatment. In contrast, NSO administration to CP treated rats, markedly ameliorated the CP elicited deleterious alterations in liver. Histopathological observations showed extensive liver damage in CP treated animals while greatly reduced tissue injury in CPNSO group. In conclusion, NSO appears to protect CP induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and strengthening antioxidant defense mechanism. Keywords: Cisplatin, Nigella sativa oil, Carbohydrate metabolism, Antioxidant

  20. Mutations in SDR9C7 gene encoding an enzyme for vitamin A metabolism underlie autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Yohya; Okuda, Shujiro; Nemer, Georges; Chedraoui, Adele; Hayashi, Ryota; Bitar, Fadi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Abbas, Ossama; Daou, Laetitia; Abe, Riichiro; Sleiman, Maria Bou; Kibbi, Abdul Ghani; Kurban, Mazen; Shimomura, Yutaka

    2016-10-15

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary skin disorder characterized by an aberrant cornification of the epidermis. ARCI is classified into a total of 11 subtypes (ARCI1-ARCI11) based on their causative genes or loci. Of these, the causative gene for only ARCI7 has not been identified, while it was previously mapped on chromosome 12p11.2-q13.1. In this study, we performed genetic analyses for three Lebanese families with ARCI, and successfully determined the linkage interval to 9.47 Mb region on chromosome 12q13.13-q14.1, which was unexpectedly outside of the ARCI7 locus. Whole-exome sequencing and the subsequent Sanger sequencing led to the identification of missense mutations in short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C, member 7 (SDR9C7) gene on chromosome 12q13.3, i.e. two families shared an identical homozygous mutation c.599T > C (p.Ile200Thr) and one family had another homozygous mutation c.214C > T (p.Arg72Trp). In cultured cells, expression of both the mutant SDR9C7 proteins was markedly reduced as compared to wild-type protein, suggesting that the mutations severely affected a stability of the protein. In normal human skin, the SDR9C7 was abundantly expressed in granular and cornified layers of the epidermis. By contrast, in a patient’s skin, its expression in the cornified layer was significantly decreased. It has previously been reported that SDR9C7 is an enzyme to convert retinal into retinol. Therefore, our study not only adds a new gene responsible for ARCI, but also further suggests a potential role of vitamin A metabolism in terminal differentiation of the epidermis in humans.

  1. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline during storage. The SS activity started to increase later than amylopectin and starch content. Secondly, four putative SS genes were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among them, MaSSIII-1 showed the highest expression in banana pulp during fruit development at transcriptional levels. Further Western blot analysis suggested that the protein was gradually increased during banana fruit development, but drastically reduced during storage. This expression pattern was highly consistent with changes in starch granules, amylopectin content, and SS activity at the late phase of banana fruit development. Lastly, overexpression of MaSSIII-1 in tomato plants distinctly changed the morphology of starch granules and significantly increased the total starch accumulation, amylopectin content, and SS activity at mature-green stage in comparison to wild-type. The findings demonstrated that MaSSIII-1 is a key gene expressed in banana fruit and responsible for the active amylopectin biosynthesis, this is the first report in a fresh fruit species. Such a finding may enable the development of molecular markers for banana breeding and genetic improvement of nutritional value and functional properties of banana fruit. PMID:28424724

  2. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline during storage. The SS activity started to increase later than amylopectin and starch content. Secondly, four putative SS genes were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among them, MaSSIII-1 showed the highest expression in banana pulp during fruit development at transcriptional levels. Further Western blot analysis suggested that the protein was gradually increased during banana fruit development, but drastically reduced during storage. This expression pattern was highly consistent with changes in starch granules, amylopectin content, and SS activity at the late phase of banana fruit development. Lastly, overexpression of MaSSIII-1 in tomato plants distinctly changed the morphology of starch granules and significantly increased the total starch accumulation, amylopectin content, and SS activity at mature-green stage in comparison to wild-type. The findings demonstrated that MaSSIII-1 is a key gene expressed in banana fruit and responsible for the active amylopectin biosynthesis, this is the first report in a fresh fruit species. Such a finding may enable the development of molecular markers for banana breeding and genetic improvement of nutritional value and functional properties of banana fruit.

  3. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Houten, van B.H.G.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Dijkman, H.; Weijma, J.

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea.

  4. Carbon metabolism of peach fruit after harvest: changes in enzymes involved in organic acid and sugar level modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsani, Julia; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Lauxmann, Martin A; Lombardo, Verónica A; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2009-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a climacteric fruit that ripens after harvest, prior to human consumption. Organic acids and soluble sugars contribute to the overall organoleptic quality of fresh peach; thus, the integrated study of the metabolic pathways controlling the levels of these compounds is of great relevance. Therefore, in this work, several metabolites and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were analysed during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit cv 'Dixiland'. Depending on the enzyme studied, activity, protein level by western blot, or transcript level by quantitative real time-PCR were analysed. Even though sorbitol did not accumulate at a high level in relation to sucrose at harvest, it was rapidly consumed once the fruit was separated from the tree. During the ripening process, sucrose degradation was accompanied by an increase of glucose and fructose. Specific transcripts encoding neutral invertases (NIs) were up-regulated or down-regulated, indicating differential functions for each putative NI isoform. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was markedly induced, and may participate as a glycolytic shunt, since the malate level did not increase during post-harvest ripening. The fermentative pathway was highly induced, with increases in both the acetaldehyde level and the enzymes involved in this process. In addition, proteins differentially expressed during the post-harvest ripening process were also analysed. Overall, the present study identified enzymes and pathways operating during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit, which may contribute to further identification of varieties with altered levels of enzymes/metabolites or in the evaluation of post-harvest treatments to produce fruit of better organoleptic attributes.

  5. Efficacy of azelaic acid on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-06-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 linear α,ω-dicarboxylic acid, is found in whole grains namely wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum. The study was performed to investigate whether AzA exerts beneficial effect on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of various doses (20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg/kg BW) of AzA daily for the subsequent 5 weeks. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as reference drug. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, blood haemoglobin (Hb), blood glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes(glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase), liver glycogen, plasma and liver triglycerides were examined in mice fed with normal standard diet (NC), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with AzA (HFD + AzA) and HFD with rosiglitazone (HFD + RSG). Among the three doses, 80 mg/kg BW of AzA was able to positively regulate plasma glucose, insulin, blood HbA1c and haemoglobin levels by significantly increasing the activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and significantly decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase thereby increasing the glycogen content in the liver. From this study, we put forward that AzA could significantly restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, Hb, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes to near normal in diabetic mice and hence, AzA may be useful as a biomaterial in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat diet induced T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  7. Uteroplacental insufficiency down regulates insulin receptor and affects expression of key enzymes of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA metabolism in skeletal muscle at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglianiello Antonella

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ligation of the uterine arteries in rats mimics uteroplacental insufficiency and serves as a model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and subsequent developmental programming of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and adiposity in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of uterine artery ligation on the skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor and key enzymes of LCFA metabolism. Methods Bilateral uterine artery ligation was performed on day 19 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats. Muscle of the posterior limb was dissected at birth and processed by real-time RT-PCR to analyze the expression of insulin receptor, ACCα, ACCβ (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and beta subunits, ACS (acyl-CoA synthase, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, alpha2 catalytic subunit, CPT1B (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta subunit, MCD (malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in 14 sham and 8 IUGR pups. Muscle tissue was treated with lysis buffer and Western immunoblotting was performed to assay the protein content of insulin receptor and ACC. Results A significant down regulation of insulin receptor protein (p Conclusion Our data suggest that uteroplacental insufficiency may affect skeletal muscle metabolism down regulating insulin receptor and reducing the expression of key enzymes involved in LCFA formation and oxidation.

  8. Effects of an alfalfa protein hydrolysate on the gene expression and activity of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and nitrogen metabolism in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Nardi, Serenella

    2008-12-24

    The effects through which an alfalfa protein hydrolysate (EM) possessing gibberellin- and auxin-like activity may promote plant nitrogen (N) nutrition have been investigated in Zea mays L. Treatment with 0.01 or 0.1 mg L(-1) EM for 48 h resulted in enhanced plant growth and leaf sugar accumulation. Concomitantly, the level of nitrates decreased, whereas total N percentage was unchanged. The activity of a number of enzymes involved in carbon (C) metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, MDH; isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH; citrate synthase, CS) and N reduction and assimilation (nitrate reductase, NR; nitrite reductase, NiR; glutamine synthetase, GS; glutamate synthase, GOGAT; aspartate aminotransferase, AspAT) was significantly induced by EM supply to plants, and the transcription pattern of MDH, IDH, CS, and NR strongly correlated with data of enzyme activity. The transcript accumulation of asparagine synthetase (AS) was also induced by EM in the roots. The results suggest that EM might promote nitrogen assimilation in plants through a coordinate regulation of C and N metabolic pathways and open the way for further research on protein hydrolysates as a valid tool to improve N use efficiency and, as a consequence, to reduce the intensive use of inorganic N fertilizers in agriculture.

  9. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  10. Characterisation of genes encoding key enzymes involved in sugar metabolism of apple fruit in controlled atmosphere storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ruiling; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2013-12-15

    Sugars are essential contributors to fruit flavour. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has been proved to be beneficial for maintaining harvested fruit quality. To explore regulatory mechanism of sugar metabolism in fruit stored in CA condition, we cloned several genes, encoding key enzymes, involved in sugar metabolism in apple fruit, and analyzed sugar contents, along with gene expression and enzyme activities in fruits stored in air and CA. The results indicated that CA could maintain higher contents of sugars, including sucrose, fructose and glucose. Expression levels of key genes, such as sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), fructokinase (FK) and hexokinase (HK), were shown to be correlated with the corresponding enzyme activities. We found that activities of neutral invertase (NI), vacuolar invertase (VI), FK and HK were inhibited, but SPS activity was promoted in apple fruit stored in CA, suggesting that CA storage could enhance sucrose synthesis and delay hydrolysis of sucrose and hexose. These findings provided molecular evidence to explain why higher sugar levels in harvested fruit are maintained under CA storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic analysis of drug metabolizing phase-I enzymes CYP3A4 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUN LIU

    CYP3A4*5 and CYP3A4*18 are the predominant mutations affecting the metabolism of certain drugs in Chinese people. Tibetans are minority in China and have huge differences in the genetic structure, physiology, diet and lifestyle com- pared with the Han population. These variable factors may affect the drug metabolism.

  12. Metabolic Plasiticy in Cancers—Distinct Role of Glycolytic Enzymes GPI, LDHs or Membrane Transporters MCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Ždralević

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on cancer metabolism has recently re-surfaced as a major focal point in cancer field with a reprogrammed metabolism no longer being considered as a mere consequence of oncogenic transformation, but as a hallmark of cancer. Reprogramming metabolic pathways and nutrient sensing is an elaborate way by which cancer cells respond to high bioenergetic and anabolic demands during tumorigenesis. Thus, inhibiting specific metabolic pathways at defined steps should provide potent ways of arresting tumor growth. However, both animal models and clinical observations have revealed that this approach is seriously limited by an extraordinary cellular metabolic plasticity. The classical example of cancer metabolic reprogramming is the preference for aerobic glycolysis, or Warburg effect, where cancers increase their glycolytic flux and produce lactate regardless of the presence of the oxygen. This allows cancer cells to meet the metabolic requirements for high rates of proliferation. Here, we discuss the benefits and limitations of disrupting fermentative glycolysis for impeding tumor growth at three levels of the pathway: (i an upstream block at the level of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, (ii a downstream block at the level of lactate dehydrogenases (LDH, isoforms A and B, and (iii the endpoint block preventing lactic acid export (MCT1/4. Using these examples of genetic disruption targeting glycolysis studied in our lab, we will discuss the responses of different cancer cell lines in terms of metabolic rewiring, growth arrest, and tumor escape and compare it with the broader literature.

  13. Controlled sumoylation of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGS-1 regulates metabolism during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapir, Amir; Tsur, Assaf; Koorman, Thijs; Ching, Kaitlin; Mishra, Prashant; Bardenheier, Annabelle; Podolsky, Lisa; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Boxem, Mike; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Broday, Limor; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways are critically regulated during development and aging but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. One key metabolic cascade in eukaryotes is the mevalonate pathway. It catalyzes the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as

  14. A dicyanotriterpenoid induces cytoprotective enzymes and reduces multiplicity of skin tumors in UV-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Huso, David L.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Fahey, Jed W.; Liu Hua; Liby, Karen T.; Honda, Tadashi; Gribble, Gordon W.; Sporn, Michael B.; Talalay, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Inducible phase 2 enzymes constitute a primary line of cellular defense. The oleanane dicyanotriterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-onitrile (TP-225) is a very potent inducer of these systems. Topical application of TP-225 to SKH-1 hairless mice increases the levels of NAD(P)H-quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and protects against UV radiation-induced dermal thickening. Daily topical treatments of 10 nmol of TP-225 to the backs of mice that were previously subjected to low-level chronic UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm 2 /session, twice a week for 17 weeks), led to 50% reduction in multiplicity of skin tumors. In addition, the total tumor burden of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced by 5.5-fold. The identification of new agents for protection against UV radiation-induced skin cancer and understanding of their mechanism(s) of action is especially important in view of the fact that human skin cancers represent a significant source of increasing morbidity and mortality

  15. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  16. Oxidative drug metabolizing enzymes in North Sea dab (Limanda limanda). Biological effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Kellermann, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing environmental pollution is regarded as an anthropogenic stress factor in general. As a consequence, this may have several detrimental impacts on organisms, including aquatic species. The ability of organisms to tolerate stress from chemical pollutants depends on the availability of a variety of protection mechanisms. One important mechanism to protect cells from lipophilic xenobiotics is based on enzymes or enzyme systems converting the chemicals into more polar metabolites which can be excreted

  17. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Background Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. Results We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic ...

  18. Regional expression levels of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes along the pig and human intestinal tract and comparison with Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, S.F.C.; Lipzig, M.M.H. van; Pieters, R.H.H.; Krul, C.A.M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Steeg, E. van de

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal transporter proteins and metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in the oral absorption of a wide variety of drugs. The aim of the current study was to characterize better available intestinal in vitro models by comparing expression levels of these proteins and enzymes between porcine

  19. Regional expression levels of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes along the pig and human intestinal tract and comparison with Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, Stefan F C; van Lipzig, Marola M H; Pieters, Raymond H H; Krul, Cyrille A M; Wortelboer, Heleen M; van de Steeg, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal transporter proteins and metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in the oral absorption of a wide variety of drugs. The aim of the current study was to better characterize available intestinal in vitro models by comparing expression levels of these proteins and enzymes between porcine

  20. Reconstruction of ancestral metabolic enzymes reveals molecular mechanisms underlying evolutionary innovation through gene duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    Full Text Available Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We reconstruct all key ancestral enzymes and show that the very first preduplication enzyme was primarily active on maltose-like substrates, with trace activity for isomaltose-like sugars. Structural analysis and activity measurements on resurrected and present-day enzymes suggest that both activities cannot be fully optimized in a single enzyme. However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity. Interestingly, similar shifts in enzyme activity were reached multiple times via different evolutionary routes. Together, our results provide a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms that drove divergence of these duplicated enzymes and show that whereas the classic models of dosage, sub-, and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and intertwine.

  1. Startup circuit training program reduces metabolic risk in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie Nicole; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Vanni, Amanda A; Meija, Mathew; Tung, Amy; Schroeder, E Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of a circuit training (CT; aerobic + strength training) program, with and without motivational interviewing (MI) behavioral therapy, on reducing adiposity and type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latina teenagers. Thirty-eight Latina adolescents (15.8 ± 1.1 yr) who are overweight/obese were randomly assigned to control (C; n = 12), CT (n = 14), or CT + MI (n = 12). The CT classes were held twice a week (60-90 min) for 16 wk. The CT + MI group also received individual or group MI sessions every other week. The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one-repetition maximum; cardiorespiratory fitness (V·O 2max) by submaximal treadmill test; physical activity by accelerometry; dietary intake by records; height, weight, waist circumference; total body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging; and glucose/insulin indices by fasting blood draw. Across-intervention group effects were tested using repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. CT and CT + MI participants, compared with controls, significantly increased fitness (+16% and +15% vs -6%, P = 0.03) and leg press (+40% vs +20%, P = 0.007). Compared with controls, CT participants also decreased waist circumference (-3% vs +3%; P < 0.001), subcutaneous adipose tissue (-10% vs 8%, P = 0.04), visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs +6%, P = 0.05), fasting insulin (-24% vs +6%, P = 0.03), and insulin resistance (-21% vs -4%, P = 0.05). CT may be an effective starter program to reduce fat depots and improve insulin resistance in Latino youth who are overweight/obese, whereas the additional MI therapy showed no additive effect on these health outcomes.

  2. Polymorphisms within insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene determine insulin metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovich, Natalia; Pivovarova, Olga; Fisher, Eva; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Spranger, Joachim; Möhlig, Matthias; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2009-11-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is the ubiquitously expressed major enzyme responsible for insulin degradation. Insulin-degrading enzyme gene is located on chromosome region 10q23-q25 and exhibits a well-replicated peak of linkage with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Several genetic association studies examined IDE gene as a susceptibility gene for T2DM with controversial results. However, pathophysiological mechanisms involved have remained elusive. We verified associations of two IDE polymorphisms (rs1887922 and rs2149632) with T2DM risk in two independent German cohorts and evaluated in detail the association of common variants with insulin metabolism and glycemic traits. We confirmed previously published findings for diabetes-associated rs1887922 and rs2149632 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort (n = 3049; RR 1.26, p = 0.003 and RR 1.33, p T2DM risk in this cohort (p = 0.001 and p T2DM association in the cross-sectional metabolic syndrome Berlin-Potsdam cohort (n = 1026). In nondiabetic subjects (NGT+IFG/IGT; n = 739), we found an association of rs2149632 with impaired glucose-derived insulin secretion and a trend to decreased insulin sensitivity for rs1887922. In the NGT subjects (n = 440), the association with decreased insulin secretion for rs2149632 remain significant, and the association with decreased hepatic insulin degradation for rs1887922 were observed additionally. This study validates and confirms the association of IDE polymorphisms with T2DM risk in the prospective German cohort and provides novel evidence of influences of IDE genetic variants on insulin metabolism.

  3. CART modulates beta-amyloid metabolism-associated enzymes and attenuates memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kailin; Jin, Jiali; Zhu, Xiaolei; Yu, Linjie; Wang, Sulei; Qian, Lai; Han, Lijuan; Xu, Yun

    2017-10-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in stroke and some neurodegeneration diseases. In current study, we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of CART in APP/PS1 mice. The protein levels of CART, soluble Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 were measured in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We determined the mRNA and protein levels of Aβ metabolism-associated enzymes including neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice using real-time PCR and western blotting. Spatial memory was measured in APP/PS1 mice using the Morris water maze. The phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, p38, and JNK was determined using western blotting. The levels of soluble Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice after CART treatment. CART modulated the levels of NEP, IDE, RAGE, and LRP-1. In addition, CART inhibited the MAPK pathways and activated the AKT pathway, whereas inhibition of the AKT pathway decreased the levels of IDE and LRP-1. Furthermore, CART attenuated spatial memory deficits in the APP/PS1 mice. CART decreases the levels of soluble Aβ in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by modulating the expression of Aβ metabolism-associated enzymes, which may be associated with the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  4. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  5. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  6. DEVELOPING OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA-BASED ANIMATION VIDEO ON ENZYME AND METABOLISM MATERIAL IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mustofa Yusuf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to product a learning material related to animation video on enzyme and metabolism material for high school student which is validated by media and material experts, educational practition and student legibility. Research and development model is ADDIE with quantitative-qualitative data analyzing methode. Data collection was obtained from validation results by media and material experts, educational partition and student legibility. The validation results were scores and suggestion. The percentage of product from expert media validation (100%, expert material validation (89,58%, educational practition (84,61%, and student legibility (81,91% showed valid of the criteria and feasible to use after revision.

  7. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in uridine/cytidine kinase gene encoding metabolic enzyme of 3'-ethynylcytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takako; Futagami, Michiko; Kim, Hey-Sook; Matsuda, Akira; Wataya, Yusuke

    2002-01-01

    We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in uck2 gene encoding metabolic enzyme of 3'-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) which were associated with drug response of ECyd, and the newly synthesized antitumor ribonucleoside analog. We analized that on exon-intron junction and exon region to affect the qualitative alteration of gene product directly in ECyd sensitive and resistant human cancer cell lines. As the results, cSNP and sSNP were detected in exon 4. In the promoter region, 3 SNPs were detected. Our data seem to be able to give an important knowledge, when ECyd is applied clinically.

  8. Identifying quantitative operation principles in metabolic pathways: a systematic method for searching feasible enzyme activity patterns leading to cellular adaptive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization methods allow designing changes in a system so that specific goals are attained. These techniques are fundamental for metabolic engineering. However, they are not directly applicable for investigating the evolution of metabolic adaptation to environmental changes. Although biological systems have evolved by natural selection and result in well-adapted systems, we can hardly expect that actual metabolic processes are at the theoretical optimum that could result from an optimization analysis. More likely, natural systems are to be found in a feasible region compatible with global physiological requirements. Results We first present a new method for globally optimizing nonlinear models of metabolic pathways that are based on the Generalized Mass Action (GMA representation. The optimization task is posed as a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP problem that is solved by an outer-approximation algorithm. This method relies on solving iteratively reduced NLP slave subproblems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP master problems that provide valid upper and lower bounds, respectively, on the global solution to the original NLP. The capabilities of this method are illustrated through its application to the anaerobic fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We next introduce a method to identify the feasibility parametric regions that allow a system to meet a set of physiological constraints that can be represented in mathematical terms through algebraic equations. This technique is based on applying the outer-approximation based algorithm iteratively over a reduced search space in order to identify regions that contain feasible solutions to the problem and discard others in which no feasible solution exists. As an example, we characterize the feasible enzyme activity changes that are compatible with an appropriate adaptive response of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat shock Conclusion Our results

  9. Metabolic Activation of Heterocyclic Amines and Expression of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Wageh S.; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Itotani, Yuumi; Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines get entry into human body mainly through ingestion of pan-fried meats cooked at high temperatures. Exposure of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingested xenobiotics prior to delivery to the liver may lead to metabolic activation, which may explain the high incidence of GIT carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study investigated the mutagenic activation of 2 heterocyclic amines, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-prydo[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), in the GIT of rats....

  10. Enzyme chemistry and the evolution of metabolic diversity: the β-ketoadipate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The two converging catechol and protocatechuate branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas putida have long been considered a paradigm of evolutionary divergence of specialized enzymes from a common ancestor. The structural similarities of substrates, products and the enzymes themselves have supported this hypothesis. Employing chemical and 1 H NMR techniques, they have determined the absolute stereochemical courses of the reactions catalyzed by β-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase, muconolactone isomerase, and γ-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase. Surprisingly, β-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase proceeds via an anti addition while the corresponding muconate cycloisomerase has been shown to catalyze a syn addition. Moreover, the chiral centers generated in the products of both enzymes are of the opposite relative configuration. They believe that the shift in mechanism may reflect basic energetic differences of the two reactions. The stereochemistries of the isomerase and decarboxylase have been established by 1 H NMR using a ricochet analysis. Both reactions proceed via a syn process; the relative configurations of muconolactone and γ-carboxymuconolactone necessitate that the enzymes operate on opposite faces of the common enol-lactone product. These findings suggest that either critical active site changes have occurred in these enzymes to accommodate preferred mechanistic pathways or the evolutionary relationship of the two branches is more remote than previously believed

  11. Effect of Various Diets on the Expression of Phase-I Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Livers of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that diets can alter the metabolism of drugs; however, it is difficult to compare the effects of multiple diets on drug metabolism among different experimental settings. Phase-I related genes play a major role in the biotransformation of pro-drugs and drugs.In the current study, effects of nine diets on the mRNA expression of phase-I drug-metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice were simultaneously investigated. Compared to the AIN-93M purified diet (control), 73 of the 132 critical phase-I drug metabolizing genes were differentially regulated by at least one diet. Diet restriction produced the most number of changed genes (51), followed by the atherogenic diet (27), high-fat diet (25), standard rodent chow (21), western diet (20), high-fructose diet (5), EFA deficient diet (3), and low n-3 FA diet (1). The mRNAs of the Fmo family changed most, followed by Cyp2b and 4a subfamilies, as well as Por (From 1121 to 21-fold increase of theses mRNAs). There were 59 genes not altered by any of these diets.The present results may improve the interpretation of studies with mice and aid in determining effective and safe doses for individuals with different nutritional diets. PMID:25733028

  12. The potential of papain and alcalase enzymes and process optimizations to reduce allergenic gliadins in wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to select effective enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of allergenic proteins, gliadins, in wheat flour and to optimize the enzymatic treatment conditions. Six proteases were tested. Hydrolyzed samples were tested for residual gliadin concentrations and in vitro allergenicity. The hydrolysis conditions of wheat protein by the effective enzymes were optimized by central composite design. Results showed that alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, and papain from latex of papaya fruit had greater ability to reduce gliadin content of wheat flour than flavourzyme, pepsin, trypsin or α-chymotrypsin. The sequential-treatment of wheat flour by alcalase-papain was more effective in reducing gliadin content than single enzyme treatment. Under the optimal conditions of sequential enzymatic treatment, gliadin was almost completely removed, resulting in the flour extract showing lowest IgE-binding. Therefore, this could be a promising biotechnology for preparing low allergenic wheat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural variations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: developing tools for coral monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougée, L. R. A.; Richmond, R. H.; Collier, A. C.

    2014-06-01

    The continued deterioration of coral reefs worldwide demonstrates the need to develop diagnostic tools for corals that go beyond general ecological monitoring and can identify specific stressors at sublethal levels. Cellular diagnostics present an approach to defining indicators (biomarkers) that have the potential to reflect the impact of stress at the cellular level, allowing for the detection of intracellular changes in corals prior to outright mortality. Detoxification enzymes, which may be readily induced or inhibited by environmental stressors, present such a set of indicators. However, in order to apply these diagnostic tools for the detection of stress, a detailed understanding of their normal, homeostatic levels within healthy corals must first be established. Herein, we present molecular and biochemical evidence for the expression and activity of major Phase I detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450), CYP2E1, and CYP450 reductase, as well as the Phase II enzymes UDP, glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), β-glucuronidase, glutathione- S-transferase (GST), and arylsulfatase C (ASC) in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Additionally, we characterized enzyme expression and activity variations over a reproductive cycle within a coral's life history to determine natural endogenous changes devoid of stress exposure. Significant changes in enzyme activity over the coral's natural lunar reproductive cycle were observed for CYP2E1 and CYP450 reductase as well as UGT and GST, while β-glucuronidase and ASC did not fluctuate significantly. The data represent a baseline description of `health' for the expression and activity of these enzymes that can be used toward understanding the impact of environmental stressors on corals. Such knowledge can be applied to address causes of coral reef ecosystem decline and to monitor effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Achieving a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships between putative stressors and biological

  14. Glutamate and GABA-metabolizing enzymes in post-mortem cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease: phosphate-activated glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbaeva, G Sh; Boksha, I S; Tereshkina, E B; Savushkina, O K; Prokhorova, T A; Vorobyeva, E A

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes of glutamate and GABA metabolism in postmortem cerebellum from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been comprehensively studied. The present work reports results of original comparative study on levels of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoenzymes (GAD65/67) in autopsied cerebellum samples from AD patients and matched controls (13 cases in each group) as well as summarizes published evidence for altered levels of PAG and GAD65/67 in AD brain. Altered (decreased) levels of these enzymes and changes in links between amounts of these enzymes and other glutamate-metabolizing enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase-like protein) in AD cerebella suggest significantly impaired glutamate and GABA metabolism in this brain region, which was previously regarded as not substantially involved in AD pathogenesis.

  15. Altered Expression of Ganglioside Metabolizing Enzymes Results in GM3 Ganglioside Accumulation in Cerebellar Cells of a Mouse Model of Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Aleksandra; Petcherski, Anton; Beckert, Benedikt; Huebecker, Mylene; Priestman, David A.; Banning, Antje; Cotman, Susan L.; Platt, Frances M.; Ruonala, Mika O.

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. Most JNCL patients exhibit a 1.02 kb genomic deletion removing exons 7 and 8 of this gene, which results in a truncated CLN3 protein carrying an aberrant C-terminus. A genetically accurate mouse model (Cln3Δex7/8 mice) for this deletion has been generated. Using cerebellar precursor cell lines generated from wildtype and Cln3Δex7/8 mice, we have here analyzed the consequences of the CLN3 deletion on levels of cellular gangliosides, particularly GM3, GM2, GM1a and GD1a. The levels of GM1a and GD1a were found to be significantly reduced by both biochemical and cytochemical methods. However, quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed a highly significant increase in GM3, suggesting a metabolic blockade in the conversion of GM3 to more complex gangliosides. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant reduction in the transcripts of the interconverting enzymes, especially of β-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (GM2 synthase), which is the enzyme converting GM3 to GM2. Thus, our data suggest that the complex a-series gangliosides are reduced in Cln3Δex7/8 mouse cerebellar precursor cells due to impaired transcription of the genes responsible for their synthesis. PMID:29470438

  16. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Convigton, E. D.; Roitsch, Thomas; Dernastia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2016), s. 757-762 ISSN 1318-0207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : AGPase * carbohydrates * invertases * sucrose synthase * panel of enzyme activity assays * phytoplasma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2016

  17. Metabolic regulation rather than de novo enzyme synthesis dominates the osmo-adaptation of yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J; Kiewiet, J; Lindenbergh, A; Eunen, K, van; Siderius, M; Bakker, BM

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycerol is essential for yeast cells to survive hyperosmotic stress. Upon hyperosmotic stress the gene expression of enzymes in the glycerol pathway is strongly induced. Recently, however, it was shown that this gene-expression response is not essential for survival of

  18. Metabolic regulation rather than de novo enzyme synthesis dominates the osmo-adaptation of yeast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.; Kiewiet, J.A.L.; Lindenbergh, A; Van Eunen, K.; Siderius, M.H.; Bakker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycerol is essential for yeast cells to survive hyperosmotic stress. Upon hyperosmotic stress the gene expression of enzymes in the glycerol pathway is strongly induced. Recently, however, it was shown that this gene-expression response is not essential for survival of

  19. Metabolic regulation rather than de novo enzyme synthesis dominates the osmo-adaptation of yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Jildau; Kiewiet, Jose; Lindenbergh, Alexander; van Eunen, Karen; Siderius, Marco; Bakker, Barbara M.

    Intracellular accumulation of glycerol is essential for yeast cells to survive hyperosmotic stress. Upon hyperosmotic stress the gene expression of enzymes in the glycerol pathway is strongly induced. Recently, however, it was shown that this gene-expression response is not essential for survival of

  20. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    -active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying...

  1. Stereoselectivity of the distribution of labelled noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.; Henseling, M.; Gescher, A.; Trendelenburg, U.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpinepretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 μM labelled (-)- or (+)noradrenaline for 30 min. At the end of the incubation period some strips were used for analysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 250 min of washout with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of radioactivity in extraneuronal and axoplasmic compartments lack stereoselectivity; the rate constants for the efflux of radioactivity from these compartments are the same for (-)- and (+)noradrenaline. Despite the use of enzyme inhibitors, the 'late neuronal efflux' of radioactivity (i.e., the efflux collected between the 200th and 250th min of wash out) contained a considerable proportion of metabolites of noradrenaline. The metabolism of noradrenaline was stereoselective: while dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) was the predominant metabolite in the efflux from strips incubated with (-)noradrenaline, a considerable part of the efflux from strips incubated with the (+)isomer consisted of dihydroxymandelic acid and 'O-methylated and deaminated' metabolites (in addition to DOPEG). (orig/GSE) [de

  2. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  3. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes and their influence on the outcome of children with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lesley J; Murray, Jayne E; Haber, Michelle; Marshall, Glenn M; Ashley, David M; Norris, Murray D

    2007-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms may influence the impact of therapy in childhood leukemia, no comprehensive investigations have been carried out in children with neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the genes encoding phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes associated with the risk of relapse or death in a cohort of 209 children with neuroblastoma. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used to characterize the presence of polymorphisms in DNA from children with neuroblastoma. Three broad gene categories were examined: cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase and N-acetyltransferase. Cumulative event-free survival was computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The influence of selected factors on event-free survival was tested using the Cox proportional hazards model. As previously reported, amplification of MYCN (hazards ratio=4.25, 95% confidence interval=2.76-6.56, Pchildren who were GSTM1 null were more likely to relapse or die during follow-up after adjusting for MYCN amplification, stage and age at diagnosis (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval=1.02-2.9, P=0.04). These observations suggest that the NAT1*11 variant and the GSTM1 wild-type genotype contribute to a more favorable outcome in patients treated for neuroblastoma and are the first to demonstrate a relationship between NAT1 and GSTM1 genotypes in childhood neuroblastoma.

  4. Mass Spectrometry-based Workflow for Accurate Quantification of Escherichia coli Enzymes: How Proteomics Can Play a Key Role in Metabolic Engineering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauchessec, Mathieu; Jaquinod, Michel; Bonvalot, Aline; Brun, Virginie; Bruley, Christophe; Ropers, Delphine; de Jong, Hidde; Garin, Jérôme; Bestel-Corre, Gwenaëlle; Ferro, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering aims to design high performance microbial strains producing compounds of interest. This requires systems-level understanding; genome-scale models have therefore been developed to predict metabolic fluxes. However, multi-omics data including genomics, transcriptomics, fluxomics, and proteomics may be required to model the metabolism of potential cell factories. Recent technological advances to quantitative proteomics have made mass spectrometry-based quantitative assays an interesting alternative to more traditional immuno-affinity based approaches. This has improved specificity and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, we developed a quantification workflow to analyze enzymes involved in central metabolism in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This workflow combined full-length isotopically labeled standards with selected reaction monitoring analysis. First, full-length 15N labeled standards were produced and calibrated to ensure accurate measurements. Liquid chromatography conditions were then optimized for reproducibility and multiplexing capabilities over a single 30-min liquid chromatography-MS analysis. This workflow was used to accurately quantify 22 enzymes involved in E. coli central metabolism in a wild-type reference strain and two derived strains, optimized for higher NADPH production. In combination with measurements of metabolic fluxes, proteomics data can be used to assess different levels of regulation, in particular enzyme abundance and catalytic rate. This provides information that can be used to design specific strains used in biotechnology. In addition, accurate measurement of absolute enzyme concentrations is key to the development of predictive kinetic models in the context of metabolic engineering. PMID:24482123

  5. [Effects of berberine on the recovery of rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes after partial hepatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverinsky, I V; Zverinskaya, H G; Sutsko, I P; Telegin, P G; Shlyahtun, A G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of berberine on the recovery processes of liver xenobiotic-metabolizing function during its compensatory growth after 70% partial hepatectomy. It was found the hepatic ability to metabolize foreign substances are not restored up to day 8. Administration of berberine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 6 days led to normalization of both cytochrome P450-dependent and flavin-containing monooxygenases. It is suggested that in the biotransformation of berberine involved not only cytochrome P450, but also flavin-containing monooxygenases.

  6. Empagliflozin lessened cardiac injury and reduced visceral adipocyte hypertrophy in prediabetic rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiroaki; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Hasegawa, Yu; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2016-11-11

    The potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in metabolic syndrome is with prediabetic stage unclear. This work was undertaken to investigate the non-glycemic effect of empagliflozin on metabolic syndrome rats with prediabetes. SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp), a model of metabolic syndrome with prediabetes, were given empagliflozin for 10 weeks to examine the effects on urinary sodium and water balance, visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte, and cardiac injury. Further, the effect of empagliflozin on blood pressure and autonomic nervous system was continuously investigated by using radiotelemetry system. Empagliflozin significantly reduced urinary sodium and water balance of SHRcp only within 1 week of the treatment, but later than 1 week did not alter them throughout the treatment. Empagliflozin significantly reduced body weight of SHRcp, which was mainly attributed to the significant reduction of subcutaneous fat mass. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the size of visceral adipocytes and increased the number of smaller size of adipocytes, which was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress. Empagliflozin ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis of SHRcp, in association with the attenuation of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. However, empagliflozin did not significantly change blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic activity, or baroreceptor function, as evidenced by radiotelemetry analysis. Our present work provided the evidence that SGLT2 inhibition reduced visceral adipocytes hypertrophy and ameliorated cardiac injury in prediabetic metabolic syndrome rat, independently of diuretic effect or blood pressure lowering effect. Thus, SGLT2 inhibition seems to be a promising therapeutic strategy for prediabetic metabolic syndrome.

  7. An Association Study Between Gene Polymorphisms of Folic Acid Metabolism Enzymes and Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Zengi, Ayhan; Bozok Çetintaş, Vildan; Karadeniz, Muammer; Tamsel, Sadık; Küçükaslan, Ali Şahin; Köse, Timur; Saygılı, Füsun; Eroglu, Zuhal

    2015-08-01

    Folate metabolism is fundamental to several biological functions and required for cell replication, division, and survival. The mammalian folic acid cycle is highly complex and the enzymes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), have crucial roles in this metabolic pathway. The common polymorphisms of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), MTRR (A66G), and MTR (A2756G) enzymes are well documented as folate deficiency-related disorders, but their roles have not been examined in acromegalic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the genotypic distribution of these gene polymorphisms between patients with acromegaly and controls and explore whether these polymorphisms were associated with biochemical and hormonal parameters in acromegaly. We examined 91 acromegaly patients and 112 healthy subjects who were compared in terms of age and gender. Blood specimens of the subjects were collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms was assessed by melting temperature analyses after real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas MTRR A66G and MTR A2756G gene polymorphism analyses were performed by PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism from the isolated DNA of the subjects. MTHFR-677TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the acromegaly group than the control group (p=0.017), and a significant increase was found in fibrinogen (p=0.032) levels in 677TT-carrying acromegaly patients. MTRR-66AA genotype was significantly higher in the control group than the acromegaly group (p=0.004). Total cholesterol (p=0.048) and C-reactive protein (p=0.046) levels decreased significantly in 66AA genotypes. Although MTR-2756AG genotype frequency was not different between the control and acromegaly groups, 2756AG genotype-carrying individuals have higher left

  8. TM6SF2 and MAC30, new enzyme homologues in sterol metabolism and common metabolic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eSanchez-Pulido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the Glu167Lys coding variant in the TM6SF2 gene have recently been identified as being more susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, yet exhibit lower levels of circulating lipids and hence are protected against cardiovascular disease. Despite the physiological importance of these observations, the molecular function of TM6SF2 remains unknown, and no sequence similarity with functionally characterised proteins has been identified. In order to trace its evolutionary history and to identify functional domains, we embarked on a computational protein sequence analysis of TM6SF2. We identified a new domain, the EXPERA domain, which is conserved among TM6SF, MAC30/TMEM97 and EBP (D8,D7 sterol isomerase protein families. EBP mutations are the cause of chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant (CDPX2, also known as Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, a defective cholesterol biosynthesis disorder. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation among EXPERA domain-containing families and the previously suggested catalytic mechanism for the EBP enzyme, indicate that TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 families are both highly likely to possess, as for the EBP family, catalytic activity as sterol isomerases. This unexpected prediction of enzymatic functions for TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 is important because it now permits detailed experiments to investigate the function of these key proteins in various human pathologies, from cardiovascular disease to cancer.

  9. A metabolic pathway assembled by enzyme selection may support herbivory of leaf-cutter ants on plant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Maurício; Bueno, Odair Correa; Rodrigues, André; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Somera, Alexandre Favarin; Silva, Aline

    2013-05-01

    Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different organism groups. The association between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal α-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant α-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal α-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decarboxylation of Malate in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi (Role of NAD-Malic Enzyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. M.; Lindsay, J. G.; Wilkins, M. B.; Nimmo, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi was investigated using preparations of intact and solubilized mitochondria from fully expanded leaves. Intact, coupled mitochondria isolated during the day or night did not differ in their ability to take up [14C]malic acid from the surrounding medium or to respire using malate or succinate as substrate. However, intact mitochondria isolated from plants during the day decarboxylated added malate to pyruvate significantly faster than mitochondria isolated from plants at night. NAD-ME activity in solubilized mitochondrial extracts showed hysteretic kinetics and was stimulated by a number of activators, including acetyl-coenzyme A, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and sulfate ions. In the absence of these effectors, reaction progress curves were nonlinear, with a pronounced acceleration phase. The lag period before a steady-state rate was reached in assays of mitochondrial extracts decreased during the photoperiod and increased slowly during the period of darkness. However, these changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme could not account for the changes in the rate of decarboxylation of malate by intact mitochondria. Gel-filtration experiments showed that mitochondrial extracts contained three forms of NAD-ME with different molecular weights. The relative proportions of the three forms varied somewhat throughout the light/dark cycle, but this did not account for the changes in the kinetics behavior of the enzyme during the diurnal cycle. PMID:12228671

  11. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem; Paterson, Catherine; Rauchhaus, Petra; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ 2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ 2 (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  12. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  13. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic metabolism genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Apel, William A.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Brady D.; Reed, David William; Roberto, Francisco F.; Thompson, David N.

    2018-01-30

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering metabolism in a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  14. Genetic Variants of Homocysteine Metabolizing Enzymes and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janošíková, B.; Pavlíková, Markéta; Kocmanová, Dora; Vítová, D.; Veselá, K.; Krupková, L.; Kahleová, R.; Krijt, J.; Kraml, P.; Hyánek, J.; Zvárová, Jana; Anděl, M.; Kožich, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 79, - (2003), s. 167-175 ISSN 1096-7192 R&D Projects: GA MZd NM26; GA MZd NM6548 Keywords : coronary disease * risk factors * genes * homocysteine * metabolism Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2003

  15. Chemical Screening for Bioactivated Electrophilic Metabolites Using Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA's ToxCast program is designed to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints using a variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. However, existing HTS assays have limited or no xenobiotic metabolism which could lead to a mischaracterization...

  16. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic metabolism genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Reed, David W; Lee, Brady D; Thompson, David N; Roberto, Francisco F; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-20

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering metabolism in a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  17. Genetic variation in alcohol metabolizing enzymes among Inuit and its relation to drinking patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Becker, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in genes involved in alcohol metabolism is associated with drinking patterns worldwide. We compared variation in these genes among the Inuit with published results from the general population of Denmark and, due to the Asian ancestry of the Inuit, with Han Chinese. We analyzed...

  18. Microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the olive baboon (papio anabis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Thurlow, Brenda J.; Wakhisi, Johnston

    1975-01-01

    1.1. The activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes—azo reductase, nitroreductase, p-hydroxylation, N-demethylation, O-demethylation, NADPH cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P P-450—in the olive baboon are lower than in other animal species, e.g. mouse, rat, guinea-pig. 2. 2. The level...

  19. Histamine metabolism. I. Thin-layer radiochromatographic assays for histaminase and histidine decarboxylase enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, R S; Yurdin, D L; Twarog, F J

    1976-06-01

    Thin-layer radiochromatographic methods for the measurement of histaminase and histidine decarboxylase activities have been developed. The assays are specific for the respective enzymes, are sensitive and reproducible, and can be performed using commercially available substrates. The histaminase assay permits determination of enzyme activity from 2.5 mul of pregnancy sera, 1-2 X 10(6) human granulocytes, and microgram quantities of partially purified human placenta histaminase with an error of less than 5 per cent. The histidine decarboxylase assay permits measurement of nanogram quantities of newly formed histamine from as few as 2 X 10(4) rat peritoneal mast cells or rat basophilic leukemia cells with an error of less than 5 per cent.

  20. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R

    2003-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio...... young subjects. In a second experiment magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed after exhaustive exercise to assess lactate levels in the brain (n = 5). Exercise increased the AV(O2) from 3.2 +/- 0.1 at rest to 3.5 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/-s.e.m.; P ...-venous differences (AV) for O(2), glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy...

  1. A Systems Biology Framework for Modeling Metabolic Enzyme Inhibition of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    parameters, and group IV included those that, by definition , were directly determined once the other parameters were defined. During the sensitivity...III parameters were assumed to be related to the parameters of the first two groups; and group IV parameters are, by definition , determined once the...population growth model are described below. sAMS inhibition model sAMS inhibits the enzyme salicyl -AMP ligase (MbtA; encoded by the gene Rv2384) that

  2. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P

  3. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes in infectious and inflammatory disease: implications for biologics-small molecule drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Pankajini; Taneja, Guncha; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Ghose, Romi

    2017-06-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are primarily down-regulated during infectious and inflammatory diseases, leading to disruption in the metabolism of small molecule drugs (smds), which are increasingly being prescribed therapeutically in combination with biologics for a number of chronic diseases. The biologics may exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effect, which may in turn affect the expression/activity of DMEs. Thus, patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases undergoing biologic/smd treatment can have complex changes in DMEs due to combined effects of the disease and treatment. Areas covered: We will discuss clinical biologics-SMD interaction and regulation of DMEs during infection and inflammatory diseases. Mechanistic studies will be discussed and consequences on biologic-small molecule combination therapy on disease outcome due to changes in drug metabolism will be highlighted. Expert opinion: The involvement of immunomodulatory mediators in biologic-SMDs is well known. Regulatory guidelines recommend appropriate in vitro or in vivo assessments for possible interactions. The role of cytokines in biologic-SMDs has been documented. However, the mechanisms of drug-drug interactions is much more complex, and is probably multi-factorial. Studies aimed at understanding the mechanism by which biologics effect the DMEs during inflammation/infection are clinically important.

  4. Influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Tian Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and analyze the influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: A total of 42 patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass during the period of June 2014 to January 2016 were randomly divided into the control group of 21 cases and the observation group of 21 cases. The control group was treated with routine postoperative treatment, and the observation group was treated with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the basic treatment of control group, then the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes of the two groups before the surgery and at 2 h, 12 h and 24 h after the surgery were respectively detected and compared. Results: There were no significant difference in myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes between two groups before the surgery (all P>0.05, while the myocardial enzymes and serum cardiac function indexes of the observation group at 2 h ,12 h and 24 h after the surgery were all significantly lower than those of control group, the oxygen metabolism indexes were significantly better than the levels of control group (all P<0.05. Conclusions: The recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide can effectively improve the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism state of patients with open heart surgery with cardi

  5. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  6. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  7. A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; Galle, Samuel; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. Conclusions/Significance The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions. PMID:23418524

  8. Neural expression and post-transcriptional dosage compensation of the steroid metabolic enzyme 17β-HSD type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Petra M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroids affect many tissues, including the brain. In the zebra finch, the estrogenic steroid estradiol (E2 is especially effective at promoting growth of the neural circuit specialized for song. In this species, only the males sing and they have a much larger and more interconnected song circuit than females. Thus, it was surprising that the gene for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4, an enzyme that converts E2 to a less potent estrogen, had been mapped to the Z sex chromosome. As a consequence, it was likely that HSD17B4 was differentially expressed in males (ZZ and females (ZW because dosage compensation of Z chromosome genes is incomplete in birds. If a higher abundance of HSD17B4 mRNA in males than females was translated into functional enzyme in the brain, then contrary to expectation, males could produce less E2 in their brains than females. Results Here, we used molecular and biochemical techniques to confirm the HSD17B4 Z chromosome location in the zebra finch and to determine that HSD17B4 mRNA and activity were detectable in the early developing and adult brain. As expected, HSD17B4 mRNA expression levels were higher in males compared to females. This provides further evidence of the incomplete Z chromosome inactivation mechanisms in birds. We detected HSD17B4 mRNA in regions that suggested a role for this enzyme in the early organization and adult function of song nuclei. We did not, however, detect significant sex differences in HSD17B4 activity levels in the adult brain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the HSD17B4 gene is expressed and active in the zebra finch brain as an E2 metabolizing enzyme, but that dosage compensation of this Z-linked gene may occur via post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  9. NAD(P)H-Hydrate Dehydratase- A Metabolic Repair Enzyme and Its Role in Bacillus subtilis Stress Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Lukas; Streitova, Eliska; Licha, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the strategies for survival stress conditions in bacteria is a regulatory adaptive system called general stress response (GSR), which is dependent on the SigB transcription factor in Bacillus sp. The GSR is one of the largest regulon in Bacillus sp., including about 100 genes; however, most of the genes that show changes in expression during various stresses have not yet been characterized or assigned a biochemical function for the encoded proteins. Previously, we characterized the Bacillus subtilis168 osmosensitive mutant, defective in the yxkO gene (encoding a putative ribokinase), which was recently assigned in vitro as an ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase and was demonstrated to belong to the SigB operon. Methods and Results We show the impact of YxkO on the activity of SigB-dependent Pctc promoter and adaptation to osmotic and ethanol stress and potassium limitation respectively. Using a 2DE approach, we compare the proteomes of WT and mutant strains grown under conditions of osmotic and ethanol stress. Both stresses led to changes in the protein level of enzymes that are involved in motility (flagellin), citrate cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase), glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), and decomposition of Amadori products (fructosamine-6-phosphate deglycase). Glutamine synthetase revealed a different pattern after osmotic stress. The patterns of enzymes for branched amino acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis (L-alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, ketol-acid reductoisomerase) were altered after ethanol stress. Conclusion We performed the first characterization of a Bacillus subtilis168 knock-out mutant in the yxkO gene that encodes a metabolite repair enzyme. We show that such enzymes could play a significant role in the survival of stressed cells. PMID:25393291

  10. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  11. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  12. Insulin resistance and reduced metabolic flexibility: cause or consequence of NAFLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2017-11-15

    Whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) precedes insulin resistance (IR) or IR preludes/causes NAFLD has been long debated. Recent studies have shown that there are two phenotypes of NAFLD, 'genetic' vs 'metabolic' NAFLD. The former patients are more at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease the latter are more IR and at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even if they are not yet diabetics, from a metabolic point of view having NAFLD is equivalent to T2D with reduced peripheral glucose disposal and impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production, but without fasting hyperglycaemia. T2D develops only when hepatic autoregulation is lost and glucose production exceeds the capacity of muscle glucose disposal.In NAFLD adipocytes are resistant to the effect of insulin, lipolysis is increased and excess plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are taken up by other organs (mainly liver) where they are stored as lipid droplets or oxidized. Increased adiposity is associated with worsen severity of both 'genetic' and 'metabolic' NAFLD. FFA oxidative metabolism is increased in NAFLD and not shifted towards glucose during insulin infusion. Although this reduced metabolic flexibility is an early predictor of T2D, it can be seen also as a protective mechanism against excess FFA.In conclusion, IR precedes and causes 'metabolic' NAFLD, but not 'genetic' NAFLD. Reduced metabolic flexibility in NAFLD might be seen as a protective mechanism against FFA overflow, but together with IR remains a strong risk factor for T2D that develops with the worsening of hepatic regulation of glucose production. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Consumption of poisonous plants (Senecio jacobaea, Symphytum officinale, Pteridium aquilinum, Hypericum perforatum) by rats: chronic toxicity, mineral metabolism, and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B J; Cheeke, P R; Miranda, C L; Goeger, D E; Buhler, D R

    1982-02-01

    Effect of dietary tancy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats were measured. Tansy ragwort and bracken increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase. Comfrey and alfalfa increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase. Feeding bracken or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in conjunction with tansy ragwort did not influence chronic toxicity of tansy ragwort as assessed by rat survival time. Dietary tansy ragwort resulted in increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic copper levels; the other plants did not affect copper levels. The results do not suggest any major interaction in the toxicity of tansy ragwort with bracken or St. John's wort.

  14. The effect of (-)-linalool on the metabolic activity of liver CYP enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosková, K; Dovrtělová, G; Zendulka, O; Řemínek, R; Juřica, J

    2016-12-21

    (-)-Linalool is the major floral scent occurring mainly in families Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and Rutaceae and is the main active compound of lavender oil. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of subchronic systemic treatment with (-)-linalool on the metabolic activity of CYP2A, 2B, 2C6, 2C11 and 3A in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The second aim was to reveal possible inhibitory effect of (-)-linalool on CYP2C6 in vitro. Wistar albino male rats were treated with (-)-linalool intragastrically at the doses of 40, 120, and 360 mg/kg/day for 13 days. Treatment with (-)-linalool at the dose of 360 mg/kg increased the metabolic activity of CYP2A assessed with testosterone as a probe substrate. (-)-Linalool showed weak competitive inhibition of CYP2C6 in rat liver microsomes, with IC(50) of 84 microM with use of diclofenac as a probe substrate.

  15. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the springlike action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. However, manufacturer's recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s. Athletes ran using each of 3 different prosthetic models (Freedom Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Flex-Run, and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter) with 5 combinations of stiffness categories (manufacturer's recommended and ± 1) and heights (International Paralympic Committee's maximum competition height and ± 2 cm) while we measured metabolic rates and ground reaction forces. Overall, prosthetic stiffness [fixed effect (β) = 0.036; P = 0.008] but not height ( P ≥ 0.089) affected the net metabolic cost of transport; less stiff prostheses reduced metabolic cost. While controlling for prosthetic stiffness (in kilonewtons per meter), using the Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.044) and 1E90 Sprinter prostheses (β = -0.176; P = 0.009) reduced net metabolic costs by 4.3-4.9% compared with using the Catapult prostheses. The metabolic cost of running improved when athletes used prosthetic configurations that decreased peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces (β = 2.786; P = 0.001), stride frequencies (β = 0.911; P < 0.001), and leg stiffness values (β = 0.053; P = 0.009). Remarkably, athletes did not maintain overall leg stiffness across prosthetic stiffness conditions. Rather, the in-series prosthetic stiffness governed overall leg stiffness. The metabolic cost of running in athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations is influenced by prosthetic model and stiffness but not height. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We measured the

  16. Metabolism of cryptic peptides derived from neuropeptide FF precursors: the involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Niedziolka, Magdalena; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-09-22

    The term "cryptome" refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor), generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes.

  17. Enzyme histochemical, biochemical and metabolic effects of Solcoseryl in connection with its radioprotective capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D; Locker, A; Grigoriadis, P; Goslar, H G; Jaeger, K H

    1979-01-01

    The lethal irradiation with gamma-rays (LD 100/30) of adult mice at ambient temperature of 32.5 degrees C heavily alterates the pattern of LDH in liver. In close correspondence with the radioprotective effect of Solcoseryl on the survival rate of irradiated mice -- which amounts to 100% as compared with 40% survival of solely heat adapted animals -- Solcoseryl normalizes the LDH distribution both histochemically and biochemically. Since Solcoseryl alone generally enhances enzyme activity the normalization observed is obviously attributable to an intrinsically regulatory property of this natural compound.

  18. Antisense Suppression of 2-Cysteine Peroxiredoxin in Arabidopsis Specifically Enhances the Activities and Expression of Enzymes Associated with Ascorbate Metabolism But Not Glutathione Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Margarete; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of decreased 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (2-CP) on the leaf anti-oxidative system in Arabidopsis. At three stages of leaf development, two lines of transgenic Arabidopsis mutants with decreased contents of chloroplast 2-CP were compared with wild type and a control line transformed with an empty vector. Glutathione contents and redox state were similar in all plants, and no changes in transcript levels for enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism were observed. Transcript levels for chloroplastic glutathione peroxidase were much lower than those for 2-CP, and both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutathione peroxidase were not increased in the mutants. In contrast, the foliar ascorbate pool was more oxidized in the mutants, although the difference decreased with plant age. The activities of thylakoid and stromal ascorbate peroxidase and particularly monodehydroascorbate reductase were increased as were transcripts for these enzymes. No change in dehydroascorbate reductase activity was observed, and effects on transcript abundance for glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were slight or absent. The results demonstrate that 2-CP forms an integral part of the anti-oxidant network of chloroplasts and is functionally interconnected with other defense systems. Suppression of 2-CP leads to increased expression of other anti-oxidative genes possibly mediated by increased oxidation state of the leaf ascorbate pool. PMID:11027730

  19. One-carbon metabolism in acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    One-carbon metabolism in acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Life on earth is sustained by the constant cycling of six essential elements: oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous,

  20. One-carbon metabolism in acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    One-carbon metabolism in acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Life on earth is sustained by the constant cycling of six essential elements: oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,

  1. Which liver enzymes are better indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Yang, Jin Hyang

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships of liver enzyme levels with metabolic syndrome in adolescents. A total of 808 adolescents (430 males and 378 females, aged 10-19 years) participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1) in 2010, the relationships between liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ratio of AST to ALT (AST/ALT), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)] and metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria were assessed using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. After adjusting for age, higher ALT and GGT levels and a lower AST/ALT level were associated with clustering of metabolic syndrome components, whereas AST level was not associated with it in both sexes. The strength of association between the liver enzymes and clustering of metabolic syndrome components was higher in females than in males. In the non-overweight group, higher AST, ALT, and GGT levels and a lower AST/ALT level were associated with clustering of metabolic syndrome components, whereas none of the liver enzymes was associated with metabolic syndrome in the overweight group. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of AST to determine metabolic syndrome was not significant and was significantly lower than AUCs of ALT, AST/ALT, and GGT in both sexes. The cutoff values of ALT, AST/ALT, and GGT to determine metabolic syndrome were higher in males than in females. ALT, AST/ALT, and GGT were found to be associated with clustering of metabolic syndrome components, and the relationships appear to be sex- and weight group-specific.

  2. Stable Overexpression of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Reduces the Requirement for Culture with Dimethyl Sulfoxide for High Drug Metabolism in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; Rudi de Waart, D; Shevchenko, Valery; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) induces cellular differentiation and expression of drug metabolic enzymes in the human liver cell line HepaRG; however, DMSO also induces cell death and interferes with cellular activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the nuclear receptor controlling various drug metabolism genes, would sufficiently promote differentiation and drug metabolism in HepaRG cells, optionally without using DMSO. By stable lentiviral overexpression of CAR, HepaRG cultures were less affected by DMSO in total protein content and obtained increased resistance to acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cell death. Transcript levels of CAR target genes were significantly increased in HepaRG-CAR cultures without DMSO, resulting in increased activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and bilirubin conjugation to levels equal or surpassing those of HepaRG cells cultured with DMSO. Unexpectedly, CAR overexpression also increased the activities of non-CAR target P450s, as well as albumin production. In combination with DMSO treatment, CAR overexpression further increased transcript levels and activities of CAR targets. Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 remained unchanged, whereas CYP3A4 was reduced. Moreover, the metabolism of low-clearance compounds warfarin and prednisolone was increased. In conclusion, CAR overexpression creates a more physiologically relevant environment for studies on hepatic (drug) metabolism and differentiation in HepaRG cells without the utilization of DMSO. DMSO still may be applied to accomplish higher drug metabolism, required for sensitive assays, such as low-clearance studies and identification of (rare) metabolites, whereas reduced total protein content after DMSO culture is diminished by CAR overexpression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Structural and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of mononuclear molybdenum enzymes from sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Carlos D; Rivas, María G; Romão, Maria J; Moura, José J G; Moura, Isabel

    2006-10-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are found in biological systems in a mononuclear form in the active site of a diverse group of enzymes that generally catalyze oxygen-atom-transfer reactions. The metal atom (Mo or W) is coordinated to one or two pyranopterin molecules and to a variable number of ligands such as oxygen (oxo, hydroxo, water, serine, aspartic acid), sulfur (cysteines), and selenium (selenocysteines) atoms. In addition, these proteins contain redox cofactors such as iron-sulfur clusters and heme groups. All of these metal cofactors are along an electron-transfer pathway that mediates the electron exchange between substrate and an external electron acceptor (for oxidative reactions) or donor (for reductive reactions). We describe in this Account a combination of structural and electronic paramagnetic resonance studies that were used to reveal distinct aspects of these enzymes.

  4. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  5. Structure and Characterization of Proteins and Enzymes Involved in Nucleotide Metabolism and Iron-Sulfur Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Ooi, Bee Lean

    His112. dTTP binds more easily at pH 8.0 because completely deprotonated His112 takes up less space near the nucleotide binding site. The A115G variant showed an opposite pH effect of dTTP inhibition compared with the WT enzyme. A115G was very sensitive to dTTP at pH 8.0, while no substantial...... compared with WT:dTTP. dTTP inhibition of WT Mt DCD-DUT at pH 6.8 was confirmed, whereas the WT enzyme proved insensitive to dTTP at pH 8.0. The protonation state of the conserved His112 in the flexible loop is likely to play an important role herein. His112 is completely deprotonated at pH 8.0, where...... of the crystallization results through the use of databases. Changing the cluster coordinating aspartate to cysteine in Pf Fd proved to impair the ease with which the [Fe4S4] cluster converted to the [Fe3S4] cluster. A disulfide bonded dimer was observed at pH 8.0, whereas only the monomer was present at pH 5...

  6. Analysis of proline metabolic enzymes in Oryza sativa under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdi, D L; Shaw, B P

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of proline accumulation in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Badami) was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl from 0.5 to 2.5% progressively increased the proline content in rice. Proline accumulation caused by NaCl was related to protein proteolysis, an increase in OAT, P5CS, PSCR activity, a decrease in PDH activity. The maximum increase in proline content was recorded at 2.5% NaCl concentration as compared to control and other concentrations of NaCl. The highest significant activity of proline synthesizing enzymes, Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase, Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate reductase and Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase with a lowest activity of proline hydrolysis enzymes; Proline dehydrogenase were also recorded at 2.5% salinity over control and other concentrations of NaCl with a in-significant increase in the activity of Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase at 0.5 % concentration of NaCl over control. Externally the addition of 300mg MnCl2, 220 ml(-1) 1/2 strength Hoagland solution, having 1% NaCl, was seen to increase a 893.9% in proline content of this variety as compared to control.

  7. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajlouni, Said.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of gamma radiation on sucrose formation in sweet potatoes, establish the relationship between radiation dose and sucrose accumulation and to examine the possible mechanism of sucrose formation. A cobalt 60 irradiator was used and five radiation doses between 100-500 K rads were experimented. Data obtained revealed that the rate of starch degradation into sucrose depends mainly on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Radiation dose of 200-300 K rads followed by storage for eight days at 24 0 C resulted in maximal sucrose accumulation (10.7% based on fresh weight). Higher doses, however decreased sucrose accumulation. The increase in sucrose accumulation is probably due to activation of sucrose synthesizing enzymes, particularly the amylases, phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase. The specific activity of these enzymes increased with increasing radiation dose to a certain level. The results of this study indicate that the use of 200-300 K rads and eight days storage at 22-24 0 C achieves the highest degree of sucrose accumulation in the studied variety

  9. A fruit and dairy dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Yoonju; Lee, Kye Heui; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Myoungsook; Jee, Sun Ha; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between adherence to different dietary patterns and the presence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Korean adults. The sample consisted of 406 Korean adults aged 22 to 78 years recruited from hospitals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria issued by the Adult Treatment Panel III, with the exception of central obesity, which was defined according to the Asian-Pacific criteria. Dietary information was obtained by means of a 24-hour recall and a 3-day food record, and factor analysis was used to define dietary patterns. Factor analysis identified 4 major dietary patterns, which explained 28.8% of the total variance, based on the percentage of total daily energy intake from each food group: Korean traditional, alcohol and meats, sweets and fast foods, and fruit and dairy. After controlling for all potential confounders, we found that the Korean traditional dietary pattern was not associated with individual components of the metabolic syndrome but was significantly associated with increased odds of having metabolic syndrome. The fruit and dairy pattern was significantly associated with decreased odds of impaired blood glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest that the fruit and dairy pattern is associated with reduced risk of having metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differentiated effect of ageing on the enzymes of Krebs' cycle, electron transfer complexes and glutamate metabolism of non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria from cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Hoyer, S

    2006-11-01

    The effect of ageing on the activity of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism was studied in three different types of mitochondria of cerebral cortex of 1-year old and 2-year old male Wistar rats. We assessed the maximum rate (V(max)) of the mitochondrial enzyme activities in non-synaptic perikaryal mitochondria, and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria. The results indicated that: (i) in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex the values of the catalytic activities of the enzymes markedly differed in the various populations of mitochondria; (ii) in intra-synaptic mitochondria, ageing affected the catalytic properties of the enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism; (iii) these changes were more evident in intra-synaptic "heavy" than "light" mitochondria. These results indicate a different age-related vulnerability of subpopulations of mitochondria in vivo located into synapses than non-synaptic ones.

  11. The biochemistry of drug metabolism--an introduction: part 4. reactions of conjugation and their enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Bernard; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2008-11-01

    This review continues a general presentation of the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics begun in three recent issues of Chemistry & Biodiversity. The present Part is dedicated to reactions of conjugation, namely methylation, sulfonation, and phosphorylation, glucuronidation and other glycosidations, acetylation and other acylations, the formation and fate of coenzyme A conjugates, glutathione conjugation, and the reaction of amines with carbonyl compounds. It presents the many transferases involved, their nomenclature, relevant biochemical properties, catalytic mechanisms, and the reactions they catalyze. Nonenzymatic reactions, mainly of glutathione conjugation, also receive due attention. A number of medicinally, environmentally, and toxicologically relevant examples are presented and discussed.

  12. Royal Jelly Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Ameliorates Aβ Pathology and Enhances Neuronal Metabolic Activities in a Rabbit Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ, a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities. Here, we investigated whether RJ can reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in an AD rabbit model induced by 2% cholesterol diet plus copper drinking water. Our results suggest that RJ significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and decreased the level of Aβ in rabbit brains. RJ was also shown to markedly ameliorate amyloid deposition in AD rabbits from Aβ immunohistochemistry and thioflavin-T staining. Furthermore, our study suggests that RJ can reduce the expression levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, and increase the expression levels of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE. In addition, we found that RJ remarkably increased the number of neurons, enhanced antioxidant capacities, inhibited activated-capase-3 protein expression, and enhanced neuronal metabolic activities by increasing N-acetyl aspartate (NAA and glutamate and by reducing choline and myo-inositol in AD rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrated that RJ could reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in AD rabbits, providing preclinical evidence that RJ treatment has the potential to protect neurons and prevent AD.

  13. Telmisartan Ameliorates Nephropathy in Metabolic Syndrome by Reducing Leptin Release From Perirenal Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Min; Liu, Ping; Wang, YaPing; Zhang, Heng; Li, HongBin; Yang, ShiFeng; Song, Yan; Yin, YanRong; Gao, Lan; Cheng, Si; Cai, Jun; Tian, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nephropathy. Along with common risk factors such as hypertension and hyperglycemia, adipocytokines released from perirenal adipose tissue (PRAT) are implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS nephropathy. The study was designed to elucidate the adverse effects of PRAT-derived leptin on nephropathy and to determine whether the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist telmisartan exerts a renoprotective effect by decreasing the PRAT-derived leptin level in the high-fat diet-induced MetS rat. In MetS rats, PRAT-derived leptin expression increased concomitant with dysfunction of adipogenesis, and the activities of the angiotensin II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin (1-7)-Mas receptor axes were imbalanced in PRAT. PRAT-derived leptin from MetS rats promoted proliferation of rat glomerular endothelial cells (GERs) by activating the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, thereby contributing to the development of nephropathy. Long-term telmisartan treatment improved metabolic parameters and renal function, decreased the amount of PRAT, promoted adipogenesis, increased the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, restored balanced activities of the angiotensin II-AT1R and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin (1-7)-Mas axes, and exerted an indirect renoprotective effect on MetS rats by decreasing PRAT-derived leptin release. Our results demonstrate a novel link between nephropathy and PRAT in MetS and show that telmisartan confers an underlying protective effect on visceral adipose tissue and the kidney, suggesting that it has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of MetS-associated nephropathy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Simulating ideal assistive devices to reduce the metabolic cost of walking with heavy loads.

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    Christopher L Dembia

    Full Text Available Wearable robotic devices can restore and enhance mobility. There is growing interest in designing devices that reduce the metabolic cost of walking; however, designers lack guidelines for which joints to assist and when to provide the assistance. To help address this problem, we used musculoskeletal simulation to predict how hypothetical devices affect muscle activity and metabolic cost when walking with heavy loads. We explored 7 massless devices, each providing unrestricted torque at one degree of freedom in one direction (hip abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, knee extension, ankle plantarflexion, or ankle dorsiflexion. We used the Computed Muscle Control algorithm in OpenSim to find device torque profiles that minimized the sum of squared muscle activations while tracking measured kinematics of loaded walking without assistance. We then examined the metabolic savings provided by each device, the corresponding device torque profiles, and the resulting changes in muscle activity. We found that the hip flexion, knee flexion, and hip abduction devices provided greater metabolic savings than the ankle plantarflexion device. The hip abduction device had the greatest ratio of metabolic savings to peak instantaneous positive device power, suggesting that frontal-plane hip assistance may be an efficient way to reduce metabolic cost. Overall, the device torque profiles generally differed from the corresponding net joint moment generated by muscles without assistance, and occasionally exceeded the net joint moment to reduce muscle activity at other degrees of freedom. Many devices affected the activity of muscles elsewhere in the limb; for example, the hip flexion device affected muscles that span the ankle joint. Our results may help experimentalists decide which joint motions to target when building devices and can provide intuition for how devices may interact with the musculoskeletal system. The simulations are freely available

  15. Filamentous invasive growth of mutants of the genes encoding ammonia-metabolizing enzymes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Sasaki

    Full Text Available The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes a switch from yeast to filamentous invasive growth in response to certain environmental stimuli. Among them is ammonium limitation. Amt1, one of the three ammonium transporters in this yeast, is required for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be understood. Cells lacking Amt1 became capable of invasive growth upon increasing concentrations of ammonium in the medium, suggesting that the ammonium taken up into the cell or a metabolic intermediate in ammonium assimilation might serve as a signal for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition. To investigate the possible role of ammonium-metabolizing enzymes in the signaling process, deletion mutants were constructed for the gdh1, gdh2, gln1, and glt1 genes, which were demonstrated by enzyme assays to encode NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase, respectively. Growth tests on various nitrogen sources revealed that a gln1Δ mutant was a glutamine auxotroph and that a gdh1Δ mutant had a defect in growth on ammonium, particularly at high concentrations. The latter observation indicates that the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of S. pombe plays a major role in ammonium assimilation under high ammonium concentrations. Invasive growth assays showed that gdh1Δ and glt1Δ mutants underwent invasive growth to a lesser extent than did wild-type strains. Increasing the ammonium concentration in the medium suppressed the invasive growth defect of the glt1Δ mutant, but not the gdh1Δ mutant. These results suggest that the nitrogen status of the cell is important in the induction of filamentous invasive growth in S. pombe.

  16. The impact of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes on oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M; Stiborová, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study human recombinant CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5) were expressed in Supersomes™ together with their reductases, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase and cytochrome b5 , to investigate BaP metabolism. Human CYPs produced up to eight BaP metabolites. Among these, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol and BaP-9-ol, which are intermediates in BaP-derived DNA adduct formation, were mainly formed by CYP1A1 and 1B1, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C19 and 3A4. BaP-3-ol, a metabolite that is a 'detoxified' product of BaP, was formed by most human CYPs tested, although CYP1A1 and 1B1 produced it the most efficiently. Based on the amounts of the individual BaP metabolites formed by these CYPs and their expression levels in human liver, we determined their contributions to BaP metabolite formation in this organ. Our results indicate that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2C19 are most important in the activation of BaP to BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, whereas CYP2C19, 3A4, and 1A1 are the major enzymes contributing to the formation of BaP-9-ol. BaP-3-ol is predominantly formed by hepatic CYP3A4, while CYP1A1 and 2C19 are less active. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interactions between urinary 4-tert-octylphenol levels and metabolism enzyme gene variants on idiopathic male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Qin

    Full Text Available Octylphenol (OP and Trichlorophenol (TCP act as endocrine disruptors and have effects on male reproductive function. We studied the interactions between 4-tert-Octylphenol (4-t-OP, 4-n- Octylphenol (4-n-OP, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol (2,3,4-TCP, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP urinary exposure levels and polymorphisms in selected xenobiotic metabolism enzyme genes among 589 idiopathic male infertile patients and 396 controls in a Han-Chinese population. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS was used to measure alkylphenols and chlorophenols in urine. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPstream platform and the Taqman method. Among four phenols that were detected, we found that only exposure to 4-t-OP increased the risk of male infertility (P(trend = 1.70×10(-7. The strongest interaction was between 4-t-OP and rs4918758 in CYP2C9 (P(inter = 6.05×10(-7. It presented a significant monotonic increase in risk estimates for male infertility with increasing 4-t-OP exposure levels among men with TC/CC genotype (low level compared with non-exposed, odds ratio (OR = 2.26, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.06, 4.83; high level compared with non-exposed, OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 2.78, 30.59, but no associations observed among men with TT genotype. We also found interactions between 4-t-OP and rs4986894 in CYP2C19, and between rs1048943 in CYP1A1, on male infertile risk (P(inter = 8.09×10(-7, P(inter = 3.73×10(-4, respectively.We observed notable interactions between 4-t-OP exposure and metabolism enzyme gene polymorphisms on idiopathic infertility in Han-Chinese men.

  18. Overexpression of Genes Encoding Glycolytic Enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum Enhances Glucose Metabolism and Alanine Production under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159–165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses. PMID

  19. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K.; Chattaway, J.A.; Dawson, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ] in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and [5- 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and [2- 3 H]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P 3 was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate [Ins(4,5)P 2 ] whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P 2 ] was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P 4 . Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 and Ins(1,4,5,X)P 4 was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca 2+ . This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom

  20. Polymorphisms in genes encoding acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes are unrelated to upper gastrointestinal health in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, Martijn G H; Huybers, Sylvie; Peters, Wilbert H M; Drenth, Joost P H; Laheij, Robert J F; Verheugt, Freek W A; Jansen, Jan B M J

    2005-01-01

    Background As acetylsalicylic acid is metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), interindividual differences in activity of these enzymes may modulate the effects and side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid. The objective of this study was to assess whether polymorphisms in UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 genes are related to the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in cardiovascular patients using acetylsalicylic acid for secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples were taken from acetylsalicylic acid using patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit. Dyspepsia-related health was evaluated at week 2, using a validated upper gastrointestinal complaint questionnaire. A subset of 160 patients responded to a survey and were eligible to participate in this study. DNA was isolated and UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction restricted fragment length polymorphism techniques. Results Seventy per cent of the patients returned the questionnaire. UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 variant polymorphisms were found in 103 (63%) and 56 (35%) patients, respectively. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms and UGT1A6 (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.41–1.56) or CYP2C9 polymorphisms (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.44–1.67). Conclusions There was no association between polymorphisms in genes encoding for acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes on the prevalence of gastric complaints in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:16305586

  1. Mechanism of nitrogen metabolism-related parameters and enzyme activities in the pathophysiology of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Shmais Ghada A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that impaired metabolism play an important role in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Although this has not been investigated to date, several recent studies proposed that nitrogen metabolism-related parameters may have a pathophysiological role in autism. Methods The study enrolled 20 Saudi boys with autism aged 4 to 12 years and 20 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Levels of creatine, urea, ammonia, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, glutamate:glutamine (Glu:Gln ratio, and enzymatic activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA were determined in plasma samples from both groups. Results We found a significant elevation of creatine, 5'-nucleotidase, GABA, and glutamic acid and a significant decrease in the enzymatic activity of ADA and glutamine level in patients with autism compared with healthy controls. The most significant variation between the two groups was found in the Glu:Gln ratio. Conclusion A raised Glu:Gln ratio together with positive correlations in creatine, GABA, and 5'-nucleotidase levels could contribute to the pathophysiology of autism, and might be useful diagnostic markers. The mechanism through which these parameters might be related to autism is discussed in detail.

  2. Changes in amino acid composition and nitrogen metabolizing enzymes in ripening fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio; Palatnik; Heldt; Valle

    2000-10-16

    The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of nitrogen-assimilating enzyme activities of these fruits showed a decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) during fruit ripening and a concomitant increase in NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3) and aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1) activities. Western blot analysis of protein extracts revealed that while GS was principally present in green fruit extracts, GDH was almost exclusively observed in the extracts of red fruits. These results suggest a reciprocal pattern of induction between GS and GDH during tomato fruit ripening.

  3. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Ganjayi, Muniswamy; Meriga, Balaji; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs) on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes), and antiobesogenic (antilipase) activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL) compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (pcarica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex, s...... a comprehensive analysis of the expression of VDR, VD activating (CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1) and inactivating (CYP24A1) enzymes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle (SV), prostate and spermatozoa.......The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex...

  5. Proline and its metabolism enzymes in cucumber cell cultures during acclimation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliwajski, Marcin R; Skłodowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Proline is an important osmolyte appearing as the result of salt stress response of plants. In the present study, we measured the proline concentration, activities of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis and degradation of proline in the acclimated (AC20) and the non-acclimated (NAC) cucumber cell suspension cultures subjected to moderate (150 mM NaCl; AC20-150, NAC-150, respectively) and severe (200 mM NaCl; AC20-200, NAC-200, respectively) salt stress. The data showed that salt stress brought about a linear increase in proline content in both types of cultures. However, in the acclimated culture proline accumulation was observed earlier, in third hour after stress. Only in the acclimated culture moderate and severe stresses up-regulated P5CS activity throughout the experiment, whereas the activity of P5CR grew in response to both NaCl concentrations only in 24th and 48th hour. The severe salt stress resulted in decrease in P5CR in NAC-200 cultures. In response to salt stress, both types of cell suspension cultures reacted with decline in PDH activity below the spectrophotometrically detected level. Cell cultures vigor correlated with salt concentration and time of exposure to the stress factor. Both NaCl concentrations caused linear decline in vigor of the non-acclimated culture up to 80-90 % at the end of the experiment, whereas in the acclimated culture significant decrease by about 30-40 % was reached in 24th hour after stress. The presented data suggest that acclimation to salt stress up-regulated proline synthesis enzyme activity and caused intensive accumulations of proline by inhibiting its oxidation.

  6. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2017-01-01

    Plants, cyanobacteria, and algae generate a surplus of redox power through photosynthesis, which makes them attractive for biotechnological exploitations. While central metabolism consumes most of the energy, pathways introduced through metabolic engineering can also tap into this source of reduc......Plants, cyanobacteria, and algae generate a surplus of redox power through photosynthesis, which makes them attractive for biotechnological exploitations. While central metabolism consumes most of the energy, pathways introduced through metabolic engineering can also tap into this source...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However......, competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...

  7. Ribosomal readthrough at a short UGA stop codon context triggers dual localization of metabolic enzymes in Fungi and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina C Stiebler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Translation of mRNA into a polypeptide chain is a highly accurate process. Many prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, however, use leaky termination of translation to optimize their coding capacity. Although growing evidence indicates the occurrence of ribosomal readthrough also in higher organisms, a biological function for the resulting extended proteins has been elucidated only in very few cases. Here, we report that in human cells programmed stop codon readthrough is used to generate peroxisomal isoforms of cytosolic enzymes. We could show for NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1 that translational readthrough results in C-terminally extended protein variants containing a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1. Efficient readthrough occurs at a short sequence motif consisting of a UGA termination codon followed by the dinucleotide CU. Leaky termination at this stop codon context was observed in fungi and mammals. Comparative genome analysis allowed us to identify further readthrough-derived peroxisomal isoforms of metabolic enzymes in diverse model organisms. Overall, our study highlights that a defined stop codon context can trigger efficient ribosomal readthrough to generate dually targeted protein isoforms. We speculate that beyond peroxisomal targeting stop codon readthrough may have also other important biological functions, which remain to be elucidated.

  8. Enzyme Regulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Photosynthesis : Studies on the Ferredoxin/Thioredoxin System of KalanchoE daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, S W; Buchanan, B B

    1983-07-01

    Cell-free preparations of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalanchoë daigremontiana, were analyzed for thioredoxins and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Three distinct forms of thioredoxin were identified in Kalanchoë leaves, two of which specifically activated fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (designated f(1) and f(2)) and a third which activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (thioredoxin m). The apparent molecular weight of both forms of thioredoxin f was 11,000 and that of thioredoxin m was 10,000. In parallel studies, ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase were purified from Kalanchoë leaf preparations. Kalanchoë ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase was similar to that of C(3) and C(4) plants in molecular weight (31,000) and immunological cross-reactivity. Kalanchoë ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase exhibited an affinity for ferredoxin as demonstrated by its binding to an immobilized ferredoxin affinity column. The purified components of the Kalanchoë ferredoxin-thioredoxin system could be recombined to function in the photoregulation of chloroplast enzymes. The data suggest that the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system plays a role in enzyme regulation of all higher plants irrespective of whether they show C(3), C(4), or CAM photosynthesis.

  9. KINETICS OF MODULATORY ROLE OF Cyperus esculentus L. ON THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF KEY CARBOHYDRATE METABOLIZING ENZYMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, Saheed; Ajani, Emmanuel Oladipo; Sunmonu, Taofik Olatunde; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2017-01-01

    The continuous search for new lead compounds as viable inhibitors of specific enzymes linked to carbohydrate metabolism has intensified. Cyperus esculentus L. is one of the therapeutically implicated botanicals against several degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the antioxidant and mechanism(s) of inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of C. esculentus on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro . The extract was investigated for its radical scavenging and hypoglycaemic potentials using standard experimental procedures. Lineweaver-Burke plot was used to predict the manner in which the enzymes were inhibited. The data obtained revealed that the extract moderately and potently inhibited the specific activities of α -amylase and α -glucosidase, respectively. The inhibition was concentration-related with respective IC 50 values of 5.19 and 0.78 mg/mL relative to that of the control (3.72 and 3.55 mg/mL). The extract also significantly scavenged free radicals and the effects elicited could be ascribed to its phytoconstituents. The respective competitive and non-competitive mode of action of the extract is due to its inhibitory potentials on the activities of α -amylase and α -glucosidase. Going forward, in addition to completely characterize the exact compound(s) responsible for the elicited activity in this study, pertinent attention will be given to the in vivo evaluation of the identified constituents.

  10. Identification of the Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) peritrophic matrix proteins and enzymes involved in peritrophic matrix chitin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Umut; Erlandson, Martin; Baldwin, Doug; Karcz, Steve; Wan, Lianglu; Coutu, Cathy; Gillott, Cedric; Hegedus, Dwayne D

    2016-10-01

    The peritrophic matrix (PM) is essential for insect digestive system physiology as it protects the midgut epithelium from damage by food particles, pathogens, and toxins. The PM is also an attractive target for development of new pest control strategies due to its per os accessibility. To understand how the PM performs these functions, the molecular architecture of the PM was examined using genomic and proteomic approaches in Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cruciferous oilseed crops in North America. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the PM identified 82 proteins classified as: (i) peritrophins, including a new class with a CBDIII domain; (ii) enzymes involved in chitin modification (chitin deacetylases), digestion (serine proteases, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, lipases and α-amylase) or other reactions (β-1,3-glucanase, alkaline phosphatase, dsRNase, astacin, pantetheinase); (iii) a heterogenous group consisting of polycalin, REPATs, serpin, C-Type lectin and Lsti99/Lsti201 and 3 novel proteins without known orthologs. The genes encoding PM proteins were expressed predominantly in the midgut. cDNAs encoding chitin synthase-2 (McCHS-2), chitinase (McCHI), and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (McNAG) enzymes, involved in PM chitin metabolism, were also identified. McCHS-2 expression was specific to the midgut indicating that it is responsible for chitin synthesis in the PM, the only chitinous material in the midgut. In contrast, the genes encoding the chitinolytic enzymes were expressed in multiple tissues. McCHS-2, McCHI, and McNAG were expressed in the midgut of feeding larvae, and NAG activity was present in the PM. This information was used to generate an updated model of the lepidopteran PM architecture. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. In silico study of binding motifs in squalene synthase enzyme of secondary metabolic pathway of solanaceae [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchita; Singh, Garima; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-11-01

    Solanaceae is an important family with several plants of medicinal importance. These medicinal plants have distinctive pathways for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In most of the plants, two important compounds, dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, synthesize isoprenoid or terpenoids. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key enzyme of the biosynthesis of isoprenoid (farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) → squalene). Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), an important medicinal plant of family solanaceae produces withanolides. Withanolides are secondary metabolites synthesized through isoprenoid pathway. In this study, 13 SQS protein sequences from the plants of solanacae family and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The conserved domains in corresponding sequences were searched. The multiple sequence alignment of conserved domains revealed the important motifs and identified the residue substitution in each motif. Our result further indicated that residue substitution in motifs might not lead to functional variation, although it may affect the binding affinity of Mg(++), FPP and NAD(P)H. In addition, the homology modelling of SQS enzyme of W. somnifera was done for the prediction of three-dimensional structure. Molecular docking study of considered substrates with WsSQS was performed and the docked structure were analyzed further. The docked structures showed binding affinity for motif 2 of WsSQS. Our analysis revealed that 29 residues of motif 2 might be important for catalytic/functional activity of SQS enzyme of W. somnifera. This study may provide an understanding of metabolic pathways responsible for the production of secondary metabolites. The motifs may play a key role in regulating the pathway towards enhanced production of metabolites.

  12. Final Project Report - Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloriethylene Co-Metabolism: Co-Metabolic Enzyme Activity Probes and Modeling Co-Metabolism and Attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Robert C; Orr, Brennon R; Lee, M Hope; Delwiche, Mark

    2010-02-26

    Trichloroethene (TCE) (also known as trichloroethylene) is a common contaminant in groundwater. TCE is regulated in drinking water at a concentration of 5 µg/L, and a small mass of TCE has the potential to contaminant large volumes of water. The physical and chemical characteristics of TCE allow it to migrate quickly in most subsurface environments, and thus large plumes of contaminated groundwater can form from a single release. The migration and persistence of TCE in groundwater can be limited by biodegradation. TCE can be biodegraded via different processes under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Anaerobic biodegradation is widely recognized, but aerobic degradation is less well recognized. Under aerobic conditions, TCE can be oxidized to non hazardous conditions via cometabolic pathways. This study applied enzyme activity probes to demonstrate that cometabolic degradation of TCE occurs in aerobic groundwater at several locations, used laboratory microcosm studies to determine aerobic degradation rates, and extrapolated lab-measured rates to in situ rates based on concentrations of microorganisms with active enzymes involved in cometabolic TCE degradation. Microcosms were constructed using basalt chips that were inoculated with microorganisms to groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North TCE plume by filling a set of Flow-Through In Situ Reactors (FTISRs) with chips and placing the FTISRs into the open interval of a well for several months. A parametric study was performed to evaluate predicted degradation rates and concentration trends using a competitive inhibition kinetic model, which accounts for competition for enzyme active sites by both a growth substrate and a cometabolic substrate. The competitive inhibition kinetic expression was programmed for use in the RT3D reactive transport package. Simulations of TCE plume evolution using both competitive inhibition kinetics and first order decay were performed.

  13. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to

  14. Zinc Supplementation Overcomes Effects of Copper on Zinc Status, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Some Enzyme Activities in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Samir; Kechrid, Zine

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on zinc status, carbohydrate metabolism and some enzyme activities in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes that were fed high-copper feed. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). The first and fourth groups were nondiabetic and diabetic controls. The second, third, fifth and sixth groups were copper, copper + zinc, diabetes + copper and diabetes + copper + zinc groups, respectively. Diabetes in the fourth, fifth and sixth groups was induced by alloxan. Copper (30 mg/kg feed) as CuSO4 5H2O and zinc (231 mg/kg feed) as ZnSO4 7H2O were added to the feed of the animals in the copper and zinc groups for 21 days. Copper supplementation caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, serum zinc, tissue zinc, serum protein concentrations, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and amylase activities. In contrast, it led to an augmentation in creatinine, uric acid and transaminases activities in rats with and without diabetes. Zinc supplementation in the feed for animals given copper ensured a partial correction of the previous parameters. The study demonstrated the beneficial effects of zinc treatment in copper-induced metabolic disturbance in diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In Silico Modeling of Liver Metabolism in a Human Disease Reveals a Key Enzyme for Histidine and Histamine Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pagliarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1 is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of liver metabolism caused by alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT deficiency. In silico modeling of liver metabolism in PH1 recapitulated accumulation of known biomarkers as well as alteration of histidine and histamine levels, which we confirmed in vitro, in vivo, and in PH1 patients. AGT-deficient mice showed decreased vascular permeability, a readout of in vivo histamine activity. Histamine reduction is most likely caused by increased catabolism of the histamine precursor histidine, triggered by rerouting of alanine flux from AGT to the glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT, also known as the alanine-transaminase ALT. Alanine administration reduces histamine levels in wild-type mice, while overexpression of GPT in PH1 mice increases plasma histidine, normalizes histamine levels, restores vascular permeability, and decreases urinary oxalate levels. Our work demonstrates that genome-scale metabolic models are clinically relevant and can link genotype to phenotype in metabolic disorders.

  16. Community size and metabolic rates of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in Arctic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB; Harder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The numbers of sulfate reducers in two Arctic sediments within situ temperatures of 2.6 and -1.7 degrees C were determined. Most-probable-number counts were higher at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, indicating the predominance of a psychrophilic community. Mean specific sulfate reduction rates...... of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than...... their mesophilic counterparts at similarly low temperatures....

  17. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  18. Relationship between the murine Ah locus and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin hepatic metabolism, enzyme induction, and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Ah locus and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) metabolism and hepatotoxicity was investigated using C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) mice. C57 mice are more sensitive to toxic and enzyme inductive effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD than DBA mice. Characterization of interstrain differences in hepatic enzyme induction, 2,3,7,8-TCDD metabolism, and hepatotoxicity may aid in identifying the mechanism(s) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity. The hepatic uptake and metabolism of [ 14 C]2,3,7,8-TCDD were studied using isolated hepatocytes from control and 2,3,7,8-TCDD-pretreated C57 and DBA mice. Pretreated mice were injected with 2,3,7,8-TCDD at doses that maximally induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity or at doses that approach the LD 50 value. Despite the induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity and benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, all 2,3,7,8-TCDD pretreatment doses failed to increase the rate of [ 14 C]2,3,7,8-TCDD metabolism for both C57 and DBA mice. These results suggest that the uptake and rate of hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD do not correlate with genetic differences at the murine Ah locus

  19. Loss of Native Flavanols during Fermentation and Roasting Does Not Necessarily Reduce Digestive Enzyme-Inhibiting Bioactivities of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caroline M; Khoo, Weslie; Ye, Liyun; Lambert, Joshua D; O'Keefe, Sean F; Neilson, Andrew P

    2016-05-11

    Polyphenol profiles and in vitro digestive enzyme inhibitory activities were compared between cocoa extracts from unfermented beans (UB), fermented beans (FB), unfermented liquor (UL), and fermented liquor (FL). Total polyphenols, total flavanols, and individual flavanols were significantly different between UB/FB and UL/FL. All extracts effectively inhibited α-glucosidase (lowest IC50 = 90.0 μg/mL, UL) and moderately inhibited α-amylase (lowest IC50 = 183 μg/mL, FL) and lipase (lowest IC25 = 65.5 μg/mL, FB). Our data suggest that fermentation does not reduce α-glucosidase inhibition, while roasting may enhance inhibition. For α-amylase, both fermentation and roasting improved inhibition. Finally, for lipase, both fermentation and roasting attenuated inhibition. Conclusive correlations between inhibition and mDP, total polyphenol, and flavanol contents were not found. Our data suggest that enzyme inhibition activities of cocoa are not uniformly reduced by polyphenol/flavanol losses during fermentation and roasting. This paradigm-challenging finding suggests other cocoa constituents, potentially formed during processing, contribute to digestive enzyme inhibition.

  20. Enzyme Vs. Extremozyme -32 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enzyme Vs. Extremozyme. What Makes Extremozymes Function Under Harsh Conditions? Santosh Kumar is doing his Ph D at Biotechnology. Centre, Indian Institute of. Technology, Bombay. His research interests include: enzymology, metabolism, metabolic regulation and metabolic engineering of a filamentous fungi,.

  1. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J.

    2014-01-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  2. Reducing the metabolic cost of walking with an ankle exoskeleton: interaction between actuation timing and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Samuel; Malcolm, Philippe; Collins, Steven Hartley; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-04-27

    Powered ankle-foot exoskeletons can reduce the metabolic cost of human walking to below normal levels, but optimal assistance properties remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of different assistance timing and power characteristics in an experiment with a tethered ankle-foot exoskeleton. Ten healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons in 10 different assistance conditions. Artificial pneumatic muscles assisted plantarflexion during ankle push-off using one of four actuation onset timings (36, 42, 48 and 54% of the stride) and three power levels (average positive exoskeleton power over a stride, summed for both legs, of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.5 W∙kg -1 ). We compared metabolic rate, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) between conditions. Optimal assistance was achieved with an onset of 42% stride and average power of 0.4 W∙kg -1 , leading to 21% reduction in metabolic cost compared to walking with the exoskeleton deactivated and 12% reduction compared to normal walking without the exoskeleton. With suboptimal timing or power, the exoskeleton still reduced metabolic cost, but substantially less so. The relationship between timing, power and metabolic rate was well-characterized by a two-dimensional quadratic function. The assistive mechanisms leading to these improvements included reducing muscular activity in the ankle plantarflexors and assisting leg swing initiation. These results emphasize the importance of optimizing exoskeleton actuation properties when assisting or augmenting human locomotion. Our optimal assistance onset timing and average power levels could be used for other exoskeletons to improve assistance and resulting benefits.

  3. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing enzymes and response to 5-fluorouracil among patients with stage II or III rectal cancer (INT-0144; SWOG 9304).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Cornelia M; Rankin, Cathryn; Toriola, Adetunji T; Makar, Karen W; Altug-Teber, Özge; Benedetti, Jacqueline K; Holmes, Rebecca S; Smalley, Stephen R; Blanke, Charles D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2014-11-01

    Recurrence and toxicity occur commonly among patients with rectal cancer who are treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The authors hypothesized that genetic variation in folate-metabolizing genes could play a role in interindividual variability. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the associations between genetic variants in folate-metabolizing genes and clinical outcomes among patients with rectal cancer treated with 5-FU. The authors investigated 8 functionally significant polymorphisms in 6 genes (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] [C677T, A1298C], SLC19A1 [G80A], SHMT1 [C1420T], dihydrofolate reductase [DHFR] [Del19bp], TS 1494del,and TSER) involved in folate metabolism in 745 patients with TNM stage II or III rectal cancer enrolled in a phase 3 adjuvant clinical trial of 3 regimens of 5-FU and radiotherapy (INT-0144 and SWOG 9304). There were no statistically significant associations noted between polymorphisms in any of the genes and overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity in the overall analyses. Nevertheless, there was a trend toward worse DFS among patients with the variant allele of MTHFR C677T compared with wild-type, particularly in treatment arm 2, in which patients with the MTHFR C677T TT genotype had worse overall survival (hazards ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.93 [P = .03]) and DFS (hazards ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.03 [P = .02]) compared with those with homozygous wild-type. In addition, there was a trend toward reduced hematological toxicity among patients with variants of SLC19A1 G80A in treatment arm 1 (P for trend, .06) and reduced esophagitis/stomatitis noted among patients with variants of TSER in treatment arm 3 (P for trend, .06). Genetic variability in folate-metabolizing enzymes was found to be associated only to a limited degree with clinical outcomes among patients with rectal cancer treated with 5-FU. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore...... alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision...... algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation...

  6. Improved starch recovery from potatoes by enzymes and reduced water holding of the residual fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Urmila R; Lips, Steef; Bakker, Rob; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2014-11-26

    During the industrial extraction of starch from potatoes (Seresta), some starch remains within undisrupted potato cells in the fibrous side-stream. The aim of this study was to investigate if enzymatic degradation of cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) can enhance starch recovery and lower the water holding capacity (WHC) of the "fibre" fraction. The use of a pectinase-rich preparation recovered 58% of the starch present in the "fibre" fraction. Also, the "fibre" fraction retained only 40% of the water present in the non-enzyme treated "fibre". This was caused by the degradation of pectins, in particular arabinogalactan side chains calculated as the sum of galactosyl and arabinosyl residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interspecific metabolic diversity of root-colonizing endophytic fungi revealed by enzyme activity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Dániel G; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-12-01

    Although dark septate endophytes (DSE) represent a worldwide dispersed form group of root-colonizing endophytic fungi, our knowledge on their role in ecosystem functioning is far limited. In this study, we aimed to test if functional diversity exists among DSE fungi representing different lineages of root endophytic fungal community of semiarid sandy grasslands. To address this question and to gain general information on function of DSE fungi, we adopted api-ZYM and BioLog FF assays to study those non-sporulating filamentous fungi and characterized the metabolic activity of 15 different DSE species. Although there were striking differences among the species, all of the substrates tested were utilized by the DSE fungi. When endophytes characteristic to grasses and non-grass host plants were separately considered, we found that the whole substrate repertoire was used by both groups. This might illustrate the complementary functional diversity of the communities root endophytic plant-associated fungi. The broad spectra of substrates utilized by these root endophytes illustrate the functional importance of their diversity, which can play role not only in nutrient mobilization and uptake of plants from with nutrient poor soils, but also in general plant performance and ecosystem functioning. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  9. The structure of vanin 1 : a key enzyme linking metabolic disease and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Ykelien L; Newman, Janet; Adams, Timothy E; Cowieson, Nathan; Krippner, Guy; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Peat, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Although part of the coenzyme A pathway, vanin 1 (also known as pantetheinase) sits on the cell surface of many cell types as an ectoenzyme, catalyzing the breakdown of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, a strong reducing agent. Vanin 1 was initially discovered as a protein

  10. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ligresti, Alessia; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Allarà, Marco; Bisogno, Tiziana; Petrosino, Stefania; Stott, Colin G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα), rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), COS cell monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), human recombinant N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and anandamide cellular uptake (ACU) by RBL-2H3 cells, were studied using fluorescence-based calcium assays in transfected cells and radiolabelled substrate-based enzymatic assays. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), the acids (CBDA, CBGA, THCA) and propyl homologues (CBDV, CBGV, THCV) of CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) and THC, and tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA) were also tested. CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGLα. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors. These results are relevant to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and Cannabis extracts. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice. Permeation studies performed via HPLC evidenced geraniol permeability coefficients across an in vitro model of the human intestinal wall for apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport of 13.10 ± 2.3 × 10-3 and 2.1 ± 0.1⋅× 10-3 cm/min, respectively. After intravenous administration of geraniol to rats (50 mg/kg, its concentration in whole blood (detected via HPLC decreased following an apparent pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of 12.5 ± 1.5 min. The absolute bioavailability values of oral formulations (50 mg/kg of emulsified geraniol or fiber-adsorbed geraniol were 92 and 16%, respectively. Following emulsified oral administration, geraniol amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats ranged between 0.72 ± 0.08 μg/mL and 2.6 ± 0.2 μg/mL within 60 min. Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. CYP450 enzyme activities appeared only slightly affected by the high dosage of geraniol.

  12. Metabolic and functional phenotypic profiling of Drosophila melanogaster reveals reduced sex differentiation under stressful environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Malmendal, Anders; Muñoz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Strong sexual dimorphism is commonly observed across species and e.g. trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance are thought to explain this dimorphism. Here we test how the metabolic and functional phenotypic responses to varying types of environmental stress differ in male and female...... rearing regimes were investigated using NMR metabolomics and assessed for body mass and viability. Our results showed that environmental stress leads to reduced sexual dimorphism in both metabolic composition and body mass compared to the level of dimorphism observed at benign conditions. This reduced...... Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and how this impacts the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. Experimental stressors that we exposed flies to during development were heat stress, poor nutrition, high acidity, high levels of ammonia and ethanol. Emerged male and female flies from the different...

  13. Altered metabolism and persistent starvation behaviors caused by reduced AMPK function in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik C Johnson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisms must utilize multiple mechanisms to maintain energetic homeostasis in the face of limited nutrient availability. One mechanism involves activation of the heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cell-autonomous sensor to energetic changes regulated by ATP to AMP ratios. We examined the phenotypic consequences of reduced AMPK function, both through RNAi knockdown of the gamma subunit (AMPKγ and through expression of a dominant negative alpha (AMPKα variant in Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced AMPK signaling leads to hypersensitivity to starvation conditions as measured by lifespan and locomotor activity. Locomotor levels in flies with reduced AMPK function were lower during unstressed conditions, but starvation-induced hyperactivity, an adaptive response to encourage foraging, was significantly higher than in wild type. Unexpectedly, total dietary intake was greater in animals with reduced AMPK function yet total triglyceride levels were lower. AMPK mutant animals displayed starvation-like lipid accumulation patterns in metabolically key liver-like cells, oenocytes, even under fed conditions, consistent with a persistent starved state. Measurements of O(2 consumption reveal that metabolic rates are greater in animals with reduced AMPK function. Lastly, rapamycin treatment tempers the starvation sensitivity and lethality associated with reduced AMPK function. Collectively, these results are consistent with models that AMPK shifts energy usage away from expenditures into a conservation mode during nutrient-limited conditions at a cellular level. The highly conserved AMPK subunits throughout the Metazoa, suggest such findings may provide significant insight for pharmaceutical strategies to manipulate AMPK function in humans.

  14. Identification of human cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes involved in the metabolism of ferulic acid, a major bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Lin; Tan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Lu, Chuang; Gao, Yue; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Observing reducing effect of N-acetylcysteine in the metabolism of yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Chapela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the design of experimental teaching using readily available materials and simple methods to implement. It arises as an example for learning, using baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, because it has many of the metabolic pathways existing in mammalian cells. In this paper it was developed an essay that allow students to observe macroscopically the capacity of N- Acetyl cysteine (NAC to stimulate the reducing power of yeast using indicator Methylene Blue (MB color change.

  16. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jammer, A.; Gapserl, A.; Luschin-Ebengreuth, N.; Heyneke, E.; Chu, H.; Cantero-Navarro, E.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; Albacete, A.; Stabentheiner, E.; Franzaring, J.; Fangmeier, A.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 18 (2015), s. 5531-5542 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Carbohydrate metabolism * dialysis * enzyme activities * kinetic assay * physiological phenotyping * physiological state * protein extraction * signatures Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  17. Oral administration of a nephrotoxic dose of potassium bromate, a food additive, alters renal redox and metabolic status and inhibits brush border membrane enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Fareed, Mohd; Mahmood, Riaz

    2012-09-15

    The time dependent effect of orally administered KBrO(3) on redox status and enzymes of brush border membrane (BBM) and carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in rat kidney. Animals were given a single oral dose of KBrO(3) (100mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed at different times after this treatment; control animals were not given KBrO(3). The administration of KBrO(3) resulted in nephrotoxicity, a decline in the specific activities of several BBM marker enzymes and also induced oxidative stress in kidney. The specific activities of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were also altered and suggest a shift in energy metabolism from the aerobic to anaerobic mode. The renal effects of single oral dose of KBrO(3) appeared to be reversible; maximum changes in all the parameters were 48 h after administration of KBrO(3) after which recovery took place, in many cases almost to control values, after 168 h. These results suggest that the administration of a single nephrotoxic dose of KBrO(3) inhibits brush border membrane enzymes, induces oxidative stress and alters energy metabolism of the renal system in a reversible manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzyme oscillation can enhance the thermodynamic efficiency of cellular metabolism: consequence of anti-phase coupling between reaction flux and affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeoka, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Cells generally convert nutrient resources to products via energy transduction. Accordingly, the thermodynamic efficiency of this conversion process is one of the most essential characteristics of living organisms. However, although these processes occur under conditions of dynamic metabolism, most studies of cellular thermodynamic efficiency have been restricted to examining steady states; thus, the relevance of dynamics to this efficiency has not yet been elucidated. Here, we develop a simple model of metabolic reactions with anabolism-catabolism coupling catalyzed by enzymes. Through application of external oscillation in the enzyme abundances, the thermodynamic efficiency of metabolism was found to be improved. This result is in strong contrast with that observed in the oscillatory input, in which the efficiency always decreased with oscillation. This improvement was effectively achieved by separating the anabolic and catabolic reactions, which tend to disequilibrate each other, and taking advantage of the temporal oscillations so that each of the antagonistic reactions could progress near equilibrium. In this case, anti-phase oscillation between the reaction flux and chemical affinity through oscillation of enzyme abundances is essential. This improvement was also confirmed in a model capable of generating autonomous oscillations in enzyme abundances. Finally, the possible relevance of the improvement in thermodynamic efficiency is discussed with respect to the potential for manipulation of metabolic oscillations in microorganisms.

  19. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  20. Female mice lacking active nadph-oxidase enzymes are protected against “western diet”--induced obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in a variety of tissues. We examined the effects of feeding AIN-93G or a “Western diet” (WD) (45% fat, 0.5% cholesterol) on development of obesity and “metabolic syndrome” in wild type (WT) m...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-02-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural areas of China from the 2012 to 2013 Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study (NCRCHS), and 11,573 adults with complete data were included in our final analysis. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Serum ALT and AST levels within the reference range were divided into quartiles, and their associations with MetS were evaluated by logistic regressions. A total of 7.4% and 3.5% participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 37.3% in males and 45.8% in females. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found ALT level elevation, even within the reference range, was independently associated with MetS. The odds ratio (OR) values of MetS in the ALT quartiles 2-4 groups within the reference range were 1.113 (95% CI: 1.019-1.280), 1.375 (95% CI: 1.212-1.560), 1.878 (95% CI: 1.650-2.138) compared with the ALT quartile 1 group, and OR in the elevated ALT group was 3.020 (95% CI: 2.496-3.653). Positive relationship for MetS was also observed in elevated AST group (OR: 1.689, 95% CI: 1.314-2.171), but within the reference range, the AST level was not associated with MetS. Serum ALT level, even within the reference range, was significantly associated with MetS. However, only elevated AST levels above 40 U/L was positively associated with MetS. Within the reference range, we did not find a relationship between AST levels and MetS.

  2. Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ivy; Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. ? -tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swoll...

  3. Metabolic Characterization of Intact Cells Reveals Intracellular Amyloid Beta but Not Its Precursor Protein to Reduce Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Schaefer

    Full Text Available One hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease are senile plaques consisting of amyloid beta (Aβ, which derives from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease and both Aβ and APP have been reported to affect mitochondrial function in isolated systems. However, in intact cells, considering a physiological localization of APP and Aβ, it is pending what triggers the mitochondrial defect. Thus, the aim of this study was to dissect the impact of APP versus Aβ in inducing mitochondrial alterations with respect to their subcellular localization. We performed an overexpression of APP or beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, increasing APP and Aβ levels or Aβ alone, respectively. Conducting a comprehensive metabolic characterization we demonstrate that only APP overexpression reduced mitochondrial respiration, despite lower extracellular Aβ levels compared to BACE overexpression. Surprisingly, this could be rescued by a gamma secretase inhibitor, oppositionally indicating an Aβ-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. Analyzing Aβ localization revealed that intracellular levels of Aβ and an increased spatial association of APP/Aβ with mitochondria are associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration. Thus, our data provide marked evidence for a prominent role of intracellular Aβ accumulation in Alzheimer´s disease associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby it highlights the importance of the localization of APP processing and intracellular transport as a decisive factor for mitochondrial function, linking two prominent hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramgopal Mopuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, and antiobesogenic (antilipase activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (p<0.05 higher than all other extracts and parts of the plant in terms of antioxidative, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects. The IC50 values of the fruit ethanolic extract in terms of antioxidative (134.44±18.43 μg/mL, and inhibition of α-glucosidase (255.57±36.46 μg/mL, α-amylase (315.89±3.83 μg/mL, and pancreatic lipase (230.475±9.65 μg/mL activity indicate that the activity of fruit ethanolic extract is better than all other extracts of the plant. The gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis of the fruit ethanolic extract showed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as butyl butyrate, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, 1-butoxy-1-isobutoxy butane, malic acid, tetradecanoic acid, phytol acetate, trans phytol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, stearic acid, sitosterol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,4,5-trimethyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one. The results of this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of F. carica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents.

  5. The implications of reduced metabolic rate in resource-limited corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lianne M; Edmunds, Peter J; Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    Many organisms exhibit depressed metabolism when resources are limited, a change that makes it possible to balance an energy budget. For symbiotic reef corals, daily cycles of light and periods of intense cloud cover can be chronic causes of food limitation through reduced photosynthesis. Furthermore, coral bleaching is common in present-day reefs, creating a context in which metabolic depression could have beneficial value to corals. In the present study, corals (massive Porites spp.) were exposed to an extreme case of resource limitation by starving them of food and light for 20 days. When resources were limited, the corals depressed area-normalized respiration to 37% of initial rates, and coral biomass declined to 64% of initial amounts, yet the corals continued to produce skeletal mass. However, the declines in biomass cannot account for the declines in area-normalized respiration, as mass-specific respiration declined to 30% of the first recorded time point. Thus, these corals appear to be capable of metabolic depression. It is possible that some coral species are better able to depress metabolic rates than others; such variation could explain differential survival during conditions that limit resources (e.g. shading). Furthermore, we found that maintenance of existing biomass, in part, supports the production of skeletal mass. This association could be explained if maintenance supplies needed energy (e.g. ATP) or inorganic carbon (i.e. CO2) that otherwise limits the production of skeletal mass. Finally, the observed metabolic depression can be explained as a change in pool sizes, and does not require a change in metabolic rules. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Electrochemically reduced graphene and iridium oxide nanoparticles for inhibition-based angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Rivas, Lourdes; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-02-15

    In this work, a novel biosensor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide and iridium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drug, captopril, is presented. For the preparation of the biosensor, tyrosinase is immobilized onto screen printed electrode by using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide coupling reagents, in electrochemically reduced graphene oxide and iridium oxide nanoparticles matrix. Biosensor response is characterized towards catechol, in terms of graphene oxide concentration, number of cycles to reduce graphene oxide, volume of iridium oxide nanoparticles and tyrosinase solution. The designed biosensor is used to inhibit tyrosinase activity by Captopril, which is generally used to treat congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that operates via chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase and thioquinone formation. The captopril detections using both inhibition ways are very sensitive with low limits of detection: 0.019µM and 0.008µM for chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase and thioquinone formation, respectively. The proposed methods have been successfully applied in captopril determination in spiked human serum and pharmaceutical dosage forms with acceptable recovery values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Generation and characterization of koi herpesvirus recombinants lacking viral enzymes of nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Walter; Fichtner, Dieter; Bergmann, Sven M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2011-06-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a fatal disease in koi and common carp, but no reliable and genetically characterized vaccines are available up to now. Therefore, we generated KHV recombinants possessing deletions within the viral ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), thymidine kinase (TK), dUTPase, or TK and dUTPase genes, and their corresponding rescuants. All KHV mutants were replication competent in cultured cells. Whereas plaque sizes and titers of RNR-negative KHV were reduced, replication of the other mutants was not affected. Experimental infection of carp indicated attenuation of TK- or dUTPase-deleted KHV, and PCR analysis of tissue samples permitted differentiation of mutant from wild-type virus.

  8. Different biochemical mechanisms ensure network-wide balancing of reducing equivalents in microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    To sustain growth, the catabolic formation of the redox equivalent NADPH must be balanced with the anabolic demand. The mechanisms that ensure such network-wide balancing, however, are presently not understood. Based on 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactor specificities for all relevant central metabolic enzymes, we have quantified catabolic NADPH production in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Paracoccus versutus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Zymomonas mobilis. For six species, the estimated NADPH production from glucose catabolism exceeded the requirements for biomass synthesis. Exceptions were P. fluorescens, with balanced rates, and E. coli, with insufficient catabolic production, in which about one-third of the NADPH is supplied via the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB. P. versutus and B. subtilis were the only species that appear to rely on transhydrogenases for balancing NADPH overproduction during growth on glucose. In the other four species, the main but not exclusive redox-balancing mechanism appears to be the dual cofactor specificities of several catabolic enzymes and/or the existence of isoenzymes with distinct cofactor specificities, in particular glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. An unexpected key finding for all species, except E. coli and B. subtilis, was the lack of cofactor specificity in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, which contrasts with the textbook view of the pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenases as being NADP+ dependent.

  9. Oxalate-Degrading Enzyme Recombined Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Reduce Hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenming; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Xiaojing; Li, Yang; Wang, Ning; Han, Shanfu; Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2017-12-02

    To develop recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that express oxalate-degrading enzymes through biotechnology-based approach for the treatment of hyperoxaluria by oral administration. The coding gene of oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) and oxalate oxidase (OxO) was transformed into Lactococcus lactis MG1363. The oxalate degradation ability in vitro was evaluated in media with high concentration of oxalate. Hyperoxaluria rat models through high oxalate diet were given recombinant LAB through oral administration. Twenty-four-hour urinary oxalate was measured, and kidney stone formation was investigated. LAB recombined with the coding gene of ODC could effectively decrease the amount of oxalate in the media and in the urine of rats. Moreover, the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys was also inhibited. The acid-induced promoter p170 significantly enhanced the reduction of hyperoxaluria. However, recombinant LAB expressing heterologous OxO showed less efficiency in oxalate degradation even in the presence of p170. LAB expressing ODC is more efficient in degradation of oxalate in vitro and in vivo than that expressing OxO. This present study provided novel recombinant probiotic strains as a potential treatment tool against oxalosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lanthanide Chemistry: From Coordination in Chemical Complexes Shaping Our Technology to Coordination in Enzymes Shaping Bacterial Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, Norma Cecilia; Vu, Huong N; Skovran, Elizabeth

    2016-10-17

    Lanthanide chemistry has only been extensively studied for the last 2 decades, when it was recognized that these elements have unusual chemical characteristics including fluorescent and potent magnetic properties because of their unique 4f electrons.1,2 Chemists are rapidly and efficiently integrating lanthanides into numerous compounds and materials for sophisticated applications. In fact, lanthanides are often referred to as "the seeds of technology" because they are essential for many technological devices including smartphones, computers, solar cells, batteries, wind turbines, lasers, and optical glasses.3-6 However, the effect of lanthanides on biological systems has been understudied. Although displacement of Ca 2+ by lanthanides in tissues and enzymes has long been observed,7 only a few recent studies suggest a biological role for lanthanides based on their stimulatory properties toward some plants and bacteria.8,9 Also, it was not until 2011 that the first biochemical evidence for lanthanides as inherent metals in bacterial enzymes was published.10 This forum provides an overview of the classical and current aspects of lanthanide coordination chemistry employed in the development of technology along with the biological role of lanthanides in alcohol oxidation. The construction of lanthanide-organic frameworks will be described. Examples of how the luminescence field is rapidly evolving as more information about lanthanide-metal emissions is obtained will be highlighted, including biological imaging and telecommunications.11 Recent breakthroughs and observations from different exciting areas linked to the coordination chemistry of lanthanides that will be mentioned in this forum include the synthesis of (i) macrocyclic ligands, (ii) antenna molecules, (iii) coordination polymers, particularly nanoparticles, (iv) hybrid materials, and (v) lanthanide fuel cells. Further, the role of lanthanides in bacterial metabolism will be discussed, highlighting the

  11. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, T.

    2010-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the non inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of O 12 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by O 12 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  12. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  13. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  14. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  15. Endothelial dysfunction and reduced heart rate variability in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Smirnova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to experts of the World Health Organization (WHO, metabolic syndrome (MS can be considered as pandemy of the XXI century, because its prevalence among the population of developed countries is about 25-35%. In this study with the purpose of complex investigation of the autonomic nervous system and endothelial function we included 66 patients with MS between the ages of 25 and 61 (46.9±9.9 years. A comparison group of apparently healthy individuals (16 individuals, average age of 45.3±2.3 years; P>0.05 was studied. To evaluate the response of microvascular tone, we used the method of wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations during cooling of the limb. All patients underwent the study of heart rate variability. The levels of insulin, endothelin-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were determined using enzyme immunoassay. Patients with MS had significant differences in all metabolic parameters. Our study showed that in the group of MS there is a decrease of the variability of heart rhythm compared with the healthy group. Conducting cold test revealed signs of endothelial dysfunction in the MS group, which was manifested by the decrease of the index of vasodilation in the endothelial and neurogenic frequency range. In the study group we determined the increase in biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction, which correlated with parameters of vasodilation. Also, the presence of endothelial dysfunction significantly correlated with signs of reduction of the variability of the heart rhythm.

  16. The Role of Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Sugar Sensing and Differentiation in Sugar Beet Cell Lines

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    Daniel Hagége

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is influenced by changes in the levels and types of sugars produced metabolically. The normal (N, habituated organogenic (HO and habituated nonorganogenic (HNO sugar beet cell lines originate from the same mother plant but exhibit distinct levels of morphogenesis and differentiation, and contain different levels of simple carbohydrates. We aim to elucidate whether differences in the abundance and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar sensing/signalling help explain the different carbohydrate profiles and differentiation states of the cell lines. Using 13C NMR spectroscopy to analyze cultures of the cell lines over 28 days, we found that N cells accumulated sucrose; HO cells sucrose, glucose and fructose; and HNO cells glucose and fructose. Of three invertase isoforms, the activity of cell wall invertase (CWI was highest in all the cell lines, and CWI activity was greatest in HNO line. The specific accumulation of intracellular carbohydrates during subculture correlated strongly with CWI activity but less so with the vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertase isoforms, or with sucrose synthase activity. Cell lines showed differences in how sugars regulated invertase and sucrose synthase activity. The role of sugar sensing in the regulation of CWI activity was investigated in the cell lines using glucose and sucrose, as well as carbohydrate analogues such as mannitol, 2-O-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Differences in the regulation of CWI activity by carbohydrates across the three cell lines suggest that CWI can be fine-tuned according to the specific carbohydrate requirements of each line during growth. Differences in sugar signalling pathways across the cell lines were explored using glucose and sucrose in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinases or phosphatases. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific regulation of CWI activity plays an important role in determining the intracellular

  17. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results...

  18. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeani, Chinelo; Ezenyi, Ifeoma; Okoye, Theophine; Okoli, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum . Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro , while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg). The study and analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015. The treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg extract significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose concentration and slightly increased mean body weight in treated groups. Oral glucose tolerance was also significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.001) improved in 100 and 400 mg/kg extract-treated groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increase in liver glycogen content, while it decreased alanine transferase (18.9-30.56%) and aspartate transferase (6.48-34.3%) levels in a non-dose-dependent manner. A dose of 100 mg/kg also reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides by 19.3 and 39.54%, compared to a 2.6% reduction of cholesterol seen in the metformin-treated group. The extract was observed to produce significant ( P < 0.001) concentration-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase (35.71-100%) and also α-amylase (23.55-81.52%), with estimated inhibitory concentration values of 1.62 and 3.86 mg/mL, respectively. The antidiabetic properties of the extract may be due to its ability to suppress endogenous glucose release, inhibit glycogenolysis and/or stimulate glycogenesis.

  19. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  20. Polymorphism in folate- and methionine-metabolizing enzyme and aberrant CpG island hypermethylation in uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon Beom; Lee, Hyo Pyo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the association between the CpG island hypermethylation of tumor-associated genes and the polymorphisms of methyl group metabolizing enzymes in uterine cervical cancer. We analyzed CpG island hypermethylation in 15 genes (APC, CDH1, COX2, DAPK, FHIT, GSTP1, HLTF1, hMLH1, MGMT, p14, p16, RASSF1A, RUNX3, THBS1, and TIMP3) and its association with the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C and the methionine synthase (MS) A2756G polymorphisms in 82 Korean women with uterine cervical cancer. All uterine cervical cancer samples had at least one gene methylated. The average number of methylated genes was lower in patients with the heterozygous genotype of MTHFR and MS than in those with the common homozygous genotype, although this difference was not significant. The MTHFR 677 CT genotype was significantly associated with the decreased promoter hypermethylation of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) (OR = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.70, P = 0.011). However, the MTHFR C677T and A1298C and the MS A2756G polymorphisms were not associated with an increased risk of uterine cervical cancer. These findings suggest that there is a possible interaction between epigenetic and genetic factors in uterine cervical cancer.

  1. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, a disorder of GABA metabolism: an update on pharmacological and enzyme-replacement therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kara R; Ainslie, Garrett R; Walters, Dana C; McConnell, Alice; Dhamne, Sameer C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Gibson, K Michael

    2018-02-19

    We present an update to the status of research on succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (SSADHD), a rare disorder of GABA metabolism. This is an unusual disorder featuring the accumulation of both GABA and its neuromodulatory analog, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and recent studies have advanced the potential clinical application of NCS-382, a putative GHB receptor antagonist. Animal studies have provided proof-of-concept that enzyme replacement therapy could represent a long-term therapeutic option. The characterization of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) derived from aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 -/- (aldh5a1 -/- ) mice, the murine model of SSADHD, has highlighted NSC utility as an in vitro system in which to study therapeutics and associated toxicological properties. Gene expression analyses have revealed that transcripts encoding GABA A receptors are down-regulated and may remain largely immature in aldh5a1 -/- brain, characterized by excitatory as opposed to inhibitory outputs, the latter being the expected action in the mature central nervous system. This indicates that agents altering chloride channel activity may be therapeutically relevant in SSADHD. The most recent therapeutic prospects include mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitors, drugs that have received attention with the elucidation of the effects of elevated GABA on autophagy. The outlook for novel therapeutic trials in SSADHD continues to improve.

  2. [Association analysis of polymorphisms of metabolizing enzyme genes with chronic benzene poisoning based on logistic regression and multifactor dimensionality reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ru-Feng; Wan, Jun-Xiang; Gu, Shou-Yong; Sun, Pin; Zhang, Zhong-Bin; Jin, Xi-Peng; Xia, Zhao-Lin

    2011-07-01

    To explore the association of polymorphisms of metabolizing enzyme genes with chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) comprehensively by case-control design. 152 CBP patients and 152 workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations were investigated. 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes such as CYP2E1 were tested by PCR-RFLP, sequencing approaches. Logistic regression model was used to detect main effects and 2-order interaction effects of gene and/or environment. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to detect high-order gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Based on logistic regression, the main effects of GSTP1 rs947894, EPHX1 rs1051740, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2D6 rs1065852 and rs1135840 were found to be significant (P 0.05). The other SNPs did not show any significant associations with CBP. According to MDR, a 3-order interaction with the strongest combined effect was found, i.e. the 3-factor combination of CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2D6 rs1065852 and CYP2D6 rs1135840. Gene-gene, gene-environment interactions are important mechanism to genetic susceptibility of CBP.

  3. Methionine metabolism: major pathways and enzymes involved and strategies for control and diversification of volatile sulfur compounds in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuesta, María Del Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    For economical reasons and to accommodate current market trends, cheese manufacturers and product developers are increasingly interested in controlling cheese flavor formation and developing new flavors. Due to their low detection threshold and diversity, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall flavor of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavors. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. This paper gives an overview of the main VSCs found in cheese, along with the major pathways and key enzymes leading to the formation of methanethiol from methionine, which is subsequently converted into other sulfur-bearing compounds. As these compounds arise primarily from methionine, the metabolism of this amino acid and its regulation is presented. Attention is focused in the enzymatic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely used as starter and adjunct cultures in cheese-making. In view of industrial applications, different strategies such as the enhancement of the abilities of LAB to produce high amounts and diversity of VSCs are highlighted as the principal future research trend.

  4. Soluble Dietary Fiber Reduces Trimethylamine Metabolism via Gut Microbiota and Co-Regulates Host AMPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Tao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ruijun

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggests that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner. Results demonstrated that SDF-diets could reduce TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by 40.6 and 62.6%, respectively. DF feeding, particularly fermented SDF, reshaped gut microbial ecology and promoted the growth of certain beneficial microflora species. SDF-diet decreased energy intake, weight gain, intestinal pH values, and serum lipid and cholesterol levels. SDF-diet also enhanced the production of short chain fatty acids with activation of the intestinal epithelial adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These findings suggest a central mechanism via which SDF-diet may control TMA metabolism by gut microflora and co-regulate the AMPK pathways of the host. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-23

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes. This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P450 enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P450 enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison. Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P450 variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9 (formerly 2C43) and 2C19 (2C75) variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P450 2C19 variants. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P450 function. In addition to these polymorphic P450 enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin. This review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Repressing malic enzyme 1 redirects glucose metabolism, unbalances the redox state, and attenuates migratory and invasive abilities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang-Jing; Ye, Hao-Bin; Wu, Man-Si; Lian, Yi-Fan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is required for fatty acid synthesis and maintenance of the redox state in cancer cells. Malic enzyme 1 (ME1)-dependent NADPH production is one of the three pathways that contribute to the formation of the cytosolic NADPH pool. ME1 is generally considered to be overexpressed in cancer cells to meet the high demand for increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we found that glucose induced higher ME1 activity and that repressing ME1 had a profound impact on glucose metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. High incorporation of glucose and an enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in ME1-repressed cells. However, there were no obvious changes in the other two pathways for glucose metabolism: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, NADPH was decreased under low-glucose condition in ME1-repressed cells relative to wild-type cells, whereas no significant difference was observed under high-glucose condition. ME1-repressed cells had significantly decreased tolerance to low-glucose condition. Moreover, NADPH produced by ME1 was not only important for fatty acid synthesis but also essential for maintenance of the intracellular redox state and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore, diminished migration and invasion were observed in ME1-repressed cells due to a reduced level of Snail protein. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for ME1 in the production of cytosolic NADPH and maintenance of migratory and invasive abilities of NPC cells. PMID:23114090

  7. Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (≥65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

  8. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization.

  9. Distribution and phylogenies of enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway from archaea and hyperthermophilic bacteria support a gluconeogenic origin of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron S. Ronimus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathway (the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP pathway, the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway are widely distributed and are often considered to be central to the origins of metabolism. In particular, several enzymes of the lower portion of the EMP pathway (the so-called trunk pathway, including triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; EC 5.3.1.1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; EC 1.2.1.12/13, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK; EC 2.7.2.3 and enolase (EC 4.2.1.11, are extremely well conserved and universally distributed among the three domains of life. In this paper, the distribution of enzymes of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in hyperthermophiles—microorganisms that many believe represent the least evolved organisms on the planet—is reviewed. In addition, the phylogenies of the trunk pathway enzymes (TPIs, GAPDHs, PGKs and enolases are examined. The enzymes catalyzing each of the six-carbon transformations in the upper portion of the EMP pathway, with the possible exception of aldolase, are all derived from multiple gene sequence families. In contrast, single sequence families can account for the archaeal and hyperthermophilic bacterial enzyme activities of the lower portion of the EMP pathway. The universal distribution of the trunk pathway enzymes, in combination with their phylogenies, supports the notion that the EMP pathway evolved in the direction of gluconeogenesis, i.e., from the bottom up.

  10. The NAD+ metabolism of Leishmania, notably the enzyme nicotinamidase involved in NAD+ salvage, offers prospects for development of anti-parasite chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Paul A M; Avilán, Luisana

    2011-10-01

    NAD+ plays multiple, essential roles in the cell. As a cofactor in many redox reactions it is key in the cellular energy metabolism and as a substrate it participates in many reactions leading to a variety of covalent modifications of enzymes with major roles in regulation of expression and metabolism. Cells may have the ability to produce this metabolite either via alternative de novo synthesis pathways and/or by different salvage pathways. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Gazanion et al. (2011) demonstrate that Leishmania species can only rely on the salvage of NAD+ building blocks. One of the enzymes involved, nicotinamidase, is absent from human cells. The enzyme is important for growth of Leishmania infantum and essential for establishing an infection. The crystal structure of the parasite protein has been solved and shows prospects for design of inhibitors to be used as leads for development of new drugs. Indeed, NAD+ metabolism is currently being considered as a promising drug target in various diseases and the vulnerability of Leishmania for interference of this metabolism has been proved in previous work by the same group, by showing that administration of NAD+ precursors has detrimental effect on the pathogenic, amastigote stage of this parasite. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effects of stachyose on absorption and transportation of tea catechins in mice: possible role of Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters inhibition by stachyose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Lu, Yalong; Huang, Di; Han, Xiao; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and absorption-promoting properties of stachyose combined with tea catechins (TC) have been revealed. However, the mechanism involved in non-digestible oligosaccharides-mediated enhancement of flavonoid absorption has largely remained elusive. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of stachyose in enhancing absorption and transportation of TC in mice. Mice were orally pre-treated with stachyose (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg·bw) for 0-8 weeks, and 1 h before sacrifice, mice were treated with TC (250 mg/kg·bw). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that serum concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were dose- and time-dependently elevated with stachyose pre-treatment in mice. Furthermore, pre-treatment with stachyose in mice reduced intestinal sulfotransferase and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase levels by 3.3-43.2% and 23.9-30.4%, relative to control mice, respectively. Moreover, intestinal P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 contents were decreased in mice by pre-administration of stachyose in dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first time to demonstrate that suppression of Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters of TC in the intestine can play a major role in increasing absorption of TC by stachyose feeding.

  12. Effects of combined inositol hexakisphosphate and inositol supplement on antioxidant activity and metabolic enzymes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Shadae R; Dilworth, Lowell L; Thompson, Rory K; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby L; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2017-09-25

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species, lipid abnormalities, reduced antioxidant activity and organ damage. This study examines the effects of combined inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol supplement on antioxidant levels and other biochemical parameters in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Six rats were fed normal diet (non-diabetic control), while 24 rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced in 18 of the rats fed HFD by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were separated into three groups namely: combined IP6 and inositol, glibenclamide and diabetic control. The non-diabetic group fed high-fat diet was classified as a high-fat control group. For the final four weeks of the experiment, all rats were fed normal diet and given their respective treatment regimes. Hepatic antioxidant status, metabolic enzyme activity, lipid profile, peroxidative damage and liver histology, as well as, serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, and total bilirubin concentration were assessed. Treatment with combined IP6 and inositol supplement significantly increased liver reduced glutathione and high-density lipoprotein levels while liver triglyceride levels and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly reduced by 27%, 50%, 38.5%, and 69.2% respectively compared to the diabetic control. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were significantly upregulated by 55%, 26% and 53% respectively in the diabetic rats treated with combined IP6 and inositol compared to the diabetic control. Combined IP6 and inositol treatment resulted in the preservation of liver cell integrity and improved antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type III: evidence for a possible connection between metabolic imbalance and bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Rossi, Alessandro; Pivonello, Rosario; Del Puente, Antonio; Pivonello, Claudia; Cangemi, Giuliana; Negri, Mariarosaria; Colao, Annamaria; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2016-05-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). It is characterized by liver, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle involvement. The presence of systemic complications such as growth retardation, ovarian polycystosis, diabetes mellitus and osteopenia/osteoporosis has been reported. The pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis is still unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in GSDIII patients and the role of metabolic and endocrine factors and physical activity on bone status. Nine GSDIII patients were enrolled (age 2-20years) and compared to eighteen age and sex matched controls. BMD was evaluated by Dual-emission-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Clinical and biochemical parameters of endocrine system function and bone metabolism were analyzed. Serum levels of the metabolic control markers were evaluated. Physical activity was evaluated by administering the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). GSDIII patients showed reduced BMD detected at both DXA and QUS, decreased serum levels of IGF-1, free IGF-1, insulin, calcitonin, osteocalcin (OC) and increased serum levels of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). IGF-1 serum levels inversely correlated with AST and ALT serum levels. DXA Z-score inversely correlated with cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels and directly correlated with IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. No difference in physical activity was observed between GSDIII patients and controls. Our data confirm the presence of reduced BMD in GSDIII. On the basis of the results, we hypothesized that metabolic imbalance could be the key factor leading to osteopenia, acting through different mechanisms: chronic hyperlipidemia, reduced IGF-1, Insulin and OC serum levels. Thus, the mechanism of osteopenia/osteoporosis in GSDIII is probably multifactorial

  14. Fat metabolism is regulated by altered gene expression oflipogenic enzymes and regulatory factors in liver and adiposetissue but not in semimembranosus muscle of pigs during thefattening period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that lipid metabolism is regulated by fatty acids (FA) and that thyroid hormones are important regulators of energy metabolism. The effects of weight, dietary fat level and dietary FA profile on thyroid hormone levels and expression of lipogenic genes and tissue FA......, in particular, in regulating whole animal fat metabolism, with effects brought about by altered expression of lipogenic genes. Liver sterol receptor element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) mRNA content was affected by dietary treatment ( P,0.001) and was correlated with ACACA and SCD, whereas adipose tissue SREBP1...... was not correlated with the mRNA abundance of any lipogenic enzyme. Weight and tissue factors showed greater influence on mRNA abundance of genes related with lipid metabolism than diet and tissue FA composition. In the pig, FA synthesis appear to be of greater magnitude in adipose tissue than in the liver...

  15. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  16. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. LacSubPred: predicting subtypes of Laccases, an important lignin metabolism-related enzyme class, using in silico approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; Sahu, Sitanshu S; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy; Kaundal, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Laccases (E.C. 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that have gained importance in many industries such as biofuels, pulp production, textile dye bleaching, bioremediation, and food production. Their usefulness stems from the ability to act on a diverse range of phenolic compounds such as o-/p-quinols, aminophenols, polyphenols, polyamines, aryl diamines, and aromatic thiols. Despite acting on a wide range of compounds as a family, individual Laccases often exhibit distinctive and varied substrate ranges. This is likely due to Laccases involvement in many metabolic roles across diverse taxa. Classification systems for multi-copper oxidases have been developed using multiple sequence alignments, however, these systems seem to largely follow species taxonomy rather than substrate ranges, enzyme properties, or specific function. It has been suggested that the roles and substrates of various Laccases are related to their optimal pH. This is consistent with the observation that fungal Laccases usually prefer acidic conditions, whereas plant and bacterial Laccases pre