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Sample records for metabolizing differently repressive

  1. Transcriptional regulation of respiration in yeast metabolizing differently repressive carbon substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendt Sarah-Maria

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depending on the carbon source, Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays various degrees of respiration. These range from complete respiration as in the case of ethanol, to almost complete fermentation, and thus very low degrees of respiration on glucose. While many key regulators are known for these extreme cases, we focus here on regulators that are relevant at intermediate levels of respiration. Results We address this question by linking the functional degree of respiration to transcriptional regulation via enzyme abundances. Specifically, we investigated aerobic batch cultures with the differently repressive carbon sources glucose, mannose, galactose and pyruvate. Based on 13C flux analysis, we found that the respiratory contribution to cellular energy production was largely absent on glucose and mannose, intermediate on galactose and highest on pyruvate. In vivo abundances of 40 respiratory enzymes were quantified by GFP-fusions under each condition. During growth on the partly and fully respired substrates galactose and pyruvate, several TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes were significantly up-regulated. From these enzyme levels and the known regulatory network structure, we determined the probability for a given transcription factor to cause the coordinated expression changes. The most probable transcription factors to regulate the different degrees of respiration were Gcr1p, Cat8p, the Rtg-proteins and the Hap-complex. For the latter three ones we confirmed their importance for respiration by quantifying the degree of respiration and biomass yields in the corresponding deletion strains. Conclusions Cat8p is required for wild-type like respiration, independent of its known activation of gluconeogenic genes. The Rtg-proteins and the Hap-complex are essential for wild-type like respiration under partially respiratory conditions. Under fully respiratory conditions, the Hap-complex, but not the Rtg-proteins are essential

  2. Transcriptional regulation of respiration in yeast metabolizing differently repressive carbon substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Sauer, Uwe

    2010-02-18

    Depending on the carbon source, Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays various degrees of respiration. These range from complete respiration as in the case of ethanol, to almost complete fermentation, and thus very low degrees of respiration on glucose. While many key regulators are known for these extreme cases, we focus here on regulators that are relevant at intermediate levels of respiration. We address this question by linking the functional degree of respiration to transcriptional regulation via enzyme abundances. Specifically, we investigated aerobic batch cultures with the differently repressive carbon sources glucose, mannose, galactose and pyruvate. Based on 13C flux analysis, we found that the respiratory contribution to cellular energy production was largely absent on glucose and mannose, intermediate on galactose and highest on pyruvate. In vivo abundances of 40 respiratory enzymes were quantified by GFP-fusions under each condition. During growth on the partly and fully respired substrates galactose and pyruvate, several TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes were significantly up-regulated. From these enzyme levels and the known regulatory network structure, we determined the probability for a given transcription factor to cause the coordinated expression changes. The most probable transcription factors to regulate the different degrees of respiration were Gcr1p, Cat8p, the Rtg-proteins and the Hap-complex. For the latter three ones we confirmed their importance for respiration by quantifying the degree of respiration and biomass yields in the corresponding deletion strains. Cat8p is required for wild-type like respiration, independent of its known activation of gluconeogenic genes. The Rtg-proteins and the Hap-complex are essential for wild-type like respiration under partially respiratory conditions. Under fully respiratory conditions, the Hap-complex, but not the Rtg-proteins are essential for respiration.

  3. Role of sugar uptake and metabolic intermediates on catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J M; Thoms, B

    1977-01-01

    Many phosphorylated intermediates exert catabolite repression on the enzyme acetoin dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis. This was shown with strains that are blocked at different positions in central metabolism when they receive sugars that cannot be metabolized past enzymatic block(s). In the case of sorbitol, transport events were not involved in catabolite repression, for this sugar cannot repress acetoin dehydrogenase in a strain lacking sorbitol dehydrogenase but otherwise able to take up sorbitol. The presence of glucose did not markedly influence the uptake of acetoin. PMID:401492

  4. How stable is repression of disallowed genes in pancreatic islets in response to metabolic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Katleen; Granvik, Mikaela; Schraenen, Anica; Goyvaerts, Lotte; Van Lommel, Leentje; Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; In 't Veld, Peter; Gilon, Patrick; Schuit, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The specific phenotype of mature differentiated beta cells not only depends on the specific presence of genes that allow beta cell function but also on the selective absence of housekeeping genes ("disallowed genes") that would interfere with this function. Recent studies have shown that both histone modifications and DNA methylation via the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3A are involved in repression of disallowed genes in neonatal beta cells when these cells acquire their mature phenotype. It is unknown, however, if the environmental influence of advanced age, pregnancy and the metabolic stress of high fat diet or diabetes could alter the repression of disallowed genes in beta cells. In the present study, we show that islet disallowed genes-which are also deeply repressed in FACS-purified beta cells-remain deeply repressed in animals of advanced age and in pregnant females. Moreover, the stability of this repression was correlated with strong and stable histone repression marks that persisted in islets isolated from 2 year old mice and with overall high expression of Dnmt3a in islets. Furthermore, repression of disallowed genes was unaffected by the metabolic stress of high fat diet. However, repression of about half of the disallowed genes was weakened in 16 week-old diabetic db/db mice. In conclusion, we show that the disallowed status of islet genes is stable under physiological challenging conditions (advanced age, pregnancy, high fat diet) but partially lost in islets from diabetic animals.

  5. Alleviation of glucose repression of maltose metabolism by MIG1 disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Christopher; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    1996-01-01

    The MIG1 gene was disrupted in a haploid laboratory strain (B224) and in an industrial polyploid strain (DGI 342) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alleviation of glucose repression of the expression of MAL genes and alleviation of glucose control of maltose metabolism were investigated in batch...... stringent glucose control of maltose metabolism than the corresponding wild-type strain, which could be explained by a more rigid catabolite inactivation of maltose permease, affecting the uptake of maltose. Growth on the glucose-sucrose mixture showed that the polyploid Delta mig1 strain was relieved...... of glucose repression of the SUC genes. The disruption of MIG1 was shown to bring about pleiotropic effects, manifested in changes in the pattern of secreted metabolites and in the specific growth rate....

  6. Nitrogen Metabolite Repression of Metabolism and Virulence in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. Russel; Chow, Eve W. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Fraser, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Proper regulation of metabolism is essential to maximizing fitness of organisms in their chosen environmental niche. Nitrogen metabolite repression is an example of a regulatory mechanism in fungi that enables preferential utilization of easily assimilated nitrogen sources, such as ammonium, to conserve resources. Here we provide genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic evidence of nitrogen metabolite repression in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition to loss of transcriptional activation of catabolic enzyme-encoding genes of the uric acid and proline assimilation pathways in the presence of ammonium, nitrogen metabolite repression also regulates the production of the virulence determinants capsule and melanin. Since GATA transcription factors are known to play a key role in nitrogen metabolite repression, bioinformatic analyses of the C. neoformans genome were undertaken and seven predicted GATA-type genes were identified. A screen of these deletion mutants revealed GAT1, encoding the only global transcription factor essential for utilization of a wide range of nitrogen sources, including uric acid, urea, and creatinine—three predominant nitrogen constituents found in the C. neoformans ecological niche. In addition to its evolutionarily conserved role in mediating nitrogen metabolite repression and controlling the expression of catabolic enzyme and permease-encoding genes, Gat1 also negatively regulates virulence traits, including infectious basidiospore production, melanin formation, and growth at high body temperature (39°–40°). Conversely, Gat1 positively regulates capsule production. A murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis revealed that the gat1Δ mutant is slightly more virulent than wild type, indicating that Gat1 plays a complex regulatory role during infection. PMID:21441208

  7. CcpA-Dependent Carbohydrate Catabolite Repression Regulates Galactose Metabolism in Streptococcus oligofermentans

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    Cai, Jun; Qi, Fengxia

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is an oral commensal that inhibits the growth of the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans by producing copious amounts of H2O2 and that grows faster than S. mutans on galactose. In this study, we identified a novel eight-gene galactose (gal) operon in S. oligofermentans that was comprised of lacABCD, lacX, and three genes encoding a galactose-specific transporter. Disruption of lacA caused more growth reduction on galactose than mutation of galK, a gene in the Leloir pathway, indicating that the principal role of this operon is in galactose metabolism. Diauxic growth was observed in cultures containing glucose and galactose, and a luciferase reporter fusion to the putative gal promoter demonstrated 12-fold repression of the operon expression by glucose but was induced by galactose, suggesting a carbon catabolite repression (CCR) control in galactose utilization. Interestingly, none of the single-gene mutations in the well-known CCR regulators ccpA and manL affected diauxic growth, although the operon expression was upregulated in these mutants in glucose. A double mutation of ccpA and manL eliminated glucose repression of galactose utilization, suggesting that these genes have parallel functions in regulating gal operon expression and mediating CCR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated binding of CcpA to the putative catabolite response element motif in the promoter regions of the gal operon and manL, suggesting that CcpA regulates CCR through direct regulation of the transcription of the gal operon and manL. This provides the first example of oral streptococci using two parallel CcpA-dependent CCR pathways in controlling carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22609925

  8. The mTORC1 pathway stimulates glutamine metabolism and cell proliferation by repressing SIRT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibi, Alfred; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Li, Chenggang; Poulogiannis, George; Choo, Andrew Y.; Chapski, Douglas J.; Jeong, Seung Min; Dempsey, Jamie; Parkhitko, Andrey; Morrison, Tasha; Henske, Elizabeth; Haigis, Marcia; Cantley, Lewis C.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Yu, Jane; Blenis, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary Proliferating mammalian cells use glutamine as a source of nitrogen and as a key anaplerotic source to provide metabolites to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) for biosynthesis. Recently, mTORC1 activation has been correlated with increased nutrient uptake and metabolism, but no molecular connection to glutaminolysis has been reported. Here, we show that mTORC1 promotes glutamine anaplerosis by activating glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). This regulation requires transcriptional repression of SIRT4, the mitochondrial-localized sirtuin that inhibits GDH. Mechanistically, mTORC1 represses SIRT4 by promoting the proteasome-mediated destabilization of cAMP response element binding-2 (CREB2). Thus, a relationship between mTORC1, SIRT4 and cancer is suggested by our findings. Indeed, SIRT4 expression is reduced in human cancer, and its overexpression reduces cell proliferation, transformation and tumor development. Finally, our data indicate that targeting nutrient metabolism in energy-addicted cancers with high mTORC1 signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:23663782

  9. Repressing malic enzyme 1 redirects glucose metabolism, unbalances the redox state, and attenuates migratory and invasive abilities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang-Jing; Ye, Hao-Bin; Wu, Man-Si; Lian, Yi-Fan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is required for fatty acid synthesis and maintenance of the redox state in cancer cells. Malic enzyme 1 (ME1)-dependent NADPH production is one of the three pathways that contribute to the formation of the cytosolic NADPH pool. ME1 is generally considered to be overexpressed in cancer cells to meet the high demand for increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we found that glucose induced higher ME1 activity and that repressing ME1 had a profound impact on glucose metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. High incorporation of glucose and an enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in ME1-repressed cells. However, there were no obvious changes in the other two pathways for glucose metabolism: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, NADPH was decreased under low-glucose condition in ME1-repressed cells relative to wild-type cells, whereas no significant difference was observed under high-glucose condition. ME1-repressed cells had significantly decreased tolerance to low-glucose condition. Moreover, NADPH produced by ME1 was not only important for fatty acid synthesis but also essential for maintenance of the intracellular redox state and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore, diminished migration and invasion were observed in ME1-repressed cells due to a reduced level of Snail protein. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for ME1 in the production of cytosolic NADPH and maintenance of migratory and invasive abilities of NPC cells. PMID:23114090

  10. Increased heme synthesis in yeast induces a metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration even under conditions of glucose repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Bu, Pengli; Zeng, Joey; Vancura, Ales

    2017-10-13

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is a complex process that involves several signaling pathways and transcription factors as well as communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Under aerobic conditions, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes glucose predominantly by glycolysis and fermentation. We have recently shown that altered chromatin structure in yeast induces respiration by a mechanism that requires transport and metabolism of pyruvate in mitochondria. However, how pyruvate controls the transcriptional responses underlying the metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration is unknown. Here, we report that this pyruvate effect involves heme. We found that heme induces transcription of HAP4 , the transcriptional activation subunit of the Hap2/3/4/5p complex, required for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources, in a Hap1p- and Hap2/3/4/5p-dependent manner. Increasing cellular heme levels by inactivating ROX1 , which encodes a repressor of many hypoxic genes, or by overexpressing HEM3 or HEM12 induced respiration and elevated ATP levels. Increased heme synthesis, even under conditions of glucose repression, activated Hap1p and the Hap2/3/4/5p complex and induced transcription of HAP4 and genes required for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to a switch from fermentation to respiration. Conversely, inhibiting metabolic flux into the TCA cycle reduced cellular heme levels and HAP4 transcription. Together, our results indicate that the glucose-mediated repression of respiration in budding yeast is at least partly due to the low cellular heme level. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Metabolic Engineering of the Regulators in Nitrogen Catabolite Repression To Reduce the Production of Ethyl Carbamate in a Model Rice Wine System

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    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production. PMID:24185848

  12. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has

  13. Jasmonates: Biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wasternack, Claus; Song, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 1303-1321 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activators * Amino acid conjugates * Biosynthesis * Jasmonic acid * Metabolism * Perception * Repressors * SCFJAZ co-receptor complex COI1 * Signaling Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  14. GAPDH Binding to TNF-α mRNA Contributes to Posttranscriptional Repression in Monocytes: A Novel Mechanism of Communication between Inflammation and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Patrick; Vachharajani, Vidula; McPhail, Linda; Yoza, Barbara; McCall, Charles E

    2016-03-15

    Expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF is tightly controlled. During endotoxin tolerance, transcription of TNF mRNA is repressed, although not entirely eliminated. Production of TNF cytokine, however, is further controlled by posttranscriptional regulation. In this study, we detail a mechanism of posttranscriptional repression of TNF mRNA by GAPDH binding to the TNF 3' untranslated region. Using RNA immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding increases when THP-1 monocytes are in a low glycolysis state, and that this binding can be reversed by knocking down GAPDH expression or by increasing glycolysis. We show that reducing glycolysis decreases TNF mRNA association with polysomes. We demonstrate that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding results in posttranscriptional repression of TNF and that the TNF mRNA 3' untranslated region is sufficient for repression. Finally, after exploring this model in THP-1 cells, we demonstrate this mechanism affects TNF expression in primary human monocytes and macrophages. We conclude that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding regulates expression of TNF based on cellular metabolic state. We think this mechanism has potentially significant implications for treatment of various immunometabolic conditions, including immune paralysis during septic shock. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. CYP4F2 repression and a modified alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) metabolism are two independent consequences of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Bartolini, D; Torquato, P; Giusepponi, D; Barola, C; Galarini, R; Birringer, M; Lorkowski, S; Galli, F

    2017-04-01

    The expression of CYP4F2, a form of cytochrome P-450 with proposed role in α-tocopherol and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, was explored in HepG2 and HepaRG human hepatocytes during ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity, ROS production, and JNK and ERK1/2 kinase signaling increased in a dose and time-dependent manner during ethanol treatments; CYP4F2 gene expression decreased, while other CYP4F forms, namely 4F11 and 12, increased along with 3A4 and 2E1 isoforms. α-Tocopherol antagonized the cytotoxicity and CYP4F2 gene repression effect of ethanol in HepG2 cells. Ethanol stimulated the tocopherol-ω-hydroxylase activity and the other steps of vitamin E metabolism, which points to a minor role of CYP4F2 in this metabolism of human hepatocytes. PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c followed the same expression pattern of CYP4F2 in response to ethanol and α-tocopherol treatments. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PPAR-γ synergized with ethanol in decreasing CYP4F2 protein expression, which suggests a role of this nuclear receptor in CYP4F2 transcriptional regulation. In conclusion, ethanol toxicity modifies the CYP expression pattern of human hepatic cells impairing CYP4F2 transcription and protein expression. These changes were associated with a lowered expression of the fatty acid biosynthesis regulators PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and with an increased enzymatic catabolism of vitamin E. CYP4F2 gene repression and a sustained vitamin E metabolism appear to be independent effects of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles.

  17. Different Levels of Catabolite Repression Optimize Growth in Stable and Variable Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yea...

  18. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of the benzene to hydroquinone metabolites than do rats or chimpanzees, especially at low doses. Nonhuman primates metabolize less of the benzene to muconic acid than do rodents or humans. In all species studied, a greater proportion of benzene is converted to hydroquinone and ring-breakage metabolites at low doses than at high doses. This finding should be considered in attempting to extrapolate the toxicity of benzene observed at high doses to predicted toxicity at low doses. Because ring-breakage metabolites and hydroquinone have both been implicated in the toxicity of benzene, the higher formation of those metabolites in the mouse may partially explain why mice are more sensitive to benzene than are rats. Metabolism of benzene in humans, the species of interest, does not exactly mimic that of any animal species studied. More information on the urinary and blood metabolites of occupationally exposed people is required to determine the fractional conversion of benzene to putative toxic metabolites and the degree of variability present in human subjects. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Complex pathways for regulation of pyrimidine metabolism by carbon catabolite repression and quorum sensing in Pseudomonas putida RU-KM3S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, Gwynneth Felicity; Jiwaji, Meesbah; de la Mare, Jo-Anne; Dorrington, Rosemary Ann

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonads are metabolically versatile microbes that employ complex regulatory networks to control gene expression, particularly with respect to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterise the regulatory networks that control pyrimidine metabolism (hydantoin-hydrolysing activity) in Pseudomonas putida strain RU-KM3S, focussing on transcriptional activation of dihydropyrimidinase (Dhp) and β-ureidopropionase (Bup), encoding dhp and bup, respectively. The two genes are arranged divergently on the chromosome and are separated by ORF1, encoding a putative transporter, which lies upstream of and in the same orientation as bup. The results from this study reveal that pyrimidine metabolism, as a function of Bup and Dhp activity in P. putida RU-KM3S, is controlled by a complex regulatory network including several global pathways in addition to induction by the substrate. Three major control pathways act at the level of transcriptional and include: (1) induction of transcriptional activation in the presence of hydantoin, (2) carbon catabolite repression mediated via a pathway independent of Crc and (3) quorum sensing that does not require a putative lux box located upstream of the dhp transcriptional start. Finally, the data suggest a minor role for the global regulators Anr, Vfr and Crc, likely through regulation of the activity of transcription factors interacting directly with the bup/ORF1-dhp promoter.

  20. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chatenay-Lapointe

    Full Text Available Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  1. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatenay-Lapointe, Marc; Shadel, Gerald S

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  2. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration...... and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...... on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression....

  3. Metabolic Differences between Dogs of Different Body Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondo P. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives. This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively. Eighty-three canines from seven different breeds, fed the same kibble diet for 5 weeks, were used in the study. Results. 449 metabolites, 16 clinical parameters, and 6 bacteria (at the genus level were significantly different between small and larger dogs. Hierarchical clustering of the metabolites yielded 8 modules associated with small dog size. Conclusion. Small dogs had a lower antioxidant status and differences in circulating amino acids. Some of the amino acid differences could be attributed to differences in microflora. Additionally, analysis of small dog metabolites and clinical parameters reflected a network which strongly associates with kidney function.

  4. Copper metabolism domain-containing 1 represses the mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-01

    Does Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain 1 (COMMD1) play a role in regulating the mediators involved in the terminal processes of human labour and delivery? COMMD1 plays a critical role in the termination of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and the control of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. Inflammation and infection are the biggest aetiological factors associated with preterm birth. NF-κB drives the transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labour and delivery. In non-gestational tissues, COMMD1 is a negative regulator of NF-κB-induced inflammation. The mRNA and/or protein level of COMMD1 was assessed in myometrium (n = 8 per group) and fetal membranes (n = 8 per group) obtained from term non-labouring and labouring women at term, and fetal membranes (n = 8 per group) at preterm with and without histological chorioamnionitis. Primary human myometrial cells were used to determine the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators on COMMD1 level, and the effect of COMMD1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on pro-labour mediators. Statistical significance was ascribed to a P labour in myometrium; in fetal membranes with histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis and in myometrial cells treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide and the viral double stranded RNA analogue polyinosinic polycytidilic acid. Loss-of-function studies revealed an increase in inflammation- and infection-induced TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and/or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA abundance and/or release; and cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA level, release of prostaglandin (PG) F2α and mRNA level of the PGF2α receptor FP. In addition, siRNA knockdown of COMMD1 was associated with significantly increased NF-κB activation as evidenced by increased IL-1β-induced IκB-α protein degradation and NF-κB DNA binding activity. The

  5. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    if consultation actually leads to improvements of legistlative proposals. A necessary condition for that to be the case is that consultation actually has an effect on proposals. However, this detailed study of consultation reports in Denmark – chosen as a most-likely case when it comes to consultation having...... a substantial effect on the substance of laws – shows that there is a great difference in the amenability of different branches of government but that, in general, authorities do not listen much despite a very strong consultation institution and tradition. A suggestion for an explanation could be pointing......Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened...

  6. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates...... cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...

  7. Sex Differences in the Expression of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, David J.; Holloway, Minita G.

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characterize many drugs and contribute to individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. Sex-based differences in drug metabolism are the primary cause of sex-dependent pharmacokinetics and reflect underlying sex differences in the expression of hepatic enzymes active in the metabolism of drugs, steroids, fatty acids and environmental chemicals, including cytochromes P450 (P450s), sulfotransferases, glutat...

  8. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  9. Cerebral glucose metabolic differences in patients with panic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordahl, T.E.; Semple, W.E.; Gross, M.; Mellman, T.A.; Stein, M.B.; Goyer, P.; King, A.C.; Uhde, T.W.; Cohen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rates were measured in patients with panic disorder during the performance of auditory discrimination. Those regions examined by Reiman and colleagues in their blood flow study of panic disorder were examined with a higher resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and with the tracer [F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In contrast to the blood flow findings of Reiman et al., we did not find global gray metabolic differences between patients with panic disorder and normal controls. Consistent with the findings of Reiman et al., we found hippocampal region asymmetry. We also found metabolic decreases in the left inferior parietal lobule and in the anterior cingulate (trend), as well as an increase in the metabolic rate of the medial orbital frontal cortex (trend) of panic disorder patients. It is unclear whether the continuous performance task (CPT) enhanced or diminished findings that would have been noted in a study performed without task

  10. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students: Differences by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Araceli Álvarez Gasca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.

  11. Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Reue, Karen

    2017-08-21

    Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement. Here, we review the mechanisms by which gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement each contribute to lipid metabolism and associated diseases, and the current approaches that are used to study them. We focus particularly on genetic approaches including genome-wide association studies in humans and mice, -omics and systems genetics approaches, and unique experimental mouse models that allow distinction between gonadal and sex chromosome effects.

  12. Mechanisms and Metabolic Implications of Regional Differences among Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Jensen, Michael D.; Kirkland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Fat distribution is closely linked to metabolic disease risk. Distribution varies with sex, genetic background, disease state, certain drugs and hormones, development, and aging. Preadipocyte replication and differentiation, developmental gene expression, susceptibility to apoptosis and cellular senescence, vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltration, and adipokine secretion vary among depots, as do fatty-acid handling and mechanisms of enlargement with positive-energy and loss with negative-energy balance. How interdepot differences in these molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological properties are related is incompletely understood. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. PMID:23583168

  13. Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi Ana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

  14. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Ka-Wing Cheung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  15. IS FINANCIAL REPRESSION REALLY BAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young OH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between reserve requirements, interest rate taxes, and long-term growth. I present a model which shows that the government might repress the financial sector as this is the easy way of channelling resources to productive sectors. In this endogenous model, I employ the government input in the firm production function. The implications of the model are confirmed in that, an increase in reserve requirements and interest rate controls have two different reverse effects on growth - one is the negative effect on the financial sector. The other is a growth enhancing effect from the effective public spending on the real sectors.

  16. Intertissue differences for the role of glutamate dehydrogenase in metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R; Banh, Sheena; Pandey, Umesh; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays an important role in integrating mitochondrial metabolism of amino acids and ammonia. Glutamate may function as a respiratory substrate in the oxidative deamination direction of GDH, which also yields α-ketoglutarate. In the reductive amination direction GDH produces glutamate, which can then be used for other cellular needs such as amino acid synthesis via transamination. The production or removal of ammonia by GDH is also an important consequence of flux through this enzyme. However, the abundance and role of GDH in cellular metabolism varies by tissue. Here we discuss the different roles the house-keeping form of GDH has in major organs of the body and how GDH may be important to regulating aspects of intermediary metabolism. The near-equilibrium poise of GDH in liver and controversy over cofactor specificity and regulation is discussed, as well as, the role of GDH in regulation of renal ammoniagenesis, and the possible importance of GDH activity in the release of nitrogen carriers by the small intestine.

  17. SEX-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN LIPID AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg eVarlamov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy metabolism in humans is tuned to distinct sex-specific functions that potentially reflect the unique requirements in females for gestation and lactation, whereas male metabolism may represent a default state. These differences are the consequence of the action of sex chromosomes and sex-specific hormones, including estrogens and progesterone in females and androgens in males. In humans, sex-specific specialization is associated with distinct body-fat distribution and energy substrate-utilization patterns; i.e., females store more lipids and have higher whole-body insulin sensitivity than males, while males tend to oxidize more lipids than females. These patterns are influenced by the menstrual phase in females, and by nutritional status and exercise intensity in both sexes. This minireview focuses on sex-specific mechanisms in lipid and glucose metabolism and their regulation by sex hormones, with a primary emphasis on studies in humans and the most relevant pre-clinical model of human physiology, non-human primates.

  18. VDAC electronics: 4. Novel electrical mechanism and thermodynamic estimations of glucose repression of yeast respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2017-11-01

    Inhibition of cell respiration by high concentrations of glucose (glucose repression), known as "Crabtree effect", has been demonstrated for various cancerous strains, highly proliferating cells and yeast lines. Although significant progress in understanding metabolic events associated with the glucose repression of cell respiration has been achieved, it is not yet clear whether the Crabtree effect is the result of a limited activity of the respiratory chain, or of some glucose-mediated regulation of mitochondrial metabolic state. In this work we propose an electrical mechanism of glucose repression of the yeast S. cerevisiae, resulting from generation of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential (OMP) coupled to the direct oxidation of cytosolic NADH in mitochondria. This yeast-type mechanism of OMP generation is different from the earlier proposed VDAC-hexokinase-mediated voltage generation of cancer-type, associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane. The model was developed assuming that VDAC is more permeable to NADH than to NAD + . Thermodynamic estimations of OMP, generated as a result of NADH(2-)/NAD + (1-) turnover through the outer membrane, demonstrated that the values of calculated negative OMP match the known range of VDAC voltage sensitivity, thus suggesting a possibility of OMP-dependent VDAC-mediated regulation of cell energy metabolism. According to the proposed mechanism, we suggest that the yeast-type Crabtree effect is the result of a fast VDAC-mediated electrical repression of mitochondria due to a decrease in the outer membrane permeability to charged metabolites and owing their redistribution between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol, both controlled by metabolically-derived OMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A systems biology approach to study glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Steen Lund; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Bro, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    Glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved as a complex regulatory system involving several different pathways. There are two main pathways involved in signal transduction. One has a role in glucose sensing and regulation of glucose transport, while another takes part...... on transcription of genes telated to TCA cycle and respiration, as well as ATP synthesis coupled proton transport, all displaying an increased expression. The hxk2Δ strain showed reduced overflow metabolism towards ethanol relative to the parental strain. We also used a genome-scale metabolic model to identify...

  20. Microarray analysis reveals increased transcriptional repression and reduced metabolic activity but not major changes in the core apoptotic machinery during maturation of sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk eRaba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, Coro1A, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apaf1 in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia.

  1. Metabolic syndrome across Europe: different clusters of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Angelo; Laurent, Stephane; Cucca, Francesco; Cockcroft, John; Cunha, Pedro Guimaraes; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Mattace Raso, Francesco U; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Ryliškytė, Ligita; Rietzschel, Ernst; Strait, James; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Völzke, Henry; Lakatta, Edward G; Nilsson, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains a controversial entity. Specific clusters of MetS components - rather than MetS per se - are associated with accelerated arterial ageing and with cardiovascular (CV) events. To investigate whether the distribution of clusters of MetS components differed cross-culturally, we studied 34,821 subjects from 12 cohorts from 10 European countries and one cohort from the USA in the MARE (Metabolic syndrome and Arteries REsearch) Consortium. In accordance with the ATP III criteria, MetS was defined as an alteration three or more of the following five components: elevated glucose (G), fasting glucose ≥110 mg/dl; low HDL cholesterol, 102 cm for men or >88 cm for women. MetS had a 24.3% prevalence (8468 subjects: 23.9% in men vs. 24.6% in women, p definition of MetS is not a unique entity rather a constellation of cluster of MetS components, likely selectively risky for CV disease, whose occurrence differs across countries. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Hopping locomotion at different gravity: metabolism and mechanics in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto E

    2016-05-15

    Previous literature on the effects of low gravity on the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion already dealt with walking, running, and skipping. The aim of the present study is to obtain a comprehensive view on that subject by including measurements of human hopping in simulated low gravity, a gait often adopted in many Apollo Missions and documented in NASA footage. Six subjects hopped at different speeds at terrestrial, Martian, and Lunar gravity on a treadmill while oxygen consumption and 3D body kinematic were sampled. Results clearly indicate that hopping is too metabolically expensive to be a sustainable locomotion on Earth but, similarly to skipping (and running), its economy greatly (more than ×10) increases at lower gravity. On the Moon, the metabolic cost of hopping becomes even lower than that of walking, skipping, and running, but the general finding is that gaits with very different economy on Earth share almost the same economy on the Moon. The mechanical reasons for such a decrease in cost are discussed in the paper. The present data, together with previous findings, will allow also to predict the aerobic traverse range/duration of astronauts when getting far from their base station on low gravity planets. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.......This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  4. Adaptation to different types of stress converge on mitochondrial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Kumar, Rahul; Hallström, Björn M; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Yeast cell factories encounter physical and chemical stresses when used for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. These stresses reduce productivity and increase bioprocess costs. Understanding the mechanisms of the stress response is essential for improving cellular robustness in platform strains. We investigated the three most commonly encountered industrial stresses for yeast (ethanol, salt, and temperature) to identify the mechanisms of general and stress-specific responses under chemostat conditions in which specific growth rate-dependent changes are eliminated. By applying systems-level analysis, we found that most stress responses converge on mitochondrial processes. Our analysis revealed that stress-specific factors differ between applied stresses; however, they are underpinned by an increased ATP demand. We found that when ATP demand increases to high levels, respiration cannot provide sufficient ATP, leading to onset of respirofermentative metabolism. Although stress-specific factors increase ATP demand for cellular growth under stressful conditions, increased ATP demand for cellular maintenance underpins a general stress response and is responsible for the onset of overflow metabolism. © 2016 Lahtvee et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Nutritional consequences of interspecies differences in arginine and lysine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Ronald O; Urschel, Kristine L; Pencharz, Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Differences in lysine and arginine requirements among various species such as omnivores (humans, pigs, rats, dogs), carnivores (cats), herbivores (rabbits, horses), ruminants (cattle), poultry, and fish, are covered in detail in this article. Although lysine is classified as an indispensable amino acid across species, the classification of arginine as either an indispensable or dispensable amino acid is more ambiguous because of differences among species in rates of de novo arginine synthesis. Because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid in the diet, its requirement has been extensively studied. By use of the ideal protein concept, the requirements of the other indispensable amino acids can be extrapolated from the lysine requirement. The successful use of this concept in pigs is compared with potential application of the ideal protein concept in humans. The current dietary arginine requirement varies widely among species, with ruminants, rabbits, and rats having relatively low requirements and carnivores, fish, and poultry having high requirements. Interspecies differences in metabolic arginine utilization and reasons for different rates of de novo arginine synthesis are reviewed in detail, as these are the primary determinants of the dietary arginine requirement. There is presently no dietary requirement for humans of any age, although this needs to be reassessed, particularly in neonates. A thorough understanding of the factors contributing to the lysine and arginine requirements in different species will be useful in our understanding of human amino acid requirements.

  6. Kinetically-defined component actions in gene repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson C Chow

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene repression by transcription factors, and glucocorticoid receptors (GR in particular, is a critical, but poorly understood, physiological response. Among the many unresolved questions is the difference between GR regulated induction and repression, and whether transcription cofactor action is the same in both. Because activity classifications based on changes in gene product level are mechanistically uninformative, we present a theory for gene repression in which the mechanisms of factor action are defined kinetically and are consistent for both gene repression and induction. The theory is generally applicable and amenable to predictions if the dose-response curve for gene repression is non-cooperative with a unit Hill coefficient, which is observed for GR-regulated repression of AP1LUC reporter induction by phorbol myristate acetate. The theory predicts the mechanism of GR and cofactors, and where they act with respect to each other, based on how each cofactor alters the plots of various kinetic parameters vs. cofactor. We show that the kinetically-defined mechanism of action of each of four factors (reporter gene, p160 coactivator TIF2, and two pharmaceuticals [NU6027 and phenanthroline] is the same in GR-regulated repression and induction. What differs is the position of GR action. This insight should simplify clinical efforts to differentially modulate factor actions in gene induction vs. gene repression.

  7. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts.

  8. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  9. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  10. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  11. Phenotypic characterization of glucose repression mutants of Saccharomyce cerevisiae usinge experiments with C-13-labelled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayendran, Raghevendran; Gombert, A.K.; Christensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    glucose. Through GC-MS analysis of the C-13 incorporated into the amino acids of cellular proteins, it was possible to obtain quantitative information on the function of the central carbon metabolism in the different mutants. Traditionally, such labelling data have been used to quantify metabolic fluxes...... through the use of a suitable mathematical model, but here we show that the raw labelling data may also be used directly for phenotypic characterization of different mutant strains. Different glucose derepressed strains investigated employed are the disruption mutants reg1, hxk2, grr1, mig1 and mig1mig2...... and the reference strain CEN.PK113-7D. Principal components analysis of the summed fractional labelling data show that deleting the genes HXK2 and GRR1 results in similar phenotype at the fluxome level, with a partial alleviation of glucose repression on the respiratory metabolism. Furthermore, deletion...

  12. Quantifying spatial differences in metabolism in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo González-Pinzón; Roy Haggerty; Alba Argerich

    2014-01-01

    Stream functioning includes simultaneous interaction among solute transport, nutrient processing, and metabolism. Metabolism is measured with methods that have limited spatial representativeness and are highly uncertain. These problems restrict development of methods for up-scaling biological processes that mediate nutrient processing. We used the resazurin–resorufin (...

  13. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Lykholat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions defined high sensitivity to exogenous estrogen-like compounds. Presents results on the effects of nutritional estrogens on metabolic processes in animals of different ages testify to the potential health risks of consumer products that may be contaminated with endogenous hormones. Despite the steady growth of agricultural production, development of agro-industrial pollution drugs like compounds of food is very likely. This phenomenon is of concern and requires increased control of both the responsible organizations and public associations that will enable to avoid the negative effects of dietary factors on the population health. Particular attention should be paid to the safety and quality of children's food, because this population is extremely sensitive to the influence of previously alimentary factors.

  14. [Metabolic syndrome in adolescents of different nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Bozza, Rodrigo; Ulbrich, Anderson; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Campos, Wagner de

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents of different nutritional status. The sample consisted of 582 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Body mass index (BMI) classification of nutritional status was performed using the NCHS growth charts. MetS diagnosis was determined by the presence of three or more risk factors. Overall MetS prevalence was 6.7% (CI: 4.9%-9%); in boys, prevalence was 9.4%; and in girls, 4.1%. MetS prevalence was 17.2% (CI: 10%-28.2%) and 37.1% (CI: 23.2%-53.7%) in overweight and obese adolescents, respectively. All obese adolescents had at least one risk factor present, and demonstrated high MetS prevalence ratio compared with adolescents of normal weight (PR: 11.1; CI: 5.75-21.47). High prevalence of MetS was observed in obese adolescents. Prevention strategies should focus on body weight control since the beginning of adolescence.

  15. Arsenic Metabolism in Children Differs From That in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder Löveborn, Helena; Kippler, Maria; Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Kuehnelt, Doris; Raqib, Rubhana; Vahter, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity in adults is associated with methylation efficiency, influenced by factors such as gender, genetics, and nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate influencing factors for arsenic metabolism in children. For 488 children (9 years), whose mothers participated in a study on arsenic exposure during pregnancy (nested into the MINIMat trial) in rural Bangladesh, we measured urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its metabolites methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by HPLC-HG-ICPMS. Methylation efficiency was assessed by relative amounts (%) of the metabolites. We evaluated the impact of factors such as maternal urinary metabolite pattern, arsenic exposure, gender, socioeconomic status, season of sampling, and nutritional factors, including erythrocyte selenium (Ery-Se), and plasma folate and vitamin B12.Children had higher %DMA and lower %iAs in urine compared to their mothers, unrelated to their lower exposure [median urinary arsenic (U-As) 53 vs 78 µg/l]. Surprisingly, selenium status (Ery-Se) was strongly associated with children's arsenic methylation; an increase in Ery-Se from the 5-95th percentile was associated with: +1.8 percentage points (pp) for %iAs (P  =  .001), +1.4 pp for %MMA (P  =  .003), and -3.2 pp for %DMA (P  41 µg/l, P  =  .026). As expected, plasma folate was inversely associated with %iAs (5-95th percentile: -1.9 pp, P  =  .001) and positively associated with %DMA (5-95th percentile: +2.2 pp, P  =  .008). Children methylated arsenic more efficiently than their mothers. Also influencing factors, mainly selenium and folate, differed. This warrants further research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  16. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....

  17. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhira, Shuji; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats

  18. Adaptation to different types of stress converge on mitochondrial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Kumar, Rahul; Hallstrom, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    strains. We investigated the three most commonly encountered industrial stresses for yeast (ethanol, salt, and temperature) to identify the mechanisms of general and stress-specific responses under chemostat conditions in which specific growth rate–dependent changes are eliminated. By applying systems...... sufficient ATP, leading to onset of respirofermentative metabolism. Although stress-specific factors increase ATP demand for cellular growth under stressful conditions, increased ATP demand for cellular maintenance underpins a general stress response and is responsible for the onset of overflow metabolism....

  19. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors...

  20. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pineapple fruits, sugar accumulation plays an important role in flavor characteristics, which varies according to the stage of fruit development. Metabolic changes in the contents of fructose, sucrose and glucose and reducing sugar related to the activities of soluble acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose ...

  1. Fructan metabolism in tall fescue calli under different environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Journals

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Dourados - MS, 79.804-970, Brazil. 2Dipartimento di Biologia, Sezione di Fisiologia Vegetale, Università di Pisa (UNIPI), Pisa, 56124, Italy. ... E-mail: lguglielminetti@biologia.unipi.it. sucrose; therefore, their synthesis ...... (2005). Molecular genetics of fructan metabolism in perennial ryegrass. Plant Biotech.

  2. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism.

  3. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients......The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  4. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  5. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  6. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by histone lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublitz, Philip; Albert, Mareike; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2009-01-01

    During development, covalent modification of both, histones and DNA contribute to the specification and maintenance of cell identity. Repressive modifications are thought to stabilize cell type specific gene expression patterns, reducing the likelihood of reactivation of lineage-unrelated genes......, transcription factor binding and the antagonizing activities of distinct epigenetic regulators such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs). Subsequently, we compare chromatin signatures associated with different types of transcriptional outcomes from stable repression to highly...

  7. Catabolite repression and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Benson, Andrew K; Hutkins, Robert W

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that carbohydrates may affect expression of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes. Which carbohydrates influence virulence gene expression and how carbohydrates mediate expression, however, is not clear. The goal of this work was to examine how carbohydrates affect virulence gene expression in L. monocytogenes 10403S. Growth studies were conducted in medium containing glucose and various sugars. Metabolism of arbutin, arabitol, cellobiose, mannose, maltose, trehalose, and salicin were repressed in the presence of glucose. Only when glucose was consumed were these sugars fermented, indicating that catabolite repression by glucose had occurred. To determine whether virulence gene expression was also influenced by catabolite repression, we performed primer extension experiments, using primers for hly and prfA, which encode for a hemolysin and the regulator protein PrfA, respectively. In the presence of cellobiose and arbutin, transcription of hemolysin was reduced. However, none of the sugars affected transcription of prfA. The results demonstrate that catabolite repression occurs in L. monocytogenes and suggests that, at least in strain 10403S, cellobiose and arbutin repress expression of hemolysin.

  8. The regulation of transcriptional repression in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Miguel A S; Cheong, Alex; Taylor, Cormac T

    2017-07-15

    A sufficient supply molecular oxygen is essential for the maintenance of physiologic metabolism and bioenergetic homeostasis for most metazoans. For this reason, mechanisms have evolved for eukaryotic cells to adapt to conditions where oxygen demand exceeds supply (hypoxia). These mechanisms rely on the modification of pre-existing proteins, translational arrest and transcriptional changes. The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF; a master regulator of gene induction in response to hypoxia) is responsible for the majority of induced gene expression in hypoxia. However, much less is known about the mechanism(s) responsible for gene repression, an essential part of the adaptive transcriptional response. Hypoxia-induced gene repression leads to a reduction in energy demanding processes and the redirection of limited energetic resources to essential housekeeping functions. Recent developments have underscored the importance of transcriptional repressors in cellular adaptation to hypoxia. To date, at least ten distinct transcriptional repressors have been reported to demonstrate sensitivity to hypoxia. Central among these is the Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST), which regulates over 200 genes. In this review, written to honor the memory and outstanding scientific legacy of Lorenz Poellinger, we provide an overview of our existing knowledge with respect to transcriptional repressors and their target genes in hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways are frequently influenced by different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhong; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2017-07-01

    Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study

  10. Metabolic syndrome and gender differences in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Pavlidis, Antonis N; Salpea, Klelia D; Iraklianou, Stella A; Hoursalas, Ioannis S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2006-08-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia may be a predictor of vascular risk. We evaluated postprandial lipaemia after an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) in men (n=41) and women (n=21) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the fat load. Men showed a greater plasma TG response 8 h after the fat load (284+/-117 versus 224+/-126 mg/dl, P=0.029). Only fasting TG levels significantly predicted the TG area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC. Men had a more pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia and seem to have delayed TG clearance.

  11. The metabolic syndrome and related characteristics in major depression : inpatients and outpatients compared Metabolic differences across treatment settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Objective: We aimed to systematically compare patients with major depressive disorder from three different treatment settings (a primary care outpatient, a secondary care outpatient and one inpatient sample), with regard to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalences, individual MetSyn components and

  12. The metabolic syndrome and related characteristics in major depression: inpatients and outpatients compared metabolic differences across treatment settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, F.S.; Bouvy, P.F.; Giltay, E.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to systematically compare patients with major depressive disorder from three different treatment settings (a primary care outpatient, a secondary care outpatient and one inpatient sample), with regard to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalences, individual MetSyn components and

  13. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...... and Gat1 act positively on gene expression whereas :Da180 and Deh1 act negatively. Expression of nitrogen catabolite pathway genes known to be regulated by these four regulators are glutamine, glutamate, proline, urea, arginine, GABA, and allantoine. In addition, the expression of the genes encoding...... thereby providing a nitrogen source to the cell.In this review, all known promoter sequences related to expression of nitrogen catabolite pathways are discussed as well as other regulatory proteins. Overview of metabolic pathways and promoters are presented....

  14. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterina Siopi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  15. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  16. Difference and alteration in pharmacokinetic and metabolic characteristics of low-solubility natural medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shenglei; Liu, Yuying; Feng, Jianfang; Zhao, Hua; Yu, Zhongshu; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Jingqing

    2018-02-01

    Drug metabolism plays vital roles in the absorption and pharmacological activity of poorly soluble natural medicines. It is important to choose suitable delivery systems to increase the bioavailability and bioactivity of natural medicines with low solubility by regulating their metabolism and pharmacokinetics. This review investigates recent developments about the metabolic and pharmacokinetic behavior of poorly soluble natural medicines and their delivery systems. Delivery systems, dosage, administration route and drug-drug interactions alter the metabolic pathway, and bioavailability of low-solubility natural medicines to different degrees. Influencing factors such as formulation, dosage, and administration route are discussed. The metabolic reactions, metabolic enzymes, metabolites and pharmacokinetic behaviors of low-solubility natural medicines, and their delivery systems are systematically reviewed. There are various metabolic situations in the case of low-solubility natural medicines. CYP3A4 and CYP2C are the most common metabolic enzymes, and hydroxylation is the most common metabolic reaction of low solubility natural medicines. The stereo isomeric configuration can have a large influence on metabolism. This review will be useful for physicians and pharmacists to guide more accurate treatment with low-solubility natural medicines by increasing drug efficacies and protecting patients from toxic side effects.

  17. Gender differences in the association between westernization and metabolic risk among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and urine-albumin/creatinine ratio were analysed. Westernization was estimated by place of residence and language. RESULTS: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 20.3% among men and 19.5% among women (p = 0.73). The association between the metabolic syndrome and westernization was different for men...... and women. For men there was an increase in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome with westernization within Greenland, but the variation was less pronounced than the difference between the migrants and the Inuit in Greenland. Age, family history of diabetes, and non-smoking were directly associated...... lower among female migrants compared with Inuit women in Greenland. Age, family history of diabetes, non-smoking, and low education were associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of westernization on metabolic risk was different for men and women. For men physical inactivity due...

  18. Effect of Different Types of Food on Metabolic Rate in Rats | Azeez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method used in measuring the metabolic rate was by indirect calorimetry. Results showed that the different food- carbohydrate, protein and fat ingestion each, caused a significant increase (p<0.0001) when compared with the control metabolic rate. Comparing the effect of the three, protein ingestion caused the greatest ...

  19. Why mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection: metabolic rate constrains the evolution of sperm size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomendio, Montserrat; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-10-22

    The hypothesis that sperm competition should favour increases in sperm size, because it results in faster swimming speeds, has received support from studies on many taxa, but remains contentious for mammals. We suggest that this may be because mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection, owing to major differences in body size, which are associated with differences in mass-specific metabolic rate. Recent evidence suggests that cellular metabolic rate also scales with body size, so that small mammals have cells that process energy and resources from the environment at a faster rate. We develop the 'metabolic rate constraint hypothesis' which proposes that low mass-specific metabolic rate among large mammals may limit their ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size, while this constraint does not exist among small mammals. Here we show that among rodents, which have high mass-specific metabolic rates, sperm size increases under sperm competition, reaching the longest sperm sizes found in eutherian mammals. By contrast, mammalian lineages with large body sizes have small sperm, and while metabolic rate (corrected for body size) influences sperm size, sperm competition levels do not. When all eutherian mammals are analysed jointly, our results suggest that as mass-specific metabolic rate increases, so does maximum sperm size. In addition, species with low mass-specific metabolic rates produce uniformly small sperm, while species with high mass-specific metabolic rates produce a wide range of sperm sizes. These findings support the hypothesis that mass-specific metabolic rates determine the budget available for sperm production: at high levels, sperm size increases in response to sexual selection, while low levels constrain the ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size. Thus, adaptive and costly traits, such as sperm size, may only evolve under sexual selection when metabolic rate does not constrain cellular

  20. Fermentation assays reveal differences in sugar and (off-) flavor metabolism across different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, Sam; Van Opstaele, Filip; Jaskula-Goiris, Barbara; Steensels, Jan; Verreth, Christel; Bosmans, Lien; Paulussen, Caroline; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; de Jonge, Ronnie; De Clippeleer, Jessika; Marchal, Kathleen; De Samblanx, Gorik; Willems, Kris A; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Aerts, Guido; Lievens, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis is an ascomycetous yeast of major importance in the food, beverage and biofuel industry. It has been isolated from various man-made ecological niches that are typically characterized by harsh environmental conditions such as wine, beer, soft drink, etc. Recent comparative genomics studies revealed an immense intraspecific diversity, but it is still unclear whether this genetic diversity also leads to systematic differences in fermentation performance and (off-)flavor production, and to what extent strains have evolved to match their ecological niche. Here, we present an evaluation of the fermentation properties of eight genetically diverse B. bruxellensis strains originating from beer, wine and soft drinks. We show that sugar consumption and aroma production during fermentation are determined by both the yeast strain and composition of the medium. Furthermore, our results indicate a strong niche adaptation of B. bruxellensis, most clearly for wine strains. For example, only strains originally isolated from wine were able to thrive well and produce the typical Brettanomyces-related phenolic off-flavors 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol when inoculated in red wine. Sulfite tolerance was found as a key factor explaining the observed differences in fermentation performance and off-flavor production. Sequence analysis of genes related to phenolic off-flavor production, however, revealed only marginal differences between the isolates tested, especially at the amino acid level. Altogether, our study provides novel insights in the Brettanomyces metabolism of flavor production, and is highly relevant for both the wine and beer industry. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Rats' Gut Microbiota Composition in Animals with Different Ginsenosides Metabolizing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Wei; Xuan, Fang-Ling; Zhong, Fei-Liang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Songquan; Li, Donghao; Quan, Lin-Hu

    2017-01-18

    Following oral intake of Panax ginseng, major ginsenosides are metabolized to deglycosylated ginsenosides by gut microbiota before absorption into the blood. As the composition of gut microbiota varies between individuals, metabolic activities are significantly different. We selected 6 rats with low efficiency metabolism (LEM) and 6 rats with high efficiency metabolism (HEM) from 60 rats following oral administration of Panax ginseng extract, and analyzed their gut microbiota composition using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The components of gut microbiota between the LEM and HEM groups were significantly different. Between the 2 groups, S24-7, Alcaligenaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae occupied most OTUs of the HEM group, which was notably higher than the LEM group. Furthermore, we isolated Bifidobacterium animalis GM1 that could convert the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. The result implies that these specific intestinal bacteria may dominate the metabolism of Panax ginseng.

  2. Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously proposed that metabolic status is important in the regulation of cucumber malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL) gene expression during plant development. In this article, we used a cell culture system to demonstrate that intracellular metabolic status does influence expression of both of these genes. Starvation of cucumber cell cultures resulted in the coordinate induction of the expression of MS and ICL genes, and this effect was reversed when sucrose was returned to the culture media. The induction of gene expression was closely correlated with a drop in intracellular sucrose, glucose, and fructose below threshold concentrations, but it was not correlated with a decrease in respiration rate. Glucose, fructose, or raffinose in the culture media also resulted in repression of MS and ICL. Both 2-deoxyglucose and mannose, which are phosphorylated by hexokinase but not further metabolized, specifically repressed MS and ICL gene expression relative to a third glyoxylate cycle gene, malate dehydrogenase. However, the addition of 3-methylglucose, an analog of glucose that is not phosphorylated, did not result in repression of either MS or ICL. It is proposed that the signal giving rise to a change in gene expression originates from the intracellular concentration of hexose sugars or the flux of hexose sugars into glycolysis. PMID:12244257

  3. Individuals exhibit consistent differences in their metabolic rates across changing thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic rate has been linked to growth, reproduction, and survival at the individual level and is thought to have far reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of organisms. However, metabolic rates must be consistent (i.e. repeatable) over at least some portion of the lifetime in order to predict their longer-term effects on population dynamics and how they will respond to selection. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable under constant conditions but potentially less so in more variable environments. We measured the standard (=minimum) metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate, and aerobic scope (=interval between standard and maximum rates) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) after 5weeks acclimation to each of three consecutive test temperatures (10, 13, and then 16°C) that simulated the warming conditions experienced throughout their first summer of growth. We found that metabolic rates are repeatable over a period of months under changing thermal conditions: individual trout exhibited consistent differences in all three metabolic traits across increasing temperatures. Initial among-individual differences in metabolism are thus likely to have significant consequences for fitness-related traits over key periods of their life history. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Starostová

    Full Text Available While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  5. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Konarzewski, Marek; Kozłowski, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC) size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  6. Violent repression of environmental protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M; Haddad, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As global sea levels and natural resource demands rise, people around the world are increasingly protesting environmental threats to their lives and livelihoods. What are the conditions under which these peaceful environmental protests are violently repressed? This paper uses the random forest algorithm to conduct an event analysis of grassroots environmental protests around the world. Utilizing a database of 175 grassroots environmental protests, we found that: (1) a large proportion (37 %) of the protests involved violent repression; (2) most of the violence (56 %) was directed against marginalized groups; and (3) violence was geographically concentrated the global south in Latin America and Asia. The primary predictors of violence were political empowerment, GDP per capita, industry type, the presence of marginalized groups, and geographic region. Our analysis reveals a complex relationship between governance, resource extraction, and international funding that often resulted in human rights violations against marginalized groups.

  7. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The return of financial repression.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Periods of high indebtedness have historically been associated with a rising incidence of default or restructuring of public and private debts. Sometimes the debt restructuring is more subtle and takes the form of 'financial repression'. Consistent negative real interest rates are equivalent to a tax on bond holders and, more generally, savers. In the heavily regulated financial markets of the Bretton Woods system, a variety of financial domestic and international restrictions facilitated a s...

  9. Violent repression of environmental protests

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Helen M.; Haddad, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As global sea levels and natural resource demands rise, people around the world are increasingly protesting environmental threats to their lives and livelihoods. What are the conditions under which these peaceful environmental protests are violently repressed? This paper uses the random forest algorithm to conduct an event analysis of grassroots environmental protests around the world. Utilizing a database of 175 grassroots environmental protests, we found that: (1) a large proportion (37?%) ...

  10. The metabolic syndrome and related characteristics in major depression: inpatients and outpatients compared: metabolic differences across treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Floriana S; Bouvy, Paul F; Giltay, Erik J; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to systematically compare patients with major depressive disorder from three different treatment settings (a primary care outpatient, a secondary care outpatient and one inpatient sample), with regard to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalences, individual MetSyn components and related metabolic variables. The outpatient samples were drawn from the ongoing Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (302 primary care and 445 secondary care outpatients). The inpatient sample (n=80) was recruited from five Dutch mental health hospitals. The assessments of MetSyn and related variables [waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), LDL and total cholesterol (TC)] were compared using analysis of (co)variance and regression analysis, whereas medication analyses examined the extent to which clinical differences (e.g., depression severity or medication use) mediated the observed metabolic differences across setting. MetSyn prevalences (26% primary, 24% secondary care and 28% inpatients) did not significantly differ (P=.71). WC, BMI, LDL cholesterol, glucose and DBP were not significantly different across settings. However, WHR, TC and triglyceride levels were higher in inpatients than in both outpatients groups, while HDL cholesterol levels and SBP were lower. There was some mediating role for tricyclic and non-selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor antidepressant use, but overall, the mediating role of clinical differences was limited. Although overall MetSyn prevalences did not differ, patterns of individual MetSyn-related variables differed more markedly across depressed inpatients and outpatients. Inpatients showed more adverse WHR and serum lipid profiles, while SBP levels were lower. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender-specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have...... a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole-body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual...... higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender-specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism...

  12. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  13. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sugars and reducing sugars of pineapple treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on chilling injuries were not significantly different from that of the control pineapple. Liu et al. (2009) reported that the flavor in summer pineapple fruit was better than that of the winter fruit. Joomwong (2006) showed that the fruit ...

  14. Sex differences in the prediction of metabolic burden from physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Christina; Dragomir, Anda Ioana; Solomon, Crina; Nigam, Anil; D'Antono, Bianca

    2015-02-01

    Heightened or prolonged physiological responses to stress may contribute to the development or progression of metabolic abnormalities. This study aims to examine the prospective relationships between stress responses and metabolic burden, and to determine whether age and/or sex moderate these relationships. One hundred ninety-nine healthy men and women (M(age) = 41 ± 11.5) were exposed to four stressors while blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were obtained. Residual change scores for reactivity (stress - baseline) and recovery (post-stress - baseline) scores were computed. Metabolic burden refers to the number of metabolic parameters for which participants were in the highest quartile (lowest for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) for their sex. Metabolic burden was reassessed in 136 participants 3 years later. Greater parasympathetic withdrawal in response to stress was associated with increased metabolic burden, though this was evident mostly in men. In women, dampened autonomic responses to stress were associated with higher metabolic burden. Cardiac autonomic responses to stress predict future metabolic abnormalities, though the direction of effect differs according to sex.

  15. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lykholat, O.A.; Grigoryuk, I.P.; Lykholat, T.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions...

  16. Iron deficiency differently affects metabolic responses in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Graziano; De Nisi, Patrizia; Dell'Orto, Marta; Espen, Luca; Gallina, Pietro Marino

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency responses were investigated in roots of soybean, a Strategy I plant species. Soybean responds to iron deficiency by decreasing growth, both at the root and shoot level. Chlorotic symptoms in younger leaves were evident after a few days of iron deficiency, with chlorophyll content being dramatically decreased. Moreover, several important differences were found as compared with other species belonging to the same Strategy I. The main differences are (i) a lower capacity to acidify the hydroponic culture medium, that was also reflected by a lower H(+)-ATPase activity as determined in a plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from the roots; (ii) a drastically reduced activity of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme; (iii) a decrease in both cytosolic and vacuolar pHs; (iv) an increase in the vacuolar phosphate concentration, and (v) an increased exudation of organic carbon, particularly citrate, phenolics, and amino acids. Apparently, in soybean roots, some of the responses to iron deficiency, such as the acidification of the rhizosphere and other related processes, do not occur or occur only at a lower degree. These results suggest that the biochemical mechanisms induced by this nutritional disorder are differently regulated in this plant. A possible role of inorganic phosphate in the balance of intracellular pHs is also discussed.

  17. [METABOLIC STATUS OF PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE STAGES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Ovchinnikov, E N; Sazonova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical parameters of blood and urine in patients with osteoarthritis in the stages of the pathological process in different age groups. The patients of all age groups in the stages of osteoarthritis demonstrated metabolic acidosis, activation of the antioxidant system and increase in acute phase proteins. In addition to the total for all age groups metabolic shifts the characteristic age-related changes were observed: activated reaction of lipid peroxidation in middle-aged patients and negative calcium balance, with increasing energy metabolism disorders in elderly patients.

  18. Preoperative cerebral metabolic difference related to the outcome of cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, G. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) has known to be variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative regional glucose metabolism difference related to the speech perception outcome after CI in prelingually deaf children. Forty-one prelingually deaf children who underwent CI at age 2{approx}10 years were included. All patients underwent F-18 FDG brain PET within one month before CI and measured speech perception using the institute version of the CID at 2 years after CI. Patients were classified into younger (2{approx}6 years) and older (7{approx}10 years) groups. Each group was also divided into a GOOD (CID scores>80) and a BAD (CID scores<60) subgroup. We assessed regional metabolic difference according to CID scores and age by voxel based analysis (SPM2) comparing normal controls (n =8, 20{approx}30 years). Speech perception was good in 19 (68%) of 28 younger patients and 5 (38%) of 13 older patients after CI. Regional metabolism of both younger and older GOOD subgroup was significantly decreased in right temporal, left cerebellar and right frontal regions compared to normal controls (uncorrected p<0.001). In younger GOOD subgroup, left frontotemporal and both parietal regions showed decreased metabolism and right frontal, left temporal and anterior cingulate regions showed increased metabolism compared to BAD subgroup (uncorrected p<0.005). In younger group, regional metabolism in left superior frontal, right temporal and right occipital regions showed a significant negative correlation with CID scores (uncorrected p<0.005). In older group, the pattern of regional metabolic difference correlated with CID score was not similar to that of younger group. Preoperative regional cerebral metabolism is decreased in several brain regions related to the language in preligually deaf patients and the neuralplasty of younger patients are different according to the outcome of speech perception after CI.

  19. Preoperative cerebral metabolic difference related to the outcome of cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, G. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) has known to be variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative regional glucose metabolism difference related to the speech perception outcome after CI in prelingually deaf children. Forty-one prelingually deaf children who underwent CI at age 2∼10 years were included. All patients underwent F-18 FDG brain PET within one month before CI and measured speech perception using the institute version of the CID at 2 years after CI. Patients were classified into younger (2∼6 years) and older (7∼10 years) groups. Each group was also divided into a GOOD (CID scores>80) and a BAD (CID scores<60) subgroup. We assessed regional metabolic difference according to CID scores and age by voxel based analysis (SPM2) comparing normal controls (n =8, 20∼30 years). Speech perception was good in 19 (68%) of 28 younger patients and 5 (38%) of 13 older patients after CI. Regional metabolism of both younger and older GOOD subgroup was significantly decreased in right temporal, left cerebellar and right frontal regions compared to normal controls (uncorrected p<0.001). In younger GOOD subgroup, left frontotemporal and both parietal regions showed decreased metabolism and right frontal, left temporal and anterior cingulate regions showed increased metabolism compared to BAD subgroup (uncorrected p<0.005). In younger group, regional metabolism in left superior frontal, right temporal and right occipital regions showed a significant negative correlation with CID scores (uncorrected p<0.005). In older group, the pattern of regional metabolic difference correlated with CID score was not similar to that of younger group. Preoperative regional cerebral metabolism is decreased in several brain regions related to the language in preligually deaf patients and the neuralplasty of younger patients are different according to the outcome of speech perception after CI

  20. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions: Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It ... in infants and young children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue (tiredness), slow heart rate, excessive ...

  1. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  2. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  3. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  4. Physiological and metabolic differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in Nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Lei; Jiao, Jian-Gang; Du, Xiao-Xia; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Qiao, Fang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Dong-Liang; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) have different structures and metabolic functions and play different roles in the regulation of the mammal endocrine system. However, little is known about morphology and physiological and metabolic functions between VAT and SCAT in fish. We compared the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of VAT and SCAT in Nile tilapia and measured their functions in energy intake flux, lipolytic ability, and gene expression patterns. SCAT contained more large adipocytes and nonadipocytes than VAT in Nile tilapia. VAT had higher lipid content and was the primary site for lipid deposition. Conversely, SCAT had higher hormone-induced lipolytic activity. Furthermore, SCAT had a higher percentage of monounsaturated and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids than VAT. SCAT had higher mitochondrial DNA, gene expression for fatty acid β-oxidation, adipogenesis, and brown adipose tissue characteristics, but it also had a lower gene expression for inflammation and adipocyte differentiation than VAT. SCAT and VAT have different morphological structures, as well as physiological and metabolic functions in fish. VAT is the preferable lipid deposition tissue, whereas SCAT exhibits higher lipid catabolic activity than VAT. The physiological functions of SCAT in fish are commonly overlooked. The present study indicates that SCAT has specific metabolic characteristics that differ from VAT. The differences between VAT and SCAT should be considered in future metabolism studies using fish as models, either in biomedical or aquaculture studies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Repressive coping and alexithymia in ideopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously...... participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS...

  6. Gender and Species-Mediated Differences in the In Vitro Metabolism of Triadimefon by Rodent Hepatic Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how metabolism kinetics differ between genders and species is important in developing informative pharmacokinetic models and accurately assessing risk. Metabolism of the conazole fungicide Triadimefon (TDN) was studied in hepatic microsomes of SD rats and CD-1 mice...

  7. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLundsgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism in men and women. In particular, the molecular machinery for glucose and fatty acid oxidative and storage capacities in skeletal muscle and its implications for substrate utilization during metabolic situations of daily living are discussed, emphasizing their relevance for substrate choice in the fed and fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone, and the identification of estradiol receptors in skeletal muscle has opened for a role in regulation of substrate metabolism. Also, higher levels of circulating adipokines as adiponectin and leptin in women and their implications for muscle metabolism will be considered.

  8. Metabolism of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia in different conditions in dogs, human volunteers and transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormans, G.; Maes, A.; Langendries, W.; Nuyts, J.; Vrolix, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Schiepers, C.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L.; Verbruggen, A.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the rate of metabolism of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) in different conditions, we have determined the relative amount of unchanged 13 NH 3 in the blood of dogs, volunteers and transplant patients at different times following injection. In dogs, the determinations were made under basal conditions, during adenosine administration and after coronary occlusion. The results show that adenosine administration increases the metabolic rate whereas coronary occlusion does not affect 13 NH 3 metabolism. For both human volunteers and transplant patients the metabolic rate of 13 NH 3 was assessed under basal conditions and during adenosine administration. 13 NH 3 metabolism proceeds faster in transplant patients than in volunteers under both conditions. Adenosine administration causes a faster 13 NH 3 turnover in volunteers but not in transplant patients. Application of individual metabolite correction resulted in a 16% decrease in the calculated blood flow compared to uncorrected values. A smaller difference (5%) was observed between correction with mean metabolite values and individually acquired metabolite values. (orig.)

  9. CcpA-dependent carbon catabolite repression in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, JB; Lolkema, JS; Warner, Jessica B.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) by transcriptional regulators follows different mechanisms in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, CcpA-dependent CCR is mediated by phosphorylation of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system intermediate HPr at a

  10. Modeling of Pharmaceutical Biotransformation by Enriched Nitrifying Culture under Different Metabolic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yifeng; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    a comprehensive model to describe and evaluate the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and the formation of their biotransformation products by enriched nitrifying cultures. The biotransformation of parent compounds was linked to the microbial processes via cometabolism induced by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB......) growth, metabolism by AOB, cometabolism by heterotrophs (HET) growth, and metabolism by HET in the model framework. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from pharmaceutical biodegradation experiments at realistic levels, taking two pharmaceuticals as examples, i.e., atenolol...... and acyclovir. Results demonstrated the good predictive performance of the established biotransformation model under different metabolic conditions, as well as the reliability of the established model in predicting different pharmaceutical biotransformations. The linear positive correlation between ammonia...

  11. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Different Obesity Phenotype in Iranian Male Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payab, Moloud; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Merati, Yaser; Esteghamati, Alireza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hematabadi, Mahboobeh; Rashidian, Hoda; Shirzad, Nooshin

    2017-03-01

    Obesity, especially when concentrated in the abdominal area, is often associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Stress, particularly occupational stress, is one of the most important factors contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome components among different populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the criteria for metabolic syndrome and its risk factors and different obesity phenotype in a population of military personnel aged 20 to 65 years. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study in which data are extracted from the database of a military hospital (2,200 participants). The records of participants contained information such as age, marital status, educational level, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, history of drug use and smoking, as well as the results of tests including lipid profile and fasting blood glucose. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria as well as two national criteria were used to identify metabolic syndrome among participants. Data analysis was p1erformed using SPSS version 16. The average age of participants was 33.37 (7.75) years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to Iranian cutoff was 26.6% for the waist circumference >90 cm (585 persons) and 19.6% for the waist circumference >95 cm (432 persons). The rate of metabolic syndrome was identified as 11.1% (432 cases) according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results of the current study identified that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among military individuals is less than other populations, but the prevalence of the syndrome is higher than other military personnel in other countries.

  12. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  13. The association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Jeong, Dae Keun; Park, Chang Eun; Oh, Hye Jong; Kim, Sung Gil

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome (MetS), metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults. Analyses were restricted to 5147 adults (2162 men; 2985 women) aged 20 and older, using the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. In the non-adjusted model, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were inversely associated with MetS (p = .001) and MSS (p = .009) in men, but positively associated with MetS (p = .002) and MSS (p < .001) in women. However, when adjusted for related variables (including age), serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with MetS (p < .001) and MSS (p < .001) in men, but were not associated with MetS (p = .200) and MSS (p = .541) in women. In conclusion, increases in MetS and its components were inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in men.

  14. Mathematical model of the lac operon: inducer exclusion, catabolite repression, and diauxic growth on glucose and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P; Gladney, S; Keasling, J D

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model of the lactose (lac) operon was developed to study diauxic growth on glucose and lactose. The model includes catabolite repression, inducer exclusion, lactose hydrolysis to glucose and galactose, and synthesis and degradation of allolactose. Two models for catabolite repression were tested: (i) cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis inversely correlated with the external glucose concentration and (ii) synthesis inversely correlated with the glucose transport rate. No significant differences in the two models were observed. In addition to synthesis, degradation and secretion of cAMP were also included in the model. Two models for the phosphorylation of the glucose produced from lactose hydrolysis were also tested: (i) phosphorylation by intracellular hexokinase and (ii) secretion of glucose and subsequent phosphorylation upon transport back into the cell. The latter model resulted in weak catabolite repression when the glucose produced from lactose was transported out of the cell, whereas the former model showed no catabolite repression during growth on lactose. Parameter sensitivity analysis indicates the importance of key parameters to lac operon expression and cell growth: the lactose and allolactose transformation rates by beta-galactosidase and the glucose concentrations that affect catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. Large values of the allolactose hydrolysis rate resulted in low concentrations of allolactose, low-level expression of the lac operon, and slow growth due to limited import and metabolism of lactose; small values resulted in a high concentration of allolactose, high-level expression of the lac operon, and slow growth due to a limiting concentration of glucose 6-phosphate formed from allolactose. Changes in the rates of all beta-galactosidase-catalyzed reactions showed similar behavior, but had more drastic effects on the growth rate. Changes in the glucose concentration that inhibited lactose transport could extend or contract

  15. TURNING SITES OF MASSIVE REPRESSIONS INTO MEMORIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaeva Olga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to memorial complexes with museum exhibits of the victims of political repressions in Russia. They took place in the 1930th. Nowadays there are two great memorial complexes. One of them is Mednoe Memorial Complex not far from Tver sity. The second one is Katyn Memorial Komplex situated not fat from Smolensk. They are affiliated with the State Central Museum of Contemporary History of Russia. There is one more memorial complex “Butovo Shooting Range” in Moscow region. A new museum exposition will be shown there. Its territory belongs to the Russian Orthodox Church, but at the same time, it was recognized as a historical place. Despite the form of ownership, those memorial complexes work with different categories of visitors and deal with historical memory. Being part of memorial a museum reveals its information significance.

  16. Differences in Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome by Breastfeeding Experience of Women in Their 30s and 40s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Kim, MSN, RN

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study found that postpartum breastfeeding may play a significant role in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and also that childbearing is associated with a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome among women in their 30s. For women in their 40s, the risk of metabolic syndrome did not significantly differ depending on the breastfeeding experience. This study indicated that breastfeeding can be a way to reduce metabolic health burdens in women in their 30s.

  17. Gender and Species Differences in Triadimefon Metabolism by Rodent Hepatic Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the potential differences in metabolic capacity and kinetics between various common laboratory species as well as between genders is an important facet of chemical risk assessment that is often overlooked, particularly for chemicals which undergo non-cytochrome P450...

  18. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  19. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  20. Blood-Based Bioenergetic Profiling Reflects Differences in Brain Bioenergetics and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based bioenergetic profiling provides a minimally invasive assessment of mitochondrial health shown to be related to key features of aging. Previous studies show that blood cells recapitulate mitochondrial alterations in the central nervous system under pathological conditions, including the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study of nonhuman primates, we focus on mitochondrial function and bioenergetic capacity assessed by the respirometric profiling of monocytes, platelets, and frontal cortex mitochondria. Our data indicate that differences in the maximal respiratory capacity of brain mitochondria are reflected by CD14+ monocyte maximal respiratory capacity and platelet and monocyte bioenergetic health index. A subset of nonhuman primates also underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET imaging to assess brain glucose metabolism. Our results indicate that platelet respiratory capacity positively correlates to measures of glucose metabolism in multiple brain regions. Altogether, the results of this study provide early evidence that blood-based bioenergetic profiling is related to brain mitochondrial metabolism. While these measures cannot substitute for direct measures of brain metabolism, provided by measures such as FDG-PET, they may have utility as a metabolic biomarker and screening tool to identify individuals exhibiting systemic bioenergetic decline who may therefore be at risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Metabolism of oxycodone in human hepatocytes from different age groups and prediction of hepatic plasma clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eKorjamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1 and 10 µM was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 hours, and 1 µM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 µM. Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. In general, this in vitro to in vivo extrapolation method provides valuable information on the maturation of oxycodone metabolism that can be utilized in the design of clinical pharmacokinetic studies in infants and young children.

  2. High metabolic versatility of different toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Wetzel, Daniela; Hofmann, Julia Danielle; Plorin, Simon Paul Erich Otto; Dannheim, Henning; Berges, Mareike; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Bunk, Boyke; Schober, Isabel; Spröer, Cathrin; Liesegang, Heiko; Jahn, Dieter; Overmann, Jörg; Groß, Uwe; Neumann-Schaal, Meina

    2017-09-01

    Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment. In this study, we characterized the growth behavior, motility and fermentation product formation of 17 different C. difficile isolates comprising five different major genomic clades and five different toxin inventories in relation to the C. difficile model strains 630Δerm and R20291. Within 33 determined fermentation products, we identified two yet undescribed products (5-methylhexanoate and 4-(methylthio)-butanoate) of C. difficile. Our data revealed major differences in the fermentation products obtained after growth in a medium containing casamino acids and glucose as carbon and energy source. While the metabolism of branched chain amino acids remained comparable in all isolates, the aromatic amino acid uptake and metabolism and the central carbon metabolism-associated fermentation pathways varied strongly between the isolates. The patterns obtained followed neither the classification of the clades nor the ribotyping patterns nor the toxin distribution. As the toxin formation is strongly connected to the metabolism, our data allow an improved differentiation of C. difficile strains. The observed metabolic flexibility provides the optimal basis for the adaption in the course of infection and to changing conditions in different environments including the human gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Valéria Cristina de; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Oliveira, Gustavo Antônio de; Sales, Samuel de Souza; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Pereira, Juscélia Cristina; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI) and low GI (LGI), and two were performed in th...

  4. Integrated multilaboratory systems biology reveals differences in protein metabolism between two reference yeast strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canelas, Andre B.; Harrison, Nicola; Fazio, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    , a widely used model organism that is also used in the production of fuels, chemicals, food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. With the current focus on biofuels and sustainability, there is much interest in harnessing this species as a general cell factory. In this study, we characterized two yeast strains...... analysis of the high-throughput data, we hypothesize that differences in phenotype are due to differences in protein metabolism....

  5. Different predictors of right and left ventricular metabolism in healthy middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja eHeiskanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were 1 to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU and 2 to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40-55 years men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF. The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake, resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat

  6. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses.

  7. Gender differences in metabolic risk factor prevalence in a South African student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel

    2009-01-01

    We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.

  8. Sex differences in fuel use and metabolism during development in fasting juvenile northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Elizabeth J; Champagne, Cory D; Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Many polygynous, capital breeders exhibit sexual dimorphism with respect to body size and composition. Sexual dimorphism is often facilitated by sex differences in foraging behavior, growth rates and patterns of nutrient deposition during development. In species that undergo extended fasts during development, metabolic strategies for fuel use have the potential to influence future reproductive success by directly impacting somatic growth and acquisition of traits required for successful breeding. We investigated sexual dimorphism associated with metabolic strategies for fasting in developing northern elephant seals. Thirty-one juvenile seals of both sexes were sampled over extended fasts during annual autumn haul-outs. Field metabolic rate (FMR) and the contribution of protein catabolism to energy expenditure were estimated from changes in mass and body composition over 23±5 days of fasting (mean ± s.d.). Protein catabolism was assessed directly in a subset of animals based on urea flux at the beginning and end of the fast. Regulatory hormones and blood metabolites measured included growth hormone, cortisol, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, insulin, glucagon, testosterone, estradiol, glucose, urea and β-hydroxybutyrate. Males exhibited higher rates of energy expenditure during the fast but spared body protein stores more effectively than females. Rates of protein catabolism and energy expenditure were significantly impacted by hormone levels, which varied between the sexes. These data suggest that sex differences in fuel metabolism and energy expenditure during fasting arise early in juvenile development and may play an important role in the development of adult traits associated with reproductive success.

  9. Differing metabolic responses to salt stress in wheat-barley addition lines containing different 7H chromosomal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Eva; Gierczik, Krisztián; Hudák, Orsolya; Forgó, Péter; Pál, Magda; Türkösi, Edina; Kovács, Viktória; Dulai, Sándor; Majláth, Imre; Molnár, István; Janda, Tibor; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence.

  10. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the I...

  11. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  12. Metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents: a comparison of three different diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto F; Santos, Natalia S; Goldraich, Noemia P; Barski, Thiele Filikoski; Andrade, Kauana Silva de; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the difference in the proportion of adolescents with metabolic syndrome diagnosed based on three different criteria, as well as the use of insulin resistance instead of fasting glucose. Cross-sectional study with 121 obese adolescents, between 10 and 14 years old, from public schools of the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 2011. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and biochemical variables were assessed. Metabolic syndrome was defined using three different diagnostic criteria: the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Cook and de Ferranti. All of them include five components: waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and there should be at least three abnormal results for the diagnosis of the syndrome. The Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insuline Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used for the characterization of insulin resistance. The analysis of agreement among the criteria was performed using Kappa statistics. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 39.7, 51.2, and 74.4% of adolescents, according to the IDF, Cook and de Ferranti criteria, respectively. There was agreement for the three diagnostic criteria in 60.3% of the sample. Waist circumference was the most prevalent component (81.0, 81.0, and 96.7%), whereas high fasting glucose was the least prevalent (7.4, 1.7, and 1.7%). The use of HOMA-IR significantly increased the proportion of positive diagnoses for the syndrome. The results showed significant differences between the three diagnostic criteria. While there is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, differences in the prevalence of the disease in pediatric population will be frequent.

  13. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-08-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host-symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry.

  14. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  15. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  16. Metabolic differences in ripening of Solanum lycopersicum ‘Ailsa Craig’ and three monogenic mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Baxter, Charles; Portwood, David; Ament, Zsuzsanna; Kende, Aniko; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham; Smith, Rebecca; Fraser, Paul; Seymour, Mark; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Application of mass spectrometry enables the detection of metabolic differences between groups of related organisms. Differences in the metabolic fingerprints of wild-type Solanum lycopersicum and three monogenic mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor) and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr), of tomato are captured with regard to ripening behaviour. A high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry system coupled to liquid chromatography produced a time series of the ripening behaviour at discrete intervals with a focus on changes post-anthesis. Internal standards and quality controls were used to ensure system stability. The raw data of the samples and reference compounds including study protocols have been deposited in the open metabolomics database MetaboLights via the metadata annotation tool Isatab to enable efficient re-use of the datasets, such as in metabolomics cross-study comparisons or data fusion exercises. PMID:25977786

  17. Metabolic adaptation and reticuloruminal pH in periparturient dairy cows experiencing different lipolysis early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Wittek, T; Aschenbach, J R; Zebeli, Q

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic adaptation includes an array of concerted metabolic and endocrine events that enable dairy cows bridging the period of energy deficit at the onset of lactation. The present study evaluated metabolic, endocrine and reticuloruminal pH changes in 30 (25 Holstein and five Simmental) periparturient dairy cows experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Cows were fed the same close-up and fresh lactation diets and kept in the same management conditions. Blood samples were collected at day 14, and day 4, relative to expected parturition, and at day 2, and day 21 postpartum, and serum metabolites and hormones related to glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as concentrations of several liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were determined. Additionally, reticuloruminal pH was monitored every 10 min over the last 3 days of the observation period. BW and milk yields were recorded and balances of energy and protein were assessed. Based on serum concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) postpartum, cows were retrospectively classified into low (n=8), medium (n=11), and high (n=11) lipolysis groups, with NEFA levels of 0.7 mmol/l, respectively. Overall, elevated NEFA concentrations in the High group went along with a higher ratio of NEFA to cholesterol and reduced insulin sensitivity. While serum glucose, energy deficit and BW loss did not differ, cows of the High group exhibited increased lactate concentrations in the serum, compared with the Medium group. No differences in liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were evidenced among fat mobilization groups, whereas concentration of serum billirubin was lowest in the Low group after parturition. Data of milk yield and milk energy output showed no differences among groups, despite divergences in calculated energy balance and BW change postpartum. Cows of the Low group tended to increase dry matter intake but also showed longer time duration of pH below 6.0 in the reticulorumen (on average 299 min

  18. Developmental Sex Differences in the Metabolism of Cardiolipin in Mouse Cerebral Cortex Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Acaz-Fonseca, Estefan?a; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana B.; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Astiz, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. CL content and acyl chain composition are crucial for energy production. Given that estradiol induces CL synthesis in neurons, we aimed to assess CL metabolism in the cerebral cortex (CC) of male and female mice during early postnatal life, when sex steroids induce sex-dimorphic maturation of the brain. Despite the fact that total amount of CL was similar, its fatty acid composition differed between males and females at birth. In male...

  19. Sex differences in diet and inhaled ozone (O3) induced metabolic impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    APS 2015 abstract Sex differences in diet and inhaled ozone (O3) induced metabolic impairment U.P. Kodavanti1, V.L. Bass2, M.C. Schladweiler1, C.J. Gordon3, K.A. Jarema1, P. Phillips1, A.D. Ledbetter1, D.B. Miller4, S. Snow5, J.E. Richards1. 1 EPHD, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triang...

  20. Gender differences in ozone-induced pulmonary and metabolic health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT 2015 abstractGender differences in ozone-induced pulmonary and metabolic health effectsU.P. Kodavanti1, V.L. Bass2, M.C. Schladweiler1, C.J. Gordon3, K.A. Jarema3, P. Phillips3, A.D. Ledbetter1, D.B. Miller4, S. Snow5, J.E. Richards1. 1 EPHD, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle ...

  1. Hippocampal metabolic differences implicate distinctions between physical and psychological stress in four rat models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanxiang; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuqing; Pu, Juncai; Yang, Lining; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Chanjun; Zhang, Hanping; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-10

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous and multi-factorial disorder, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. However, many studies have indicated that the molecular mechanisms underlying depression in response to different stress may differ. After screening, 28-30 rats were included in each model of depression (chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS); learned helplessness (LH); chronic restraint stress (CRS); or social defeat (SD)). Non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile the metabolic changes in the hippocampus. As a result, all four models exhibited significant depression-like behavior. A total of 30, 24, 19, and 25 differential metabolites were identified in the CUMS, LH, CRS, and SD models, respectively. Interestingly, the hierarchical clustering results revealed two patterns of metabolic changes that are characteristic of the response to cluster 1 (CUMS, LH) and cluster 2 (CRS, SD) stress, which represent physical and psychological stress, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that physical stress was mainly associated with lipid metabolism and glutamate metabolism, whereas psychological stress was related to cell signaling, cellular proliferation, and neurodevelopment, suggesting the molecular changes induced by physical and psychological stress were different. Nine shared metabolites were opposite in the directions of change between physical and psychological models, and these metabolites were associated with cellular proliferation and neurodevelopment functions, indicating the response to physical and psychological stress was different in the activation and deactivation of the final common pathway to depression. Our results provide a further understanding of the heterogeneity in the molecular mechanisms of MDD that could facilitate the development of personalized medicine for this disorder.

  2. Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: plasma metabolomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yue; Fu, Li; Li, Rong; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Na-Na; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ping; Tu, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications. Methods A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studie...

  3. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C; Phadnis, Naina

    2010-01-01

    to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination....... Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between...... types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis....

  4. Metabolic responses and pathway changes of mammalian cells under different culture conditions with media supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo-Young; Reimonn, Thomas M; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2018-02-21

    Amino acids and glucose consumption, cell growth and monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in mammalian cell culture are key considerations during upstream process and particularly media optimization. Understanding the interrelations and the relevant cellular physiology will provide insight for setting strategy of robust and effective mAb production. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of nutrient consumption metabolism, since this could have significant impact on enhancing mAb titer, cell proliferation, designing feeding strategies, and development of feed media. The nutrient consumption pattern, mAb concentration, and cell growth were analyzed in three sets of cell cultures with media supplementation of glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. The amino acids metabolism and its impact on cell growth and mAb production during the batch and fed-batch culture were closely analyzed. It was shown that the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways were significantly altered under different culture conditions with different media. These changes were more apparent in the fed-batch process in which higher mAb titer was observed due to the metabolic changes than mAb titer in the batch process. The pathway analysis approach was well utilized for evaluating the impact on the relevant pathways involved under different cell culture conditions to improve cell growth and mAb titer. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. [Influence of different NH4+/NO3- ratios on nitrogen metabolism of cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hairong; Li, Jincai; Li, Cundong

    2004-04-01

    The influence of different NH4+/NO3- ratios on nitrogen metabolism of cotton was studied under controlled hydroponics. The results showed that compared with single nitrate nutrition, solutions with 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0 of NH4+/NO3- significantly increased the soluble protein accumulation in leaves and roots of cotton, and the maximum content of soluble protein in leaves and roots appeared respectively in the solution with 50/50 and 75/25 of NH4+/NO3-. The soluble protein content in roots was increased with the increase of NH4+ percentage, but was slightly less in the solution of 100/0 than 75/25, which was probably related to the excess NH4+ limiting boot metabolism. With the increase of NH4+ percentage, the nitrate content in petiole and the nitrate reductase activity in functional blade declined, but ammoniac nitrogen content increased in every organ of cotton. These results showed that foreign nitrogen affected the nitrogen metabolism of cotton in a different way, and the nitrogen absorption by cotton was probably related to different forms of foreign nitrogen.

  6. Does metabolic rate and evaporative water loss reflect differences in migratory strategy in sexually dimorphic hoverflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sean; Menz, Myles H M

    2015-12-01

    A typical explanation for ecologically stable strategies that apply to only a proportion of a population, is bet hedging, where increased reproductive success offsets reduced reproductive rate. One such is partial migration, where only a proportion of a population moves seasonally to avoid inclement climatic conditions. Bet hedging may overlook unseen costs to maintain broad physiological resilience, implied by encountering a breadth of environmental conditions. We investigated the physiological correlates of partial migration by measuring standard metabolic rates, and rates of evaporative water loss, and then estimating upper and lower thermal tolerance in males and females of two hoverfly species, Episyrphus balteatus and Eristalis tenax. In central Europe, females of these species may either migrate or overwinter, whereas males may migrate south to the Mediterranean, but have not been found overwintering. Both species were sexually dimorphic; female Ep. balteatus were lighter than males, but female Er. tenax were heavier than males. While allometrically- corrected metabolic rate in both species increased with temperature, the most parsimonious models included no sex-specific differences in metabolic rate for either species. Evaporative water loss of both species also increased with temperature, but was higher for females of both species than males. Assuming that resting metabolism is congruent with the activity requirements of migration, highly consistent thermal tolerance and metabolic rate suggests that any given fly could migrate, although water loss patterns suggest that females may be less well-adapted to Mediterranean climates. We infer that partial migration probably results from the imperatives of their reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The base-pairing RNA spot 42 participates in a multioutput feedforward loop to help enact catabolite repression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, Chase L; Storz, Gisela

    2011-02-04

    Bacteria selectively consume some carbon sources over others through a regulatory mechanism termed catabolite repression. Here, we show that the base-pairing RNA Spot 42 plays a broad role in catabolite repression in Escherichia coli by directly repressing genes involved in central and secondary metabolism, redox balancing, and the consumption of diverse nonpreferred carbon sources. Many of the genes repressed by Spot 42 are transcriptionally activated by the global regulator CRP. Since CRP represses Spot 42, these regulators participate in a specific regulatory circuit called a multioutput feedforward loop. We found that this loop can reduce leaky expression of target genes in the presence of glucose and can maintain repression of target genes under changing nutrient conditions. Our results suggest that base-pairing RNAs in feedforward loops can help shape the steady-state levels and dynamics of gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of locomotion and feeding on metabolic mode of juvenile lenok, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas) under different water temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ge-Feng; Wang, Yu-Yu; Han, Ying; Li, Xiang; Ma, Bo; Liu, Yang; Mou, Zhen-Bo

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of locomotion and feeding on the metabolic mode of juvenile lenok, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas) under different water temperatures, the pre-exercise oxygen consumption rate (MO2p), active oxygen consumption rate (MO2a), metabolic scope (MS), critical swimming speed (Uc) and swimming metabolic rate of both fasting and fed fish were measured at five temperature levels (4 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 16 degrees C and 20 degrees C) and ten flow velocities with saturated dissolved oxygen (> 8.0 mg x L(-1)). The results showed that the MO2p and MO2a of the feeding group were significantly higher (P 0.05), but the MS showed a trend of decline with increase in water temperature. Swimming metabolic rate of fish was increased with increasing the flow velocity, and further increase of flow velocity resulted in a decline in swimming metabolic rate, and the swimming metabolic rate of the feeding group was significantly higher than that of the fasting group (P swimming speed up to 70% Uc, and then decreased with increasing the swimming speed up to Uc. It was concluded that, under certain temperature, the maximum metabolic rate was induced by exercise and feeding; the metabolic rate exhibited the additive metabolic mode before increasing to the maximum and thereafter, the metabolic rate induced by feeding reduced with decreasing the swimming metabolic rate, exhibiting the locomotion prioritized mode.

  9. Systematic analyses of glutamine and glutamate metabolisms across different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Du, Wei; Cao, Sha; Wu, Yue; Dong, Ning; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2017-11-07

    Glutamine and glutamate are known to play important roles in cancer biology. However, no detailed information is available in terms of their levels of involvement in various biological processes across different cancer types, whereas such knowledge could be critical for understanding the distinct characteristics of different cancer types. Our computational study aimed to examine the functional roles of glutamine and glutamate across different cancer types. We conducted a comparative analysis of gene expression data of cancer tissues versus normal control tissues of 11 cancer types to understand glutamine and glutamate metabolisms in cancer. Specifically, we developed a linear regression model to assess differential contributions by glutamine and/or glutamate to each of seven biological processes in cancer versus control tissues. While our computational predictions were consistent with some of the previous observations, multiple novel predictions were made: (1) glutamine is generally not involved in purine synthesis in cancer except for breast cancer, and is similarly not involved in pyridine synthesis except for kidney cancer; (2) glutamine is generally not involved in ATP production in cancer; (3) glutamine's contribution to nucleotide synthesis is minimal if any in cancer; (4) glutamine is not involved in asparagine synthesis in cancer except for bladder and lung cancers; and (5) glutamate does not contribute to serine synthesis except for bladder cancer. We comprehensively predicted the roles of glutamine and glutamate metabolisms in selected metabolic pathways in cancer tissues versus control tissues, which may lead to novel approaches to therapeutic development targeted at glutamine and/or glutamate metabolism. However, our predictions need further functional validation.

  10. Expression of Lipid Metabolism-Related Proteins Differs between Invasive Lobular Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast. A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN. HSL, perilipin A, and FABP4 expression (all p < 0.001 differed significantly: HSL and FABP4 were more frequently present in ILC, whereas perilipin A was more frequently detected in IDC. Among all invasive cancers, HSL and FABP4 were highly expressed in luminal A-type ILC (p < 0.001 and perilipin A in luminal A-type IDC (p = 0.007. Among luminal B-type cancers, HSL and FABP4 were more highly expressed in ILC (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis found associations of shorter disease-free survival with CPT-1 positivity (p = 0.004 and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.032 and of shorter overall survival with acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.027. In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. Notably, ILC exhibited high HSL and FABP4 and low perilipin A expression.

  11. [Clinical, hormonal and metabolic characteristics of different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome, in Bulgarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavardzhikova, S; Pechlivanov, B

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the percentage occurrence of different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Bulgarian population, and their clinical, metabolic and hormonal characteristics. The study included 110 women with PCOS, diagnosed according to the Europian Society of Human Reproduction & Embriology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria. The women were divided into four phenotypes: hyperandrogenism (HA) + oligo-/ anovulation (OA) + polycystic ovaries at ultrasound (PCO) ( full-blown syndrome, phenotype A); HA + OA (former Institute of Health definition, phenotype B); OA + PCO (phenotype C); and HA + PCO (phenotype D). Serum levels of testosteron, immune-reactive insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and lipid metabolism parameters were measured. Free androgen index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were calculated. Body mass index and waist- to--hip ratio were assessed. The percentage of phenotypes A, B, C and D in a Bulgarian Population are 53.6%, 12.8%, 11%, 22.6% respectively. The women with the classical form of PCOS (phenotypes A and B) were more obese, had more strongly expressed hyperandrogenemia, and were more insulin--resistant compared with the women of phenotypes C and D. There is a significant difference in anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic indices between the classical form and the clinical variants of PCOS in the studied Bulgarian population.

  12. Gender Differences in Musculoskeletal Lipid Metabolism as Assessed by Localized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.

  13. Instability of different adolescent metabolic syndrome definitions tracked into early adulthood metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Eftekharzadeh, Anita; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ghareh, Sahar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-02-01

    There are substantial controversies about the clinical utility of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study examined the stability of adolescent MetS by assessing the agreement and discriminative abilities of four different definitions of adolescent MetS and the adult MetS definition during a 10.4-yr follow up. For this study, 1424 adolescents (55.2% female), who participated in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were included. Kappa was calculated for agreement between adolescent MetS definitions [Cook, de Ferranti, pediatric National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and pediatric International Diabetes Federation (IDF)] and the adulthood MetS definition defined by the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. MetS persistence, instability, and incidence were assessed, and for each of the four adolescent definitions, sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) for the counting of categorical adulthood MetS components was evaluated. The agreement between the four adolescent MetS definitions and JIS was poor (κ = 0.094-0.255). All definitions showed low sensitivity and high specificity, except for de Ferranti's, which contrary to other definitions, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity. All four adolescent definitions revealed generally low AUCs (0.601-0.647). Compared with the pubertal group (11-14 yr), the predictive power was slightly higher in the late-pubertal group (15-18 yr). Cook's and de Ferranti's definitions showed fairly better predictive powers (0.647 and 0.644, respectively). Across all definitions, instability ranged between 5.4 and 19.6%. The adolescent definitions show considerable amount of instability defined as poor agreement and low discriminative abilities tracked into early adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase-II conjugation ability for PAH metabolism in amphibians: characteristics and inter-species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Haruki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines amphibian metabolic activity - particularly conjugation - by analysis of pyrene (a four ring, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FD), a mass spectrometry detector (MS) system and kinetic analysis of conjugation enzymes. Six amphibian species were exposed to pyrene (dissolved in water): African claw frog (Xenopus laevis); Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi); Montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris); Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa); Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster); and Clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus); plus one fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes); and a fresh water snail (Clithon retropictus), and the resultant metabolites were collected. Identification of pyrene metabolites by HPLC and ion-trap MS system indicated that medaka mainly excreted pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG), while pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) was the main metabolite in all amphibian species. Pyrene metabolites in amphibians were different from those in invertebrate fresh water snails. Inter-species differences were also observed in pyrene metabolism among amphibians. Metabolite analysis showed that frogs relied more strongly on sulfate conjugation than did Japanese newts and clouded salamanders. Furthermore, urodelan amphibians, newts and salamanders, excreted glucose conjugates of pyrene that were not detected in the anuran amphibians. Kinetic analysis of conjugation by hepatic microsomes and cytosols indicated that differences in excreted metabolites reflected differences in enzymatic activities. Furthermore, pyrenediol (PYDOH) glucoside sulfate was detected in the Japanese newt sample. This novel metabolite has not been reported previously to this report, in which we have identified unique characteristics of amphibians in phase II pyrene metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of Lipid Metabolism-Related Proteins Differs between Invasive Lobular Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Kim, Hye Min; Koo, Ja Seung

    2017-01-23

    We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC) were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN). HSL, perilipin A, and FABP4 expression (all p invasive cancers, HSL and FABP4 were highly expressed in luminal A-type ILC ( p cancers, HSL and FABP4 were more highly expressed in ILC ( p < 0.001). Univariate analysis found associations of shorter disease-free survival with CPT-1 positivity ( p = 0.004) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity ( p = 0.032) and of shorter overall survival with acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity ( p = 0.027). In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. Notably, ILC exhibited high HSL and FABP4 and low perilipin A expression.

  17. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  18. Acetate metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hui Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2137 involved in lychee wine production was used to investigate acetate metabolism at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation. Fermentation tests were conducted using lychee juice supplemented with acetic acid. The ability of yeast cells to metabolize acetic acid was stronger at 20 °C than at 25 °C or 30 °C. The addition of acetic acid suppressed the yeast cell growth at the tested temperatures. The viability was higher and the reactive oxygen species concentration was lower at 20 °C than at 30 °C; this result indicated that acid stress adaptation protects S. cerevisiae from acetic-acid-mediated programmed cell death. The acetic acid enhanced the thermal death of yeast at high temperatures. The fermentation temperature modified the metabolism of the yeasts and the activity of related enzymes during deacidification, because less acetaldehyde, less glycerol, more ethanol, more succinic acid and more malic acid were produced, with higher level of acetyl–CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase activity, at 20 °C.

  19. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  20. Differences in gluten metabolism among healthy volunteers, coeliac disease patients and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier

    2015-10-28

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.

  1. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

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    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  2. Drosophila DNA-Binding Proteins in Polycomb Repression

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    Maksim Erokhin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of individual gene expression patterns in different cell types is required during differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Polycomb group (PcG proteins are key epigenetic regulators responsible for gene repression, and dysregulation of their activities leads to developmental abnormalities and diseases. PcG proteins were first identified in Drosophila, which still remains the most convenient system for studying PcG-dependent repression. In the Drosophila genome, these proteins bind to DNA regions called Polycomb response elements (PREs. A major role in the recruitment of PcG proteins to PREs is played by DNA-binding factors, several of which have been characterized in detail. However, current knowledge is insufficient for comprehensively describing the mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize and discuss the available data on the role of DNA-binding proteins in PcG recruitment to chromatin.

  3. Different cerebral metabolic features in dementia with lewy bodies with/without visual hallucination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Young Soon; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex is well known in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the different nature of FDG PET in DLB patients who had visual hallucination or not. Thirteen patients (729 yrs, m:f=6:7) with DLB participated. DLB patient were classified into two groups according to the presence of visual hallucination; seven DLB patients with visual hallucination and 6 patients without visual hallucination. No differences between patient with and without visual hallucination was found in their cognitive function measured by mini mental status exam (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Age and gender matched 30 healthy subjects (age; 715 yrs, m: f = 13:17) served as controls for comparison purpose. Regional metabolic differences on FDG PET among the groups were tested using SPM. In DLB patients groups regardless of visual hallucination, significant regional hypometabolism were observed in the bilateral occipital cortices as well as bilateral parietotemporal and frontal association cortices when compared with healthy controls, as expected. In DLB patients with visual hallucination compared to patients without hallucination, regional hypometabolism over primary and secondary visual cortex (BA17, BA18) was more significant. Moreover, lower regional metabolism in the paracentral area (BA 6) and cerebellar vermis was also observed in DLB with visual hallucination than without hallucination. Profound hypometabolism in the visual cortex may be a feature in DLB patients with visual hallucination. Also, relative hypometabolism in the paracentral area and cerebellum could be neurobiological characteristics related with abnormal cognitive and motor process response to hallucination

  4. Different cerebral metabolic features in dementia with lewy bodies with/without visual hallucination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Young Soon; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex is well known in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the different nature of FDG PET in DLB patients who had visual hallucination or not. Thirteen patients (729 yrs, m:f=6:7) with DLB participated. DLB patient were classified into two groups according to the presence of visual hallucination; seven DLB patients with visual hallucination and 6 patients without visual hallucination. No differences between patient with and without visual hallucination was found in their cognitive function measured by mini mental status exam (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Age and gender matched 30 healthy subjects (age; 715 yrs, m: f = 13:17) served as controls for comparison purpose. Regional metabolic differences on FDG PET among the groups were tested using SPM. In DLB patients groups regardless of visual hallucination, significant regional hypometabolism were observed in the bilateral occipital cortices as well as bilateral parietotemporal and frontal association cortices when compared with healthy controls, as expected. In DLB patients with visual hallucination compared to patients without hallucination, regional hypometabolism over primary and secondary visual cortex (BA17, BA18) was more significant. Moreover, lower regional metabolism in the paracentral area (BA 6) and cerebellar vermis was also observed in DLB with visual hallucination than without hallucination. Profound hypometabolism in the visual cortex may be a feature in DLB patients with visual hallucination. Also, relative hypometabolism in the paracentral area and cerebellum could be neurobiological characteristics related with abnormal cognitive and motor process response to hallucination.

  5. Trans-inactivation: Repression in a wrong place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskikh, Aleksei S; Abramov, Yuriy A; Lavrov, Sergey A

    2017-04-03

    Trans-inactivation is the repression of genes on a normal chromosome under the influence of a rearranged homologous chromosome demonstrating the position effect variegation (PEV). This phenomenon was studied in detail on the example of brown Dominant allele causing the repression of wild-type brown gene on the opposite chromosome. We have investigated another trans-inactivation-inducing chromosome rearrangement, In(2)A4 inversion. In both cases, brown Dominant and In(2)A4, the repression seems to be the result of dragging of the euchromatic region of the normal chromosome into the heterochromatic environment. It was found that cis-inactivation (classical PEV) and trans-inactivation show different patterns of distribution along the chromosome and respond differently to PEV modifying genes. It appears that the causative mechanism of trans-inactivation is de novo heterochromatin assembly on euchromatic sequences dragged into the heterochromatic nuclear compartment. Trans-inactivation turns out to be the result of a combination of heterochromatin-induced position effect and the somatic interphase chromosome pairing that is widespread in Diptera.

  6. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Srivastava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp. encounter markedly different (nutritional environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  7. Metabolic analysis of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits at different ripening stages using different data-processing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Cho, Somi Kim; Kim, Young-Suk

    2010-11-01

    Gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and principal component analysis were used to obtain the metabolite profiles of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits. Results with two types of data-processing software, ChromaTOF and AMDIS, were compared to explain the differences between the samples. There were some differences in score and loading plot patterns of PCA as well as in the composition of the metabolites. However, little difference was observed in the type of metabolites detected and identified using either type of software. Both the flesh and peel of premature and mature white guava fruits were compared for the analysis of the metabolite profiles. Malic acid, aspartic acid, and glucose were the major metabolites distinguishing the different parts of guava fruits in the PCA loading plot. In addition, the metabolic profiles of the fruits revealed significant changes in some metabolites during ripening. The major components contributing to the separation were serine, citric acid, fructose, sucrose, and some unknowns. In particular, sucrose, fructose, serine and citric acid were related to the ripening of guava fruits. Fructose and sucrose were increased whereas citric acid was decreased during guava fruit ripening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is myocardial fatty acid metabolism different between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive hypertrophy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    To investigate characteristics of fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), we performed myocardial imaging with 123 I-iodophenyl-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in 24 HCM patients, 13 patients with hypertensive hypertrophy (HT) and 10 normal subjects. Rest myocardial imaging with 123 I-BMIPP was obtained at 20 minutes and 3 hours after 123 I-BMIPP injection. Rest 201 Tl imaging was also performed. In addition to ordinary tomography, whole body imaging was performed to calculate %Uptake (percentage of cardiac uptake of the isotope to total injected dose). As global indexes of fatty acid metabolism, we calculated two parameters; Uptake Ratio (%Uptake of 123 I-BMIPP normalized by myocardial perfusion) and WOR (percent reduction of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP within 3 hours). Regional abnormality was evaluated by visual assessment of ordinary tomograms and by BMIPP/Tl map. BMIPP/Tl map was made from Bull's-eye maps of 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl, and it represented 123 I-BMIPP uptake normalized by myocardial perfusion of each pixel which constructed the image. %Uptake of 123 I-BMIPP was not different among three groups. Uptake Ratio was significantly (p HT (1.03±0.08)>HCM (0.87±0.09). WOR of 123 I-BMIPP was accerelated in HCM (12.7±4.7%) and HT (10.2±2.9%) compared with normal (5.1±3.1%) (p 123 I-BMIPP distribution was found in 17 of 24 patients (71%) including 3 patients with equivocal abnormality. In HT patients, only equivocal abnormality was observed in 23%. In BMIPP/Tl map, abnormality was observed in 92% of HCM and 8% of HT. Although global myocardial fatty acid metabolism was equally disturbed both in HCM and HT, regional abnormality of fatty acid metabolism was observed preferetially in HCM. This indicated myocardial fatty acid metabolism was not identical between HCM and HT. (author)

  9. Gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Kim, J

    2016-10-01

    Dietary patterns are found to be associated with metabolic risk factors. We explored gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Korean population. A total of 13,410 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years, 5384 men and 8026 women) who participated in the fifth KNHANES were studied. Dietary intake was assessed by the 24-h recall method. MetS was defined by the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between dietary pattern and MetS and its components by gender. Three dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis by sex: traditional, Westernized, and healthy. The traditional pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0098), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.0007), elevated blood pressure (P for trend = 0.0328), and MetS (P for trend = 0.0003) in women only after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. In contrast, the healthy pattern (HP) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity (P for trend = 0.0051) in women. For men, the HP was negatively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0025) after adjustment for potential confounders. The Westernized pattern was not associated with MetS or its components in either men or women. There may be gender differences on the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic risk factors in Korean population.

  10. Metabolic differences underlying two distinct rat urinary phenotypes, a suggested role for gut microbial metabolism of phenylalanine and a possible connection to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, T Andrew

    2012-04-05

    A novel explanation is proposed for the metabolic differences underlying two distinct rat urinary compositional phenotypes i.e. that these may arise from differences in the gut microbially-mediated metabolism of phenylalanine. As part of this hypothesis, it is further suggested that elements of the mammalian gut microbiota may convert phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, either by means of an ammonia lyase-type reaction or by means of a three step route via phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate. The wider significance of such conversions is discussed with similar metabolism of tryptophan and subsequent glycine conjugation potentially explaining the origin of trans-indolylacryloylglycine, a postulated marker for autism. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitosis-associated repression in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. © 2016 Esposito et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metabolic panel is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests are usually done on ... and liver. There are two types: basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP ...

  13. Gender-dependent differences in uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase have implications in metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kulkarni, Kaustubh; Hu, Ming

    2013-12-01

    Gender differences have a significant impact on absorption, disposition and overall systemic bioavailability of various xenobiotics in rodents as well as humans. Over the past few years, significant research has explored and investigated the effects of gender differences on the expression profiles of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (or UGTs) in rodents but no data is available that could effectively help predict the metabolic clearance or systemic bioavailability of xenobiotics predominantly metabolized by UGT enzymes in vivo. This review highlights and explains the unique features of the metabolic clearance reactions catalyzed by UGTs (metabolite formation) and its intricate interactions with the efflux transporters that will transport hydrophilic glucuronides out of cell in vivo. In addition, the article reviews the gender differences in hepatic and extrahepatic UGT isoforms and efflux transporter expression profiles in rodents. Furthermore, the article highlights the implications of sex hormone differences on metabolic clearance and thereby oral bioavailability of xenobiotics that are predominantly metabolized by UGTs in vivo. Finally, the article reviews the impact of plasma sex hormone level differences on UGT enzyme and efflux transporter expression profiles using in situ and in vivo models. The authors believe that the article demonstrates that gender, and perhaps more importantly the differences in plasma sex hormone levels in female species, will drive the gender-dependent differences in expression profiles of UGT enzymes and efflux transporters. These differences significantly affect the metabolic clearance and the systemic bioavailability of compounds eliminated via this disposition pathway.

  14. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

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    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  15. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Patrick

    2010-11-25

    Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5\\' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate

  16. Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers

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    Yun Ji Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes species, T. erecta and T. patula. In total, we detected seven carotenoids in the examined cultivars: violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. In all the cultivars, lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Furthermore, the contents of each carotenoid in flowers varied depending on the cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA facilitated metabolic discrimination between Tagetes cultivars, with the exception of Inca Yellow and Discovery Orange. Moreover, PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA results provided a clear discrimination between T. erecta and T. patula. Primary metabolites, including xylose, citric acid, valine, glycine, and galactose were the main components facilitating separation of the species. Positive relationships were apparent between carbon-rich metabolites, including those of the TCA cycle and sugar metabolism, and carotenoids.

  17. Regional difference of glucose metabolism reduction in equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. S.; Kang, E. J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, K. U.; Chung, J. K.; Woo, J. I.; Lee, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in cerebral glucose metabolism between patients with equivocal Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and those with elderly major depression (DEP). 31 patients with eAD, 7 patients with DEP, and 15 age matched normal controls were scanned with FDG-PET. Each FDG-PET images was normalized to the cerebellar activity before voxel-voxel analysis using SPM99. In comparison with normal controls, the eAD patents showed the most significant reduction of glucose metabolism (hypometabolism) in anterior inferior temporal gyrus in left, followed by bilateral posterior cingulate, left thalamus, and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with DEP showed hypometabolism in precuneus, inferior and middle frontal gyri in left, and right angular gyrus. Significantly lower activity was found in left inferior temporal gyrus in DEP in comparison to the eAD. Patients with eAD and DEP showed different pattern of hypometabolism, especially in inferior temporal gyrus. FDG brain PET may be useful in differential diagnosis between equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depression

  18. Target Organ Metabolism, Toxicity, and Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene: Key Similarities, Differences, and Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Guha, Neela; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Rusyn, Ivan; Lash, Lawrence H

    2016-10-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are high-production volume chemicals with numerous industrial applications. As a consequence of their widespread use, these chemicals are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which the general population is commonly exposed. It is widely assumed that TCE and PCE are toxicologically similar; both are simple olefins with three (TCE) or four (PCE) chlorines. Nonetheless, despite decades of research on the adverse health effects of TCE or PCE, few studies have directly compared these two toxicants. Although the metabolic pathways are qualitatively similar, quantitative differences in the flux and yield of metabolites exist. Recent human health assessments have uncovered some overlap in target organs that are affected by exposure to TCE or PCE, and divergent species- and sex-specificity with regard to cancer and noncancer hazards. The objective of this minireview is to highlight key similarities, differences, and data gaps in target organ metabolism and mechanism of toxicity. The main anticipated outcome of this review is to encourage research to 1) directly compare the responses to TCE and PCE using more sensitive biochemical techniques and robust statistical comparisons; 2) more closely examine interindividual variability in the relationship between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics for TCE and PCE; 3) elucidate the effect of coexposure to these two toxicants; and 4) explore new mechanisms for target organ toxicity associated with TCE and/or PCE exposure. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Literature, Advertising and Return of the Repressed

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    Francesco Ghelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since I have faced with the hypothesis elaborated by Francesco Orlando, according to which literature is a form of return of the repressed, I wondered what – in our era of deregulation, end of censorship and taboos – could occupy the place of the repressed. One of the most influential sociologists, Zygmunt Bauman, has outlined the epochal passage from “the uneasiness in civilization” to today's “uneasiness of freedom”. The problem of desire today would not be a clash with a limit, but an indefinite freedom that is likely to turn into lost, loss of intensity and meaning.

  20. Features of lipid metabolism in chronic heart failure of different genesis with concomitant overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. P. Bidzilya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently clinical studies demonstrated reciprocal association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in particular, hyperlipidemia and obesity, with worse clinical outcomes in CHF. Unlike ischemic heart disease (IHD, where high levels of atherogenic and low of antiatherogenic lipids fraction traditionally associated with worsening of prognosis and course of disease, in conditions of the CHF proven negative impact of the reduction of lipid levels and body mass index. Demonstrated the phenomena called "cholesterol paradox" and "obesity paradox". Aim. To study the features of lipid metabolism in CHF of different genesis with concomitant overweight and obesity. Materials and methods. 240 patients with I–III functional class (FC of the disease with concomitant overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. FC of the disease was established according to the classification of New York Heart Association (NYHA.Normal, overweight and the degree of abdominal obesity was identified by calculating the body mass index. Etiologic factors of CHF were chronic forms of IHD, arterial hypertension, and/or a combination of both. With the help of biochemical blood tests lipid metabolism were assessed. Results. The maximum values as atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipid indicators are investigated in non-ischemic (hypertensive CHF. Patients with CHF of ischemic genesis are characterized by minimal values of atherogenic fractions of lipids. Patients with combined etiology of CHF occupy the intermediate position of atherogenic fractions content, while they demonstrate the minimum value in the antiatherogenic HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion. Changes of lipid metabolism are varied depending on the etiology of CHF in patients with concomitant overweight and obesity and the most unfavorable in ischemic form of the disease.

  1. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  2. To Assess the Association between Glucose Metabolism and Ectopic Lipid Content in Different Clinical Classifications of PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S Göbl

    Full Text Available There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated.A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index.Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile.

  3. To Assess the Association between Glucose Metabolism and Ectopic Lipid Content in Different Clinical Classifications of PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Christian S.; Ott, Johannes; Bozkurt, Latife; Feichtinger, Michael; Rehmann, Victoria; Cserjan, Anna; Heinisch, Maike; Steinbrecher, Helmut; JustKukurova, Ivica; Tuskova, Radka; Leutner, Michael; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Kurz, Christine; Weghofer, Andrea; Tura, Andrea; Egarter, Christian; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated. Methods A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function) in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index. Conclusions Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile. PMID:27505055

  4. Differences in metabolic costs of terrestrial mobility in two closely related species of albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Alexander P; Phillips, Richard A; Croxall, John P; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys typically colonise steeper habitats than grey-headed albatrosses T. chrysostoma. The present study investigated the effect of colony philopatry on terrestrial locomotory ability in these two species, to determine: (1) if there is a difference in terrestrial locomotory ability between these two closely related species, and (2) what physiological or behavioural adaptations may account for any differences identified. We examined the metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency on an incline, and gait characteristics of terrestrial locomotion of these two species on both level and inclined planes. T. chrysostoma were able to perform at a significantly greater speed than T. melanophrys without reaching a significantly different maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). Conversely, T. melanophrys were able to move up a significantly steeper incline than T. chrysostoma while maintaining a similar maximal V(O(2)). Each species demonstrates stride length, force production (behavioural) and leg length (morphological) adaptations that minimise the cost of traversing their chosen colonies, indicating a clear relationship between terrestrial performance and local topography. However, it is not possible to determine if the difference in locomotory ability results from differences in colony topography, or if choice of colony site is dictated by the ability of the species to traverse different terrain.

  5. Comparison of metabolic syndrome with growing epidemic syndrome Z in terms of risk factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe

  6. PARAMETERS OF PROTEIN METABOLISM IN GOATS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT PORTION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ariyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Jawarandu male goats were used to study the effect of different portion of sugarcanebagasse in diets on some parameters of protein metabolism. Goats had average of body weight of 18 kgand aged at 18 months. Animals were housed in metabolic cages and were alloted to a completelyrandomized design receiving three experimental diets with sugarcane bagasse portions of 15, 25, and35% (dry matter basis, respectively. After eight weeks of adjustment period to experimental diets andenvironment, each group of treatment was subjected to ten days of digestion trial, and followed bycollection of rumen liquid samples. Parameters observed were feed digestibility, nitrogen retention,ruminal feed fermentation, and excretion of urinary allantoin to estimate microbial protein synthesis.Data were tested using one way analysis of variance, and followed by Duncan’s mulitiple range test. Drymatter and protein intakes lowered (P<0.05 as the increasing of sugarcane bagasse in diets. Proteindigestibility and retention were unaffected by the treatment of bagasse portion. The dietary treatment didnot change ruminal ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations. Microbialnitrogen synthesis and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were unaffected by the dietarytreatment.

  7. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses during functional electric stimulation cycling at different cadences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornusek, Ché; Davis, Glen M

    2008-04-01

    To determine the influence of pedaling cadence on cardiorespiratory responses and muscle oxygenation during functional electric stimulation (FES) leg cycling. Repeated measures. Laboratory. Nine subjects with T4 through T10 spinal cord injury (SCI) (American Spinal Injury Association grade A). FES cycling was performed at pedaling cadences of 15, 30, and 50 revolutions per minute (rpm). At each cadence, heart rate, oxygen uptake, and cardiac output were recorded during 35 minutes of cycling. Near infrared spectroscopy was used to quantify quadriceps muscle oxygenation. All pedaling cadences induced similar elevations in cardiorespiratory metabolism, compared with resting values. Higher average power output was produced at 30rpm (8.2+/-0.7W, P30 and 50rpm than at 15rpm. Quadriceps muscle oxygenation did not differ with pedaling cadences. Cardiorespiratory responses and muscle metabolism adjustments during FES leg cycling were independent of pedal cadence. FES cycling at a cadence of 50rpm may not confer any advantages over 30 or 15rpm for cardiovascular fitness promotion in persons with SCI.

  8. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Differences Time Trends for Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Tehranian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the trend of metabolic syndrome and its components in Tehran children and adolescents during a median followup of 6.6 years. Methods. Data from 1999–2001 (phase I, 2002–2005 (phase II, and 2006–2008 (phase III of the Tehran, Lipid and Glucose Study were analyzed (=5439; age 6–18 years for the trend of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components. General estimation equation (GEE models were used to analyze this correlated data. Results. The crude prevalence of MetS for boys at baseline was 13.2%, which increased to 16.4% in the third phase. In girls, the prevalence of Mets decreased from 11.8% at baseline to 6% during followup. The odd ratios (OR of obesity over the whole study period were raised in both sexes. The OR of abdominal obesity increased significantly in boys, but no change was observed in girls. No significant OR was observed in boys, while OR for MetS was shown to have a decreasing trend in girls during the followup. In the three time points, the ORs of MetS decreased significantly in girls but no significant difference was observed in boys. Conclusion. Inspite of increasing trend for obesity in both sexes, the trend of MetS decreased in girls and was relatively stable in boys, in Tehranian children, and adolescents.

  10. The effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. In nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. To test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fasting and fed fish with and without the caudal fin in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis, locomotion-priority mode), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, additive mode) and goldfish (Carassius auratus, digestion-priority mode). The critical swimming speed (U(crit)) of fasting qingbo, common carp and goldfish decreased significantly by 49%, 32% and 35% after caudal fin amputation. The maximum tail beat amplitude (TBA(max)) (all three fishes), maximum tail beat frequency (TBF(max)) (only common carp and goldfish) and (or) active metabolic rate (M˙O(2active)) (only common carp) increased significantly after caudal fin amputation. In the control fish, digestion let to a significantly lower U(crit) in goldfish but not in qingbo and common carp, and the M˙O(2active) of digesting common carp was higher than that of fasting fish, suggesting locomotion-priority, additive and digestion-priority metabolic modes in qingbo, common carp and goldfish, respectively. However, after fin amputation, digestion showed no effect on U(crit) in any of the three fishes, and only the digesting common carp showed a higher M˙O(2active) than their fasting counterparts. This result suggested that the metabolic mode of the goldfish changed from the digestion- to the locomotion-priority mode, whereas the metabolic mode of the other two fishes remained the same after fin amputation. The metabolic mode of the common carp showed no change after fin amputation likely due to the

  11. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  12. [Nutrition, acid-base metabolism, cation-anion difference and total base balance in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, R; Sala, P; Mioni, G

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake and acid-base metabolism has been investigated in the past by means of the inorganic cation-anion difference (C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)) method based on dietary ash-acidity titration after the oxidative combustion of food samples. Besides the inorganic components of TA (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)), which are under renal control, there are also metabolizable components (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) of TA, which are under the control of the intermediate metabolism. The whole body base balance, NBb(W), is obtained only by the application of C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm) to food, feces and urine, while the metabolizable component (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) is disregarded. A novel method has been subsequently suggested to calculate the net balance of fixed acid, made up by the difference between the input of net endogenous acid production: NEAP = SO(4)(2-)+A(-)(m)-(C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)), and the output of net acid excretion: NAE = TA + NH(4)(+) - HCO(3)(-). This approach has been criticized because 1) it includes metabolizable acids, whose production cannot be measured independently; 2) the specific control of metabolizable acid and base has been incorrectly attributed to the kidney; 3) the inclusion of A-m in the balance input generates an acid overload; 4) the object of measurement in making up a balance has to be the same, a condition not fulfilled as NEAP is different from NAE. Lastly, by rearranging the net balance of the acid equation, the balance of nonmetabolizable acid equation is obtained. Therefore, any discrepancy between these two equations is due to the inaccuracy in the urine measurement of metabolizable cations and/or anions.

  13. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  14. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  15. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  16. Political Repression in U.S. History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors of the essays in this book amass considerable historical evidence illustrating various forms of political repression and its relationship with democracy in the United States, from the late-eighteenth century to the present. They discuss efforts, made mostly but not only by government

  17. Identifying the Critical Gaps in Research on Sex Differences in Metabolism Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Jane E B; Kumar, T Rajendra; Regensteiner, Judith G; Zeitler, Philip S

    2018-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research in Women's Health now functions under a mandate calling for the systematic inclusion of both female and male cells, animals, and human subjects in all types of research, so that sex as a biological variable is understood in health and disease. Sex-specific data can improve disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment as well as reduce inequities. Inclusion of women in research studies has modestly improved over the last 20 years, yet preclinical research is still primarily done using male animal models and male-derived cells, with the result that many conclusions are made based on incomplete and sex-biased data. There are important, yet poorly studied, sex differences in cardiometabolic disease. To begin to address these sex differences, the Center for Women's Health Research at the University of Colorado held its inaugural National Conference, "Sex Differences Across the Lifespan: A Focus on Metabolism," in September 2016 (cwhr@ucdenver.edu). Research to address the important goal of understanding key sex differences in cardiometabolic disease across the life span is lacking. The goal of this article is to discuss the current state of research addressing sex differences in cardiometabolic health across the life span, to outline critical research gaps that must be addressed in response to NIH mandates, and, importantly, to develop strategies to address sex as a biological variable to understand disease mechanisms as well as develop diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  18. Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2014-09-01

    In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between normal and dysplastic/malignant oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Xiao, Tiepeng; Shimane, Tetsu; Hayashi, Kiyonori; Qi, Fangfang; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i.e., glycogen synthase (GS) and phospho-glycogen synthase (PGS)), and molecules associated with glycogenolysis (i.e., glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) examine the glycogen metabolism in OSCC. Additionally, in vitro study, the expression levels of GS and GPBB in the cultured cells were analyzed by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was no significant difference in GS and PGS immunoactivity between iodine stained and unstained area. On the other hand, significantly greater GPBB immunoreactivity was observed in the basal and parabasal layers of iodine-unstained epithelium, where higher positivity for p53 and Ki67 was also showed. Additionally, western blot analysis, immunofluorescent staining, and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the oral squamous cancer cells exhibited greater expression of GPBB than normal epithelial cells. The results of this study showed that GPBB expression, which resulted in up-regulation of glycogenolysis, is enhanced in oral dysplastic/malignant epithelium compared with non-keartinized normal epithelium, in spite of the fact that glycogenesis continues in both of them. Premalignant and malignant epithelial cells consume greater quantities of energy due to their increased proliferation, and hence, exhaust their glycogen stores, which resulting in negative stain reaction with iodine solution. Copyright

  20. Metabolic effects of different protein intakes after short term undernutrition in artificially reared infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Robert, Clotilde; Li, Nan; Caicedo, Ricardo; Frost, Susan; Lane, Robert; Hauser, Nicholas; Neu, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Early postnatal nutrition is involved in metabolic programming. Small for gestational age and premature babies commonly receive insufficient dietary protein during the neonatal period due to nutrition intolerance, whereas high protein formulas are used to achieve catch up growth. Neither the short term, nor the long term effects of such manipulation of protein intake are known. We hypothesized that high or low protein intake during infancy would induce metabolic alterations both during early-life and in adulthood. Gastrostomized neonatal rat pups received either 50% (P50%), 100% (P100%), or 130% (P130%) of the normal protein content in rat milk from the 7th to the 15th day of life (D7 to D15), when they were either sacrificed or placed with mothers for the long term study. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed at D230. Long term rats were sacrificed at D250. At D15, weight of P50% pups was lower than P100% and P130% pups. Neither liver and kidney mass, nor islet beta-cell areas were altered. Brain weight (adjusted to body weight) was higher in P50% vs. P130% (p<0.05). Insulin/glucose ratio was lower in P50% vs. P130%. Expression of GLUT4 on adipocyte cell membrane and GLUT2 in liver cytosol was significantly enhanced in P50% vs. P130%. Long term, neither GTT results nor body nor organ weights differed between groups. In neonatal rats, higher protein intakes via the enteral route led to enhanced short term weight gain, insulin resistance, and modified expression of glucose transporters. However, these differences were not sustained.

  1. Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: plasma metabolomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications. Methods A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studied. Plasma samples of subjects were tested using two different analytical platforms of metabolomics: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Results Our results showed that carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolisms were influenced in PCOS. The levels of lactate, long-chain fatty acids, triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein were elevated, while glucose, phosphatidylcholine and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were reduced in PCOS patients as compared with controls. Additionally, the levels of alanine, valine, serine, threonine, ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan were generally increased, whereas the levels of glycine and proline were significantly reduced in PCOS samples compared to controls. Furthermore, the ratio of branched-chain amino acid to aromatic amino acid concentrations (BCAA/AAA) in PCOS plasma was significantly reduced in PCOS patients and was insusceptible to obesity and insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Our results suggested that the enhanced glycolysis and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle (TAC) in women with PCOS. Decrease of BCAA/AAA ratio was directly correlated with the development of PCOS. Ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS patients was associated with raised production of serine, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and ornithine. Elevated levels of valine and leucine, and decreased concentrations of glycine in PCOS plasma could contribute to insulin

  2. Heterogeneity in sex differences in the metabolic syndrome in Dutch white, Surinamese African and South Asian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; van Valkengoed, I. G.; van den Born, B. J.; Bhopal, R.; Stronks, K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 29, 1159-1164 (2012) Abstract Aim To determine whether sex differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components differ among different ethnic groups. Methods A random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 3560 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (white Dutch

  3. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Antioxidized LDL Antibodies Are Associated With Different Metabolic Pathways in Patients With Atherosclerotic Plaque and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal-Lopez, M. Rosa; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Gomez-Carrillo, Victor; Gallego-Perales, Jose Luis; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Calleja, Fernando; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Badimon, Lina; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Oxidized lipoproteins and antioxidized LDL antibodies (antioxLDL abs) have been detected in human plasma and atherosclerotic lesions. The principle aim of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between IgG and IgM antioxLDL abs and factors involved in different metabolic pathways (inflammation, lipid metabolism, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest profile) in the occluded popliteal artery (OPA) compared with the femoral vein (FV). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen patien...

  5. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kessler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which “unbearable” mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR].Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD, and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall.Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of

  6. Sex differences in the effects of androgens acting in the central nervous system on metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Jamie; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2016-01-01

    One of the most sexually dimorphic aspects of metabolic regulation is the bidirectional modulation of glucose and energy homeostasis by testosterone in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes men to metabolic dysfunction, with excess adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, whereas androgen excess predisposes women to insulin resistance, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. This review discusses how testosterone acts in the central nervous system, and especially the hypothalamus, to promote metabolic homeostasis or dysfunction in a sexually dimorphic manner. We compare the organizational actions of testosterone, which program the hypothalamic control of metabolic homeostasis during development, and the activational actions of testosterone, which affect metabolic function after puberty. We also discuss how the metabolic effect of testosterone is centrally mediated via the androgen receptor. PMID:28179813

  7. Metabolic responses to different immune challenges and varying resource availability in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Webb, Alison C; Angilletta, Michael J; DeNardo, Dale F; French, Susannah S

    2017-12-01

    The energetic cost of immunity depends on many factors, including the type of challenge, the timing of the response, and the state of the animal. We measured changes in the standard metabolic rates of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852) in response to different immune challenges and nutritional states. In the first experiment, lizards were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (to stimulate the response to a pathogen), cutaneous biopsy (as a proxy to a superficial wound), both injection and biopsy, or neither (control). Four and five days later, we measured the standard metabolic rates of the lizards. In response to healing a cutaneous wound, lizards reduced metabolic rate and lost body mass. Healing rate was also inversely related to weight loss, but LPS had no effect on body mass or metabolic rate. In the second experiment, a new set of lizards were randomly assigned to a high-food or low-food diet and administered a cutaneous biopsy. As in the first experiment, we observed a reduction in metabolic rate after wounding; moreover, this decrease was positively correlated with the rate of healing. We observed higher rates of metabolism in lizards that ate more food, but food consumption was unrelated to the decrease in metabolic rate following the biopsy. These experiments demonstrate the dynamic nature of the immune response in response to immune challenge and the state of the organism.

  8. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  9. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause

  10. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by

  11. Components of the metabolic syndrome differ between young and old adults in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew D; Sardi, Gabriel L; Reed, James F

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is high in the United States and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The authors examined whether the prevalence of the MetS and its components differs across age groups. Data were analyzed from 4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between the years 1999 and 2006. Prevalence of MetS as defined by the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria and prevalence of associated cardiac risk factors were determined in 41,474 participants aged 18 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All estimates were weighted. Prevalence of MetS among asymptomatic adults without CVD was 20.5% and remained stable for the total population during survey periods. Prevalence of MetS increased with age: 6.6% in young adults (age 18-29 years) and 34.6% in older adults (70 and older). Components of MetS differed between young and old adults. Young adults had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less glucose intolerance, and less hypertension. This study provides an estimate of MetS prevalence in asymptomatic adults in the United States during an 8-year period revealing that MetS affects a large number of Americans. Components of MetS differ between young and old adults and may have important implications in their clinical management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Different Narrow-Band Light Ranges Alter Plant Secondary Metabolism and Plant Defense Response to Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light of different wavelengths affects various physiological processes in plants. Short-wavelength radiation (like UV) can activate defense pathways in plants and enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and glucosinolates) responsible for resistance against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown for 4 weeks in a climate chamber under conventional fluorescent tubes and were additionally treated with UV-B (310 nm), UV-A (365 or 385 nm), or violet (420 nm) light generated with UV-B tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The objective was to determine the influence of narrow bandwidths of light (from UV-B to violet) on plant secondary metabolism and on the performance of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (a generalist). Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides increased markedly under UV-B, while among glucosinolates only 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl showed a 2-fold increase in plants exposed to UV-B and UV-A. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in broccoli plants increased with UV-B treatment. Brevicoryne brassicae adult weights and fecundity were lower on UV-B treated plants compared to UV-A or violet light-treated plants. Adult weights and fecundity of M. persicae were increased under UV-B and UV-A treatments. When specific light wavelengths are used to induce metabolic changes in plants, the specificity of the induced effects on herbivores should be considered.

  14. Different metabolic patterns analysis of Parkinsonism on the {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Rahyeong; Kim, Jaesung; Moon, Daehyuk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Tasuk E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr

    2004-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are the most common movement disorders associated with neurodegenerative disease. A clinical differential diagnosis of IPD and atypical Parkinsonian disorders, such as MSA and PSP, is often complicated by the presence of symptoms common to both groups. Since Parkinsonism has a different pathophysiology in the cortical and subcortical brain structures, assessing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism may assist in making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET images of IPD, MSA and PSP were assessed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in order to determine the useful metabolic patterns. Twenty-four patients with Parkinsonism: eight patients (mean age 67.9{+-}10.7 years; M/F: 3/5) with IPD, nine patients (57.9{+-}9.2 years; M/F: 4/5) with MSA and seven patients (67.6{+-}4.8 years; M/F: 3/4) with PSP were enrolled in this study. All patients with Parkinsonism and 22 age-matched normal controls underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, (after 370 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG). The three groups and the individual IPD, MSA and PSP patients were compared with a normal control group using a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected P<0.01, extent threshold >100 voxel). The IPD, MSA and PSP groups showed significant hypometabolism in the cerebral neocortex compared to the normal control group. The MSA group showed significant hypometabolism in the putamen, pons and cerebellum compared to the normal controls and IPD groups. In addition, PSP showed significant hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, midbrain and the cingulate gyrus compared to the normal controls, the IPD and the MSA groups. In conclusion, an assessment of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET images using SPM may be a useful adjunct to a clinical examination when making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism.

  15. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  16. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized......Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans......, probably because of the higher doses of bread provided to the pigs (per kg body weight) and/or because of their growing status. Acute metabolic differences in these metabolites induced by the breads were, however, comparable between the 2 species. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pigs are a suitable...

  17. Metabolic responses to Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennifer R; Rogers, Sharon N; Kraemer, Robert R

    2011-03-01

    The Wii Fit™ is a form of interactive gaming designed to elicit health and fitness benefits to replace sedentary gaming. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Wii Fit™ fitness games. The purpose of the study was to determine the %VO2max and energy expenditure from different Wii Fit™ games at different levels including the step and hula games. Eight healthy young women completed a preliminary trial to determine VO2max and later played the Wii Fit™ during 2 separate counterbalanced trials. During each session, subjects played levels of Wii Fit™ games for 10 minutes each level. One session involved beginning and intermediate hula, and the other session involved beginning and intermediate steps. The VO2 was measured continuously via metabolic cart, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed at the end of each game level. The lowest %VO2max, kcal·min, and RPE occurred during the beginning step game and the highest values occurred during the intermediate hula game. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher in the intermediate hula than beginning hula game but was not significantly different between step game levels. The intermediate hula and step games produced the greatest energy expenditure with an equivalent effect of a walking speed of >5.63 km·h (>3.5 miles·h). This is the first study to determine the percentage of VO2max and caloric expenditure elicited by different Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels in adults. Findings suggest that the Wii Fit™ can be used as an effective activity for promoting physical health in this population.

  18. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  19. DIFFERENT ACUTE METABOLISM OF FRUCTOSE IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS COMPARED TO HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Anderstam

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that a fatty meal is associated with a delayed post-prandial fructose absorption and/or metabolism, as well as increased uric acid levels in HD patients. In an ongoing new study, the fructose metabolism will be further studied in CKD patients, diabetics and healthy controls.

  20. Significance of HPr in catabolite repression of alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuil, M I; Chambliss, G H

    1996-01-01

    CcpA and HPr are presently the only two proteins implicated in Bacillus subtilis global carbon source catabolite repression, and the ptsH1 mutation in the gene for the HPr protein was reported to relieve catabolite repression of several genes. However, alpha-amylase synthesis by B. subtilis SA003 containing the ptsH1 mutation was repressed by glucose. Our results suggest HPr(Ser-P) may be involved in but is not required for catabolite repression of alpha-amylase, indicating that HPr(Ser-P) is not the sole signaling molecule for CcpA-mediated catabolite repression in B. subtilis. PMID:8955329

  1. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in floral structures of Lilium pumilum in different development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Nayana de Sousa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lilium pumilum is a species that stands out in floriculture for presenting orange inflorescences that attract the consumer. This study thus aimed at characterizing the carbohydrate metabolism of floral structures of L. pumilum in different development stages. For this purpose, carbohydrate levels (total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, and starch, at different floral stages (E0 - bud with no color; E1 - bud at early coloring; E2 - orange bud; E3 - open flower; E4 - senescent flower were quantified after extraction with ethanol. Lilium pumilum flowers showed high energy potential during floral opening and senescence; total soluble sugars were the main carbohydrates present in the species, reducing with the floral development, and the same occurred with the non-reducing sugar and starch contents. The reducing-sugar content increased with the floral stages. Therefore, this species presents great mobilization of compounds, which are utilized in the production of energy that is employed in floral opening.

  3. Metabolic response to three different diets in lean cats and cats predisposed to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Claudia; Liesegang, Annette; Frey, Diana; Wichert, Brigitta

    2017-06-19

    The existence of a genetic predisposition to obesity is commonly recognized in humans and rodents. Recently, a link between genetics and overweight was shown in cats. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of diet composition on plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides in cats receiving different diets (high-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets). Insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with phenotype. Insulin levels were lower, whereas leptin levels were higher in cats predisposed to overweight. The other blood parameters were not correlated with phenotype. Intake of the high-carbohydrate diet resulted in higher insulin concentrations compared with the two other diets. Insulin levels were within the values described for non-obese cats in previous studies. There was no difference in metabolic response between the two groups. As the high-carbohydrate diet led to the highest insulin blood concentrations, it might be useful to avoid such diets in cats predisposed to overweight. In addition, even cats with genetically linked obesity can regain insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

  4. Metabolic characterization of Withania somnifera from different regions of India using NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdeo, Ajay G; Sharma, Ajay; Yadav, Kavita N; Gawande, Rupali; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Lopez-Gresa, Maria Pilar; Kim, Hye Kyong; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dun. (Solanaceae), known as Indian ginseng, is one of the most popular medicinal plants in India. Considering the importance and common use of this plant, it is necessary to investigate its holistic metabolite profile. However, with existing analytical methods which are based on TLC and HPLC‑UV (or MS), it is difficult to obtain information of the whole range of compounds appropriately. In this study, the metabolic characterization of Withania somnifera leaves, stems, and roots collected in six different regions in India was performed using ¹H NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Of the parts of Withania somnifera analyzed in this study, the leaf was found to have the widest range of metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids, lipids, organic acids, phenylpropanoids, and sugars, as well as the main secondary metabolites of the plant, withanolides. The ¹H NMR spectra revealed the presence of two groups of withanolides: 4-OH and 5,6-epoxy withanolides (withaferin A-like steroids) and 5- OH and 6,7-epoxy withanolides (withanolides Alike steroids). The ratio of these two withanolides was found to be a key discriminating feature of Withania somnifera leaf samples from different origins. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling

  6. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  7. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Linda; Engström, Alexander; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2011-03-09

    Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes). The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a negative effect on artemisinin production through

  8. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes). The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a negative effect on

  9. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  10. Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, G.; Tohge, T.; Matsuda, F.; Saito, K.; Scheible, W.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO3-) per se regulate many aspects of plant metabolism, growth, and development. N/NO3- also suppresses parts of secondary metabolism, including anthocyanin synthesis. Molecular components for this repression are unknown. We report that three N/NO3--induced members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) gene family of transcription factors (LBD37, LBD38, and LBD39) act as negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of e...

  11. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  12. Derangement of a factor upstream of RARalpha triggers the repression of a pleiotropic epigenetic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Corlazzoli

    Full Text Available Chromatin adapts and responds to extrinsic and intrinsic cues. We hypothesize that inheritable aberrant chromatin states in cancer and aging are caused by genetic/environmental factors. In previous studies we demonstrated that either genetic mutations, or loss, of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha, can impair the integration of the retinoic acid (RA signal at the chromatin of RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha, and can lead to aberrant repressive chromatin states marked by epigenetic modifications. In this study we tested whether the mere interference with the availability of RA signal at RARalpha, in cells with an otherwise functional RARalpha, can also induce epigenetic repression at RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha.To hamper the availability of RA at RARalpha in untransformed human mammary epithelial cells, we targeted the cellular RA-binding protein 2 (CRABP2, which transports RA from the cytoplasm onto the nuclear RARs. Stable ectopic expression of a CRABP2 mutant unable to enter the nucleus, as well as stable knock down of endogenous CRABP2, led to the coordinated transcriptional repression of a few RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha. The chromatin at these genes acquired an exacerbated repressed state, or state "of no return". This aberrant state is unresponsive to RA, and therefore differs from the physiologically repressed, yet "poised" state, which is responsive to RA. Consistent with development of homozygosis for epigenetically repressed loci, a significant proportion of cells with a defective CRABP2-mediated RA transport developed heritable phenotypes indicative of loss of function.Derangement/lack of a critical factor necessary for RARalpha function induces epigenetic repression of a RA-regulated gene network downstream of RARalpha, with major pleiotropic biological outcomes.

  13. Sex difference in the association of metabolic syndrome with high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a Taiwanese population

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    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sex differences have been reported for associations between components of metabolic syndrome and inflammation, the question of whether there is an effect modification by sex in the association between inflammation and metabolic syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare associations of high sensitivity C-creative protein (hs-CRP with metabolic syndrome and its components between men and women. Methods A total of 1,305 subjects aged 40 years and over were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The biochemical indices, such as hs-CRP, fasting glucose levels, lipid profiles, urinary albumin, urinary creatinine and anthropometric indices, were measured. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association and the National Heart, lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI definition. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and hs-CRP was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results After adjustment for age and lifestyle factors including smoking, and alcohol intake, elevated concentrations of hs-CRP showed a stronger association with metabolic syndrome in women (odds ratio comparing tertile extremes 4.80 [95% CI: 3.31-6.97] than in men (2.30 [1.65-3.21]. The p value for the sex interaction was 0.002. All components were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in women than in men, and all sex interactions were significant except for hypertension. Conclusions Our data suggest that inflammatory processes may be of particular importance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in women.

  14. Xenobiotic metabolism markers in marine fish with different trophic strategies and their relationship to ecological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Rodríguez, S; Papiol, V; Maynou, F; Cartes, J E

    2009-01-01

    Nine fish species of commercial interest from six teleost families and two species of elasmobranchs were selected for characterisation of hepatic biomarkers used in early-warning assessment of pollutant exposure. The sampling was carried out in front of the Barcelona coast (NW Mediterranean) during December 2006 at shelf (53 m) and slope (660 m) depths. The enzymes considered included the antioxidant defence catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), phase I ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and phase II glutathione S-transferase (GST). Protein yield (PY) was used as a general marker of hepatic protein synthesis. Significant interspecies differences were evidenced, although each marker varied independently. Enzymatic activities in teleosts were higher than in elasmobranchs; they were very low in Scyliorhinus canicula (mainly a benthic feeder), but not so low in Galeus melastomus (pelagic feeder). In relation to depth, shallow water, shelf-living species had higher metabolic activities. Trophic variables were significantly related to PY and EROD activity, and were especially high in benthic/suprabenthic feeders. Trophic level (deduced from stable isotopy) and stomach fullness were associated with all hepatic markers, except GR. Swimming capacity was related to all hepatic enzymes. Our findings can be applied, not only from the perspective of conservation ecology regarding pollution, but also in fisheries, due to the economic interest of the species involved.

  15. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Yu, Yilan; Shi, Ruoyun; Xie, Guoyong; Zhu, Yan; Wu, Gang; Qin, Minjian

    2018-02-15

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensi s changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4'-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis .

  16. Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezelli José D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old. Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues.

  17. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensis changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4′-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis.

  18. Modulation of trichloroethylene in vitro metabolism by different drugs in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, Mouna; Haddad, Sami

    2014-08-01

    Toxicological interactions with drugs have the potential to modulate the toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE). Our objective is to identify metabolic interactions between TCE and 14 widely used drugs in human suspended hepatocytes and characterize the strongest using microsomal assays. Changes in concentrations of TCE and its metabolites were measured by headspace GC-MS. Results with hepatocytes show that amoxicillin, cimetidine, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and ranitidine caused no significant interactions. Naproxen and salicylic acid showed to increase both TCE metabolites levels, whereas acetaminophen, carbamazepine and erythromycin rather decreased them. Finally, diclofenac, gliclazide, sulphasalazine and valproic acid had an impact on the levels of only one metabolite. Among the 14 tested drugs, 5 presented the most potent interactions and were selected for confirmation with microsomes, namely naproxen, salicylic acid, acetaminophen, carbamazepine and valproic acid. Characterization in human microsomes confirmed interaction with naproxen by competitively inhibiting trichloroethanol (TCOH) glucuronidation (Ki=2.329 mM). Inhibition of TCOH formation was also confirmed for carbamazepine (partial non-competitive with Ki=70 μM). Interactions with human microsomes were not observed with salicylic acid and acetaminophen, similar to prior results in rat material. For valproic acid, interactions with microsomes were observed in rat but not in human. Inhibition patterns were shown to be similar in human and rat hepatocytes, but some differences in mechanisms were noted in microsomal material between species. Next research efforts will focus on determining the adequacy between in vitro observations and the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retention of the metabolized trace elements in biological tissues following different drying procedures. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Loss of Sb, Co, I, Hg, Se and Zn during freeze-drying and oven-drying at 80, 105 and 120 0 C were studied in rat tissues that contained metabolized radioactive isotopes. No loss was observed for any of the 6 elements on freeze-drying. However, tissue-specific differences were observed in many cases for Hg, Se, I and Sb on oven-drying. A significant loss of Hg was observed in liver even at 80 0 C, and for brain at 105 0 C. Se was lost from whole blood, brain, lung and muscle at 120 0 C, Sb was lost from whole blood at 105 0 C, but from brain, kidney, lung and spleen at 120 0 C. Iodine was also lost from whole blood, kidney, blood serum, erythrocytes, brain, lung and muscle at 120 0 C. Although the losses were statistically significant, they remained in most cases between 2 and 10% with the exception of Hg at 120 0 C, where the losses in some of the tissues were unpredictable. For urine, freeze-drying and oven-drying at 80 0 C was found to be relatively safe for Hg and I. At 105 0 C and above, serious loss of Hg was observed. In this experiment, the elements Zn, Co, Sb and Se were not studied for urine. (Auth

  20. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Gudmundsdottir, F D; Thorsdottir, I

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects. Twenty-five healthy normal (n = 12) and overweight (n = 13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with 1 week between test days. The conventional fast-food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink, calculated glycemic load = 48.7), the unconventional fast food was a salmonburger meal (fiber-rich sourdough rye bread, salad with vinegar, orange juice, glycemic load = 46.0). Blood samples were taken before and after the meal and analyzed for glucose (before 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) and insulin (before 1, 2 and 3 h). Postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were 44% lower after the unconventional meal (Pfast food can have less effect on blood insulin and glucose postprandially compared with conventional fast food matched in energy and energy giving nutrients. The difference between meals in insulin response is associated with higher BMI. Thus, improvement in food quality might help to control postprandial increases in blood glucose and blood insulin.

  1. Metabolic differences between short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range and healthy children of normal height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidblad, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan; Marcus, Claude; Ritzén, Martin; Ekström, Klas

    2017-06-01

    Severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD) leads to several metabolic effects in the body ranging from abnormal body composition to biochemical disturbances. However, less is known regarding these parameters in short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range during provocation tests. Our aim was to study the metabolic profile of this group and compare it with that of healthy children of normal height. Thirty-five pre-pubertal short children (short children with GH peaks short pre-pubertal children with GH peak levels between 7 and 14μg/L did not differ significantly from healthy children of normal height but subpopulations within this group show significant metabolic differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zeste maintains repression of Ubx transgenes: Support for a new model of polycomb repression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Man-Wook; Laney, Jeffrey D.; Jeon, Sang-Hack; Ali, Janann; Biggin, Mark D.

    2001-09-01

    During late embryogenesis, the expression domains of homeotic genes are maintained by two groups of ubiquitously expressed regulators: the Polycomb repressors and the Trithorax activators. It is not known how the activities of the two maintenance systems are initially targeted to the correct genes. Zeste and GAGA are sequence specific DNA binding proteins previously shown to be Trithorax group activators of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we demonstrate that Zeste and GAGA DNA binding sites at the proximal promoter are also required to maintain, but not to initiate, repression of Ubx. Further, the repression mediated by Zeste DNA binding site is abolished in zeste null embryos. These data imply that Zeste and probably GAGA mediate Polycomb repression. We present a model in which the dual transcriptional activities of Zeste and GAGA are an essential component of the mechanism that chooses which maintenance system is to be targeted to a given promoter.

  3. Early differences in metabolic flexibility between obesity-resistant and obesity-prone mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bardová, Kristina; Horáková, Olga; Janovská, Petra; Hansíková, Jana; Kůs, Vladimír; van Schothorst, E. M.; Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Uil, M.; Hensler, Michal; Keijer, J.; Kopecký, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 124, May (2016), s. 163-170 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : indirect calorimetry * glucose tolerance * weaning * C57BL/6J mice * A/J mice * metabolic flexibility Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  4. Adiposity measurements in association with metabolic syndrome in older men have different clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lau, Shu Chuen; Chiang, Wei-Yong; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem, and measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future comorbidities are important issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4 adiposity measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage, have different physiological meanings and distinct associations with adverse health consequences. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of these 4 measurements with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and identify the most associated factor for MetS occurrence in older, non-medicated men. Cross-sectional data from 3004 men, all 65 years of age and older, were analyzed. The correlation and association between adiposity measurements and MetS components were evaluated by Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Based on multivariate logistic regression, BMI and WC were significantly associated with MetS and were selected to build a combined model of receiver operating characteristic curves to increase the diagnosis accuracy for MetS. The results show that BMI is independently associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure; WC and body fat percentage are associated with fasting plasma glucose and log transformation of triglyceride; BMI and WC are negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and WC is a better discriminate for MetS than BMI, although the combined model (WC + BMI) is not significantly better than WC alone. Based on these results, we conclude that the 4 adiposity measurements have different clinical implications. Thus, in older men, BMI is an important determinant for blood pressure and HDL-C. Waist circumference is associated with the risk of fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C, triglyceride, and MetS occurrence. The combined model did not increase the diagnosis accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Everolimus and sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine have different effects on renal metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Rahul; Schöning, Wenzel; Klawitter, Jelena; Brunner, Nina; Schmitz, Volker; Shokati, Touraj; Lawrence, Ryan; Arbelaez, Maria Fernanda; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jost

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity by sirolimus (SRL) is limiting the clinical use of this drug combination. We compared the dose-dependent effects of the structurally related everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus (SRL) alone, and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), on the rat kidney. Lewis rats were treated by oral gavage for 28 days using a checkerboard dosing format (0, 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 CsA and 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg/day SRL or EVL, n = 4/dose combination). After 28 days, oxidative stress, energy charge, kidney histologies, glomerular filtration rates, and concentrations of the immunosuppressants were measured along with (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry profiles of cellular metabolites in urine. The combination of CsA with SRL led to higher urinary glucose concentrations and decreased levels of urinary Krebs cycle metabolites when compared to controls, suggesting that CsA+SRL negatively impacted proximal tubule metabolism. Unsupervised principal component analysis of MRS spectra distinguished unique urine metabolite patterns of rats treated with CsA+SRL from those treated with CsA+EVL and the controls. SRL, but not EVL blood concentrations were inversely correlated with urine Krebs cycle metabolite concentrations. Interestingly, the higher the EVL concentration, the closer urine metabolite patterns resembled those of controls, while in contrast, the combination of the highest doses of CsA+SRL showed the most significant differences in metabolite patterns. Surprisingly in this rat model, EVL and SRL in combination with CsA had different effects on kidney biochemistry, suggesting that further exploration of EVL in combination with low dose calcineurin inhibitors may be of potential benefit.

  6. Everolimus and sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine have different effects on renal metabolism in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bohra

    Full Text Available Enhancement of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity by sirolimus (SRL is limiting the clinical use of this drug combination. We compared the dose-dependent effects of the structurally related everolimus (EVL and sirolimus (SRL alone, and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA, on the rat kidney. Lewis rats were treated by oral gavage for 28 days using a checkerboard dosing format (0, 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 CsA and 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg/day SRL or EVL, n = 4/dose combination. After 28 days, oxidative stress, energy charge, kidney histologies, glomerular filtration rates, and concentrations of the immunosuppressants were measured along with (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry profiles of cellular metabolites in urine. The combination of CsA with SRL led to higher urinary glucose concentrations and decreased levels of urinary Krebs cycle metabolites when compared to controls, suggesting that CsA+SRL negatively impacted proximal tubule metabolism. Unsupervised principal component analysis of MRS spectra distinguished unique urine metabolite patterns of rats treated with CsA+SRL from those treated with CsA+EVL and the controls. SRL, but not EVL blood concentrations were inversely correlated with urine Krebs cycle metabolite concentrations. Interestingly, the higher the EVL concentration, the closer urine metabolite patterns resembled those of controls, while in contrast, the combination of the highest doses of CsA+SRL showed the most significant differences in metabolite patterns. Surprisingly in this rat model, EVL and SRL in combination with CsA had different effects on kidney biochemistry, suggesting that further exploration of EVL in combination with low dose calcineurin inhibitors may be of potential benefit.

  7. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  8. Specific dietary preferences are linked to differing gut microbial metabolic activity in response to dark chocolate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Nagy, Kornél; Moco, Sofia; Collino, Sebastiano; Guy, Philippe; Redeuil, Karine; Scherer, Max; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-12-07

    Systems biology approaches are providing novel insights into the role of nutrition for the management of health and disease. In the present study, we investigated if dietary preference for dark chocolate in healthy subjects may lead to different metabolic response to daily chocolate consumption. Using NMR- and MS-based metabolic profiling of blood plasma and urine, we monitored the metabolic response of 10 participants stratified as chocolate desiring and eating regularly dark chocolate (CD) and 10 participants stratified as chocolate indifferent and eating rarely dark chocolate (CI) to a daily consumption of 50 g of dark chocolate as part of a standardized diet over a one week period. We demonstrated that preference for chocolate leads to different metabolic response to chocolate consumption. Daily intake of dark chocolate significantly increased HDL cholesterol by 6% and decreased polyunsaturated acyl ether phospholipids. Dark chocolate intake could also induce an improvement in the metabolism of long chain fatty acid, as noted by a compositional change in plasma fatty acyl carnitines. Moreover, a relationship between regular long-term dietary exposure to a small amount of dark chocolate, gut microbiota, and phenolics was highlighted, providing novel insights into biological processes associated with cocoa bioactives.

  9. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Gebhardt, J Christof M

    2017-11-02

    Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Rampal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic

  11. Effects of different metabolic states and surgical models on glucose metabolism and secretion of ileal L-cell peptides: protocol for a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Alper; Dixon, John B; Pouwels, Sjaak; Celik, Bahri Onur; Karaca, Fatih Can; Gupta, Adarsh; Santoro, Sergio; Ugale, Surendra

    2016-03-14

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing worldwide, reaching pandemic proportions. The understanding of the role of functional restriction and gut hormones can be a beneficial tool in treating obesity and diabetes. However, the exact hormonal profiles in different metabolic states and surgical models are not known. The HIPER-1 Study is a single-centre cross-sectional study in which 240 patients (in different metabolic states and surgical models) will receive an oral mixed-meal tolerance test (OMTT). At baseline and after 30, 60 and 120 min, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels and glucose and insulin sensitivity will be measured. The primary end point of the study will be the area under the glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY curves after the OMTT. Secondary study end points will include examination of the difference in plasma levels of the distal ileal hormones in subjects with various health statuses and in patients who have been treated with different surgical techniques. An independent ethics committee, the Institutional Review Board of Istanbul Sisli Kolan International Hospital, Turkey, has approved the study protocol. Dissemination will occur via publication, national and international conference presentations, and exchanges with regional, provincial and national stakeholders. NCT02532829; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Different functions of AKT1 and AKT2 in molecular pathways, cell migration and metabolism in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggblad Sahlberg, Sara; Mortensen, Anja C; Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K R; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt; Glimelius, Bengt; Stenerlöw, Bo; Nestor, Marika

    2017-01-01

    AKT is a central protein in many cellular pathways such as cell survival, proliferation, glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, as well as radiation and drug response. The three isoforms of AKT (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) are proposed to have different physiological functions, properties and expression patterns in a cell type-dependent manner. As of yet, not much is known about the influence of the different AKT isoforms in the genome and their effects in the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, DLD-1 isogenic AKT1, AKT2 and AKT1/2 knockout colon cancer cell lines were used as a model system in conjunction with the parental cell line in order to further elucidate the differences between the AKT isoforms and how they are involved in various cellular pathways. This was done using genome wide expression analyses, metabolic profiling and cell migration assays. In conclusion, downregulation of genes in the cell adhesion, extracellular matrix and Notch-pathways and upregulation of apoptosis and metastasis inhibitory genes in the p53-pathway, confirm that the knockout of both AKT1 and AKT2 will attenuate metastasis and tumor cell growth. This was verified with a reduction in migration rate in the AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO and most explicitly in the AKT1/2 KO. Furthermore, the knockout of AKT1, AKT2 or both, resulted in a reduction in lactate and alanine, suggesting that the metabolism of carbohydrates and glutathione was impaired. This was further verified in gene expression analyses, showing downregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Additionally, both AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO demonstrated an impaired fatty acid metabolism. However, genes were upregulated in the Wnt and cell proliferation pathways, which could oppose this effect. AKT inhibition should therefore be combined with other effectors to attain the best effect.

  13. Analysis of biotechnological hydrogen production efficiency for microorganisms with different types of metabolism, promising directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Сергіївна Зубченко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic biotechnological methods of hydrogen production, namely biological water splitting, using algae or cyanobacteria, dark fermentation and bioelectrochemical systems are analyzed in the article. Biochemical features of hydrogen production by microorganisms with different types of metabolism are reviewed. Disadvantages of each method and the prospects for future research are determined

  14. Species differences between mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human CYP-mediated drug metabolism, inhibition and induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martignoni, Marcella; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; de Kanter, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Animal models are commonly used in the preclinical development of new drugs to predict the metabolic behaviour of new compounds in humans. It is, however, important to realise that humans differ from animals with regards to isoform composition, expression and catalytic activities of

  15. Comparing Metabolic Functionalities, Community Structures, and Dynamics of Herbicide-Degrading Communities Cultivated with Different Substrate Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gözdereliler, Erkin; Boon, Nico; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Two 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)-degrading enrichment cultures selected from an aquifer on low (0.1 mg liter−1) or high (25 mg liter−1) MCPA concentrations were compared in terms of metabolic activity, community composition, population growth, and single cell physiology. Different...

  16. Sub-sets of cancer stem cells differ intrinsically in their patterns of oxygen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Gammon

    Full Text Available The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT due to HIF-1α actions. We have recently shown that EMT occurs within the CD44(high cancer stem cell (CSC fraction and that epithelial and EMT CSCs are distinguished by high and low ESA expression, respectively. We here show that hypoxia induces a marked shift of the CSC fraction towards EMT leading to altered cell morphology, an increased proportion of CD44(high/ESA(low cells, patterns of gene expression typical of EMT, and enhanced sphere-forming ability. The size of EMT fractions returned to control levels in normoxia indicating a reversible process. Surprisingly, however, even under normoxic conditions a fraction of EMT CSCs was present and maintained high levels of HIF-1α, apparently due to actions of cytokines such as TNFα. Functionally, this EMT CSC fraction showed decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, consumed far less oxygen per cell, and produced markedly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These differences in the patterns of oxygen metabolism of sub-fractions of tumour cells provide an explanation for the general therapeutic resistance of CSCs and for the even greater resistance of EMT CSCs. They also identify potential mechanisms for manipulation of CSCs.

  17. Body size and metabolic differences in Maine Coon cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E; Meurs, Kathryn M; Bulmer, Barret J; Cunningham, Suzanne M

    2013-02-01

    An interplay between growth, glucose regulation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may exist, but has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to characterize morphometric features, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose metabolism in Maine Coon cats with HCM. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), head length and width, and abdominal circumference were measured in Maine Coon cats >2 years of age. Echocardiography and thoracic radiography (for measurement of humerus length, and fourth and twelfth vertebrae length) were also performed. Blood was collected for biochemistry profile, DNA testing, insulin and IGF-1. Sixteen of 63 cats had HCM [myosin binding protein C (MYBPC)+, n = 3 and MYBPC-, n = 13] and 47/63 were echocardiographically normal (MYBPC+, n = 17 and MYBPC-, n = 30). There were no significant differences in any measured parameter between MYBPC+ and MYBPC- cats. Cats with HCM were significantly older (P Cats with HCM also had higher serum glucose (P = 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and IGF-1 (P = 0.01) concentrations, were from smaller litters (P = 0.04), and were larger at 6 months (P = 0.02) and at 1 year of age (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P <0.001), BCS (P = 0.03) and HOMA (P = 0.047) remained significantly associated with HCM. These results support the hypothesis that early growth and nutrition, larger body size and obesity may be environmental modifiers of genetic predisposition to HCM. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of early nutrition on the phenotypic expression of HCM.

  18. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 o C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  19. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  20. Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): An investigation using different respirometric approches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Laura; Rennie, Michael D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    gene expression, gill damage, and impaired gas exchange, as well as mortality at high nAg concentrations. The present study reports the effects of nAg on the metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.28 ± 0.02 μg/L) and higher (47.......60 ± 5.13 μg/L) for 28 d, after which their standard metabolic rate (SMR), forced maximum metabolic rate (MMRf), and spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMRs) were measured. There was no effect observed in SMR, MMRf, or MMRs, suggesting that nAg is unlikely to directly affect fish metabolism. On average......, MMRs tended to be greater than MMRf, and most MMRs occurred when room lighting increased. The timing of MMRf chase protocols was found to affect both MMRf and SMR estimates, in that chasing fish before respirometric experiments caused higher MMRf estimates and lower SMR estimates. Although compounded...

  1. Metabolic syndrome: frequency and gender differences at an out-patient clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, F.; Qureshi, R.; Borhany, T.; Hamza, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients attending an out-patient clinic of a teaching hospital and to compare the clinical features regarding metabolic syndrome among males and females. All adults, above 25 years, attending the clinics for an executive check-up and giving informed consent were included in the study. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire administered to those eligible to participate. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to ATP-III guidelines. There were 250 participants in this study. Mean age of study participants was 48.94 (SD10.62) years, while approximately two-thirds, 157 (62.8%), were male. Metabolic syndrome (those who had 3 or more risk factors) was present in 35.2% of adults. Fasting blood sugar level was raised in 36.4% of study participants while significant number of participants (78.8%) had a Body Mass Index (BMI) Z 25 (p = 0.02). Frequency of metabolic syndrome was significantly high in this study with preponderance of males and prevalence similar to that observed in developed countries. Majority of patients had obesity and high fasting blood sugar levels. Males demonstrated higher levels of triglycerides and low levels of High-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females while blood pressure reading was observed to be the same in both males and females. (author)

  2. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-08-05

    The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44). The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population.

  3. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eDomingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Meissen

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS, gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs. With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K; Yuen, Benjamin T K; Kind, Tobias; Riggs, John W; Barupal, Dinesh K; Knoepfler, Paul S; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs). With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  6. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GeMMs of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1, choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5 metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  7. Temperature dependence of evolutionary diversification: differences between two contrasting model taxa support the metabolic theory of ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machac, A; Zrzavý, J; Smrckova, J; Storch, D

    2012-12-01

    Biodiversity patterns are largely determined by variation of diversification rates across clades and geographic regions. Although there are multiple reasons for this variation, it has been hypothesized that metabolic rate is the crucial driver of diversification of evolutionary lineages. According to the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), metabolic rate - and consequently speciation - is driven mainly by body size and environmental temperature. As environmental temperature affects metabolic rate in ecto- and endotherms differently, its impact on diversification rate should also differ between the two types of organisms. Employing two independent approaches, we analysed correlates of speciation rates and, ultimately, net diversification rates for two contrasting taxa: plethodontid salamanders and carnivoran mammals. Whereas in the ectothermic plethodontids speciation rates positively correlated with environmental temperature, in the endothermic carnivorans a reverse, negative correlation was detected. These findings comply with predictions of the MTE and suggest that similar geographic patterns of biodiversity across taxa (e.g. ecto- and endotherms) might have been generated by different ecological and evolutionary processes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Chen, Xiangxing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-11-29

    Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.

  9. Effects of sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community diversity on H2S emission behavior in landfills with different operation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Du, Yao; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors from landfills, and its concentration differs under different operation modes. This study examined the distribution of H 2 S emission from different landfill depths under different operation modes (anaerobic, semi-aerobic, semi-aerobic transformation, and the three operation modes with additional leachate recirculation). The microbial community (especially the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community) was investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the semi-aerobic mode could substantially lower the risks of H 2 S pollution in landfills, which might be because of the difference in biological processes related to sulfur metabolism driven by functional microbes. A myriad of factors are responsible for mutually shaping the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community composition in landfills that might subsequently affect the behavior of H 2 S emission in landfills. The differences in abundance of the genera Acinetobacter and Paracoccus (phylum Proteobacteria) caused by environmental factors might explain the differences in H 2 S emission. H 2 S odor control could be realized if the related functional microbe diversity can be influenced by adjustments to landfill operation.

  10. Bcl-6 directly represses the gene program of the glycolysis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Kenneth J.; Read, Kaitlin A.; Gilbertson, Sarah E.; Hough, Kenneth P.; McDonald, Paul W.; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Weinmann, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the molecular events that induce the glycolysis pathway in effector T cells, very little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms that dampen the glycolysis program in quiescent cell populations such as memory T cells. Here, we show that the transcription factor Bcl-6 directly repressed genes involved in the glycolysis pathway, including Slc2a1, Slc2a3, Pkm2 and Hk2, in TH1 cells exposed to low amounts of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Thus, Bcl-6 plays an opposing role to the IL-2-sensitive glycolytic transcriptional program that c-Myc and HIF-1α promote in effector T cells. Additionally, the Th1-lineage-specifying factor T-bet functionally antagonized the Bcl-6-dependent repression of genes in the glycolysis pathway, implicating the molecular balance between these two factors in metabolic gene program regulation. PMID:25194422

  11. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  12. Impact of 4 different definitions used for the assessment of the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in primary healthcare:The German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn places individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevalence rates of the population of the MetSyn are still scarce. Moreover, the impact of different definitions of the MetSyn on the prevalence is unclear. Aim here is to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn in primary health care and to investigate the impact of four different definitions of the MetSyn on the determined prevalence with regard to age, gender and socio-economic status. Methods The German-wide cross-sectional study was conducted during two weeks in October 2005 in 1.511 randomly selected general practices. Blood samples were analyzed, blood pressure and waist circumference assessed, data on lifestyle, medication, chronic disorders, and socio-demographic characteristics collected. MetSyn prevalence was estimated according to the definitions of NCEP ATP III (2001, AHA/NHLBI (2004, 2005, and IDF (2005. Descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios using the PROG GENMOD procedure, were calculated. Cohen's kappa was used as measure for interreliability between the different prevalence estimates. Results Data of 35,869 patients (age range: 18–99, women 61.1% were included. The prevalence was lowest using the NCEP ATP III- (all: 19.8%, men 22.7%, women: 18.0%, highest according to the IDF-definition (32.7%, 40.3%, 28.0%. The increase in prevalence with recent definitions was more pronounced for men than for women, and was particularly high for men and women aged 60–79 years. The IDF-definition resulted in a higher prevalence especially in those with the highest educational status. Agreement (kappa between the NCEP ATP III- and IDF-definition was 0.68 (men 0.61, women 0.74, between the updated the AHA/NHLBI- (2005 and IDF-definition 0.85 (men 0.79, women 0.89. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is associated with age, gender, and educational status and increases considerably with each

  13. Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topè Avinash M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU, which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA. We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus. Methods Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males first year college students (average age 19.8 years, attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests. Results Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3% and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%. On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9

  14. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  15. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bachlechner, Stephan; Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y.; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four ...

  16. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed using three different definitions and risk of ischemic heart disease among Kaunas adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas; Cerniauskiene, Liucija Rita; Margeviciene, Lilija; Reklaitiene, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed using three different definitions and to evaluate its associations with ischemic heart disease in Kaunas adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data of preventive screening carried out in Kaunas in 2001-2002 according to the MONICA study protocol were used for analysis; a total of 1336 persons aged 35-64 years (603 men and 733 women) were recruited. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the World Health Organization, Adult Treatment Panel III, and International Diabetes Federation definitions. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed based on the following criteria: a documented history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or ischemic changes on electrocardiogram. RESULTS. The metabolic syndrome was identified for 11.3% of men and for 9.4% of women using the World Health Organization definition, for 19.4% of men and for 26.3% of women using the Adult Treatment Panel III definition, and for 30.0% of men and for 37.7% of women using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In male and female groups, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (irrespective of definition) significantly increased with age (Pmetabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation definition (OR=2.30; P=0.001) and Adult Treatment Panel III definition (OR=1.97; P=0.01) and women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation definition (OR=1.50; P=0.039) had a significantly higher risk of having ischemic heart disease as compared with those without the metabolic syndrome by the same definitions. The metabolic syndrome diagnosed using the World Health Organization definition was not associated with a significant risk of ischemic heart disease in men and women. CONCLUSION. In Kaunas population aged 35-64 years, the highest prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was determined according to the International Diabetes Federation definition. Usage of the

  17. Legitimation, Kooptation und Repression in der Volksrepublik China

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "This article examines the interaction of legitimation, cooptation, and repression in China's authoritarian consolidation. It shows that the totalitarian regime under Mao Zedong was characterized by a low degree of performance and cooptation and that it had to rely on extreme repression and ideological indoctrination to stay in power. After the death of Mao Zedong, the character of the regime changed markedly. The new elites made sparing use of repression and indoctrination but did not compen...

  18. Dominant repression of target genes by chimeric repressors that include the EAR motif, a repression domain, in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Matsui, Kyoko; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2003-06-01

    The redundancy of genes for plant transcription factors often interferes with efforts to identify the biologic functions of such factors. We show here that four different transcription factors fused to the EAR motif, a repression domain of only 12 amino acids, act as dominant repressors in transgenic Arabidopsis and suppress the expression of specific target genes, even in the presence of the redundant transcription factors, with resultant dominant loss-of-function phenotypes. Chimeric EIN3, CUC1, PAP1, and AtMYB23 repressors that included the EAR motif dominantly suppressed the expression of their target genes and caused insensitivity to ethylene, cup-shaped cotyledons, reduction in the accumulation of anthocyanin, and absence of trichomes, respectively. This chimeric repressor silencing technology (CRES-T), exploiting the EAR-motif repression domain, is simple and effective and can overcome genetic redundancy. Thus, it should be useful not only for the rapid analysis of the functions of redundant plant transcription factors but also for the manipulation of plant traits via the suppression of gene expression that is regulated by specific transcription factors.

  19. Sex, BMI and age differences in metabolic syndrome : The Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Waateringe, Robert P.; van Beek, Andre P.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.

    Introduction: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components within sex-, body mass index (BMI)-and age combined clusters. In addition, we used the age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds to demonstrate the effect on the prevalence of MetS and elevated blood

  20. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  1. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  2. The free NADH concentration is kept constant in plant mitochondria under different metabolic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasimova, M.R.; Grigiene, J.; Krab, K.

    2006-01-01

    The reduced coenzyme NADH plays a central role in mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. However, reports on the amount of free NADH in mitochondria are sparse and contradictory. We first determined the emission spectrum of NADH bound to proteins using isothermal titration calorimetry combined wit...

  3. Metabolic footprint of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM at different pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulek, Karolina; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    increased the concentration of lactic acid, succinic acid, adenine and arginine in the medium. The metabolism of NCFM did not change significantly between pH 5 and 7, suggesting that other environmental factors than pH might have bigger impact on its colonization throughout the gastrointestinal tract....

  4. Zilpaterol hydrochloride affects cellular muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten different muscles in feedlot heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, lat...

  5. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ) and were instructed to maintain a eucaloric diet. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/m(2)/min) with [6,6-(2)H]-glucose was used to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Non-oxidative glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated respiratory quotient [RQ] minus...

  6. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p diet was associated with a significantly increase in arachidonic acid (p = 0.007), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.030), docosahexaenoic acid (p balanced diet intervention was effective in improving metabolic indices.

  7. Effect of Two Different Types of Olympic Rotation Order on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Variables in Men’s Artistic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkaouer Bessem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotation sequence-order differs from a gymnast to another according to the draw at the time of the qualifying competitions in men’s artistic gymnastics. Only the six best gymnasts start on the floor exercises, the others could start on any of the other five apparatuses. It has been demonstrated that some gymnastics events are physiologically less taxing than others; hence some gymnasts could experience lower and/or higher levels of cardiovascular and metabolic stress compared to others, depending on the apparatus they start with. In this regard, the objective of this investigation was to compare cardiovascular and metabolic variables between two different types of Olympic rotation-order; one began with the floor exercises and the other began with the pommel horse. Six elite male gymnasts took part in this investigation. Heart rates, synchronized with real-time video acquisition, as well as capillary lactate concentration following each apparatus routine were monitored. Cardiovascular and metabolic stresses were significantly higher when gymnasts started their rotation with the pommel horse in all apparatuses except the pommel horse. The floor exercises’ score was significantly affected when gymnasts ended up their competition on this apparatus. As a conclusion, starting gymnastics’ competition on the floor exercises implicates less cardiovascular and metabolic stress associated with better performance compared with the other rotation order. As a matter of fact, best gymnasts who start on this apparatus could have a slight advantage compared with the other athletes.

  8. Gender differences in copper, zinc and selenium status in diabetic-free metabolic syndrome European population - the IMMIDIET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J; de Lorgeril, M; Akbaraly, T; Salen, P; Arnout, J; Cappuccio, F P; van Dongen, M C J M; Donati, M B; Krogh, V; Siani, A; Iacoviello, L

    2012-06-01

    The European 'IMMIDIET' study was designed to evaluate the effect of genetic and dietary habit interactions on cardiovascular disease risk factors in non-diabetic subjects. Copper, zinc and selenium are involved in redox balance and modifications of their homeostasis could be associated with metabolic syndrome. Because few studies have dealt with trace element status in metabolic syndrome with conflicting results, we aimed at investigating the relationships between plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations and metabolic syndrome in the IMMIDIET population. Male-female couples born and living in Abruzzo, Italy (n = 271); Limburg, Belgium (n = 267), southwest part of London, England (n = 263) and 205 Italian-Belgian mixed couples living in Belgium were enrolled. Data on medical history, hypertension and blood lipid profile, medication use, smoking and alcohol habits, physical activity and socioeconomic status were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Anthropometric, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipid profile and copper, zinc and selenium measurements were performed. Participants were classified in two groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (Yes/No). Comparison between these two groups, performed separately in men and women, indicated no association in men whereas, in women, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher plasma selenium concentrations (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55(1.28-1.89)); this association remained significant after adjustment for age, group, social status, physical activity, energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking and hormonal status (OR = 1.33 (1.06-1.67)). Our results indicate gender differences in the association between plasma selenium concentration and metabolic syndrome without diabetes and may suggest a sub-clinical deleterious effect of high selenium status in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Different patterns of metabolic cryo-damage in domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2012-04-01

    Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. Despite the importance of sperm energy production to achieving fertilization, there is little knowledge about the influence of cryopreservation or post-thaw processing on felid sperm metabolism. We conducted a comparative study of domestic cat and cheetah sperm metabolism after cryopreservation and post-thaw processing. We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. Ejaculates were cryopreserved, thawed, and processed by swim-up, Accudenz gradient centrifugation, or conventional washing (representing the 'control'). Sperm glucose and pyruvate uptake, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were assessed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. In both species, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were reduced in post-thaw, washed samples compared to freshly-collected ejaculates. Glucose uptake was minimal pre- and post-cryopreservation, whereas pyruvate uptake was similar between treatments due to high coefficients of variation. In the cat, swim-up, but not Accudenz processing, recovered spermatozoa with increased lactate production, pyruvate uptake, and motility compared to controls. Although confounded by differences in non-specific fluorescence among processing methods, MMP values within treatments were positively correlated to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa

  10. Differences in the metabolic response to temperature acclimation in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations from contrasting thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneaux, Matthieu; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Laine, Veronika N; Lindström, Kai; Primmer, Craig R; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic responses to temperature changes are crucial for maintaining the energy balance of an individual under seasonal temperature fluctuations. To understand how such responses differ in recently isolated populations (temperature range, 0-29°C) and from colder, more thermally stable spring-fed ponds (1-19°C). Salinity and predation pressure also differed between these locations. We acclimatized wild-caught fish to 6, 11, and 19°C in common garden conditions for 4-6 months and determined their aerobic scope and hepatosomatic index (HSI). The freshwater fish from the colder (2-14°C), predator-free pond population exhibited complete temperature compensation for their aerobic scope, whereas the coastal populations underwent metabolic rate reduction during the cold treatment. Coastal populations had higher HSI than the colder pond population at all temperatures, with cold acclimation accentuating this effect. The metabolic rates and HSI for freshwater fish from the pond with higher predation pressure were more similar to those of the coastal ones. Our results suggest that ontogenic effects and/or genetic differentiation are responsible for differential energy storage and metabolic responses between these populations. This work demonstrates the metabolic versatility of the nine-spined stickleback and the pertinence of an energetic framework to better understand potential local adaptations. It also demonstrates that instead of using a single acclimation temperature thermal reaction norms should be compared when studying individuals originating from different thermal environments in a common garden setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  12. Modeling the Differences in Biochemical Capabilities of Pseudomonas Species by Flux Balance Analysis: How Good Are Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks at Predicting the Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizad Babaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, several genome-scale metabolic networks have been reconstructed. These models cover a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to human. Such models have provided us with a framework for systematic analysis of metabolism. However, little effort has been put towards comparing biochemical capabilities of closely related species using their metabolic models. The accuracy of a model is highly dependent on the reconstruction process, as some errors may be included in the model during reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the ability of three Pseudomonas metabolic models to predict the biochemical differences, namely, iMO1086, iJP962, and iSB1139, which are related to P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. putida KT2440, and P. fluorescens SBW25, respectively. We did a comprehensive literature search for previous works containing biochemically distinguishable traits over these species. Amongst more than 1700 articles, we chose a subset of them which included experimental results suitable for in silico simulation. By simulating the conditions provided in the actual biological experiment, we performed case-dependent tests to compare the in silico results to the biological ones. We found out that iMO1086 and iJP962 were able to predict the experimental data and were much more accurate than iSB1139.

  13. Modeling the differences in biochemical capabilities of pseudomonas species by flux balance analysis: how good are genome-scale metabolic networks at predicting the differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Parizad; Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Tahereh; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2014-01-01

    To date, several genome-scale metabolic networks have been reconstructed. These models cover a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to human. Such models have provided us with a framework for systematic analysis of metabolism. However, little effort has been put towards comparing biochemical capabilities of closely related species using their metabolic models. The accuracy of a model is highly dependent on the reconstruction process, as some errors may be included in the model during reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the ability of three Pseudomonas metabolic models to predict the biochemical differences, namely, iMO1086, iJP962, and iSB1139, which are related to P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. putida KT2440, and P. fluorescens SBW25, respectively. We did a comprehensive literature search for previous works containing biochemically distinguishable traits over these species. Amongst more than 1700 articles, we chose a subset of them which included experimental results suitable for in silico simulation. By simulating the conditions provided in the actual biological experiment, we performed case-dependent tests to compare the in silico results to the biological ones. We found out that iMO1086 and iJP962 were able to predict the experimental data and were much more accurate than iSB1139.

  14. Photoperiodism and crassulacean acid metabolism : I. Immunological and kinetic evidences for different patterns of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in photoperiodically inducible and non-inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Müller, D; Kluge, M; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Plants of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb and Sedum morganianum E. Walth. were grown under controlled photoperiodic conditions under either short or long days. Gaz exchange measurements confirmed that in K. blossfeldiana Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was photoperiodically inducible and that S. morganianum performed CAM independently of photoperiod. With K. blossfeldiana, a comparison of catalytic and regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) from short-day and long-day grown plants showed differences, but not with S. morganianum. Ouchterlony double diffusion tests and immunotitration experiments (using a S. morganianum PEPC antibody) established that CAM is induced in K. blossfeldiana-but not in S. morganianum-through the synthesis of a new PEPC isoform; this form shows an immunological behavior different from that prevailing under non-inductive conditions and can be considered as specific for CAM performance.

  15. Basal metabolic rate and the mass of tissues differing in metabolic scope : Migration-related covariation between individual knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, TP; Piersma, T; Weber, Thomas P.

    To examine whether variability in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of migrant shorebirds is a function of a variably sized metabolic machinery or of temporal changes in metabolic intensities at the tissue level, BMR, body composition and activity of cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO, a marker for maximum

  16. MRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Martina Galatea; Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders; Routti, Heli

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ, adipose FABP4, adipose ADIPOQ and ΣPOP concentrations was observed. These findings suggest that lipid metabolism may be affected by contaminant exposure in the Baltic population. mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ, FABP4 and ADIPOQ were similar between the mid and inner adipose layer. Hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARα and PPARγ was higher in the pre

  17. Gender differences of brain glucose metabolic networks revealed by FDG-PET: evidence from a large cohort of 400 young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxiao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Kai; Zhu, Hong; Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences of the human brain are an important issue in neuroscience research. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence has been gathered from noninvasive neuroimaging studies supporting a sexual dimorphism of the human brain. However, there is a lack of imaging studies on gender differences of brain metabolic networks based on a large population sample. FDG PET data of 400 right-handed, healthy subjects, including 200 females (age: 25:45 years, mean age ± SD: 40.9 ± 3.9 years) and 200 age-matched males were obtained and analyzed in the present study. We first investigated the regional differences of brain glucose metabolism between genders using a voxel-based two-sample t-test analysis. Subsequently, we investigated the gender differences of the metabolic networks. Sixteen metabolic covariance networks using seed-based correlation were analyzed. Seven regions showing significant regional metabolic differences between genders, and nine regions conventionally used in the resting-state network studies were selected as regions-of-interest. Permutation tests were used for comparing within- and between-network connectivity between genders. Compared with the males, females showed higher metabolism in the posterior part and lower metabolism in the anterior part of the brain. Moreover, there were widely distributed patterns of the metabolic networks in the human brain. In addition, significant gender differences within and between brain glucose metabolic networks were revealed in the present study. This study provides solid data that reveal gender differences in regional brain glucose metabolism and brain glucose metabolic networks. These observations might contribute to the better understanding of the gender differences in human brain functions, and suggest that gender should be included as a covariate when designing experiments and explaining results of brain glucose metabolic networks in the control and experimental individuals or patients.

  18. Nutritional modulation of intestinal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 by butyrate of different origin in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsár, Anna; Mátis, Gábor; Molnár, Andor; Petrilla, Janka; Wágner, László; Fébel, Hedvig; Husvéth, Ferenc; Dublecz, Károly; Neogrády, Zsuzsanna

    2017-08-01

    Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play key role in the first pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics, providing a primary metabolic barrier, being of special importance in maintaining animal health and production. This study was aimed to investigate how intestinal drug-metabolizing CYPs can be modulated by nutritional factors in broiler chicken. We investigated the effects of the natural growth promoter (n-)butyrate of different origin (feed supplementation of protected or non-protected forms and/or inducing caecal microbial production by supporting higher level of dietary non-starch polysaccharides [NSP]) on the activity of duodenal CYPs. To observe the connection between intestinal CYP activity and butyrate concentration, the distribution of differently originated butyrate was also assessed by measuring its concentration in various intestinal segments and different vessels of portal and systemic circulation. Butyrate of different origin showed varying distribution properties as being absorbed from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal CYP1A and CYP2H2 activities were increased by dietary butyrate supplementation and by the increased caecal microbial butyrate production, while CYP3A37 activity was minimally influenced by microbial butyrate only. The present study proved that both dietary and microbial butyrate could alter the activity of CYPs in the duodenal epithelium. Our findings suggest that intestinal CYPs could be induced not only by the intestinal luminal butyrate, but also from basolateral side, by the already absorbed butyrate. Such action of butyrate can be of special importance from food safety and pharmacotherapeutic point of view as it may modify the metabolism and intestinal kinetics of simultaneously applied xenobiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PAM, OLA, and LNA are Differentially Taken Up and Trafficked Via Different Metabolic Pathways in Porcine Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caihua; Xi, Lingling; Chen, Jin; Jiang, Qin; Yi, Hongbo; Wang, Yizhen; Wang, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Dietary fatty acids have different effects on fat deposition in pigs. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of this difference, we compared the metabolism of palmitic (PAM, saturated), oleic (OLA, monounsaturated) and linoleic acid (LNA, polyunsaturated) in porcine adipocytes treated with 100 μM PAM, OLA or LNA. We observed that the adipocytes incubated with LNA accumulated more lipids compared with those treated with PAM and OLA. We then probed the metabolism of these fatty acids in porcine adipocytes by using isotope-labelled fatty acids. The results showed that 42% of the [1- 14 C] LNA, 34% of the [1- 14 C] PAM and 28% of the [1- 14 C] OLA were recovered in the cellular lipids. The gene expression analyses showed that LNA significantly increased the expression of adipogenesis- and oxidation-related genes including PPARγ, C/EBPα, ap2 and NRF1. In addition, the cells incubated with LNA showed a decreased Ser 112 phosphorylation in PPARγ compared to those incubated with PAM and OLA. Furthermore, when PPARγ Ser 112 phosphorylation was inhibited, no significant difference in the triacylglycerol contents in the adipocytes was observed. These results showed the dietary fatty acids had different metabolism pathways in porcine adipocytes, and LNA significantly promoted lipid accumulation, probably by regulating PPARγ phosphorylation in adipocytes.

  20. Myocardial glucose metabolism is different between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive heart disease associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Nobuyuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishide, Nobumasa; Takeyama, Daiya; Yamane, Yuriko; Chida, Masanobu; Otani, Hiroki; Shirato, Kunio; Ido, Tatsuo.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial glucose metabolism has been shown to be heterogeneous in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We tested the hypothesis that myocardial glucose metabolism differs between patients with HCM and those with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy. We studied 12 patients with HCM, 7 HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy using 18 F 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography. We calculated % FDG fractional uptake in the interventricular septum and posterolateral wall. Heterogeneity of FDG uptake was evaluated by % interregional coefficient of variation of FDG fractional uptake in each wall segment. In both the interventricular septum and posterolateral wall, % FDG fractional uptake was not significantly different between the two groups. The % interregional coefficient of variation for both interventricular septum (10.6±1.6 vs. 4.1±0.5, p<0.01) and posterolateral wall (5.9±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.5, p< 0.05) was significantly larger in patients with HCM than in HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy. Echocardiography demonstrated that the degree of asymmetrical septal hypertrophy was similar between the two groups. These results suggest that myocardial glucose metabolism may be more heterogeneous in patients with HCM compared to HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, although the left ventricular shape is similar. The difference in the heterogeneity might have resulted from differences in the pathogeneses of the two diseases. (author)

  1. Comparison of 1H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics in single metastatic brain tumors of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, M.F.; Ono, Yuko; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Various types of intracranial metastases exhibit different growth patterns, which can be reflected in their metabolic characteristics and investigated noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). The objective of the present study was comparison of the 1 H-MRS-detected metabolic parameters in brain metastases of different origin. Twenty-five patients (15 men and 10 women; mean age, 62.0 years) with single, previously nontreated metastatic brain tumors were investigated by long-echo single-voxel volume-selected 1 H-MRS. The primary cancer was located in the lungs (10 cases), colon and rectum (8 cases), breast (3 cases), kidney (2 cases), prostate (1 case), and cardiac muscle (1 case). Comparison of clinical and radiological variables, including type of tumor contrast enhancement and extension of peritumoral edema, did not disclose statistically significant differences in metastatic brain tumors of different origin. At the same time, comparison of 1 H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics revealed that metastases of colorectal carcinoma have greater content of mobile lipids (Lip) compared to other neoplasms. In conclusion, high Lip content in the viable brain metastases of colorectal carcinoma can be used as an additional diagnostic clue for noninvasive identification of these tumors and should be taken into consideration in cases of 1 H-MRS-based differentiation of their recurrence and radiation-induced necrosis after radiosurgical or radiotherapeutic treatment. (author)

  2. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Johansson, Mattias; Haycock, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cance......-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior........1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin...

  3. Different associations of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with metabolic syndrome by sex in an elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng Hua; Liu, Jian Wei; LaMonte, Michael J; Liu, Jing; Wang, Lei; He, Yao; Li, Xiao Ying; Wang, Lu Ning; Ye, Ling

    2011-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of metabolic disorders including abnormal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is involved in the regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol, lipoproteins, and triglycerides. The common ApoE polymorphism has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This study evaluated the ApoE genetic polymorphism and its relation to MetS defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation criteria in a population-based cross-sectional survey of an elderly Chinese population in Beijing, China. Genotypes of 937 men and 1385 women were included in the study. All participants were measured for blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and fasting concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We applied a logistic regression model to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. In this Chinese population, the ɛ2, ɛ3, and ɛ4 allele frequencies were 8.3%, 83.4%, and 8.3% for men and 8.7%, 82.9%, and 8.4% for women, respectively. In men, concentrations of fasting triglycerides were higher among the APOE2 and E4 subjects; and a lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in the APOE4 group. There were approximately linear associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with APOE genotype groups in both men and women. We observed that the ɛ4 allele was associated with a significantly increased OR of MetS defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria in men (OR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.63). In summary, our data show that common polymorphism of ApoE gene is associated with the presence of MetS in an elderly Chinese population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Linda; Engström, Alexander; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and ...

  5. Comparison of the different definition criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Hudsara Aparecida de Almeida; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Lanes; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Pereira, Renan Salazar Ferreira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2010-09-01

    The criteria for best defining the metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in the elderly population, are still little known, and the understanding is increasingly necessary. Compare the four MS definition proposals, two official ones (National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III/NCEP-ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation/IDF) and two proposed definitions (Metabolic Syndrome - National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III - modified/MS-ATPM and Metabolic Syndrome - International Diabetes Federation - modified/MS-IDFM), derived from the changes in the official criteria. A total of 113 women (60-83 years old) participated in this study; they were submitted to anthropometric, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glycemia tests and answered questions related to life style habits and health conditions. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test and Kappa coefficient determination. The frequency of the high pressure levels was similar in the two official definitions (54.8%), with a reduction in the two proposed definitions (33.6%). The homeostasis change of the glucose was higher as per the IDF and MS-IDFM (30.1%). The hypertriglyceridemia and the low levels of HDL-c were similar in all the definitions (35.4%). In relation to the abdominal obesity, the higher occurrence was registered by the IDF criteria (88.5%). The presence of the metabolic syndrome presented higher and lower frequencies as per the IDF proposal (45.1%) and MS-IDFM (22.1%), respectively. Higher agreement was found between the modified definition MS-ATPM with NCEP-ATPIII and MS-IDFM (Kappa: 0.79 and 0.77; p < 0.00001). The MS-ATPM proposal was found more adequate for the MS detection in the evaluated elderly women.

  6. NAFLD in the absence of metabolic syndrome: different epidemiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, risk factors for disease progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that have been associated with an increased risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Insulin resistance and central obesity are the key components of MetS, ultimately leading to liver fat accumulation and the subsequent development of necroinflammatory liver injury. However, the origin and nature of the metabolic stressors responsible for stimulating the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain to be clearly identified. In addition, epidemiologic research on the association between MetS and NAFLD has provided only limited information to guide the development of targeted interventions, in particular, nutrition and pharmacologic prevention programs. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the proposal that NAFLD is not invariably associated with the presence of MetS, and mechanisms other than insulin resistance may contribute to the chronic inflammatory processes that underpin the development of liver fat accumulation and the subsequent architectural distortion of the liver. A special focus is given to increased hemoglobin as a risk factor for the development of NAFLD in the absence of MetS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  8. Histopathologic investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 administered by different methods on tooth movement and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Cağlaroğlu, Murat; Erdem, Abdulvahit

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the in vivo effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administered by different methods on orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism macroscopically, histopatologically, and biochemically. Methods Forty-five young adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10/group), 1 positive control group (n = 10), and 1 negative control group (n = 5). The experimental rabbits were fitted with springs exerting...

  9. Polycomb complexes act redundantly to repress genomic repeats and genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeb, Martin; Pasini, Diego; Novatchkova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb complexes establish chromatin modifications for maintaining gene repression and are essential for embryonic development in mice. Here we use pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to demonstrate an unexpected redundancy between Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 during the form...

  10. Relationship Between the Death Anxiety Scale and Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to test further the hypothesis that the Death Anxiety Scale is a valid measure of repression by establishing the relationship between the DAS and Gleser and Ihilevich's Reversal Score, a measure of repression, on the Defense Mechanism Inventory (DMI). (Author)

  11. Dream Recall And Repression: Evidence For An Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David B.; Wolfe, Gary

    1973-01-01

    An "Inner-rejectant" life style committed to repressing dreams has been described in terms of external locus of control, field dependence, and "poor inner life." However, in empirical studies reported here, results do not provide strong support for the (repression) formulation. The results suggest a distinction between life-style variables related…

  12. Identification of riboflavin: revealing different metabolic characteristics between Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-06-01

    There are many physiological differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains, owing to their different origins. Deeper insight into the metabolic and regulative mechanisms of these strains will inform improved usage of these industrial workhorses. In the present study, we observed that BL21 fermentation broth gradually turned yellow during cultivation. By spectral analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification, we confirmed for the first time that the yellow substance accumulated in the fermentation broth is riboflavin. Comparing the enzyme sequences involved in riboflavin metabolism between BL21 and MG1655, we identified a site mutation on the 115 residue of bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenylyltransferase (RibF) in BL21. This His115Leu mutation was found to reduce enzyme activity to 55% of that of MG1655, which is probably one reason for riboflavin accumulation in BL21. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes of the entire branch of the riboflavin and FAD biosynthesis pathways in BL21 were up-regulated. Several physiological and metabolic characteristics of BL21 and MG1655 were found to be different, and may also be related to the riboflavin accumulation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2018-01-04

    Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1), choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5) metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  14. Photoperiodism and Crassulacean acid metabolism : III. Different characteristics of the photoperiod-sensitive and non-sensitive isoforms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and Crassulacean acid metabolism operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Sensitivity to glucose-6-P, inorganic phosphate and malate, Km phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and the effect of pH were comparatively investigated for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) extracted along the day-night cycle from leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb, grown under different photoperiodic conditions. Under long days, sensitivity to effectors is weak and varies only slightly during the 24h cycle, together with small variations of Km (PEP), ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 mM. The response-curve to pH shows two peaks for pH 7.4 and 8.4. Transfer of the plants to short days established an increase in the sensitivity of the enzyme to the effectors together with the appearance of a day-night variation of this effect, maximum during the day. A clear diurnal oscillation of Km (PEP) is observed from 3.1 mM at the beginning of day (09.00 h) to 0.9 mM at midnight (00.00 h), at pH 7.4. These results complement previous electrophoretic and immunological data by affording enzyme kinetic evidence that short days induce a PEP carboxylase form responsible for full-Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) operation which is kinetically different from the photoperiod-sensitive, C3-like form prevailing in young leaves under long days. The results indicate that diurnal enzymic rhythms would improve the efficiency of the metabolic regulatory mechanisms and act as a coordinating factor for the daily and seasonal adaptive operation of CAM.

  15. Nitrogen Metabolism in Adaptation of Photosynthesis to Water Stress in Rice Grown under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitrogen (N metabolism in the adaptation of photosynthesis to water stress in rice, a hydroponic experiment supplying with low N (0.72 mM, moderate N (2.86 mM, and high N (7.15 mM followed by 150 g⋅L-1 PEG-6000 induced water stress was conducted in a rainout shelter. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis at low N, but no significant effect was observed at moderate and high N. Non-photochemical quenching was higher at moderate and high N. In contrast, relative excessive energy at PSII level (EXC was declined with increasing N level. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents were in parallel with EXC. Water stress decreased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at low N, resulting in increased H2O2 content and severer membrane lipid peroxidation; whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes were increased at high N. In accordance with photosynthetic rate and antioxidative enzymes, water stress decreased the activities of key enzymes involving in N metabolism such as glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and photorespiratory key enzyme glycolate oxidase at low N. Concurrently, water stress increased nitrate content significantly at low N, but decreased nitrate content at moderate and high N. Contrary to nitrate, water stress increased proline content at moderate and high N. Our results suggest that N metabolism appears to be associated with the tolerance of photosynthesis to water stress in rice via affecting CO2 diffusion, antioxidant capacity, and osmotic adjustment.

  16. Protein and lipid metabolism adjustments in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen during different periods of fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marqueze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fish may experience periods of food deprivation or starvation which produce metabolic changes. In this study, adult Rhamdia quelen males were subjected to fasting periods of 1, 7, 14, and 21 days and of refeeding 2, 4, 6, and 12 days. The results demonstrated that liver protein was depleted after 1 day of fasting, but recovered after 6 days of refeeding. After 14 days of fasting, mobilization in the lipids of the muscular tissue took place, and these reserves began to re-establish themselves after 4 days of refeeding. Plasmatic triglycerides increased after 1 day of fasting, and decreased following 2 days of refeeding. The glycerol in the plasma oscillated constantly during the different periods of fasting and refeeding. Changes in the metabolism of both protein and lipids during these periods can be considered as survival strategies used by R. quelen. The difference in the metabolic profile of the tissues, the influence of the period of fasting, and the type of reserves mobilized were all in evidence.

  17. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1- 14 C glucose and 6- 14 C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14 CO 2 from 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1- 14 C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6- 14 C glucose. (auth.)

  18. Substrate uptake, phosphorus repression, and effect of seed culture on glycopeptide antibiotic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Singh, Kamaleshwar P.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Actinomycetes, the soil borne bacteria which exhibit filamentous growth, are known for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. Industrial scale production of such antibiotics is typically carried out in a multi-substrate medium where the product formation...... antibiotic producer strain Amycolatopsis balhimycina DSM5908. The model is based on the premise that the organism is an optimal strategist and that the various metabolic pathways are regulated via key rate limiting enzymes. Further, the model accounts for substrate inhibition and catabolite repression...

  19. DIFFERENCES IN POST HATCH METABOLIC RATE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATE IN ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L): EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY GROWTH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    had higher VO2 compared to early hatching individuals at T1, but not at T2. Early and late hatchers were equally developed at T1and T2. Intra-family variation in time to hatching, suggests inherited parts of individual developmental rate. That late hatching larvae reached same level of development...... and had higher metabolic rate in T1 suggests that these inherited differences can be even out by accelerated post hatch growth.......Vaz-Serrano, J., Åberg, M., Gjøen, H.M, Steffensen, J.F. and Höglund, E. Abstract: In this study we investigated the relation between larval development and metabolic rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.). Individual weight-specific oxygen consumption (VO2) and yolk consumption were studied...

  20. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    Full Text Available Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

  1. Association between different levels of dysglycemia and metabolic syndrome in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in a cohort of pregnant women with a wide range of glucose tolerance, prepregnancy risk factors for MS during pregnancy, and the effects of MS in the outcomes in the mother and in the newborn. Methods One hundred and thirty six women with positive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were classified by two diagnostic methods: glycemic profile and 100 g OGTT as normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM. Markers of MS were measured between 24–28th during the screening. Results The prevalence of MS was: 0%; 20.0%; 23.5% and 36.4% in normoglycemic, mild hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM groups, respectively. Previous history of GDM with or without insulin use, BMI ≥ 25, hypertension, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, non-Caucasian ethnicity, history of prematurity and polihydramnios were statistically significant prepregnancy predictors for MS in the index pregnancy, that by its turn increased the adverse outcomes in the mother and in the newborn. Conclusion The prevalence of MS increases with the worsening of glucose tolerance; impaired glycemic profile identifies pregnancies with important metabolic abnormalities even in the presence of a normal OGTT, in patients that are not classified as having GDM.

  2. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  3. Probing gender-specific metabolism differences in humans by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sunil; Jacobs, Doris M; Ramadan, Ziad; Berruex, France; Fuerholz, Andreas; Fay, Laurent B

    2006-05-15

    The measurement of metabolite profiles that are interpreted to yield biomarkers using multivariate data analysis is now a well-established approach for gaining an improved understanding of the impact of genetic modifications, toxicological and therapeutic interventions, and exposure to stimuli (e.g., noxious agents, stressors, nutrients) on the network of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites present in cells, tissues, or whole organisms. This has been termed metabonomics. In this study, multivariate analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of metabolite profiles of urine and plasma from 150 healthy humans revealed that in young people and/or individuals with low body mass indexes, females had higher rates of lipid biosynthesis than did males, whereas males had higher rates of protein turnover than did females. With increasing age, overall lipid biosynthesis decreased in females, whereas metabolism increasingly favored lipid synthesis over protein turnover in males. By relating the derived metabonomic data to known metabolic pathways and published biochemical data, it appears that females synthesize relatively more lipoproteins and unsaturated lipids than do males. Furthermore, the changes in lipid biosynthesis and urinary citrate excretion in females showed a positive correlation. Estrogen most likely plays an essential role in the regulation of, and communication between, protein and lipid biosynthesis by controlling pH in mitochondria and the cytoplasm and hence the observed altered citrate levels.

  4. Effects of uremic toxins on transport and metabolism of different biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maribel; Benet, Leslie Z

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized to cause pharmacokinetic changes in renally excreted drugs; however, pharmacokinetic changes are also reported for drugs that are nonrenally eliminated. Few studies have investigated how uremic toxins may affect drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes and how these may result in pharmacokinetic/metabolic changes in CKD. Here, we investigated the effects of uremic toxins and human uremic serum on the transport of the prototypical transporter substrate [(3) H]-estrone sulfate and three Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) drugs, propranolol, losartan, and eprosartan. We observed a significant decrease in [(3) H]-estrone sulfate, losartan, and eprosartan uptake with some uremic toxins in both transfected cells and rat hepatocytes. The uptake of losartan was decreased in rat and human hepatocytes (28% and 48%, respectively) in the presence of hemodialysis (HD) serum. Time-course studies of losartan showed a 27%, 65%, and 68% increase in area under the curve (AUC) in the presence of HD serum, rifampin, and sulfaphenazole, respectively. Intracellular losartan AUC decreased significantly in the treatment groups, and the metabolite AUC decreased by 41% and 26% in rifampin- and sulfaphenazole-treated group, respectively. The intracellular AUC of eprosartan increased 190% in the presence of HD serum. These studies indicate that the uremic toxins contained in HD serum play an important role in drug disposition through drug transporters, and that there would be differential effects depending on the BDDCS classification of the drug. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I.; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2007-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle ...

  6. Dynamic 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle: Metabolic changes resulting from two different forms of exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Kersjes, W.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the metabolism of the quadriceps muscles of normal young individuals using dynamic 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: 22 normal individuals were examined in a 1.5 T-MRT using a 6 cm surface coil. The metabolic changes in the quadriceps muscle as shown by the phosphorus spectrum were evaluated during rest, exercise (isometric and isotonic exercise) and during a 36-second period of recovery. Results: The P i /PCr quotient rose from its resting value of 0.11±0.02 following exercise to a maximum of 0.83±0.47 (isometric) or 1.40±0.59 (isotonic) (difference p=0.0001). Half-time recovery of P i /PCr was 35±11 s or 31±10 s, respectively (p=0.13). During the recovery phase P i /PCr fell briefly but significantly below its rest value. Following an initial rise in pH, there was a continual fall. Minimum pH (6.68±0.21 and 6.53±0.27 respectively; p=0.01) occurred in the early recovery phase. The recovery process of pH values lasted longer following isotonic than after isometric exercise (half-value recovery time 229±72 s and 146±55 s, respectively; p=0.001). Conlcusion: Compared with isometric exercise, isotonic stress is more expensive in terms of metabolism. Dynamic 31 phosphorus MRT spectroscopy can differentiate changes in muscle metabolism during different forms of exercise. (orig.) [de

  7. Effects of rs7903146 variation in the Tcf7l2 gene in the lipid metabolism of three different populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Perez-Martinez

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 rs7903146 is an important genetic factor predicting type 2 diabetes (T2DM which has also been linked to higher cardiovascular risk. To date, there is little information about the additional impact of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP beyond glucose metabolism.We studied whether rs7903146 influenced postprandial lipid metabolism in three different populations (healthy young men, metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and elderly persons. Eighty-eight healthy males were submitted to a single saturated fatty acid-rich test meal. Additionally, 110 middle-aged MetS patients and 20 healthy elderly persons (≥ 65 years were submitted to three different dietary models followed by test meals. Minor allele homozygotes for rs7903146 showed a worse postprandial lipemia profile in young males, as seen by a lower HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 concentration during the postprandial lipemia and a trend towards higher triglycerides (TG, than the other genotypes. In healthy elderly persons, carriers of the minor allele showed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Apo B and TG in the fasting state, and a higher postprandial area under the curve for total cholesterol, Apo B, small-triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL cholesterol and small-(TRL triglycerides. These results were accompanied by differential changes in adipokines. We did not observe any influence of rs7903146 on the postprandium of MetS patients.Healthy young males and elderly persons who are carriers of the mutant allele for rs7903146 have an impaired postprandial lipid metabolism that may be mediated by an alteration in adipokine regulation, and may be related to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in these persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195.

  8. Metabolism of albendazole, ricobendazole and flubendazole in Haemonchus contortus adults: Sex differences, resistance-related differences and the identification of new metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus (family Trichostrongylidae, Nematoda, a hematophagous gastrointestinal parasite found in small ruminants, has a great ability to develop resistance to anthelmintic drugs. We studied the biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics: albendazole (ABZ, ricobendazole (albendazole S-oxide; RCB and flubendazole (FLU in females and males of H. contortus in both a susceptible ISE strain and resistant IRE strain. The ex vivo cultivation of living nematodes in culture medium with or without the anthelmintics was used. Ultrasensitive UHPLC/MS/MS analysis revealed 9, 7 and 12 metabolites of ABZ, RCB and FLU, respectively, with most of these metabolites now described in the present study for the first time in H. contortus. The structure of certain metabolites shows the presence of biotransformation reactions not previously reported in nematodes. There were significant qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in the metabolites formed by male and female worms. In most cases, females metabolized drugs more extensively than males. Adults of the IRE strain were able to form many more metabolites of all the drugs than adults of the ISE strain. Some metabolites were even found only in adults of the IRE strain. These findings suggest that increased drug metabolism may play a role in resistance to benzimidazole drugs in H. contortus. Keywords: Drug resistance, Drug metabolism, Anthelmintics, Benzimidazole, Nematode

  9. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carreras-Torres

    Full Text Available Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR, or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer.We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00] for each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2], but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08] (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3. Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3, providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl, while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l. Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results.Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.

  10. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Johansson, Mattias; Haycock, Philip C; Wade, Kaitlin H; Relton, Caroline L; Martin, Richard M; Davey Smith, George; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C; Andrew, Angeline; Arnold, Susanne M; Bickeböller, Heike; Bojesen, Stig E; Brunnström, Hans; Manjer, Jonas; Brüske, Irene; Caporaso, Neil E; Chen, Chu; Christiani, David C; Christian, W Jay; Doherty, Jennifer A; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Davies, Michael P A; Marcus, Michael W; Goodman, Gary E; Grankvist, Kjell; Haugen, Aage; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; van der Heijden, Erik H F M; Kraft, Peter; Johansson, Mikael B; Lam, Stephen; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loïc; Liu, Geoffrey; Melander, Olle; Park, Sungshim L; Rennert, Gad; Risch, Angela; Haura, Eric B; Scelo, Ghislaine; Zaridze, David; Mukeriya, Anush; Savić, Milan; Lissowska, Jolanta; Swiatkowska, Beata; Janout, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Schabath, Matthew B; Shen, Hongbing; Tardon, Adonina; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Wu, Xifeng; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00]) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2]), but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08]) (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3). Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.

  11. The antioxidative and antilipidemic effects of different molecular weight chitosans in metabolic syndrome model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Makoto; Michihara, Akihiro; Yasufuku, Taira; Akasaki, Kenji; Tsuchiya, Daiju; Nishio, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki; Maezaki, Yuji; Kondo, Yuko; Tomida, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high and low molecular weight chitosans (HMC; 1000 kDa, LMC; 30 kDa) on oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia was investigated using male 6-week-old Wistar Kyoto rats as a normal model (Normal-rats) and spontaneously hypertensive rat/ND mcr-cp (SHP/ND) as a metabolic syndrome model (MS-rats), respectively. In Normal-rats, the ingestion of both chitosans over a 4 week period resulted in a significant decrease in total body weight (BW), glucose (Gl), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum creatinine (Cre) levels. The ingestion of both chitosans also resulted in a lowered ratio of oxidized to reduced albumin and an increase in total plasma antioxidant activity. In addition to similar results in Normal-rats, the ingestion of only HMC over a 4 week period resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol levels in MS-rats. Further, the ingestion of LMC resulted in a significantly higher antioxidant activity than was observed for HMC in both rat models. In in vitro studies, LMC caused a significantly higher reduction in the levels of two stable radicals, compared to HMC, and the effect was both dose- and time-dependent. The findings also show that LDL showed strong binding in the case of HMC. These results suggest that LMC has a high antioxidant activity as well as antilipidemic effects, while HMC results in a significant reduction in the levels of pro-oxidants such as LDL in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby inhibiting the subsequent development of oxidative stress in the systemic circulation in metabolic model rats.

  12. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  13. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bachlechner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: −60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min. Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food

  14. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Stephan; Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL) solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only) were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea) were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: -60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min). Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food craving.

  15. Action of Thyroid Hormones, T3 and T2, on Hepatic Fatty Acids: Differences in Metabolic Effects and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Damiano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid hormones (THs 3,3′,5,5′-tetraiodo-l-thyronine (T4 and 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3 influence many metabolic pathways. The major physiological function of THs is to sustain basal energy expenditure, by acting primarily on carbohydrate and lipid catabolism. Beyond the mobilization and degradation of lipids, at the hepatic level THs stimulate the de novo fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis, DNL, through both the modulation of gene expression and the rapid activation of cell signalling pathways. 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2, previously considered only a T3 catabolite, has been shown to mimic some of T3 effects on lipid catabolism. However, T2 action is more rapid than that of T3, and seems to be independent of protein synthesis. An inhibitory effect on DNL has been documented for T2. Here, we give an overview of the mechanisms of THs action on liver fatty acid metabolism, focusing on the different effects exerted by T2 and T3 on the regulation of the DNL. The inhibitory action on DNL exerted by T2 makes this compound a potential and attractive drug for the treatment of some metabolic diseases and cancer.

  16. Reproductive and metabolic state differences in olfactory responses to amino acids in a mouth brooding African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Alexandre A; Butler, Julie M; Field, Karen E; Caprio, John; Maruska, Karen P

    2017-08-15

    Olfaction mediates many crucial life-history behaviors such as prey detection, predator avoidance, migration and reproduction. Olfactory function can also be modulated by an animal's internal physiological and metabolic states. While this is relatively well studied in mammals, little is known about how internal state impacts olfaction in fishes, the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Here we apply electro-olfactograms (EOGs) in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that olfactory responses to food-related cues (i.e. l-amino acids; alanine and arginine) vary with metabolic, social and reproductive state. Dominant males (reproductively active, reduced feeding) had greater EOG magnitudes in response to amino acids at the same tested concentration than subordinate males (reproductively suppressed, greater feeding and growth rates). Mouth brooding females, which are in a period of starvation while they brood fry in their mouths, had greater EOG magnitudes in response to amino acids at the same tested concentration than both recovering and gravid females that are feeding. Discriminant function analysis on EOG magnitudes also grouped the male (subordinate) and female (recovering, gravid) phenotypes with higher food intake together and distinguished them from brooding females and dominant males. The slope of the initial negative phase of the EOG also showed intra-sexual differences in both sexes. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between olfaction and metabolic state observed in other taxa is conserved to fishes. For the first time, we provide evidence for intra-sexual plasticity in the olfactory response to amino acids that is influenced by fish reproductive, social and metabolic state. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Regional differences of relationships between atrophy and glucose metabolism of cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, H.; Uemura, K.; Kanekiyo, S.; Ishii, K.; Ishii, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a correlation between the extent of atrophy and the decline in the brain function measured with PET study among the patients with Alzheimer's disease by each brain lobe. Materials and Methods: Two groups, the normal controls (male: 8, female: 22 age: 62.4±4.9) and the patients with Alzheimer's disease (male: 6, female: 24, age: 65.9±7.2) participated in this study. The extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted gyrus on 2D-projection magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the cerebral cortical glucose metabolism was assessed on 2D-projection positron emission tomography (PET) image, and then a relationship between the cerebral atrophy and the function was evaluated by each brain lobe extracted automatically. 2D-projection of PET and MR images were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. In order to extract brain lobes from each subject automatically, the bitmap with different value by each brain lobe was made from a standard brain image and was automatically transformed to match each subject's brain image by using SPM99. A correlation image was generated between 2D-projection images of glucose metabolism and the area of the sulcus and the gyrus extracted from the correlation between MR and PET images clustered by K-means method. Results: The glucose metabolism of Alzheimer's disease was lower than that of normal control subjects at the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes with the same extent of atrophy as that of the normal. There was high correlation between the area of gyrus and the glucose metabolism, and the correlation tendency of the Alzheimer's disease was steeper than that of the normal control at the parietal lobe. Conclusions: Combined analysis of regional morphology and function may be useful to distinguish pathological process such as early stage of Alzheimer's disease from normal physiological aging

  18. Comparative genomics unravels metabolic differences at the species and/or strain level and extremely acidic environmental adaptation of ten bacteria belonging to the genus Acidithiobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; She, Siyuan; Dong, Weiling; Niu, Jiaojiao; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-12-01

    Members of the Acidithiobacillus genus are widely found in extreme environments characterized by low pH and high concentrations of toxic substances, thus it is necessary to identify the cellular mechanisms needed to cope with these harsh conditions. Pan-genome analysis of ten bacteria belonging to the genus Acidithiobacillus suggested the existence of core genome, most of which were assigned to the metabolism-associated genes. Additionally, the unique genes of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans were much less than those of other species. A large proportion of Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans-specific genes were mapped especially to metabolism-related genes, indicating that diverse metabolic pathways might confer an advantage for adaptation to local environmental conditions. Analyses of functional metabolisms revealed the differences of carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and sulfur metabolism at the species and/or strain level. The findings also showed that Acidithiobacillus spp. harbored specific adaptive mechanisms for thriving under extreme environments. The genus Acidithiobacillus had the genetic potential to resist and metabolize toxic substances such as heavy metals and organic solvents. Comparison across species and/or strains of Acidithiobacillus populations provided a deeper appreciation of metabolic differences and environmental adaptation, as well as highlighting the importance of cellular mechanisms that maintain the basal physiological functions under complex acidic environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel TPP-riboswitch activators bypass metabolic enzyme dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lünse, Christina E; Scott, Fraser J; Suckling, Colin J; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Riboswitches are conserved regions within mRNA molecules that bind specific metabolites and regulate gene expression. TPP-riboswitches, which respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), are involved in the regulation of thiamine metabolism in numerous bacteria. As these regulatory RNAs are often modulating essential biosynthesis pathways they have become increasingly interesting as promising antibacterial targets. Here, we describe thiamine analogs containing a central 1,2,3-triazole group to induce repression of thiM-riboswitch dependent gene expression in different E. coli strains. Additionally, we show that compound activation is dependent on proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of thiamine uptake and synthesis. The most promising molecule, triazolethiamine (TT), shows concentration dependent reporter gene repression that is dependent on the presence of thiamine kinase ThiK, whereas the effect of pyrithiamine (PT), a known TPP-riboswitch modulator, is ThiK independent. We further show that this dependence can be bypassed by triazolethiamine-derivatives that bear phosphate-mimicking moieties. As triazolethiamine reveals superior activity compared to pyrithiamine, it represents a very promising starting point for developing novel antibacterial compounds that target TPP-riboswitches. Riboswitch-targeting compounds engage diverse endogenous mechanisms to attain in vivo activity. These findings are of importance for the understanding of compounds that require metabolic activation to achieve effective riboswitch modulation and they enable the design of novel compound generations that are independent of endogenous activation mechanisms.

  20. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation, depuration, bioisomerization, and metabolism of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two ecologically different species of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yao, Tianqi; Sun, Hongwen; Zhang, Yanwei; Yang, Jirui

    2016-01-15

    In this study, two ecological types of earthworms were exposed to soil samples that were artificially contaminated with individual hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs) to investigate the bioaccumulation, depuration, enantiomer selectivity and isomerization of HBCDs in earthworms. The uptake rate constant (ku), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biota soil accumulation factor (BSAF), and half-life (t1/2) for the α-HBCD were the highest among the three diastereomers. The bioaccumulation parameters of the three diastereoisomers differed between the two ecologically different species of earthworms. The BSAF values of α- and γ-HBCDs were substantially higher in Eisenia fetida than those in Metaphire guillelmi, with the higher lipid and protein contents in E. fetida as the primary reason for this difference. The other processes, such as uptake, depuration, metabolism and isomerization, also differed between the two species and led to a difference in the bioaccumulation of β-HBCD. The β- and γ-HBCDs were bioisomerized to α-HBCD in the earthworms, but to a greater extent in E. fetida. The highest BSAF, t1/2 of α-HBCD and the bioisomerization of β- and γ-HBCDs to α-HBCD might explain in part why α-HBCD was the dominant isomer in biota samples. Most of the enantiomer fractions (EFs) for the three HBCD diastereoisomers in the earthworms were different from those in standard samples (p<0.05), indicating that enantiomer selectivity occurred. Moreover, the trends and extent of the enantioselectivity were different between the two species. Additionally, the EFs of α-HBCD that was bioisomerized from β- or γ-isomers were also different from those in the standards (p<0.05), which likely reflect the integration of several processes, such as enantioselective isomerization and the subsequent selective metabolism of the produced α-HBCD or selective excretion of the enantiomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Soede, N M; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to one of three dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and one of two diets in early lactation (glucogenic or lipogenic diet) resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Cows were monitored for body condition score, milk yield, dry matter intake, and energy balance from calving to week 8 postpartum, and blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from calving to week 8 postpartum. Milk samples were collected three times a week until 100 DIM postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. At least two succeeding milk samples with progesterone concentration of 2 ng/mL or greater were used to indicate the occurrence of luteal activity. Normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity was defined as the onset of luteal activity (OLA) occurring at 45 DIM or less, followed by regular ovarian cycles of 18 to 24 days in length. Within 100 DIM postpartum, cows with a 0-day dry period had greater incidence of normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (53.2%; 25 out of 47 cows) compared with cows with a 60-day dry period (26.0%; 13 out of 50 cows, P = 0.02). Independent of dry period length or diet, cows with OLA at less than 21 DIM had a greater body condition score during weeks 1 and 2 (P = 0.01) and weeks 1 through 8 (P = 0.01) postpartum compared with cows with OLA at greater than 30 DIM. Cows with the first ovarian cycle of medium length (18-24 days) had greater energy balance (P = 0.03), plasma concentrations of insulin (P = 0.03), glucose (P = 0.04), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.04) than cows with long ovarian cycle lengths (>24 days) but had lower plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (P cows with

  3. A central regulatory system largely controls transcriptional activation and repression responses to phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla Bustos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to different stresses by inducing or repressing transcription of partially overlapping sets of genes. In Arabidopsis, the PHR1 transcription factor (TF has an important role in the control of phosphate (Pi starvation stress responses. Using transcriptomic analysis of Pi starvation in phr1, and phr1 phr1-like (phl1 mutants and in wild type plants, we show that PHR1 in conjunction with PHL1 controls most transcriptional activation and repression responses to phosphate starvation, regardless of the Pi starvation specificity of these responses. Induced genes are enriched in PHR1 binding sequences (P1BS in their promoters, whereas repressed genes do not show such enrichment, suggesting that PHR1(-like control of transcriptional repression responses is indirect. In agreement with this, transcriptomic analysis of a transgenic plant expressing PHR1 fused to the hormone ligand domain of the glucocorticoid receptor showed that PHR1 direct targets (i.e., displaying altered expression after GR:PHR1 activation by dexamethasone in the presence of cycloheximide corresponded largely to Pi starvation-induced genes that are highly enriched in P1BS. A minimal promoter containing a multimerised P1BS recapitulates Pi starvation-specific responsiveness. Likewise, mutation of P1BS in the promoter of two Pi starvation-responsive genes impaired their responsiveness to Pi starvation, but not to other stress types. Phylogenetic footprinting confirmed the importance of P1BS and PHR1 in Pi starvation responsiveness and indicated that P1BS acts in concert with other cis motifs. All together, our data show that PHR1 and PHL1 are partially redundant TF acting as central integrators of Pi starvation responses, both specific and generic. In addition, they indicate that transcriptional repression responses are an integral part of adaptive responses to stress.

  4. Fermentative hydrogen yields from different sugars by batch cultures of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli DJT135

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Hallenbeck, Patrick C. [Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128 succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Future sustainable production of biofuels will depend upon the ability to use complex substrates present in biomass if the use of simple sugars derived from food crops is to be avoided. Therefore, organisms capable of using a variety of fermentable carbon sources must be found or developed for processes that could produce hydrogen via fermentation. Here we have examined the ability of a metabolically engineered strain of Escherichia coli, DJT135, to produce hydrogen from glucose as well as various other carbon sources, including pentoses. The effects of pH, temperature and carbon source were investigated in batch experiments. Maximal hydrogen production from glucose was obtained at an initial pH of 6.5 and temperature of 35 C. Kinetic growth studies showed that the {mu}max was 0.0495 h{sup -1} with a Ks of 0.0274 g L{sup -1} when glucose was the sole carbon source in M9 (1X) minimal medium. Among the many sugar and sugar derivatives tested, hydrogen yields were highest with fructose, sorbitol and D-glucose; 1.27, 1.46 and 1.51 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} substrate respectively. (author)

  5. Ecological pressures and milk metabolic hormones of ethnic Tibetans living at different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Childs, Geoff

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about how milk hormones, shown to influence growth during infancy, may contribute to patterns of altered growth in high altitude living infants. This study investigated the association between maternal BMI, the metabolic hormones adiponectin and leptin in human milk and infant weight for age z-scores (WAZ) in Tibetans. A sample of 116 mothers and infants (aged 0-36 months) were recruited from two locations: the Nubri Valley, Nepal (rural; altitude = 2400-3900 m) and Kathmandu, Nepal (urban, 1400 m). Milk samples, anthropometrics, biological data and environmental information were collected on mothers and infants. Milk was analysed for leptin and adiponectin. Maternal BMI was significantly associated with milk leptin content, but not adiponectin in either group. In the rural high altitude sample, child WAZ declined with age, but no such decline was seen in the urban sample. Milk leptin and adiponectin were not associated with infant growth in the rural Nubri sample, but were both inversely associated with infant WAZ in the Kathmandu sample. It appears that, in ecologically stressful environments, associations between milk hormones and growth during infancy may not be detectable in cross-sectional studies.

  6. Bupropion and venlafaxine responders differ in pretreatment regional cerebral metabolism in unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John T; Ketter, Terence A; Kimbrell, Tim A; Dunn, Robert T; Benson, Brenda E; Willis, Mark W; Luckenbaugh, David A; Post, Robert M

    2005-02-01

    Pretreatment functional brain imaging was examined for never-hospitalized outpatients with unipolar depression compared with control subjects in a crossover treatment trial involving bupropion or venlafaxine monotherapy. Patients (n = 20) with unipolar depression received baseline (medication-free) fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan and then at least 6 weeks of bupropion or venlafaxine monotherapy in a single-blind crossover trial. Age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 20) also received baseline FDG PET scans. For each medication PET data from patients compared with control subjects was analyzed as a function of treatment response (defined as moderate to marked improvement on the Clinical Global Impression Scale). Treatment response rates were similar for buproprion (32%) and venlafaxine (33%). Compared with control subjects, responders but not nonresponders, to both drugs demonstrated frontal and left temporal hypometabolism. Selectively, compared with control subjects bupropion responders (n = 6) also had cerebellar hypermetabolism, whereas venlafaxine responders (n = 7) showed bilateral temporal and basal ganglia hypometabolism. These data suggest that pretreatment frontal and left temporal hypometabolism in never-hospitalized depressed outpatients compared with control subjects is linked to positive antidepressant response and that additional alterations in regional metabolism may be linked to differential responsivity to bupropion and venlafaxine monotherapy.

  7. Different biochemical mechanisms ensure network-wide balancing of reducing equivalents in microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    To sustain growth, the catabolic formation of the redox equivalent NADPH must be balanced with the anabolic demand. The mechanisms that ensure such network-wide balancing, however, are presently not understood. Based on 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactor specificities for all relevant central metabolic enzymes, we have quantified catabolic NADPH production in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Paracoccus versutus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Zymomonas mobilis. For six species, the estimated NADPH production from glucose catabolism exceeded the requirements for biomass synthesis. Exceptions were P. fluorescens, with balanced rates, and E. coli, with insufficient catabolic production, in which about one-third of the NADPH is supplied via the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB. P. versutus and B. subtilis were the only species that appear to rely on transhydrogenases for balancing NADPH overproduction during growth on glucose. In the other four species, the main but not exclusive redox-balancing mechanism appears to be the dual cofactor specificities of several catabolic enzymes and/or the existence of isoenzymes with distinct cofactor specificities, in particular glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. An unexpected key finding for all species, except E. coli and B. subtilis, was the lack of cofactor specificity in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, which contrasts with the textbook view of the pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenases as being NADP+ dependent.

  8. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  9. Glittre-ADL Multiple Tasks Induce Similar Dynamic Hyperinflation With Different Metabolic and Ventilatory Demands in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Tressoldi, Caroline; Dos Santos, Karoliny; Karloh, Manuela; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2017-11-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the physiological responses and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) of the Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) and its specific tasks in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty patients with COPD performed the TGlittre. The individual tasks included stand up and sit down (TSS); climb up and down stairs (TSTAIRS); walk on a flat surface (TWALK); and move objects onto and off a shelf (TSHELF). While performing these tasks, the physiological responses were evaluated and inspiratory capacity measured before and immediately after the tests. All physiological variables and inspiratory capacity were different at the end of the TGlittre and its tasks compared with baseline (P .05), which were the tasks with the greatest physiological requirement, whereas the TSS represented the lowest metabolic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory demands among TGlittre's tasks. DH did not differ significantly among TGlittre's tasks. TWALK and TSHELF were the tasks that resulted in greater physiological overload, whereas TSS induced the lowest metabolic and ventilatory demands. Despite this, DH did not differ among the TGlittre's tasks in patients with COPD.

  10. Cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis via inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Kavita; Liu, Wan-Ju; Thompson, Keyata; Anders, Lars; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Dewi, Ruby; Buckley, Stephanie; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Polster, Brian; Dorsey, Susan G; Sun, Yezhou; Sicinski, Piotr; Girnun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain normal blood glucose during periods of nutrient deprivation. Gluconeogenesis is controlled at multiple levels by a variety of signal transduction and transcriptional pathways. However, dysregulation of these pathways leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. While the effects of various signaling pathways on gluconeogenesis are well established, the downstream signaling events repressing gluconeogenic gene expression are not as well understood. The cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in the liver, despite the liver being a quiescent tissue. The most well-studied function of cyclin D1 is activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), promoting progression of the cell cycle. We show here a novel role for cyclin D1 as a regulator of gluconeogenic and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) gene expression. In mice, fasting decreases liver cyclin D1 expression, while refeeding induces cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of CDK4 enhances the gluconeogenic gene expression, whereas cyclin D1-mediated activation of CDK4 represses the gluconeogenic gene-expression program in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we show that cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis and OxPhos in part via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) activity in a CDK4-dependent manner. Indeed, we demonstrate that PGC1α is novel cyclin D1/CDK4 substrate. These studies reveal a novel role for cyclin D1 on metabolism via PGC1α and reveal a potential link between cell-cycle regulation and metabolic control of glucose homeostasis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate MRI identifies metabolic differences pertaining to the fasted and fed state in porcine cardiac metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Laustsen, Christoffer

    for increasing hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate signal in the heart. All metabolic ratios were higher in fed animals with no additional variance. This indicates the role of pyruvate uptake to be more important in pigs than in rodents, underlining the need for large animals in metabolic research, and also suggests......Standardized large animal models for cardiac hyperpolarized MR metabolic studies are becoming increasingly important as translation into human trials progresses. We employed a porcine (n=17) model of fasting/feeding to study these two states and to examine normal feeding as a standardized model...

  12. Mice divergently selected for high and low basal metabolic rates evolved different cell size and organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Functional Analysis of the Nitrogen Metabolite Repression Regulator Gene nmrA in Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Han

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in Aspergillus flavus has notbeen previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif. Deletion of nmrA slowed the growth of A. flavus but significantly increased conidiation and sclerotia production. Moreover, seed infection experiments indicated that nmrA is required for the invasive virulence of A. flavus. In addition, the ΔnmrA mutant showed increased sensitivity to rapamycin and methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting that nmrA could be responsive to target of rapamycin signaling and DNA damage. Furthermore, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that nmrA might interact with other nitrogen regulatory and catabolic genes. Our study provides a better understanding of nitrogen metabolite repression and the nitrogen metabolism network in fungi.

  14. Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, P.; Matsukura, C.; Vernieri, P.; Yamaguchi, J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains. PMID:12237356

  15. Drosophila proteins involved in metabolism of uracil-DNA possess different types of nuclear localization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merényi, Gábor; Kónya, Emese; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2010-05-01

    Adequate transport of large proteins that function in the nucleus is indispensable for cognate molecular events within this organelle. Selective protein import into the nucleus requires nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are recognized by importin receptors in the cytoplasm. Here we investigated the sequence requirements for nuclear targeting of Drosophila proteins involved in the metabolism of uracil-substituted DNA: the recently identified uracil-DNA degrading factor, dUTPase, and the two uracil-DNA glycosylases present in Drosophila. For the uracil-DNA degrading factor, NLS prediction identified two putative NLS sequences [PEKRKQE(320-326) and PKRKKKR(347-353)]. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis using YFP reporter constructs showed that only one of these basic stretches is critically required for efficient nuclear localization in insect cells. This segment corresponds to the well-known prototypic NLS of SV40 T-antigen. An almost identical NLS segment is also present in the Drosophila thymine-DNA glycosylase, but no NLS elements were predicted in the single-strand-specific monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog protein. This latter protein has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, which may allow NLS-independent transport. For Drosophila dUTPase, two isoforms with distinct features regarding molecular mass and subcellular distribution were recently described. In this study, we characterized the basic PAAKKMKID(10-18) segment of dUTPase, which has been predicted to be a putative NLS by in silico analysis. Deletion studies, using YFP reporter constructs expressed in insect cells, revealed the importance of the PAA(10-12) tripeptide and the ID(17-18) dipeptide, as well as the role of the PAAK(10-13) segment in nuclear localization of dUTPase. We constructed a structural model that shows the molecular basis of such recognition in three dimensions.

  16. ZBTB7A acts as a tumor suppressor through the transcriptional repression of glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Song; Haines, Jenna E.; Mehanna, Elie K.; Genet, Matthew D.; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Asara, John M.; Manning, Brendan D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated glycolysis is a common metabolic trait of cancer, but what drives such metabolic reprogramming remains incompletely clear. We report here a novel transcriptional repressor-mediated negative regulation of glycolysis. ZBTB7A, a member of the POK (POZ/BTB and Krüppel) transcription repressor family, directly binds to the promoter and represses the transcription of critical glycolytic genes, including GLUT3, PFKP, and PKM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data sets reveals that the ZBTB7A locus is frequently deleted in many human tumors. Significantly, reduced ZBTB7A expression correlates with up-regulation of the glycolytic genes and poor survival in colon cancer patients. Remarkably, while ZBTB7A-deficient tumors progress exceedingly fast, they exhibit an unusually heightened sensitivity to glycolysis inhibition. Our study uncovers a novel tumor suppressor role of ZBTB7A in directly suppressing glycolysis. PMID:25184678

  17. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A.; Finch, Joanne S.; Thompson, Eric J.; Bowden, G. Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  18. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression1

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A; Finch, Joanne S; Thompson, Eric J; Bowden, G Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  19. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njåstad, K. M.; Adler, S. A.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4. ×. 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short...

  20. Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a regional cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica L; Kar, Sujata; Vanky, Eszter; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Tapanainen, Juha S; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Soares, Jose Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder and its presentation varies with race and ethnicity. Reproductive-age women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome; however, it is not clear if prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components differs based on race and ethnicity. Moreover, the majority of these women do not undergo routine screening for metabolic syndrome. We sought to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States with women in India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. This is a cross-sectional study performed in 1089 women with polycystic ovary syndrome from 1999 through 2016 in 5 outpatient clinics in the United States, India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. Polycystic ovary syndrome was defined by the Rotterdam criteria. Main outcome measures were: metabolic syndrome prevalence, blood pressure, body mass index, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, and fasting glucose. Data from all sites were reevaluated for appropriate application of diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome, identification of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype, and complete metabolic workup. The US White women with polycystic ovary syndrome were used as the referent group. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between race and metabolic syndrome prevalence and its components and to adjust for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. The median age of the entire cohort was 28 years. Women from India had the highest mean Ferriman-Gallwey score for clinical hyperandrogenism (15.6 ± 6.5, P polycystic ovary syndrome, there are significant differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components based on race and ethnicity, which may reflect contributions from both racial and environmental factors. Our findings indicate the prevalence

  1. Lipid mediator metabolic profiling demonstrates differences in eicosanoid patterns in two phenotypically distinct mast cell populations[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L.; Saluja, Rohit; Adner, Mikael; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells are inflammatory cells that play key roles in health and disease. They are distributed in all tissues and appear in two main phenotypes, connective tissue and mucosal mast cells, with differing capacities to release inflammatory mediators. A metabolic profiling approach was used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the ability of mast cell phenotypes to produce eicosanoids and other lipid mediators. A total of 90 lipid mediators (oxylipins) were characterized using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. In vitro-derived murine mucosal-like mast cells (MLMC) and connective tissue-like mast cells (CTLMC) exhibited distinct mRNA expression patterns of enzymes involved in oxylipin biosynthesis. Oxylipins produced by 5-LO and COX pathways were the predominant species in both phenotypes, with 5-LO products constituting 90 ± 2% of the CTLMCs compared with 58 ± 8% in the MLMCs. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that CTLMCs and MLMCs secrete differing oxylipin profiles at baseline and following calcium ionophore stimulation, evidencing specificity in both a time- and biosynthetic pathway-dependent manner. In addition to the COX-regulated prostaglandin PGD2 and 5-LO-regulated cysteinyl-leukotrienes (e.g., LTC4), several other mediators evidenced phenotype-specificity, which may have biological implications in mast cell-mediated regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:23034214

  2. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald

    2007-02-13

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice.

  3. Differences in the metabolic rates of exploited and unexploited fish populations: a signature of recreational fisheries induced evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Hessenauer

    Full Text Available Non-random mortality associated with commercial and recreational fisheries have the potential to cause evolutionary changes in fish populations. Inland recreational fisheries offer unique opportunities for the study of fisheries induced evolution due to the ability to replicate study systems, limited gene flow among populations, and the existence of unexploited reference populations. Experimental research has demonstrated that angling vulnerability is heritable in Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and is correlated with elevated resting metabolic rates (RMR and higher fitness. However, whether such differences are present in wild populations is unclear. This study sought to quantify differences in RMR among replicated exploited and unexploited populations of Largemouth Bass. We collected age-0 Largemouth Bass from two Connecticut drinking water reservoirs unexploited by anglers for almost a century, and two exploited lakes, then transported and reared them in the same pond. Field RMR of individuals from each population was quantified using intermittent-flow respirometry. Individuals from unexploited reservoirs had a significantly higher mean RMR (6% than individuals from exploited populations. These findings are consistent with expectations derived from artificial selection by angling on Largemouth Bass, suggesting that recreational angling may act as an evolutionary force influencing the metabolic rates of fishes in the wild. Reduced RMR as a result of fisheries induced evolution may have ecosystem level effects on energy demand, and be common in exploited recreational populations globally.

  4. Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently in connection with endotoxin receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Debard, Cyrille; Daira, Patricia; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O; Simonet, Claire; Lefils-Lacourtablaise, Jennifer; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Bodennec, Jacques; Peretti, Noël; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2012-02-01

    Low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies revealed that this would be linked to gut-derived endotoxemia during fat digestion in high-fat diets, but nothing is known about the effect of lipid composition. The study was designed to test the impact of oil composition of high-fat diets on endotoxin metabolism and inflammation in mice. C57/Bl6 mice were fed for 8 wk with chow or isocaloric isolipidic diets enriched with oils differing in fatty acid composition: milk fat, palm oil, rapeseed oil, or sunflower oil. In vitro, adipocytes (3T3-L1) were stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) and incubated with different fatty acids. In mice, the palm group presented the highest level of IL-6 in plasma (P palm group was correlated with a greater ratio of LPS-binding protein (LBP)/sCD14 in plasma (P palm group, which was associated with lower inflammation in both plasma and adipose tissue despite higher plasma endotoxemia. Taken together, our results reveal that the palm oil-based diet resulted in the most active transport of LPS toward tissues via high LBP and low sCD14 and the greatest inflammatory outcomes. In contrast, a rapeseed oil-based diet seemed to result in an endotoxin metabolism driven toward less inflammatory pathways. This shows that dietary fat composition can contribute to modulate the onset of low-grade inflammation through the quality of endotoxin receptors.

  5. Performance and Metabolism of Dairy Cows Fed Bean Seeds (Vicia faba with Different Levels of Anti-Nutritional Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Melicharová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selected bean cultivars with different levels of anti-nutritional substances on performance and metabolism of dairy cows. In the current twelve-week-long study, 32 dairy cows at 3 to 6 weeks after parturition were divided into four groups. Diets were balanced to have an analogical content of crude protein and energy. Experimental groups (MI, ME, MET were mixed to the milking concentrate consisting of 20% bean seeds (MI - MISTRAL cultivar with a low content of anti-nutritional substances; ME - MERKUR cultivar with high content of anti-nutritional substances; MET - MERKUR cultivar with technologically reduced the amount of anti-nutritional substances. Clinical evaluation of dairy cows’ health and feed intake showed no negative effect of the bean supplementations. Energy, nitrogen and mineral metabolisms were not impaired either. No significant differences were found between groups in milk performance (daily milk yield, protein and lactose production during the study. On the basis of these results, the bean can be used in 20% in the milking concentrate of dairy cattle. Health risks associated with anti-nutritional content of the native bean are not significant for high-producing dairy cattle.

  6. PTH and Vitamin D Repress DMP1 in Cementoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Tran, A B; Nociti, F H; Thumbigere-Math, V; Foster, B L; Krieger, C C; Kantovitz, K R; Novince, C M; Koh, A J; McCauley, L K; Somerman, M J

    2015-10-01

    A complex feedback mechanism between parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) maintains mineral homeostasis, in part by regulating calcium and phosphate absorption/reabsorption. Previously, we showed that 1,25D regulates mineral homeostasis by repressing dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) via the vitamin D receptor pathway. Similar to 1,25D, PTH may modulate DMP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM.30), similar to osteoblasts and known to express DMP1, were treated with PTH (1-34). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot revealed that PTH decreased DMP1 gene transcription (85%) and protein expression (30%), respectively. PTH mediated the downregulation of DMP1 via the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the decreased localization of DMP1 in vivo in cellular cementum and alveolar bone of mice treated with a single dose (50 µg/kg) of PTH (1-34). RNA-seq was employed to further identify patterns of gene expression shared by PTH and 1,25D in regulating DMP1, as well as other factors involved in mineral homeostasis. PTH and 1,25D mutually upregulated 36 genes and mutually downregulated 27 genes by ≥2-fold expression (P ≤ 0.05). Many identified genes were linked with the regulation of bone/tooth homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, calcium signaling, and DMP1 transcription. Validation of RNA-seq results via PCR array confirmed a similar gene expression pattern in response to PTH and 1,25D treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that PTH and 1,25D share complementary effects in maintaining mineral homeostasis by mutual regulation of genes/proteins associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism while also exerting distinct roles on factors modulating mineral metabolism. Furthermore, PTH may modulate phosphate homeostasis by downregulating DMP1 expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Targeting

  7. Two genes in Balbiani ring 2 with metabolically different 75S transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, R.; Saiga, H.; Widmer, R. M.; Lezzi, M.; Edström, J.-E.

    1985-01-01

    Balbiani ring 2 (BR2) in salivary glands of Chironomus pallidivittatus and C. tentans (two sibling species of the subgenus Camptochironomus) is a favoured model system for studies of gene organization and transcript formation. Here we show that BR2 is more complex than hitherto believed, containing two 75S RNA-producing genes, BR2a and BR2b, present in different 35–40 kb blocks of DNA. The transcripts hybridizing to two different repeat units originating in BR2 differ in size. Further support...

  8. Adaptive Changes in Basal Metabolic Rate in Humans in Different Eco-Geographical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Arkady L; Belkin, Victor Sh; Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene D

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to establish whether the human basal metabolic rate (BMR) shifts towards the reduction of vital functions as an adaptation response to extreme environmental conditions. Data was collected in arid and Extreme North zones. The arid zone samples included Bedouins living in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, Turkmen students, the Pedagogical University of Chardzhou, Turkmenistan born Russians and Russian soldiers. Soldiers were divided into 3 groups according to the length of their tour of duty in the area: 1st group: up to six months, 2nd group: up to 2 years and the 3rd group: 3-5 years. The Extreme North samples comprised Chukchi natives, 1st generation Russian immigrants born in the area and 3 groups of soldiers comparable to the soldiers from Turkmenistan. BMR values of the new recruits had the highest values of total and relative BMR (1769 ± 16 and 28.3 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The total and relative BMR tended to decrease within a longer adaptation period. The BMR values of officers who served >3 years in Turkmenistan were very similar to the Turkmenistan born Russians (1730 ± 14 vs. 1726 ± 18 and 26.5 ± 0.6 vs. 27.3 ± 0.7, correspondingly). Similarly, in Chukotka, the highest relative BMR was found in the new recruits, serving up to 6 months (28.1 ± 0.7) and was significantly (p BMR was virtually similar in Russian officers serving > 3 years, compared to the middle-aged Chukchi or Chukotka-born Russians (25.8 ± 0.5 vs. 25.6 ± 0.5 and 25.5 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The BMR parameters demonstrated a stronger association with body weight than with age. In extreme environmental conditions, migrant populations showed a decrease in BMR, thus reducing its vital functions. The BMR reduction effect with the adequate adaptive transformation is likely to be the key strategy for developing programs to facilitate human and animal adaptation to extreme factors. This process is aimed at preserving the optimum energy balance and homeostasis while minimizing

  9. Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

  10. Different postprandial lipid metabolism and insulin resistance between non-diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Kozu, Katsuya; Ikeda, Shohei; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has an impact on lipid metabolism, however, little is known about the relationship between the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To compare the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with and without CAD, a total of 36 normoglycemic patients: 19 patients with stable CAD (CAD group, age 60.2±11.3 years) and 17 patients without CAD (Non-CAD group, age 60.4±9.6 years) were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal, and the changes in serum level of the lipid and glucose parameters were monitored before and 0, 2, 4, and 6h later. In the Non-CAD group, postprandial serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol increased significantly and reached peak levels at the 4th hour and decreased significantly at the 6th hour of observation, whereas those levels in CAD group kept rising during 6h of observation. Although there was no significant difference in the area under the curves (AUCs) for the postprandial plasma glucose levels between CAD and Non-CAD group, the AUCs for the postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the CAD group than in the Non-CAD group. The AUCs for postprandial TG levels showed good correlation with those for postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels (insulin: r=0.455, ppostprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia may have a close relationship in CAD patients without DM and might play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis even before the onset of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of amino acid metabolic signatures by supplemented isoenergetic diets differing in protein and cereal fiber content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, John G; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Roden, Michael; Petzke, Klaus-Jürgen; Hoffmann, Daniela; Rudovich, Natalia N; Randeva, Harpal S; Vatish, Manu; Osterhoff, Martin; Goegebakan, Özlem; Hornemann, Silke; Nowotny, Peter; Machann, Jürgen; Hierholzer, Johannes; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Möhlig, Matthias; Arafat, Ayman M; Weickert, Martin O

    2014-12-01

    Amino-acid (AA) metabolic signatures differ in insulin-resistant (IR) obese vs normal-weight subjects, improve after weight loss, and seem to predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether weight-maintaining dietary measures aimed at influencing IR alter AA signatures of high-risk subjects. In the randomized controlled Protein, Fiber and Metabolic Syndrome (ProFiMet) trial we investigated effects of four isoenergetic, moderately fat-reduced diets varying in protein and cereal-fiber contents on complete AA metabolic signatures in 76 group-matched overweight or obese high-risk subjects. We analyzed the relation of whole-body and hepatic IR with AA signatures, body fat composition and liver fat, after 0, 6, and 18 weeks of dietary intervention. Discrimination between diets was further enhanced by providing tailored dietary supplements for twice-daily consumption over 18 weeks in all groups. Baseline AA, including branched-chain signatures significantly related to IR, liver fat, and visceral fat mass. Isoenergetic variation of protein and cereal-fiber dietary contents, but not fat restriction, significantly influenced IR, whereas the relation of AA with IR changed with all diets. The tryptophan ratio was significantly suppressed in obese vs overweight participants, but increased after 6 weeks of high cereal-fiber intake to a nonobese phenotype. Modeling analyses revealed diet-induced alterations of complex AA profiles to relate to 70% and 62% of changes in whole-body and hepatic IR. We demonstrate that relatively short-term isoenergetic changes in the diet significantly alter the relation of AA signatures with IR, with possible implications on the determination and treatment of diabetes risk.

  12. Estimation of metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under different feeding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was designed to estimate the metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (Holstein-Friesian X Tharparkar heifers under two different feeding regimes, i.e., feeding regime-1 as per the National Research Council (NRC (2001 and feeding regime-2 having 15% higher energy (supplementation of molasses than NRC (2001. Materials and Methods: Six (n = 6 healthy heifers of Sahiwal and Karan Fries with 18-24 months of age were selected from Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. An initial 15 days was maintained under feeding regime-1 and feeding regime-2 as adaptation period; actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. At the end of feeding regimes (on day 15th and 16th, expired air and volume were collected in Douglas bag for two consecutive days (morning [6:00 am] and evening [4:00 pm]. The fraction of methane and expired air volume were measured by methane analyzer and wet test meter, respectively. The oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by iWorx LabScribe2. Results: The heat production (kcal/day was significantly (p0.05. The energy loss as methane (% from total heat production was significantly (p<0.05 higher in feeding regime-1. The body weight (kg, metabolic body weight (W0.75, and basal metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75 were significantly (p<0.05 higher in feeding regime-2 in both breeds. Conclusions: This study indicates that higher energy diet by supplementing molasses may reduce energy loss as methane and enhance the growth of Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers.

  13. Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Dutman, A.E.; Stroeve, J.H.M.; Steeg, E. van de; Bijlsma, S.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Wopereis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism maintains homeostasis at chronic hypercaloric conditions, activating postprandial response mechanisms, which come at the cost of adaptation processes such as energy storage, eventually with negative health consequences. This study quantified the metabolic adaptation capacity by studying

  14. Metabolism of urea in kids fed different levels of urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Urea entry rates were measured in the body pool of Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The kids were divided into five groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) and they were fed different levels of urea molasses viz., 10, 25, 35, 40 and 0 percent to meet their DCP requirement along with concentrate mixture and oat hay as per A.R.C. recommendation. Urea entry rate was significantly higher (P 1 and the control group (T 5 without urea in their diets) than that of T 2 , T 3 and T 4 which were not significantly different from each other. (author)

  15. Acetazolamide-mediated decrease in strong ion difference accounts for the correction of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moviat, Miriam; Pickkers, Peter; van der Voort, Peter H J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2006-02-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly encountered acid-base derangement in the intensive care unit. Treatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is indicated in selected cases. According to the quantitative approach described by Stewart, correction of serum pH due to carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the proximal tubule cannot be explained by excretion of bicarbonate. Using the Stewart approach, we studied the mechanism of action of acetazolamide in critically ill patients with a metabolic alkalosis. Fifteen consecutive intensive care unit patients with metabolic alkalosis (pH > or = 7.48 and HCO3- > or = 28 mmol/l) were treated with a single administration of 500 mg acetazolamide intravenously. Serum levels of strong ions, creatinine, lactate, weak acids, pH and partial carbon dioxide tension were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The main strong ions in urine and pH were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Strong ion difference (SID), strong ion gap, sodium-chloride effect, and the urinary SID were calculated. Data (mean +/- standard error were analyzed by comparing baseline variables and time dependent changes by one way analysis of variance for repeated measures. After a single administration of acetazolamide, correction of serum pH (from 7.49 +/- 0.01 to 7.46 +/- 0.01; P = 0.001) was maximal at 24 hours and sustained during the period of observation. The parallel decrease in partial carbon dioxide tension was not significant (from 5.7 +/- 0.2 to 5.3 +/- 0.2 kPa; P = 0.08) and there was no significant change in total concentration of weak acids. Serum SID decreased significantly (from 41.5 +/- 1.3 to 38.0 +/- 1.0 mEq/l; P = 0.03) due to an increase in serum chloride (from 105 +/- 1.2 to 110 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; P metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients by decreasing the serum SID. This effect is completely explained by the increased renal excretion ratio of sodium to chloride, resulting in an increase in serum chloride.

  16. Multi-Faceted Characterization of a Novel LuxR-Repressible Promoter Library for Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Zucca

    Full Text Available The genetic elements regulating the natural quorum sensing (QS networks of several microorganisms are widely used in synthetic biology to control the behaviour of single cells and engineered bacterial populations via ad-hoc constructed synthetic circuits. A number of novel engineering-inspired biological functions have been implemented and model systems have also been constructed to improve the knowledge on natural QS systems. Synthetic QS-based parts, such as promoters, have been reported in literature, to provide biological components with functions that are not present in nature, like modified induction logic or activation/repression by additional molecules. In this work, a library of promoters that can be repressed by the LuxR protein in presence of the QS autoinducer N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL was reported for Escherichia coli, to expand the toolkit of genetic parts that can be used to engineer novel synthetic QS-based systems. The library was constructed via polymerase chain reaction with highly constrained degenerate oligonucleotides, designed according to the consensus -35 and -10 sequences of a previously reported constitutive promoter library of graded strength, to maximize the probability of obtaining functional clones. All the promoters have a lux box between the -35 and -10 regions, to implement a LuxR-repressible behaviour. Twelve unique library members of graded strength (about 100-fold activity range were selected to form the final library and they were characterized in several genetic contexts, such as in different plasmids, via different reporter genes, in presence of a LuxR expression cassette in different positions and in response to different AHL concentrations. The new obtained regulatory parts and corresponding data can be exploited by synthetic biologists to implement an artificial AHL-dependent repression of transcription in genetic circuits. The target transcriptional activity can be selected among the

  17. Small yet effective: The Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif is a small yet distinct regulatory motif that is conserved in many plant transcriptional regulator (TR) proteins associated with diverse biological functions. We have previously established a list of high-confidence Arabidopsis EAR repressors, the EAR repressome, comprising 219 TRs belonging to 21 different TR families. This class of proteins and the sequence context of the EAR motif exhibited a high ...

  18. The regulation of transcriptional repression in hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavadas, Miguel A.S.; Cheong, Alex; Taylor, Cormac T.

    2017-01-01

    A sufficient supply molecular oxygen is essential for the maintenance of physiologic metabolism and bioenergetic homeostasis for most metazoans. For this reason, mechanisms have evolved for eukaryotic cells to adapt to conditions where oxygen demand exceeds supply (hypoxia). These mechanisms rely on the modification of pre-existing proteins, translational arrest and transcriptional changes. The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF; a master regulator of gene induction in response to hypoxia) is resp...

  19. Muscle fatigue and metabolic responses following three different antagonist pre-load resistance exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carregaro, Rodrigo; Cunha, Rafael; Oliveira, Carlos Gomes; Brown, Lee E.; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preload of antagonist muscles can be achieved by reciprocal actions (RAs) or by opposing muscle actions. However, evidence concerning neuromuscular and fatigue responses are scarce. Objective: To compare the effects of different knee flexor (KF) preload methods on knee extension (KE) vastus

  20. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  1. Salmonella Challenge Affects the Antibody Isotype Profile of Bile in Hens Differing in Metabolic Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, P.F.; Eerden, van E.

    2006-01-01

    Gel precipitation reactions determined antibody isotypes in bile from hens differing in dietary efficiency. Ouchterlony double diffusion employing ¿-chain specific goat-anti-chicken IgA, rabbit anti-chicken IgG, goat anti-chicken IgM, black turtle bean (BTB), and Jacalin lectins as precipitating

  2. Drug metabolism: Comparison of biodistribution profile of holmium in three different compositions in healthy Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira-Coutinho, Cristal; Vidal, Lluis Pascual; Pinto, Suyene Rocha; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope holmium is a candidate to be used in cancer treatment and diagnosis. There are different holmium salts and they present distinct solubility and consequently different biodistribution profiles. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the biodistribution profiles of two holmium salts (chloride and sulfate) and holmium nanoparticles (oxide) through an in vivo biodistribution assay using animal model. Samples were labeled with technetium-99m and administered in Wistar rats by retro-orbital route. Holmium chloride is highly soluble in water and it was quickly filtered by the kidneys while holmium sulfate that presents lower solubility in water was mainly found in the liver and the spleen. However, both the salts showed a similar biodistribution profile. On the other hand, holmium oxide showed a very different biodistribution profile since it seemed to interact with all organs. Due to its particle size range (approximately 100 nm) it was not intensively filtered by the kidneys being found in high quantities in many organs, for this reason its use as a nanoradiopharmaceutical could be promising in the oncology field. - Highlights: • This article brings the biodistribution of holmium in 3 different compositions. • The results, as a technical note may help other researchers around the world to elucidate the mechanism (biological behavior) and the best strategy to use holmium as radiopharmaceutical.

  3. Muscle metabolism and performance improvement after two training programmes of sprint running differing in rest interval duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraslanidis, Ploutarchos; Petridou, Anatoli; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Galanis, Nikiforos; Tsalis, George; Kellis, Spiros; Mougios, Vassilis

    2011-08-01

    Repeated-sprint training often involves short sprints separated by inadequate recovery intervals. The effects of interval duration on metabolic and performance parameters are unclear. We compared the effects of two training programmes, differing in rest interval duration, on muscle (vastus lateralis) metabolism and sprint performance. Sixteen men trained three times a week for 8 weeks, each training session comprising 2-3 sets of two 80-m sprints. Sprints were separated by 10 s (n = 8) or 1 min (n = 8). Both training programmes improved performance in the 100-, 200-, and 300-m sprints, but the improvement was greater in the 10-s group during the final 100 m of the 200- and 300-m runs. Independent of interval duration, training mitigated the drop of muscle ATP after two 80-m sprints. The drop in phosphocreatine and the increases in glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate after two 80-m sprints were greater in the 10-s group. In conclusion, training with a limited number of repeated short sprints (≤10 s) may be more effective in improving speed maintenance in 200- and 300-m runs when performed with a 1:1 rather than a 1:6 exercise-to-rest ratio. This may be due to a greater activation of glycolysis caused, in part, by the limited resynthesis of phosphocreatine during the very short rest interval.

  4. Histopathologic investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 administered by different methods on tooth movement and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlaroğlu, Murat; Erdem, Abdulvahit

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the in vivo effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administered by different methods on orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism macroscopically, histopatologically, and biochemically. Forty-five young adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10/group), 1 positive control group (n = 10), and 1 negative control group (n = 5). The experimental rabbits were fitted with springs exerting 20-g reciprocal force on the maxillary incisors and PGE2 (10 µg/mL) was administered by the intravenous, submucosal, or intraligamentous route after appliance insertion and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 thereafter. All rabbits were sacrificed on day 21 and their premaxillae were resected for histologic evaluation. Tooth movement was observed in the experimental and positive control groups, but the intraligamentous PGE2 group had the highest values of all analyzed parameters, including serum calcium and phosphorus levels and osteoclastic and osteoblastic populations (p orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism, but the intraligamentous route seems to be more effective.

  5. Inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone in human, dog and horse liver microsomes to investigate species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2015-04-01

    Testosterone hydroxylation was investigated in human, canine and equine liver microsomes and in human and canine single CYPs. The contribution of the CYP families 1, 2 and 3 was studied using chemical inhibitors. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC. The metabolites androstenedione, 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone were found in microsomes of all species, but the pattern of metabolites varied within species. Androstenedione was more prominent in the animal species, and an increase over time was seen in equines. Testosterone hydroxylation was predominantly catalyzed by the CYP3A subfamily in all three species. While CYP2C9 did not metabolise testosterone, the canine ortholog CYP2C21 produced androstenedione. Quercetin significantly inhibited 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in all species investigated, suggesting that CYP2C8 is involved in testosterone metabolism, whereas sulfaphenazole significantly inhibited the formation of 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in human microsomes, at 60 min in equine microsomes, but not in canine microsomes. A contribution of CYP2B6 in testosterone metabolism was only found in human and equine microsomes. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 indicated its involvement in androstenedione formation in humans, increased androstenedione formation was found in equines and no involvement in canines. These findings provide improved understanding of differences in testosterone biotransformation in animal species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic changes in ruminant calves fed cation-anion diets with different proportions of roughage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with twenty-four male weaned Holstein calves to verify the influence of different dietary cation-anion concentrate and roughage proportions on calves metabolism. In the first experiment, calves were fed rations with -100, +200 and +400 mEq cation-anion balance/kg of dry matter, containing 60% of roughage and 40% of concentrate. In the second experiment, calves (117.6±20.8 kg average weight received rations with similar dietary cation-anion balance but in diets of 40% roughage and 60% concentrate. As the dietary cation-anion balance became more positive, there was a quadratic response of blood pH in both diets with 60 and 40% roughage. A linear increase following increased dietary cation-anion balance was observed on bicarbonate concentration, carbon dioxide tension, carbon dioxide partial pressure and urine pH on both experiments, while anion gap decreased linearly. Blood urea nitrogen and base excess increased quadratically according to increased dietary cation-anion balance on 60% roughage, whereas those same parameters showed a linear increase on 40% roughage. Growing ruminant metabolism both in cationic and anionic diets was modified when the roughage:concentrate ratio was altered.

  7. Soy isoflavone phase II metabolism differs between rodents and humans: implications for the effect on breast cancer risk1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nadine M; Zhao, Xueheng; Lindley, Stephanie L; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Messina, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human and animal studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the effect of soy isoflavones on breast cancer risk. This may be due to differences in isoflavone metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether soy isoflavone phase II metabolism differs between humans and rodents. Design: Circulating total and unconjugated isoflavone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry in plasma samples from 7 separate studies: 1) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in 3 strains of mice fed commercial soy-containing diets; 2) in Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged with genistein; 3) in healthy adults who consumed single servings of soy nuts, soy milk, and tempeh; 4) in healthy adults subchronically given soy milk; 5) in healthy women orally administered 50 mg genistein; 6) in healthy women orally administered 20 mg pure S-(-)equol; and 7) in 6-mo-old infants fed soy infant formula and later, at age 3 y, a soy germ isoflavone supplement. Results: The proportion of unconjugated genistein in plasma from adults and infants who consumed different soy foods, pure genistein, or an isoflavone supplement was soy-containing diets conjugate isoflavones less efficiently. The plasma percentages of unconjugated genistein concentrations in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6, nude, and transgenic AngptL4B6 mice were 4.0 ± 0.6%, 4.6 ± 0.6%, 11.6 ± 0%, and 30.1 ± 4.3%, respectively, which represent 20, 23, 58, and 150 times that in humans. Conclusion: The markedly higher circulating concentrations of biologically active (unconjugated) genistein in certain strains of mice cast doubt on the value of the use of these rodents for gaining insight into the effects of isoflavones in humans, especially with regard to the effects on breast tissue. PMID:21955647

  8. Neuromuscular and metabolic responses to high-intensity intermittent cycling protocols with different work-to-rest ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Andrea; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Lenti, Mauro; Haxhi, Jonida; Scotto di Palumbo, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of work-to-rest-ratio manipulation on neuromuscular and metabolic responses during 2 high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) protocols to exhaustion. Since different exercise durations were expected, the authors hypothesized that the protocol registering a longer duration would have a more pronounced effect on neuromuscular responses, while the other would challenge the cardiopulmonary system more. Thirteen competitive cyclists (age 19 ± 2 y) performed a preliminary incremental test to identify their maximal power output and 2 intermittent protocols to exhaustion (40:20s and 30:30s) at a fixed work rate of 135%Pmax interspersed by passive recovery. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (including muscle-fiber conduction velocity), cardiopulmonary parameters, and blood lactate concentration [La-] were recorded. Time to exhaustion and total work were significantly higher for the 30:30s (38 ± 13 min, 495 ± 161 kJ) than for the 40:20s (10 ± 3 min, 180 ± 51 kJ). No differences were found in sEMG parameters for the 2 protocols. Mean and peak values of VO2, heart rate, ventilatory parameters (except for the peak value of respiratory frequency), and [La-] were significantly higher in the 40:20s than in the 30:30s. These results do not support the hypothesis that a longer time spent at high intensity has a more pronounced effect on neuromuscular responses, as no differences in EMG parameters were found in the 2 HIT protocols. Regarding metabolic responses, while the 40:20s led to maximal values of VO2, [La-], and ventilatory parameters within a few minutes, the 30:30s allowed maintenance of moderately high values for a considerably longer period, especially for [La-] and ventilatory parameters.

  9. Fuels derived from starch digestion have different effects on energy intake and metabolic responses of cows in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrón-Duarte, Laura B; Allen, Michael S

    2018-03-07

    Absorbed fuels from the digestion of starch include propionic acid (PA) produced by ruminal fermentation and glucose (GLU) from intestinal digestion, which may be partially metabolized to lactic acid (LA) by intestinal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these fuels on dry matter intake (DMI) and feeding behavior of cows in the postpartum period. We hypothesized that these fuels affect feed intake differently and that their effects are related to differences in their hepatic metabolism. Glucose was expected to have little effect on feed intake because little or no GLU is extracted from the blood by the liver. Whereas both LA and PA are anaplerotic and can stimulate oxidation of acetyl CoA in hepatocytes, hepatic extraction of PA is greater than LA, which depends on cytosolic redox state. Continuous isoenergetic infusions (150 kcal of ME/h) of PA, LA, or GLU or no infusion were administered abomasally to 8 ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (12.4 ± 6.2 d postpartum) in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment, with four 1-d infusion periods, balanced for carry-over effects. Treatment sequences were assigned to cows randomly, and treatments included control (CON, no infusion), PA (0.41 mol/h), LA (0.46 mol/h), and GLU (0.22 mol/h). Solutions containing treatments were infused at 500 mL/h for 22 h/d and provided ~3.3 Mcal/d. Feeding behavior was recorded by a computerized data acquisition system. Gross energy digestibility of the diet was determined for each cow and used to calculate metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from the diet. Total MEI was calculated as the sum of MEI from the diet plus energy from infusions. Data were analyzed statistically with a mixed model including the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of block and cow within block. Each treatment was compared with CON by contrasts. Compared with CON, PA decreased DMI by 24% (14.3 vs. 18.9 kg/d) and total MEI by 13% (34.8 vs. 40.2 Mcal/d) with a tendency to

  10. Metabolic response to three different diets in lean cats and cats predisposed to overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Claudia; Liesegang, Annette; Frey, Diana; Wichert, Brigitta

    2017-01-01

    Background The existence of a genetic predisposition to obesity is commonly recognized in humans and rodents. Recently, a link between genetics and overweight was shown in cats. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of diet composition on plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides in cats receiving different diets (high-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets). Results Insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with phenotype. ...

  11. Effects of exercise on metabolic and hormonal indicators of people with different somatotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystovaya T.E.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the effect of exercise on biochemical and hormonal rates in young men of different body types. The study involved 40 students of 17-23 years old, who were divided into 4 groups. Each group included 10 people with different somatotype (chest, muscular and the level of physical fitness (don't go in for sports, sportsmen. It was specified that there are some different changes (depending on somatotype in the blood of students who aren't involved in sports. The changes are caused by increasing the amount of total protein, soluble triglycerides, β-globulin, hormone of growth against minor changes in the content of the aqueous phase and the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, α-and γ-globulin, insulin. Slight exercise stress in sportsmen with breast somatotype insignificantly changed biochemical indicators of blood, muscular - there was almost no effect in biochemical indicators of blood; but it led to changes in hormonal status of sportsmen.

  12. Extremadura: Behind the material traces of Franco’s repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Encinar, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the failed coup d’état of July 17th, 1936 and after the start of the Spanish Civil War that followed it, rebels carried out a repressive strategy based on the execution of thousands of people as a key tool of social control. The socialization of fear and terror through humiliation, killing and disappearance would become the main strategy employed throughout the war and the post-war period. In this context, perpetrators would exercise repressive practices on victims and their bodies. As a result, countless mass graves were opened in order to hide the bodies of victims. In the region of Extremadura, these mass graves have been investigated through the application of archeology and physical anthropology as disciplines of research and historical knowledge production. The exhumations, have given us a diachronic point of view of the repressive strategies developed, associated with different contexts between 1936 and 1946. Analyses of mass executions linked to rebels’ occupation of territories in this region, systematic rearguard killings in occupied areas, elimination procedures carried out in concentration camps and prisons and the fight against the armed guerrilla during the dictatorship, are the main contributions of this article.Tras el fracaso del golpe de Estado del 17 de julio de 1936 y el inicio de la Guerra Civil en España, se llevó a cabo, por parte de los sublevados, una estrategia represiva basada en la ejecución de miles de personas como principal herramienta de control social. La socialización del miedo y el terror a través de las vejaciones, ejecuciones y desapariciones será la principal estrategia utilizada, donde el uso de las víctimas y los cuerpos formará también parte de las prácticas represivas ideadas por los perpetradores. Como consecuencia, se abrieron incontables fosas comunes con el objetivo de ocultar los cadáveres de los represaliados. Estas fosas han sido investigadas en la Comunidad Autónoma de

  13. Repression and catabolite repression of the lactose operon of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouian, B; Stewart, G C

    1990-01-01

    The lacR gene encodes the repressor of the lactose operon of S. aureus. The nucleotide sequence of this gene and the promoter-operator region of the operon are reported. The lacR gene encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 28,534. This protein was found to share sequence homology with the DeoR protein, the repressor of the E. coli deoxyribonucleotide operon. Directly and invertedly repeated sequences were found associated with the promoter for the structural genes of the operon. These sequences were examined by site-directed mutagenesis and found to be important in repressor binding and in the binding of a catabolite repressor. Evidence is presented in support of a model for catabolite repression of the operon which involves a negative-acting transcriptional regulator which binds to the promoter region of the operon and prevents transcription. Images PMID:2163387

  14. Effect of moderate intakes of different tea catechins and caffeine on acute measures of energy metabolism under sedentary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N.T.; Bitz, C.; Krog-Mikkelsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Green tea may stimulate energy metabolism; however, it is unclear if acute effects are caused by specific catechins, caffeine or their combination. The objective of the present study was to examine the separate and combined effects of different catechins and caffeine on energy expenditure (EE......) and fat oxidation over a single day. Fifteen healthy, normal-weight males received capsules containing placebo, caffeine alone (150mg), or caffeine plus a catechin mixture (600 mg) enriched in either epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin or a mix of catechins, in a randomised cross......-over double-blinded design. On each test day EE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and substrate oxidation were measured under sedentary conditions in a respiratory chamber for 13.5h. We found no significant treatment effect on EE (P=0.20) or RQ (P=0.68). EGCG with caffeine insignificantly raised EE and fat oxidation...

  15. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    tannic acid led to a considerable underestimation (up to 90%) of polyphenolic concentrations in peat soils. As hypothesised we found that highly degraded peat contains far lower levels of total polyphenolics (factor 8) and condensed tannins (factor 50) than less decomposed peat. In addition we detected large differences between different plant species with highest polyphenolic contents for the roots of Carex appropinquata that were more than 10-fold higher than Sphagnum spp. (450 mg/g dry mass vs. 39 mg/g dry mass). Despite these differences, we did not find a significant correlation between enzyme activities and peat degradation state, indicating that there is no simple linear relationship between polyphenolic contents and microbial activity.

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Lactococcus lactis Under Different Culture Conditions

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    Normah Mohd Noor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS were used to study metabolites produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that L. lactis produced more organic acids under agitation. Primary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polyols were identified as the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatives, whereas amino acids and organic acids, including fatty acids, were detected through methyl chloroformate derivatization. HS analysis indicated that branched-chain methyl aldehydes, including 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal are degdradation products of isoleucine, leucine or valine. Multivariate analysis (MVA using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA revealed the major differences between treatments were due to changes of amino acids and fermentation products.

  17. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  18. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Kerrie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. Results The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced – Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. Conclusion The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  19. Adipose tissue and liver metabolic responses to different levels of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Fontanillas, Ramón; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the effects of replacing dietary lipids by carbohydrates and carbohydrates by fiber on gilthead sea bream growth, as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and liver over the course of a 15-week feeding trial. Six different diets were formulated and fish were classified into two experimental groups sharing one diet. In the first group (LS), fish were fed four diets where lipids were reduced (23%-17%) by increasing carbohydrates (12%-28%) and, the second group (SF) consisted on three diets where the amount of carbohydrates (28%-11%) was exchanged at expenses of fiber (1%-18%). Differences in growth were not observed; nevertheless, the hepatosomatic index was positively related to dietary starch levels, apparently not due to enhanced hepatic lipogenesis, partly supported by unchanged G6PDH expression. In the LS group, lipogenic activity of adipose tissue was stimulated with low-lipid/high-carbohydrate diets by up-regulating G6PDH expression and a tendency to increase FAS, and promoted carbohydrate utilization versus fatty acid oxidation by modulating the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα and PPARβ expression. In the SF group, PPARs and LXRα increased parallel to fiber levels in adipose tissue. Furthermore, an adaptation of hepatic GK to dietary starch inclusion was observed in both groups; however, the lack of effects on G6Pase expression indicated that gluconeogenesis was not nutritionally regulated under the conditions examined. Overall, metabolic adaptations directed to an efficient use of dietary carbohydrates are present in gilthead sea bream, supporting the possibility of increasing carbohydrate or fiber content in diets for aquaculture sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

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    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  1. Comparative Analysis for the Urban Metabolic Differences of Two Types of Cities in the Resource-Dependent Region Based on Emergy Theory

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    Chang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban metabolism analysis has become a useful and effective tool to explore urban socio-economic processes. In this research, in order to explore the similarities and differences of metabolic characteristics and variation rules of different types of resource-dependent cities, we selected two cities—Taiyuan and Jincheng, the capital and a traditional resource-dependent city of Shanxi province, respectively, as research subjects, we also established an urban metabolic evaluation framework by employing a set of eight emergy-based indicators from socio-economic data from 2007 to 2014, and compared the similarities and discrepancies from the perspectives of metabolic structure, intensity, pressure, and efficiency, and put forward some suggestions for pursuing sustainable development for both cities and pointed out that more types of resource-dependent cities should be incorporated in future research work.

  2. Thiamine-repressible genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe are regulated by a Cys6 zinc-finger motif-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, H; Schweingruber, M E

    1994-09-15

    Our previous genetic data indicate that the product of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe thi1 gene acts as an activator of several thiamine-repressible genes which are involved in the control of thiamine metabolism [Schweingruber et al., Genetics 130 (1992) 445-449; Zurlinden and Schweingruber, Gene 117 (1992) 141-143]. In this communication, we report the cloning and sequencing of thi1 and show that it carries an open reading frame which translates into a 775-amino-acid protein with the characteristics of a Cys6 zinc-finger-motif-containing transcription factor, as typified by Saccharomyces cerevisae GAL4. We, therefore, suggest that the thi1-encoded protein binds to upstream activator sequences of thiamine-repressible genes.

  3. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  4. COMPONENTS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN D: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Svetlana I. Malyavskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D is a significant risk factor for atherogenic disorders. It is of interest to study the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the components of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and markers of chronic inflammation in different age groups.Objective.  Our aim was to study association of the components  of the metabolic syndrome and pro-atherogenic  metabolic disorders with vitamin D levels in children and adolescents.Methods. In a cross-sectional (one-stage study, the serum 25(OHD level in children and adolescents was determined. The relationship between the 25(ОНD level and the presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed in quartile groups.Results. The study included 319 children and adolescents (49% — girls aged 10–15 years. In the quartile I in terms of the 25(ОНD level, higher (as compared with the quartile IV mean level values of insulin (11.5 ± 6.3 and 7.3 ± 4.0 mmol/L, p <0.001, HOMA index (2.4 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.7, p <0.001, body mass index (22.6 ± 4.3 and 19.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2, p = 0.012, waist circumference (68 ± 11 and 61 ± 12 cm, p = 0.034, blood concentration of C-reactive protein (2.3 ± 1 and 0.9 ± 0.7 mg/ml, p <0.001, diastolic blood pressure (70 ± 7 and 65 ± 6 mm Hg, р = 0.028, uric acid (0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.21 ± 0.06 mmol/L, р = 0.021, glucose (4.8 ± 0.6 and 4.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p = 0.011, triglycerides (0.86 ± 0.37 and 0.72 ± 0.31 mmol/L, р = 0.017, and lower mean level values of highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (1.38 ± 0.36 and 1.58 ± 0.31 mmol/L, p = 0.011 were noted. Multivariate regression analysis showed an independent  relationship between the 25(ОНD level, C-reactive  protein level (β = -0.55,  p <0.001,  and HOMA index (β = -0.96, p < 0.001.Conclusion. A low vitamin D level in the blood serum in children is associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

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    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  6. Dissecting miRNA gene repression on single cell level with an advanced fluorescent reporter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Diaz, Nicolas; Böker, Kai O.; Rodriguez-Polo, Ignacio; Mitter, Michael; Preis, Jasmin; Arlt, Maximilian; Gruber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis. This approach integrates and adapts a mathematical model for miRNA-driven gene repression. This model predicts three distinct miRNA-groups with unique repression activities (low, mid and high) governed not just by expression levels but also by miRNA/target-binding capability. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the system by applying controlled concentrations of synthetic siRNAs and in parallel, altering target-binding capability on corresponding reporter-constructs. Furthermore, we compared miRNA-profiles with the modeled predictions of 29 individual candidates. We demonstrate that expression levels only partially reflect the miRNA function, fitting to the model-projected groups of different activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of miRNAs impacts functionality. Our results imply that miRNA profiling alone cannot define their repression activity. The gene regulatory function is a dynamic and complex process beyond a minimalistic conception of “highly expressed equals high repression”. PMID:28338079

  7. Target setting in intensive insulin management is associated with metabolic control: the Hvidoere Childhood Diabetes Study Group Centre Differences Study 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swift, P.G.F.; Skinner, T.C.; de Beaufort, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate glycaemic targets set by diabetes teams, their perception by adolescents and parents, and their influence on metabolic control. Methods: Clinical data and questionnaires were completed by adolescents, parents/carers and diabetes teams in 21 international centres. HbA1c was ...... setting of glycaemic targets by diabetes teams is strongly associated with HbA1c outcome in adolescents. Target setting appears to play a significant role in explaining the differences in metabolic outcomes between centres...

  8. Insulin Production and Resistance in Different Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahsh, Salamah M; Dwyer, Benjamin J; Forbes, Shareen; Thiel, David H van; Lewis, Philip J Starkey; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2017-01-28

    The role of the liver and the endocrine pancreas in development of hyperinsulinemia in different types of obesity remains unclear. Sedentary rats (160 g) were fed a low-fat-diet (LFD, chow 13% kcal fat), high-fat-diet (HFD, 35% fat), or HFD+ 30% ethanol+ 30% fructose (HF-EFr, 22% fat). Overnight-fasted rats were culled after one, four or eight weeks. Pancreatic and hepatic mRNAs were isolated for subsequent RT-PCR analysis. After eight weeks, body weights increased three-fold in the LFD group, 2.8-fold in the HFD group, and 2.4-fold in the HF-EFr ( p insulin was significantly greater in the HFD and HF-EFr groups versus the LFD. Nevertheless, insulin: C-peptide ratios and HOMA-IR values were substantially higher in HF-EFr. Hepatic gene-expression of insulin-receptor-substrate -1/2 was downregulated in the HF-EFr. The expression of phospho-ERK-1/2 and inflammatory-mediators were greatest in the HF-EFr-fed rats. Chronic intake of both LFD and HFD induced obesity, MetS, and intrahepatic-fat accumulation. The hyperinsulinemia is the strongest in rats with the lowest body weights, but having the highest liver weights. This accompanies the strongest increase of pancreatic insulin production and the maximal decrease of hepatic insulin signaling, which is possibly secondary to hepatic fat deposition, inflammation and other factors.

  9. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (pexcretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (pexcretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (pnitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  10. Sex Differences in Metabolic Morbidities: Influenced by Diet or Exercise Habits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to compare the physical and biochemical parameters, diet and exercise lifestyles, and prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension between males and females, and to clarify the determinants of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 7,578 subjects were selected from the general population by stratified random sampling for the Surveillance of Taiwanese Civil Health in 2002. Blood samples were taken and information on body composition, demographics, exercise and dietary habits, and medical and drug histories were obtained from structured interviews administered by well-trained interviewers. A total of 6,600 subjects (87.1%, aged 15.6–95.0 years old, completed the survey. The overall prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were 9.9%, 22.8%, and 15.7%, respectively, and hyperlipidemia (27.0% and hypertension (19.2% were more prevalent in males. Males were more likely to have high-fat and high-cholesterol diets, compared with females. Although there were differences in the prevalences of hyperlipidemia and hypertension between the sexes, adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated little contribution of diet and exercise habits to the risks of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, serum blood sugar levels, cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine, uric acid, and blood pressure.

  11. NFE2 Induces miR-423-5p to Promote Gluconeogenesis and Hyperglycemia by Repressing the Hepatic FAM3A-ATP-Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Junpei; Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ji; Meng, Yuhong; Chen, Liming; Chang, Yongsheng; Geng, Bin; Sun, Libo; Dou, Lin; Li, Jian; Guan, Youfei; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Jichun

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic FAM3A expression is repressed under obese conditions, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study determined the role and mechanism of miR-423-5p in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by repressing FAM3A expression. miR-423-5p expression was increased in the livers of obese diabetic mice and in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with decreased FAM3A expression. miR-423-5p directly targeted FAM3A mRNA to repress its expression and the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatic miR-423-5p inhibition suppressed gluconeogenesis and improved insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and fatty liver in obese diabetic mice. In contrast, hepatic miR-423-5p overexpression promoted gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia and increased lipid deposition in normal mice. miR-423-5p inhibition activated the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway and repressed gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in diabetic mouse livers. The miR-423 precursor gene was further shown to be a target gene of NFE2, which induced miR-423-5p expression to repress the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatic NFE2 overexpression upregulated miR-423-5p to repress the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway, promoting gluconeogenesis and lipid deposition and causing hyperglycemia in normal mice. In conclusion, under the obese condition, activation of the hepatic NFE2/miR-423-5p axis plays important roles in the progression of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD by repressing the FAM3A-ATP-Akt signaling pathway. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

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    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  13. The effect of different macromineral intakes on mineral metabolism of sport horses

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    Branislav Gálik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of different intakes of macroelements from feed on the mineral blood profile of sport horses. In the experiment which lasted for 12 months (6 months for each of the two periods, 14 sport horses with 2 types of feed rations were monitored. The blood was collected at the beginning of the experiment and every 2 months (three blood collections for each period. Feed rations had a negative effect on Ca (3.40 mmol·l-1 and 3.32 mmol·l-1 and K (3.2 mmol·l-1 and 2.98 mmol·l-1 concentrations in equine serum obtained from the second and third blood collection, respectively. Concentration of P (1.28 mmol·l-1 and 1.20 mmol·l-1 in equine serum obtained from the second and third blood collection, respectively, was higher (P nd period of experiment, feed rations were adjusted based on individual requirements of the monitored horses; the proportion of the mineral ingredient in the feed rations was lowered. More balanced concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na and K were detected in equine blood serum as a result of lower intake of the minerals from feed; the concentration of P was, except for one case, higher than in the 1st period. We observed a positive effect of individual ration compositions based on the results of blood mineral profile. The study describes for the first time the effect of a high and adequate long-term intake of macroelements on their concentrations in sport horses’ blood serum.

  14. Respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during different modes of overground bionic ambulation in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressler, Jochen; Wymer, Tracie; Domingo, Antoinette

    2018-02-13

    To investigate the effects of overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Case series. Four participants with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Subjects completed a maximal graded exercise test on an arm-ergometer and 3 6-min bouts of overground bionic ambulation using different modes of assistance, i.e. Maximal, Adaptive, Fixed. Cardiorespiratory (oxygen consumption) and metabolic (caloric expenditure and substrate utilization) measures were taken using a mobile metabolic cart at each overground bionic ambulation assistance. Cardiorespiratory responses ranged from low (24% VO2peak) for the least impaired and fittest individual to supramaximal (124% VO2peak) for the participant with the largest impairments and the lowest level of fitness. Different overground bionic ambulation assistive modes elicited small (3-8% VO2peak) differences in cardiorespiratory responses for 3 participants. One participant had a large (28% VO2peak) difference in cardiorespiratory responses to different modes of overground bionic ambulation. Metabolic responses mostly tracked closely with cardiorespiratory responses. Total energy expenditure ranged from 1.39 to 7.17 kcal/min. Fat oxidation ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 g/min across participants and different overground bionic ambulation modes. Overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance can substantially increase cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses; however, these responses vary widely across participants and overground bionic ambulation modes.

  15. Respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during different modes of overground bionic ambulation in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kressler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Design: Case series. Subjects: Four participants with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods: Subjects completed a maximal graded exercise test on an arm-ergometer and 3 6-min bouts of overground bionic ambulation using different modes of assistance, i.e. Maximal, Adaptive, Fixed. Cardiorespiratory (oxygen consumption and metabolic (caloric expenditure and substrate utilization measures were taken using a mobile metabolic cart at each overground bionic ambulation assistance. Results: Cardiorespiratory responses ranged from low (24% VO2peak for the least impaired and fittest individual to supramaximal (124% VO2peak for the participant with the largest impairments and the lowest level of fitness. Different overground bionic ambulation assistive modes elicited small (3–8% VO2peak differences in cardiorespiratory responses for 3 participants. One participant had a large (28% VO2peak difference in cardiorespiratory responses to different modes of overground bionic ambulation. Metabolic responses mostly tracked closely with cardiorespiratory responses. Total energy expenditure ranged from 1.39 to 7.17 kcal/min. Fat oxidation ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 g/min across participants and different overground bionic ambulation modes. Conclusion: Overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance can substantially increase cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses; however, these responses vary widely across participants and overground bionic ambulation modes.

  16. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  17. A study on statistical parametric mapping and PET for the metabolism reduction of Alzheimer's disease with different severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wen; Ma Yunchuan; Shan Baoci; Wang Hongyan; Li Depeng; Sun Yusheng; Zhang Linying; Shang Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective Along with more clinical application of 18 F-fourodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) had attracted a lot of attention in past few years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional cerebral glucose metabolism changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with different stages by PET and SPM, according to the k value of the SPM result. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with AD according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, revised (DSM-IV-R) and 9 healthy persons as the contrast were examined with three-dimensional (3D) 18 F- FDG PET brain imaging about 40 min post-injection of 3.7 MBq/kg 18 F-FDG and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) evaluation. The 27 AD patients were divided into 3 groups based on their MMSE scores: mild group with the score more than or equal to 20 but less than 25, moderate group with the score between 10 and 20 ( not including 10 and 20), and severe group with the score less than or equal to 10. All the contrast subjects' MMSE scores were more than or equal to 25. On the base of Matlab 6.5, all of the PET images with SPM were normalized and smoothed. A statistical model was established, and the whole AD patients were compared with the contrast group. And then the 3 AD groups were compared with the contrast group respectively. The localization and the k value of the activated region was gotten at last. Results: Compared with the healthy group, the most significant metabolic decrease area was in bilateral frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, post cingulate area and precuneus in AD group. The k value of the mild, moderate and severe group was 929, 6743 and 24 678 in order, while the k value of the frontal lobe was 174, 2712 and 4981 in order. Conclusions: SPM can be used in evaluating the extension of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism decrease according to the k value. The reduction degree becomes severely along with the progress stages of dementia

  18. MiR130b-Regulation of PPARγ Coactivator- 1α Suppresses Fat Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3'-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3' untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis.

  19. Differential partitioning of rumen-protected n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into muscles with different metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C; Ulbrich, S E; Kreuzer, M; Berard, J; Giller, K

    2018-03-01

    Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil. Contents and proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA of total fatty acids were elevated in the muscles of the respective diet group but they were partitioned differently into the muscles. For EPA and DHA, but not for LA, the diet effect was more distinct in the extensor carpi radialis compared to longissimus thoracis and biceps femoris. Partitioning of PUFA in metabolism could be related to muscle function. This has to be confirmed in other muscles, adipose tissues and organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling-ling; Wang, Yu-xia; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Bian, Che; Wang, He; Du, Shufa; Suo, Lin-na

    2014-11-01

    This study examines gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in Chinese. Based on a nationwide, population-based China Health and Nutrition survey this study included 8564 men and women aged 18 years or older. Anthropometric and fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, and transferrin data were collected. Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55 ± 3.6 versus 80.46 ± 1.64 ng/mL, p obesity, and overweight were 8.05, 8.97, 4.67, 25.88% among men and 14.23, 6.58, 5.81, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p gender difference in associations between ferritin and MetS, obesity, and diabetes in Chinese adults. Further evaluations of the variation in gender on these associations are warranted to understand the mechanisms behind gender differences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of two different blends of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated maize meal on growth and metabolic profile in replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Migliorati, L; Terzano, G M; Capelletti, M; Gallo, A; Masoero, F; Pirlo, G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35 Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from 18-21 to 42-45 weeks of age. During the 24-week experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as control (C); medium-low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed aflatoxin-fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters. Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal. Heifers' growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in

  2. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  3. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  4. Weight, body condition, milk production, and metabolism of Nellore cows when their calves are submitted to different supplementation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Aline; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; da Silva Amorim, Lincoln; Detmann, Edenio; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Souza Duarte, Márcio; Henrique de Moura, Felipe; Prímola de Melo, Luciano; Henrique Silva E Paiva, Paulo; Manso, Marcos Rocha; Valério de Carvalho, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Creep feeding has been used to reduce calves' nutritional dependence on the cow, but research results under tropical conditions have not been conclusive about the effects on the cow. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high and low supplementation levels for Nellore heifer calves on performance, milk production, and metabolic profile of their mothers. Fifty multiparous Nellore cows and their respective calves were used. The following treatments were evaluated: 0-control, no supplement was fed to calves; 3-calves received supplement in the amount of 3 g/kg of body weight (BW); 6-calves received supplement in the amount of 6 g/kg of BW. There was no significant effect of level of supplementation offered to offspring on cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and subcutaneous fat thickness (P > 0.05). Level of supplementation of heifer calves did not significantly affect milk production corrected to 4% of fat (P > 0.05). Fat, protein, lactose, and total solids of the milk also did not differ among supplementation strategies (P > 0.05). Level of supplement fed to calves had no effect on cows' glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, total protein, and albumin levels (P > 0.05), but cows nursing calves that did not receive supplement had lower level of serum urea N (SUN; P < 0.05). We conclude that creep feeding in the amounts of 3 or 6 g/kg of BW daily has no major impact on dams' performance and metabolism.

  5. Neonatal milk supplementation in lambs has persistent effects on growth and metabolic function that differ by sex and gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary J; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H; Harding, Jane E; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2016-12-01

    The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth. Thereafter, nutrition was not different between groups. Growth was monitored, and the glucose-insulin axis function was assessed in juvenile (4 months) and adult life (14 months). Early nutrition influenced adult metabolic function and body composition to a greater extent than preterm birth. In supplemented females, arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in preterm but reduced in term-born juveniles compared with controls (repeated-measures ANOVA Psupplemented preterm males, adult weight, ponderal index (PI) and fasting insulin concentrations were elevated compared with preterm controls (weight, 75 (sem 3) v. 69 (sem 2) kg; PI, 48·0 (sem 2·1) v. 43·7 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·19 (sem 0·02) v. 0·10 (sem 0·02) ng/ml). Conversely, supplemented term-born males had reduced adult weight, PI and fasting insulin concentrations compared with term-born controls (weight, 64 (sem 2) v. 70 (sem 2) kg; PI, 44·4 (sem 1·8) v. 48·2 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·09 (sem 0·02) v. 0·14 (sem 0·02) ng/ml; all group×supplement interactions Pbirth and early nutrition. Human studies are urgently needed to investigate the adult sex-specific health implications of neonatal nutritional strategies.

  6. Effect of different spectral transmittances through tinted animal cages on circadian metabolism and physiology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Ooms, Tara G; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is synchronized by the light:dark cycle and is the master biologic clock that serves as a pacemaker to regulate circadian rhythms. We explored the hypothesis that spectral transmittance (tint) of light through caging alters circadian rhythms of endocrine and metabolic plasma constituents in nonpigmented Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (Crl:SD; n = 12 per group) were housed in a 12:12-h light:dark environment (300 lx; 123.0 μ W/cm(2); lights on, 0600) in either clear-, amber-, blue-, or red-tinted rodent cages. Blood was collected at 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 and measured for melatonin, total fatty acids, pH, glucose, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin. As expected, plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase but higher during the dark phase in all groups; however, when compared with the clear-cage group, rats in amber-, blue-, and red-tinted cages had 29%, 74%, and 48%, respectively, greater total daily melatonin levels due to an increased duration and, in some cases, amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal. No differences were found in dietary and water intake, body growth rates, total fatty acids, pH, or glucose among groups. Disruptions in circadian rhythms, manifesting as alterations in phase timing, amplitude, or duration, occurred in the melatonin, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin levels of rats in tinted compared with clear cages. Therefore, the use of variously tinted animal cages significantly alters circadian rhythms in plasma measures of metabolism and physiology in laboratory rats, thus potentially altering the outcomes of scientific investigations.

  7. Effect of Different Spectral Transmittances through Tinted Animal Cages on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Ooms, Tara G; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is synchronized by the light:dark cycle and is the master biologic clock that serves as a pacemaker to regulate circadian rhythms. We explored the hypothesis that spectral transmittance (tint) of light through caging alters circadian rhythms of endocrine and metabolic plasma constituents in nonpigmented Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats (Crl:SD; n = 12 per group) were housed in a 12:12-h light:dark environment (300 lx; 123.0 μW/cm2; lights on, 0600) in either clear-, amber-, blue-, or red-tinted rodent cages. Blood was collected at 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 and measured for melatonin, total fatty acids, pH, glucose, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin. As expected, plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase but higher during the dark phase in all groups; however, when compared with the clear-cage group, rats in amber-, blue-, and red-tinted cages had 29%, 74%, and 48%, respectively, greater total daily melatonin levels due to an increased duration and, in some cases, amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal. No differences were found in dietary and water intake, body growth rates, total fatty acids, pH, or glucose among groups. Disruptions in circadian rhythms, manifesting as alterations in phase timing, amplitude, or duration, occurred in the melatonin, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin levels of rats in tinted compared with clear cages. Therefore, the use of variously tinted animal cages significantly alters circadian rhythms in plasma measures of metabolism and physiology in laboratory rats, thus potentially altering the outcomes of scientific investigations. PMID:24411779

  8. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  9. The composition and metabolism of faecal microbiota is specifically modulated by different dietary polysaccharides and mucin: an isothermal microcalorimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, K; Kolk, K; Jaagura, M; Vilu, R; Adamberg, S

    2018-01-29

    The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Faecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in a phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without supplementation of a single substrate. The generation of heat was followed on-line, microbiota composition (V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA using Illumina MiSeq v2) and concentrations of metabolites (HPLC) were determined at the end of growth. The multiauxic power-time curves obtained were substrate-specific. More than 70% of all substrates except chitin were fermented by faecal microbiota with total heat generation of up to 8 J/ml. The final metabolite patterns were in accordance with the microbiota changes. For arabinogalactan, xylan and levan, the fibre-affected distribution of bacterial taxa showed clear similarities (e.g. increase of Bacteroides ovatus and decrease of Bifidobacterium adolescentis). The formation of propionic acid, an important colon metabolite, was enhanced by arabinogalactan, xylan and mucin but not by galacto- and fructooligosaccharides or inulin. Mucin fermentation resulted in acetate, propionate and butyrate production in ratios previously observed for faecal samples, indicating that mucins may serve as major substrates for colon microbial population. IMC combined with analytical methods was shown to be an effective method for screening the impact of specific dietary fibres on functional changes in faecal microbiota.

  10. Suppression and repression: A theoretical discussion illustrated by a movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia de Souza Campos Paiva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first translations of Freud's work into Portuguese have presented problems because they were not translated from the German language. More than a hundred years after the beginning of Psychoanalysis, there are still many discussions on Freud's metapsychology and a considerable difficulty in obtaining a consensus on the translation of some concepts. This paper refers back to Freud's concepts of primal repression, repression and suppression. In order to discuss such concepts, we have made use of a film, co-produced by Germans and Argentineans, which is named "The Song in me" (Das Lied in mir, released to the public in 2011 and directed by Florian Micoud Cossen. Through this motion picture, the following of Freud's concepts are analyzed, and the differentiation between them is discussed: suppression and repression, as well as the importance of their precise translation.

  11. Canaries in a coal-mine? What the killings of journalists tell us about future repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohdes, Anita R; Carey, Sabine C

    2017-03-01

    An independent press that is free from government censorship is regarded as instrumental to ensuring human rights protection. Yet governments across the globe often target journalists when their reports seem to offend them or contradict their policies. Can the government's infringements of the rights of journalists tell us anything about its wider human rights agenda? The killing of a journalist is a sign of deteriorating respect for human rights. If a government orders the killing of a journalist, it is willing to use extreme measures to eliminate the threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of information. If non-state actors murder journalists, it reflects insecurity, which can lead to a backlash by the government, again triggering state-sponsored repression. To test the argument whether the killing of journalists is a precursor to increasing repression, we introduce a new global dataset on killings of journalists between 2002 and 2013 that uses three different sources that track such events across the world. The new data show that mostly local journalists are targeted and that in most cases the perpetrators remain unconfirmed. Particularly in countries with limited repression, human rights conditions are likely to deteriorate in the two years following the killing of a journalist. When journalists are killed, human rights conditions are unlikely to improve where standard models of human rights would expect an improvement. Our research underlines the importance of taking the treatment of journalists seriously, not only because failure to do so endangers their lives and limits our understanding of events on the ground, but also because their physical safety is an important precursor of more repression in the future.

  12. Histone H2A deubiquitinase activity of the Polycomb repressive complex PR-DUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Johanna C.; de Ayala Alonso, Andrés Gaytán; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Ly-Hartig, Nga; McGinty, Robert K.; Fraterman, Sven; Wilm, Matthias; Muir, Tom W.; Müller, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that control processes ranging from the maintenance of cell fate decisions and stem cell pluripotency in animals to the control of flowering time in plants1–6. In Drosophila, genetic studies identified more than 15 different PcG proteins that are required to repress homeotic (HOX) and other developmental regulator genes in cells where they must stay inactive1,7,8. Biochemical analyses established that these PcG proteins exist in distinct multiprotein complexes that bind to and modify chromatin of target genes1–4. Among those, Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and the related dRing-associated factors (dRAF) complex contain an E3 ligase activity for monoubiquitination of histone H2A (refs 1–4). Here we show that the uncharacterized Drosophila PcG gene calypso encodes the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase BAP1. Biochemically purified Calypso exists in a complex with the PcG protein ASX, and this complex, named Polycomb repressive deubiquitinase (PR-DUB), is bound at PcG target genes in Drosophila. Reconstituted recombinant Drosophila and human PR-DUB complexes remove monoubiquitin from H2A but not from H2B in nucleosomes. Drosophila mutants lacking PR-DUB show a strong increase in the levels of monoubiquitinated H2A. A mutation that disrupts the catalytic activity of Calypso, or absence of the ASX subunit abolishes H2A deubiquitination in vitro and HOX gene repression in vivo. Polycomb gene silencing may thus entail a dynamic balance between H2A ubiquitination by PRC1 and dRAF, and H2A deubiquitination by PR-DUB. PMID:20436459

  13. Blue light-mediated transcriptional activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Devarajan, Kavya; Chua, Tze Kwang; Zhang, Hanzhong; Gunawan, Erry; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-01-01

    Light-regulated modules offer unprecedented new ways to control cellular behavior in precise spatial and temporal resolution. The availability of such tools may dramatically accelerate the progression of synthetic biology applications. Nonetheless, current optogenetic toolbox of prokaryotes has potential issues such as lack of rapid and switchable control, less portable, low dynamic expression and limited parts. To address these shortcomings, we have engineered a novel bidirectional promoter system for Escherichia coli that can be induced or repressed rapidly and reversibly using the blue light dependent DNA-binding protein EL222. We demonstrated that by modulating the dosage of light pulses or intensity we could control the level of gene expression precisely. We show that both light-inducible and repressible system can function in parallel with high spatial precision in a single cell and can be switched stably between ON- and OFF-states by repetitive pulses of blue light. In addition, the light-inducible and repressible expression kinetics were quantitatively analysed using a mathematical model. We further apply the system, for the first time, to optogenetically synchronize two receiver cells performing different logic behaviors over time using blue light as a molecular clock signal. Overall, our modular approach layers a transformative platform for next-generation light-controllable synthetic biology systems in prokaryotes. PMID:27353329

  14. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Supporting Repressed Scientists: Continuing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Joseph L.

    2010-02-01

    , and got, the opportunity to meet some high level Soviet administrators such as vice President Velikhov of the Academy of Sciences as well as Laboratory directors, and pressed the cases of individual scientists by name. This led to a memorable double existence. During the days I was an ``official guest" of the USSR, while in the evening I would visit colleagues who were fired ; on weekends I participated in Refusenick ``Sunday" Seminars in an apartment in Moscow. This all changed in 1991 with the end of communism in the USSR. Unfortunatly various authorities in the new Russia still violate the UN protocals and scientists there need support even now. The need to continue both individual & group mode of support continues to the present, and now includes helping colleagues in China, Cuba, Iran, the USA [Wen Ho Lee case],and other locales around the world. Intervention for Liu Gang [imprisoned in Beijing], Professor Fang LiZhi, and others in China, the brothers Drs Allaei in Iran, was and is still necessary. In all these cases we must have reliable information. We publicize by direct contact with officials of the relevant country. And very important is that we press the U S government to intervene. Even the step of having a US official inquire about a repressed scientist makes a difference. Judge Brandeis of the U S Supreme Court is the attributed author of the saying that ``Sunlight is the best disinfectant". Sunlight on repression can help end it. When Andrei Sakharov first visited New York at the Academy of Sciences in 1988 he gave us advice which I paraphrase ``Keep alert and informed of violations of Human Rights everywhere and protest both individually and together". Scientific work has deep rewards when you discover a new aspect or explanation for natural phenomena. Supporting repressed colleagues as part of the fabric of scientific work adds another dimension. Namely our satisfaction upon greeting Sakharov, Fang, and others and we know that to some degree our

  15. Oncogenic STAT5 signaling promotes oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia cells by repressing antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeais, Jerome; Ishac, Nicole; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Brachet-Botineau, Marie; Desbourdes, Laura; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valerie; Pecnard, Emmanuel; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Domenech, Jorge; Mazurier, Frederic; Moriggl, Richard; Bunting, Kevin D; Herault, Olivier; Gouilleux, Fabrice

    2017-06-27

    STAT5 transcription factors are frequently activated in hematopoietic neoplasms and are targets of various tyrosine kinase oncogenes. Evidences for a crosstalk between STAT5 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism have recently emerged but mechanisms involved in STAT5-mediated regulation of ROS still remain elusive. We demonstrate that sustained activation of STAT5 induced by Bcr-Abl in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells promotes ROS production by repressing expression of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutaredoxin-1(Glrx1). Downregulation of catalase and Glrx1 expression was also observed in primary cells from CML patients. Catalase was shown not only to reduce ROS levels but also, to induce quiescence in Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia cells. Furthermore, reduction of STAT5 phosphorylation and upregulation of catalase and Glrx1 were also evidenced in leukemia cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells to mimic a leukemic niche. This caused downregulation of ROS levels and enhancement of leukemic cell quiescence. These data support a role of persistent STAT5 signaling in the regulation of ROS production in myeloid leukemias and highlight the repression of antioxidant defenses as an important regulatory mechanism.

  16. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Le Roux, Gwenaëlle; Ducrot, Cécile; Chédin, Stéphane; Labarre, Jean; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals are part of our environment, and undue exposure to them leads to a variety of pathologies. In response, most organisms adapt their metabolism and have evolved systems to limit this toxicity and to acquire tolerance. Ribosome biosynthesis being central for protein synthesis, we analyzed in yeast the effects of a moderate concentration of cadmium (Cd2+) on Pol I transcription that represents >60% of the transcriptional activity of the cells. We show that Cd2+ rapidly and drastically shuts down the expression of the 35S rRNA. Repression does not result from a poisoning of any of the components of the class I transcriptional machinery by Cd2+, but rather involves a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex. We also show that Pol I transcription is repressed by other toxic metals, such as Ag+ and Hg2+, which likewise perturb the Pol I–Rrn3 complex, but through PP2A-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our results point to a central role for the Pol I–Rrn3 complex as molecular switch for regulating Pol I transcription in response to toxic metals. PMID:23640330

  17. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 promotes brown adipose tissue thermogenesis via repressing glucocorticoid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Chen, Yi; Serag, Sara; Lavery, Gareth G; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    Brown adipocytes display phenotypic plasticity, as they can switch between the active states of fatty acid oxidation and energy dissipation versus a more dormant state. Cold exposure or β-adrenergic stimulation favors the active thermogenic state, whereas sympathetic denervation or glucocorticoid administration promotes more lipid accumulation. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these switches is incomplete. Here we found that LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1), a histone demethylase, regulates brown adipocyte metabolism in two ways. On the one hand, LSD1 associates with PRDM16 to repress expression of white fat-selective genes. On the other hand, LSD1 represses HSD11B1 (hydroxysteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 1), a key glucocorticoid-activating enzyme, independently from PRDM16. Adipose-specific ablation of LSD1 impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity of the brown adipose tissue, reduced whole-body energy expenditure, and increased fat deposition, which can be significantly alleviated by simultaneously deleting HSD11B1. These findings establish a novel regulatory pathway connecting histone modification and hormone activation with mitochondrial oxidative capacity and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 Zeng et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Investigation of repressive and enhancive effects of fruit extracts on the activity of glucose-6-phophatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Naz, Sumaira

    2016-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme of glucose metabolic pathways. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to glycogen storage disease. This enzyme also plays a negative role in diabetes mellitus disorder in which the catalytic activity of this enzyme increases. Thus there is need for activators to enhance the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease of type 1b while in diabetes mellitus repressors are needed to reduce its activity. Crude extracts of apricot, fig, mulberry and apple fruits were investigated for their repressive/enhancive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase in vivo. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. All the selected extracts showed depressive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase, which shows that all these extracts can be used as antidiabetic supplement of food. The inhibitory pattern was competitive one, which was evident from the effect of increasing dose from 1g/Kg body weight to 3g/Kg body weight for all the selected fruit extracts. However fig and apple fruit extracts showed high repressive effects for high doses as compared to apricot and mulberry fruit extracts. None of these selected fruit extracts showed enhancive effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity. All these fruits or their extracts can be used as antidiabetic dietary supplement for diabetes mellitus.

  19. Gastrointestinal Simulation Model TWIN-SHIME Shows Differences between Human Urolithin-Metabotypes in Gut Microbiota Composition, Pomegranate Polyphenol Metabolism, and Transport along the Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Pitart, Judit; Romo-Vaquero, María; Espín, Juan C; Grootaert, Charlotte; Selma, María V; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Possemiers, Sam; Van Camp, John; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-07-12

    A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine. The assay also showed that pomegranate phenolics preserved intestinal cell integrity. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced urolithin and propionate production, as well as Akkermansia and Gordonibacter prevalence with the highest effect in the descending colon. The system provides an insight into the mechanisms of pomegranate polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism and absorption through intestinal cells. The results obtained by the combined SHIME/Caco-2 cell system are consistent with previous human and animal studies and show that although urolithin metabolites are present along the gastrointestinal tract due to enterohepatic circulation, they are predominantly produced in the distal colon region.

  20. Relationships between type 2 diabetes remission after gastric bypass and different weight loss metrics: arguments against excess weight loss in metabolic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, A W; de Brauw, L M; Meesters, E W

    2016-02-01

    Percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) outcome of bariatric surgery is distorted by deviations in baseline body mass index (BMI). It has been reported that this can lead to false conclusions, most likely because bariatric weight loss in fact is baseline-BMI independent. If the metabolic effect of bariatric surgery is baseline-BMI independent as well, could %EWL also lead to false conclusions on metabolic surgery? Bariatric Center of Excellence, general hospital, Netherlands. Retrospective analysis of 1-year outcome of all consecutive primary gastric bypass patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Metabolic outcome (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], T2DM medication) was compared with bariatric outcome (weight loss) using 3 different metrics: %EWL, the most popular weight loss metric among bariatric surgeons; percentage (total) weight loss (%WL), most commonly used by nonsurgical professionals; and percentage alterable weight loss (%AWL), the only metric rendering weight loss outcome independent of baseline BMI. Metabolic success (HbA1c≤6.0%, T2DM remission) was compared with different definitions of bariatric success (≥50 %EWL, BMIsuccessful for patients withsuccess criterion are problematic in comparing bariatric and metabolic outcome of gastric bypass surgery. They should be abandoned. The %WL metric is the best and most commonly used alternative, whereas %AWL is ideal for selected logistics in bariatric research. Weight loss percentiles are best suited for defining bariatric success in metabolic surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiological differences between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol in recreational runners and metabolic demand prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad J; Govindasamay, Balasekaran; Kay Hiang, Hoon; Seet Gim Lee, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, Ṽ O 2 , BLa), and overall perceptual (RPE O ) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included Ṽ O 2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT). Session 2 was the noncontinuous CS test until exhaustion, having 4:1 min work-to-rest ratio at CS, whereas session 3 was the continuous CS test till exhaustion. As 1-min recovery during session 2 may change fatigue behavior, it was hypothesized that it will significantly change the physiological stress and hence endurance outcomes. Results reported average time to exhaustion (TTE) was 37.33(9.8) mins for session 2 and 23.28(9.87) mins for session 3. Participants experienced relatively higher metabolic demand (BLa) 6.78(1.43) mmol.l -1 in session 3 as compared to session 2 (5.52(0.93) mmol.l -1 ). RER was observed to increase in session 3 and decrease in session 2. Student's paired t -test only reported a significant difference in TTE, ṼO 2 , RER, RPE O , and BLa at "End" between session 2 and 3. Reported difference in RPE O and %HR max at "AT" were 5 (2.2) and 89.8 (2.60)% during session 2 and 6 (2.5) and 89.8 (2.59)% during session 3, respectively. Regression analysis reported strong correlation of %HR max (adj. R-square = 0.588) with BLa than RPE O (adj. R-square = 0.541). The summary of findings suggests that decreasing RER increased TTE and reduced BLa toward "End" during session 2 which might have helped to have better endurance. The %HR max was identified to be used as a better noninvasive surrogate of endurance intensity estimator. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological

  2. Extremadura: Behind the material traces of Franco’s repression

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Encinar, Laura; Chaves Palacios, Julián

    2014-01-01

    After the failed coup d’état of July 17th, 1936 and after the start of the Spanish Civil War that followed it, rebels carried out a repressive strategy based on the execution of thousands of people as a key tool of social control. The socialization of fear and terror through humiliation, killing and disappearance would become the main strategy employed throughout the war and the post-war period. In this context, perpetrators would exercise repressive practices on victims and their bodies. As ...

  3. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/− ) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inf...

  4. Quantitative genetics parameters show partial independent evolutionary potential for body mass and metabolism in stonechats from different populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. I.; Versteegh, M. A.; Helm, B.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in physiological traits, such as energy metabolism, is commonly subjected to adaptive interpretations, but little is known about the heritable basis or genetic correlations among physiological traits in non-domesticated species. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass are

  5. The Effects Of Two Fitness Programs With Different Metabolic Demands On Oxidative Stress In The Blood Of Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Dusica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two metabolically different exercise programs on the redox state of women who were physically inactive before the beginning of the study. For this purpose, participants (women 25±5 years old chose one of two popular fitness programs, Pilates or Tae Bo, and attended it 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, body composition analysis and venous blood sampling were performed. The levels of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma, and the levels of reduced glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in erythrocytes. Only the Tae Bo program induced changes (positive in body composition, whereas both exercise programs induced slight oxidative stress in exercisers. In the Tae Bo group, the levels of hydrogen peroxide were significantly increased, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione were decreased after three months of training. In the Pilates group, hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity were increased, and nitrites decreased. However, at the end of the study, those two groups had no significantly different values for any pro/antioxidant compared with the subjects who served as controls. This finding suggests that moderate physical activity, such as recreational fitness programs, may induce the increased production of reactive oxygen species but do not lead to a serious disturbance of the redox homeostasis of exercisers.

  6. Abnormal Endogenous Repression of GA Signaling in a Seedless Table Grape Cultivar with High Berry Growth Response to GA Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiako K. Acheampong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA application is routinely used in the table grape industry to increase berry size and cluster length. Although grapevine cultivars show a wide range of growth responsiveness to GA3 application, the reasons for these differences is unclear. To shed light on this issue, two commercial grapevine cultivars with contrasting berry response to GA were selected for comparative analysis, in which we tested if the differences in response: (1 is organ-specific or cultivar-related; (2 will be reflected in qualitative/quantitative differences in transcripts/proteins of central components of GA metabolism and signaling and levels of GA metabolites. Our results showed that in addition to the high response of its berries to GA, internodes and rachis of cv. Black finger (BF presented a greater growth response compared to that of cv. Spring blush (SB. In agreement, the results exposed significant quantitative differences in GA signaling components in several organs of both cultivars. Exceptionally higher level of all three functional VvDELLA proteins was recorded in young BF organs, accompanied by elevated VvGID1 expression and lower VvSLY1b transcripts. Absence of seed traces, low endogenous GA quantities and lower expression of VvGA20ox4 and VvGA3ox3 were also recorded in berries of BF. Our results raise the hypothesis that, in young organs of BF, low expression of VvSLY1b may be responsible for the massive accumulation of VvDELLA proteins, which then leads to elevated VvGID1 levels. This integrated analysis suggests causal relationship between endogenous mechanisms leading to anomalous GA signaling repression in BF, manifested by high quantities of VvDELLA proteins, and greater growth response to GA application.

  7. NF-Y activates genes of metabolic pathways altered in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Paolo; Chiaramonte, Maria Luisa; Lorenzo, Mariangela; Hartley, John A; Hochhauser, Daniel; Gnesutta, Nerina; Mantovani, Roberto; Imbriano, Carol; Dolfini, Diletta

    2016-01-12

    The trimeric transcription factor NF-Y binds to the CCAAT box, an element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in tumors. Previous studies on the NF-Y regulome identified the general term metabolism as significantly enriched. We dissect here in detail the targeting of metabolic genes by integrating analysis of NF-Y genomic binding and profilings after inactivation of NF-Y subunits in different cell types. NF-Y controls de novo biosynthetic pathways of lipids, teaming up with the master SREBPs regulators. It activates glycolytic genes, but, surprisingly, is neutral or represses mitochondrial respiratory genes. NF-Y targets the SOCG (Serine, One Carbon, Glycine) and Glutamine pathways, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and purines. Specific cancer-driving nodes are generally under NF-Y control. Altogether, these data delineate a coherent strategy to promote expression of metabolic genes fuelling anaerobic energy production and other anabolic pathways commonly altered in cancer cells.

  8. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  9. Effects of metabolic syndrome on arterial function in different age groups: the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouchian, Jirar; Labat, Carlos; Gautier, Sylvie; Bäck, Magnus; Achimastos, Apostolos; Blacher, Jacques; Cwynar, Marcin; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pall, Denes; Fantin, Francesco; Farkas, Katalin; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Hakobyan, Zoya; Jankowski, Piotr; Jelakovic, Ana; Kobalava, Zhanna; Konradi, Alexandra; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Kotsani, Marina; Lazareva, Irina; Litvin, Alexander; Milyagin, Viktor; Mintale, Iveta; Persson, Oscar; Ramos, Rafael; Rogoza, Anatoly; Ryliskyte, Ligita; Scuteri, Angelo; Sirenko, Yuriy; Soulis, Georges; Tasic, Nebojsa; Udovychenko, Maryna; Urazalina, Saule; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Zelveian, Parounak; Benetos, Athanase; Asmar, Roland

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study was to compare arterial stiffness measured simultaneously with two different methods in different age groups of middle-aged and older adults with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). The specific effects of the different MetS components on arterial stiffness were also studied. This prospective, multicentre, international study included 2224 patients aged 40 years and older, 1664 with and 560 without MetS. Patients were enrolled in 32 centres from 18 European countries affiliated to the International Society of Vascular Health & Aging. Arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) in four prespecified age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-74, 75-90 years. In this report, we present the baseline data of this study. Both CF-PWV and CAVI increased with age, with a higher correlation coefficient for CAVI (comparison of coefficients P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values of CF-PWV and CAVI were weakly intercorrelated (r = 0.06, P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values for CF-PWV but not CAVI were higher in presence of MetS (CF-PWV: 9.57 ± 0.06 vs. 8.65 ± 0.10, P age on CAVI and CF-PWV and suggests that age may have a more pronounced effect on CAVI, whereas MetS increases CF-PWV but not CAVI. This important finding may be due to heterogeneous effects of MetS components on CAVI. The clinical significance of these original results will be assessed during the longitudinal phase of the study.

  10. Gender differences among middle-aged Koreans for health-related quality of life related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Yeo-Jin; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2011-05-01

    The influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) on quality of life has not been studied much among Asians, especially Koreans. This study compared the association between MS and health-related quality of life (HRQL) by gender for middle-aged Koreans. We used data containing 2,264 adults between the ages of 40 and 59 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The criteria for MS were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. HRQL was measured by the EQ-5D preference score. Good health status was defined as having higher scores than the mean EQ5D preference score. We used logistic regression methods to adjust for socioeconomic covariates and survey sample design. The mean EQ-5D preference score was significantly lower in women with MS compared to women without MS (0.81 vs. 0.88), but this was not the case for men (0.92 vs. 0.92). These consistent results were observed after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates. In multiple logistic analyses, women with MS had a lower likelihood of having good health status compared to women without MS (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.96). For men, there was no difference. Our study identified a nationally representative health preference score for MS in Korean middle-aged men and women while highlighting a gender difference that merits more research (i.e., MS appeared to have a significant negative impact for women's HRQL, but not for men). At the very least, future studies should consider gender differences when addressing quality of life among patients with MS.

  11. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  12. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reich

    Full Text Available The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary.Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed.Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  13. Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian Democratic Dispensations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... professionalism and the ethics of journalism rather than succumb to ... journalists have been reported in Nigeria, a country with probably the most animated ..... Akinwale: Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian. Table 1: Respondents' Socio-Demographic Profile. Profile. Values. Frequency Percentage (%).

  14. The Perils of Repressive Tolerance in Music Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, William M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, philosophers of music education have called for a greater degree of political engagement by music education practitioners. Using Marcuse's discussion of "repressive tolerance" as a conceptual framework, I argue that a politicized curriculum in music education works against the liberal ideas of free speech and a free…

  15. Efficacy of differently applied tyrosine and tryptophan for modulation of phenolic metabolism in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Saqib; Mahmood, Tariq; Hussian, Iqbal; Javed, Sadia; Afzal, Beenish; Ghaffar, Freeha; Iqbal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Phenolics are pharmaceutically important molecules. Tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of phenolic metabolism. It was aimed to investigate the potential of exogenously introduced precursors on the phenolic contents in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague seedlings. The seeds of two local varieties (Chakwal and Desi) were grown in completely randomized design in a growth chamber at 19 ± 2°C with two amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) applied (priming and supplementation in rooting medium) at two treatment levels (0, and 1%). Ten days old seedlings were harvested and subjected for growth (root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) and phenolic estimation was done by HPLC method. Presence of seven phenolic acids including quercitin, chromatotropic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinnapic acid, trans 4 hydroxy 3 methoxy cinamic acid and P-courmeric acid was confirmed in both varieties with dissimilar fraction. Poor growth was observed by "Desi" under controlled conditions that were efficiently enhanced by tyrosine and tryptophan treatments. As precursors both amino acids differed for allosteric regulation of the pathway. That varied from application to application and variety to variety too for a pattern of phenolic accumulation. In conclusion, tyrosine and tryptophan application can be useful for farmers for improved growth of T. ammi and for pharmaceutical scientists to modulate metabolites of interest.

  16. Robustness in Regulatory Interaction Networks. A Generic Approach with Applications at Different Levels: Physiologic, Metabolic and Genetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Ben Amor, Hedi; Elena, Adrien; Gillois, Pierre; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory interaction networks are often studied on their dynamical side (existence of attractors, study of their stability). We focus here also on their robustness, that is their ability to offer the same spatiotemporal patterns and to resist to external perturbations such as losses of nodes or edges in the networks interactions architecture, changes in their environmental boundary conditions as well as changes in the update schedule (or updating mode) of the states of their elements (e.g., if these elements are genes, their synchronous coexpression mode versus their sequential expression). We define the generic notions of boundary, core, and critical vertex or edge of the underlying interaction graph of the regulatory network, whose disappearance causes dramatic changes in the number and nature of attractors (e.g., passage from a bistable behaviour to a unique periodic regime) or in the range of their basins of stability. The dynamic transition of states will be presented in the framework of threshold Boolean automata rules. A panorama of applications at different levels will be given: brain and plant morphogenesis, bulbar cardio-respiratory regulation, glycolytic/oxidative metabolic coupling, and eventually cell cycle and feather morphogenesis genetic control. PMID:20057955

  17. Association between metabolic syndrome and mild cognitive impairment and its age difference in a Chinese community elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianghua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan

    2015-06-01

    To examine associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among community elderly and explore the age difference. Cross-sectional study. About 2,102 aged 60 and older community residents in Beijing metropolitan area, China. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MetS was defined by the 2009 harmonizing definition. Overnight-fasting blood samples were obtained to measure biochemistry indicators. The prevalence of MetS and MCI was 59·1% and 15·9%, respectively. After adjusting age, gender, other demographic factors, lifestyle variables and medication use, participants with MetS or its individual components are at significantly elevated risk for MCI. In terms of MMSE score, as the continuous dependent variable, the β (95% CI) of MetS was -0·68(-0·99, -0·37). For prevalence of MCI, as the dichotomy dependent variable, the odds ratio (OR) of Mets is 1·52 compared to control group (or baseline) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1·16 to 1·95. The multivariate association only showed significant results among participants aged less than 80 years old. MetS is associated with worse cognitive function among younger elderly. Managing MetS, as well as its components, may contribute to control cognitive decline and reduce related disease and social burden. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome and Its Sex Difference in a Chinese Community Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid (SUA levels within a normal to high range and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS among community elderly and explore the sex difference. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative urban area of Beijing between 2009 and 2010. A two-stage stratified clustering sampling method was used and 2102 elderly participants were included. Results. The prevalence of hyperuricemia and MetS was 16.7% and 59.1%, respectively. There was a strong association between hyperuricemia and four components of MetS in women and three components in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed ORs of hyperuricemia for MetS were 1.67 (95% CI: 1.11–2.50 in men and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.81–4.11 in women. Even in the normal range, the ORs for MetS increased gradually according to SUA levels. MetS component number also showed an increasing trend across SUA quartile in both sexes (P for trend < 0.01. Conclusion. This study suggests that higher SUA levels, even in the normal range, are positively associated with MetS among Chinese community elderly, and the association is stronger in women than men. Physicians should recognize MetS as a frequent comorbidity of hyperuricemia and take early action to prevent subsequent disease burden.

  19. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Members of the LBD family of transcription factors repress anthocyanin synthesis and affect additional nitrogen responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Grit; Tohge, Takayuki; Matsuda, Fumio; Saito, Kazuki; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2009-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) per se regulate many aspects of plant metabolism, growth, and development. N/NO(3)(-) also suppresses parts of secondary metabolism, including anthocyanin synthesis. Molecular components for this repression are unknown. We report that three N/NO(3)(-)-induced members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) gene family of transcription factors (LBD37, LBD38, and LBD39) act as negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of each of the three genes in the absence of N/NO(3)(-) strongly suppresses the key regulators of anthocyanin synthesis PAP1 and PAP2, genes in the anthocyanin-specific part of flavonoid synthesis, as well as cyanidin- but not quercetin- or kaempferol-glycoside production. Conversely, lbd37, lbd38, or lbd39 mutants accumulate anthocyanins when grown in N/NO(3)(-)-sufficient conditions and show constitutive expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The LBD genes also repress many other known N-responsive genes, including key genes required for NO(3)(-) uptake and assimilation, resulting in altered NO(3)(-) content, nitrate reductase activity/activation, protein, amino acid, and starch levels, and N-related growth phenotypes. The results identify LBD37 and its two close homologs as novel repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis and N availability signals in general. They also show that, besides being developmental regulators, LBD genes fulfill roles in metabolic regulation.

  1. Mir-29 Repression in Bladder Outlet Obstruction Contributes to Matrix Remodeling and Altered Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Mari; Bhattachariya, Anirban; Dahan, Diana; Uvelius, Bengt; Albinsson, Sebastian; Swärd, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has uncovered a role of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29 in remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Partial bladder outlet obstruction is a prevalent condition in older men with prostate enlargement that leads to matrix synthesis in the lower urinary tract and increases bladder stiffness. Here we tested the hypothesis that miR-29 is repressed in the bladder in outlet obstruction and that this has an impact on protein synthesis and matrix remodeling leading to increased bladder stiffness. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3, all of which repress miR-29, were activated in the rat detrusor following partial bladder outlet obstruction but at different times. c-Myc and NF-κB activation occurred early after obstruction, and SMAD3 phosphorylation increased later, with a significant elevation at 6 weeks. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 activation, respectively, correlated with repression of miR-29b and miR-29c at 10 days of obstruction and with repression of miR-29c at 6 weeks. An mRNA microarray analysis showed that the reduction of miR-29 following outlet obstruction was associated with increased levels of miR-29 target mRNAs, including mRNAs for tropoelastin, the matricellular protein Sparc and collagen IV. Outlet obstruction increased protein levels of eight out of eight examined miR-29 targets, including tropoelastin and Sparc. Transfection of human bladder smooth muscle cells with antimiR-29c and miR-29c mimic caused reciprocal changes in target protein levels in vitro. Tamoxifen inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer in mice reduced miR-29 expression and increased tropoelastin and the thickness of the basal lamina surrounding smooth muscle cells in the bladder. It also increased detrusor stiffness independent of outlet obstruction. Taken together, our study supports a model where the combined repressive influences of c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 reduce miR-29 in bladder outlet obstruction, and where the resulting drop in miR-29 contributes to matrix remodeling and

  2. Metabolic Impacts of Using Nitrogen and Copper-Regulated Promoters to Regulate Gene Expression in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shouqiang; Beecher, Consuelo N; Wang, Kang; Larive, Cynthia K; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2015-07-20

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a long-studied eukaryotic microbial system amenable to heterologous expression of native and foreign proteins. However, relatively few highly tunable promoters have been developed for this species. In this study, we compare the tcu-1 and nit-6 promoters for controlled expression of a GFP reporter gene in N. crassa. Although the copper-regulated tcu-1 has been previously characterized, this is the first investigation exploring nitrogen-controlled nit-6 for expression of heterologous genes in N. crassa. We determined that fragments corresponding to 1.5-kb fragments upstream of the tcu-1 and nit-6 open reading frames are needed for optimal repression and expression of GFP mRNA and protein. nit-6 was repressed using concentrations of glutamine from 2 to 20 mM and induced in medium containing 0.5-20 mM nitrate as the nitrogen source. Highest levels of expression were achieved within 3 hr of induction for each promoter and GFP mRNA could not be detected within 1 hr after transfer to repressing conditions using the nit-6 promoter. We also performed metabolic profiling experiments using proton NMR to identify changes in metabolite levels under inducing and repressing conditions for each promoter. The results demonstrate that conditions used to regulate tcu-1 do not significantly change the primary metabolome and that the differences between inducing and repressing conditions for nit-6 can be accounted for by growth under nitrate or glutamine as a nitrogen source. Our findings demonstrate that nit-6 is a tunable promoter that joins tcu-1 as a choice for regulation of gene expression in N. crassa. Copyright © 2015 Ouyang et al.

  3. Specific metabolic pathway in vitro of pinazepam and diazepam by liver microsomal enzymes of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, V; Fossati, A; Gervasi, G B

    1977-04-01

    The metabolic pathway of Pinazepam and Diazepam in vitro was studied with rat, guinea pig and dog liver microsomes using a chromatographic and spectrophotometric technique. Two main pathways were observed, N1-dealkylation and C3-hydroxylation. N1-dealkylation was shown to be the predominant reaction for Pinazepam in all the animal species studied, while C3-hydroxylation was the major metabolic pathway for Diazepam in the rat. No oxazepam was found when Pinazepam and Diazepam were incubated with liver microsomes.

  4. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances....

  5. [The characteristics of serum albumin and hemoglobin and the features of intraerythrocytic metabolism in volleyball athletes with different qualifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popichiev, M I

    2000-01-01

    It has been determined that serum albumin is more active in transport of lipids and POL products, the changes in erythrocyte's metabolism and in affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen take place in organism of sportsmen-volleyball with high and low qualification under train loading. More stability nonspecific adaptational rebuildings of metabolic processes are realized in organism of high qualified sportsmen, that can be directed for active utilization of energetic substrates, and this changes are connected with optimization of blood transport systems.

  6. Thermal preference, thermal resistance, and metabolic rate of juvenile Chinese pond turtles Mauremys reevesii acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Dang, Wei; Geng, Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The thermal acclimatory capacity of a particular species may determine its resilience to environmental change. Evaluating the physiological acclimatory responses of economically important species is useful for determining their optimal culture conditions. Here, juvenile Chinese three-keeled pond turtles (Mauremys reevesii) were acclimated to one of three different temperatures (17, 25 or 33°C) for four weeks to assess the effects of thermal acclimation on some physiological traits. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal resistance, but not thermal preference, of juvenile M. reevesii. Turtles acclimated to 17°C were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 25°C and 33°C. However, turtles increased resistance to low temperatures with decreasing acclimation temperature. The acclimation response ratio of the critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was lower than that of the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) for acclimation temperatures between 17 and 25°C, but slightly higher between 25 and 33°C. The thermal resistance range (i.e., the difference between CTMax and CTMin) was widest in turtles acclimated to the intermediate temperature (25°C), and narrowest in those acclimated to low temperature (17°C). The standard metabolic rate increased as body temperature and acclimation temperature increased, and the temperature quotient (Q10) between acclimation temperatures 17 and 25°C was higher than the Q10 between 25 and 33°C. Our results suggest that juvenile M. reevesii may have a greater resistance under mild thermal conditions resembling natural environments, and better physiological performance at relatively warm temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  8. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  9. Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L.; Petrera, F.; Stefanini, L.; Abeni, F.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-mode