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Sample records for metabolism including bone

  1. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  2. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells. In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, wingless-type (Wnt genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX.

  3. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  4. Glucocorticoids, bone and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S; Seibel, Markus J; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to excessive levels of endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids is associated with serious clinical features including altered body composition and the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. It had been assumed that these adverse effects were mediated by direct effects of glucocorticoids on tissues such as adipose or liver. Recent studies have however indicated that these effects are, at least in part, mediated through the actions of glucocorticoids on bone and specifically the osteoblast. In mice, targeted abrogation of glucocorticoid signalling in osteoblasts significantly attenuated the changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism seen during glucocorticoid treatment. Heterotopic expression of osteocalcin in the liver of normal mice was also able to protect against the metabolic changes induced by glucocorticoids indicating that osteocalcin was the likely factor connecting bone osteoblasts to systemic fuel metabolism. Studies are now needed in humans to determine the extent to which glucocorticoid induced changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism are mediated through bone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating disorders and bone metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lauren; Micali, Nadia; Misra, Madhusmita

    2017-08-01

    Eating Disorders are psychiatric disorders associated with a high risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Low BMD is a consequence of undernutrition, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. This review summarizes recent findings regarding novel strategies for assessing bone outcomes in patients with eating disorders, factors contributing to altered bone metabolism, and possible therapeutic strategies. Emerging research in this field suggests that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa results in lower BMD compared to controls. To date studies of bone structure, and all randomized controlled trials examining the impact of various therapies on bone outcomes in anorexia nervosa, have focused on adolescent girls and women. We discuss the impact of anorexia nervosa on bone structure, and associations of resting energy expenditure, marrow adipose tissue (including the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat), and cold activated brown adipose tissue with BMD and bone structure. Promising strategies for treatment include physiological estrogen replacement (rather than oral contraceptives) in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa, and bisphosphonates, as well as teriparatide, in adult women with anorexia nervosa. Recent data on (i) BMD and bone structure in adolescent girls and women with eating disorders, (ii) factors that contribute to altered bone metabolism, and (iii) randomized controlled trials reporting positive effects of physiologic estrogen replacement, bisphosphonates and teriparatide on bone health, provide us with a greater understanding of the impact of eating disorders on bone and novel management strategies.

  6. [Effect of SSRIs on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, H; Bahadori, S; Léger, J; Carel, J-C; Purper Ouakil, D

    2014-02-01

    SSRIs have been shown to affect bone health in adults, but this has been poorly studied in children. Given the frequency of SSRI prescription in children and adolescents, it is crucial to evaluate the impact of SSRIs on bone growth because the bone mass attained early in life is the most important predictor of a normal bone constitution. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct functional role of serotonin in bone metabolism, independently of hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone levels. We have reviewed the literature on serotonin and bone metabolism, including experimental studies, clinical studies in adults as well as in the pediatric population. Experimental studies have shown that 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is expressed in all kind of bone cells and is highly specific of the 5-HT recapture. 5-HTT inhibition by the SSRIs in these cells affects their function in vitro. Even though a few studies have suggested exposure to SSRIs could be beneficial by an anabolic effect on the trabecular bone, more concluding studies have demonstrated that SSRIs negatively affect bone growth, resulting in a specific bone phenotype including a reduction in bone mass, an altered bone architecture, and decreased mechanical properties. This phenotype is most probably the consequence of a decrease in bone formation, rather than an increase in bone resorption and is a direct and dose-dependent effect. However, many aspects of this bone effect of 5-HTT inhibition need to be further clarified, including the signal ways for 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors, origins of 5-HT in bone, and methods to isolate the inhibitory effect of 5-HTT specifically on bone. Metabolic and neuroendocrine side effects have been documented in children and adolescents taking SSRIs but the specific and direct effect of these molecules on bone metabolism has been poorly studied in this population. In adults, clinical studies have shown an association between the use of SSRIs and bone demineralization as well as

  7. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  8. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  9. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  10. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  11. Bone Metabolism after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine W.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277

  12. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  13. Bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed. Two different entities are recognised: 1) a localised periarticular bone loss, due to inflammatory processes and 2) a generalised increased bone turnover, ultimately leading to a loss of axial bone mass. The mechanism of this loss of

  14. [Abnormalities of bone metabolism in bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Peris, Pilar; Gifre, Laia; Guañabens, Nuria

    2011-02-26

    Obesity is an ever-increasing disease in our environment, and a major risk factor for the development of other chronic diseases that increase morbidity and mortality. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, since it not only allows a significant and sustained loss of weight, but also an important reduction of its co-morbidities. However, this treatment is not free of complications, since along with weight loss, frequent nutritional and metabolic deficiencies have been described. These complications are particularly frequent when mixed surgical procedures with a restrictive and malabsortive component such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion are performed. The nutritional deficiencies observed include, to a greater or lesser extent, malabsorption of fat and liposoluble vitamins, as well as other micronutrients such as calcium. As a result, disorders of bone mineral metabolism with skeletal manifestations that include bone mass reduction, increased bone turnover and defective bone mineralization may develop. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroendocrine regulation of human bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is perhaps the most multifunctional part of our body. It not only provides outer strength, a protective shell and enables locomotion, but it also hosts the bone marrow and serves many metabolic and endocrine functions. This thesis investigates two aspects of human bone metabolism,

  16. Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premonopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term anti-epileptic drug use significantly affects biochemical parameters of bone metabolism. These effects on bone biochemistry markers were not reflected in lumbar spine BMD in this study. The mean duration of treatment for epilepsy was eight years (±6.3). Majority of the patients were on enzyme inducing drugs ...

  17. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  18. Alteration In Bones Metabolism In Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The strength and integrity of the human skeleton depends on a delicate equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Osteocalcin (OC) is synthesized by osteoblasts and is considered to be a marker of bone formation and helps in corporating calcium into bone tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease characterized by bone complication including bone pain, erosion and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate some factors responsible in bone metabolism termed OC, vitamin D (vit. D), oncostatin M (OSM), ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase. Fifty pre-menopausal female patients with active RA and twenty healthy controls of the same age were included in the present study. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to estimate serum OC and active vitamin D. The quantitative determination of ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were carried out colorimetrically. OSM was measured by ELISA and serum levels of OC and active vitamin D were significantly decreased in RA patients as compared to those of the control group. On the other hand, the levels of serum OSM, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in the RA patients as compared to their healthy control subjects. The results of this study indicated that early investigation and therapy of disturbances of bone metabolism in active RA are necessary for better prognosis and exhibited the importance of OC as a diagnostic tool of alterations of bone metabolism in RA patients.

  19. Relationships between Bone Turnover and Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia A. P. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that diabetes can be detrimental to bone health, and its chronic complications have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is growing evidence that the skeleton plays a key role in a whole-organism approach to physiology. The hypothesis that bone may be involved in the regulation of physiological functions, such as insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, has been suggested. Given the roles of insulin, adipokines, and osteocalcin in these pathways, the need for a more integrative conceptual approach to physiology is emphasized. Recent findings suggest that bone plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism, being possibly both a target of diabetic complications and a potential pathophysiologic factor in the disease itself. Understanding the relationships between bone turnover and glucose metabolism is important in order to develop treatments that might reestablish energy metabolism and bone health. This review describes new insights relating bone turnover and energy metabolism that have been reported in the literature.

  20. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  1. Analysis of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Influence on Parameters of Bone Metabolism

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    I.V. Pankiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State of subclinical hypothyroidism can be considered as the optimal model for assessing the significance of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH for bone tissue in clinical practice. Objective: to make a comparative analysis of the impact of subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins on the performance of bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism parameters. Materials and methods. The study in an outpatient setting included 112 women with a diagnosis of subclinical hyperthyroidism and duration of menopause for at least 5 years. Among the examinees, endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has been detected in 78 women (group I, exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the background of suppressive levothyroxine therapy (group II — in 34. The control group (group III included 20 women without thyroid dysfunction. Results. The study first conducted a comparative analysis of bone metabolism, BMD indicators, as well as parameters of phosphorus and calcium, blood lipids in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins. A positive correlation between markers of bone metabolism and free triiodothyronine (fT3 as hormones necessary for the development of the skeleton and to maintain its homeostasis indicates a physiological effect of parathyroid hormone and fT3 on bone tissue. It is shown that the bone metabolism and BMD depend not only on the content of TSH, but also on the causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism.Conclusions. In postmenopausal women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, there is a significant decline in BMD indices, more pronounced in the bones with the cortical structure. A negative correlation between markers of bone metabolism and TSH has been observed among all patients included in the study.

  2. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

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    Cao Jay J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely

  4. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  5. The impact of type 2 diabetes on bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pinheiro Sanches

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes complications and osteoporotic fractures are two of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in older patients and share many features including genetic susceptibility, molecular mechanisms, and environmental factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM compromises bone microarchitecture by inducing abnormal bone cell function and matrix structure, with increased osteoblast apoptosis, diminished osteoblast differentiation, and enhanced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The linkage between these two chronic diseases creates a possibility that certain antidiabetic therapies may affect bone quality. Both glycemic and bone homeostasis are under control of common regulatory factors. These factors include insulin, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, gastrointestinal hormones (such as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and the glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2, and bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. This background allows individual pharmacological targets for antidiabetic therapies to affect the bone quality due to their indirect effects on bone cell differentiation and bone remodeling process. Moreover, it’s important to consider the fragility fractures as another diabetes complication and discuss more deeply about the requirement for adequate screening and preventive measures. This review aims to briefly explore the impact of T2DM on bone metabolic and mechanical proprieties and fracture risk.

  6. EAMJ Bone Metabolism April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    87 No. 4 April 2010. BONE METABOLISM IN HEALTHY AMBULATORY CONTROL PRE-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN AND IN EPILEPTICS ..... Epidemiological aspects of osteoporosis. Reviews. Contemporary Pharmaco. 1998; 9: 225-231. 13. Cummings, S., Nevitt, M., Browner, W. et al. Risk factors for hip fractures in white ...

  7. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult. MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP.

  8. Impact of obesity on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Juan J; Pérez Castrillón, José L; de Luis Román, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    High weight is a protective factor against osteoporosis and risk of fracture. In obesity, however, where overweight is associated to excess fat, this relationship does not appear to be so clear, excess weight has sometimes been associated to decreased bone mass. Obesity interferes with bone metabolism through mechanical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors. These factors are closely related to weight, body composition, and dietary patterns of these patients. The net beneficial or harmful effect on bone mass or risk of fracture of the different components of this condition is not well known. We need to recognize patients at a greater risk of bone disease related to obesity to start an adequate intervention. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Bone SPECT/CT Localizes Increased Bone Metabolism and Subsequent Bone Resorption in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Hidetoshi; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kodama, Sayuri; Hisazumi, Hiromi; Tominaga, Shinichi; Ohkuma, Kiyoshi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    A 64-year-old man with lung cancer with a history of revascularization of the occluded right femoral artery underwent bone scintigraphy, which showed intense uptake in the distal side of the right leg. The additional SPECT/CT clarified that the uptake was predominantly increased in the epiphyses of the right ankle and foot with possible osteopenia. One month later, follow-up SPECT/CT showed the manifestation of periosteal resorption in the hypermetabolic sites with slight decrease in bone metabolism. Radiological correlation between bone metabolism and subsequent bone resorption in addition to clinical symptoms in this patient suggested the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  10. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Angel; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Miron, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants. An update on the coupling mechanism occurring during bone resorption-bone remodeling is provided, focused on the relevance of the osteocytes, bone lining cells and immune cells during bone maintenance. An electronic and manual literature search was conducted by three independent reviewers in several databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases for articles up to September 2016 with no language restriction. Local bone metabolism is subject to signals from systemic calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. Three areas of interest were reviewed due to recent reported compromises in bone healing including the putative effects of (1) cholesterol, (2) hyperlipidemia, and (3) low vitamin D intake. Moreover, the prominent influence of osteocytes and immune cells is discussed as being key regulators during dental implant osseointegration and maintenance. These cells are of crucial importance in the presence of biofilm accumulation and their associated byproducts that leads to hard and soft tissue breakdown; the so called peri-implantitis. Factors that could negatively impact osteoclastogenesis or osteal macrophage activation should be monitored in future research including implant placement/torque protocols, bone characteristics, as well as meticulous maintenance programs to favor osseointegration and future long-term stability and success of dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res

  11. Transgenic mouse models of metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, L K

    2001-07-01

    The approach of gene-targeted animal models is likely the most important experimental tool contributing to recent advances in skeletal biology. Modifying the expression of a gene in vivo, and the analysis of the consequences of the mutation, are central to the understanding of gene function during development and physiology, and therefore to our understanding of the gene's role in disease states. Researchers had been limited to animal models primarily involving pharmaceutical manipulations and spontaneous mutations. With the advent of gene targeting, however, animal models that impact our understanding of metabolic bone disease have evolved dramatically. Interestingly, some genes that were expected to yield dramatic phenotypes in bone, such as estrogen receptor-alpha or osteopontin, proved to have subtle phenotypes, whereas other genes, such as interleukin-5 or osteoprotegerin, were initially identified as having a role in bone metabolism via the analysis of their phenotype after gene ablation or overexpression. Particularly important has been the advance in knowledge of osteoblast and osteoclast independent and dependent roles via the selective targeting of genes and the consequent disruption of bone formation, bone resorption, or both. Our understanding of interactions of the skeletal system with other systems, ie, the vascular system and homeostatic controls of adipogenesis, has evolved via animal models such as the matrix gla protein, knock-out, and the targeted overexpression of Delta FosB. Challenging transgenic models such as the osteopontin-deficient mice with mediators of bone remodeling like parathyroid hormone and mechanical stimuli and extending phenotype characterization to mechanistic in vitro studies of primary bone cells is providing additional insight into the mechanisms involved in pathologic states and their potentials for therapeutic strategies. This review segregates characterization of transgenic models based on the category of gene altered

  12. A simple method of screening for metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, R.B.K.; Evans, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to find a simple method -to be used as an adjunct to the conventional bone scintigram- that could differentiate between decreased bone metabolism or mass, i.e., osteoporosis -normal bone- and the group of conditions of increased bone metabolism or mass namely, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism and Paget's disease. The Fogelman's method using the bone to soft tissue ratios from region of interest analysis at 4 hours post injection, was adopted. An initial experience in measuring a value for the count rate density in lumbar vertebrae at 1 hr post injection during conventional bone scintigraphy appears to give a clear indication of the overall rate of bone metabolism. The advantage over whole body retention methods is that the scan performed at the end of the metabolic study will reveal localized bone disease that may otherwise not be anticipated

  13. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  14. Bone mineral content measurement in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L.M.; Gross, M.D.

    1987-02-01

    Objective determinations of bone mineral content (BMC) are seldom required for the diagnosis of the metabolic and hormonal disorders which may result in osteoporosis. They are, however, required to document the osteoporosis itself as this is usually subclinical until late in the natural history of the disease process. Measurement of BMC in these disease processes is an important research tool in determining the effect of the disorder on the skeleton at different stages of the natural history and in investigating the effects of therapy and other interventions. Measurements of BMC may be useful in clinical practice in deciding whether to intervene in certain circumstances (e.g. asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism) or to withhold certain therapies (e.g. glucocorticoids) or to alter therapy (e.g. change from glucocorticoids to nonsteroidal immunosuppressives in autoimmune diseases). It may also play a role in monitoring the responses to therapeutic interventions.

  15. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-06-26

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  16. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  17. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. ... Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the changes in handgrip strength and bone metabolism after 6 months between aerobic and resistance exercise training in ...

  18. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  19. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone densitometry in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahnaz; Farzam, Seyed Amir; Mamaghani, Zahra; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis and bone fracture and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and bone density are controversial issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone mineral density in post menopausal women referred for bone mineral density (BMD) test. A total of 143 postmenopausal women with at least one year of menopause experience participated in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics for all participants were collected. Also, biochemical parameters including fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol (HDL and LDL), triglyceride were measured. Association between the components of metabolic syndrome and bone densitometry were analyzed by statistical methods. In this study, 72% of participants did not have metabolic syndrome. Among them, 43.4% and 28.7% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Of remaining participants with metabolic syndrome, 12.6% and 15.4% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Among the metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and waist to hip ratio were significantly associated with bone mass (Pmetabolic syndrome did not have significant differences than women without metabolic syndrome in terms of lumbar and femoral neck density (P>0.05). Results from this study showed that metabolic syndrome and its components did not induce bone mass loss. The discrepancies of the studies in this area call for more large scale studies in population so as to prevent women problems in this area. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  1. Hormonal alterations in PCOS and its influence on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Abhaya; Muthusami, Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented. Hormones, which include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the leutinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, estrogens, growth hormones (GH), cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin are disturbed in PCOS women. These hormones influence bone metabolism in human subjects directly as well as indirectly. The imbalance in these hormones results in increased prevalence of osteoporosis in PCOS women. Limited evidence suggests that the drugs taken during the treatment of PCOS increase the risk of bone fracture in PCOS patients through endocrine disruption. This review is aimed at the identification of the relationship between bone mineral density and hormonal changes in PCOS subjects and identifies potential areas to study bone-related disorders in PCOS women. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  3. Interferon regulatory factor 8 regulates bone metabolism by suppressing osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Baohong; Takami, Masamichi; Yamada, Atsushi; Wang, Xiaogu; Koga, Takako; Hu, Xiaoyu; Tamura, Tomohiko; Ozato, Keiko; Choi, Yongwon; Ivashkiv, Lionel B.; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2009-01-01

    Bone metabolism results from a balance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Diseases such as periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by increased bone destruction due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis1,2. Here we report that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), a transcription factor expressed in immune cells, is a key regulatory molecule for osteoclastogenesis. IRF8 expression in osteoclast precursors was downregulated during the i...

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Bone: Pharmacologically Induced Diabetes has Deleterious Effect on Bone in Growing Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Cedo M; Edwards, Kristin; Berryman, Edwin

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Our objective was to create a rat model of human metabolic syndrome and determine the long-term impact of early-onset T1D on bone structure and strength in obese growing rats. Male rats were given either standard chow and RO water (Controls) or a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet and sugar water containing 55% fructose and 45% glucose (HFD). A third group of rats received the HFD diet and a single dose of streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes (HFD/Sz). Body weight and glucose tolerance tests were conducted several times during the course of the study. Serum chemistry, liver enzymes, and biomarkers of bone metabolism were evaluated at 10 and 28 weeks. Shear wave elastography and histology were used to assess liver fibrosis. Cancellous bone structure and cortical bone geometry were evaluated by mCT and strength by the 3-point bending method. Body mass and fat accumulation was significantly higher in HFD and HFD/Sz rats compared to Controls. Rats in both the HFD and HFD/Sz groups developed NASH, although the change was more severe in diabetic rats. Although both groups of obese rats had larger bones, their cancellous structure and cortical thickness were reduced, resulting in diminished strength that was further aggravated by diabetes. The HFD and HFD/Sz rats recapitulate MeSy in humans with liver pathology consistent with NASH. Our data provide strong indication that obesity accompanied by type 1 diabetes significantly aggravates comorbidities of MeSy, including the development of osteopenia and weaker bones. The juvenile rat skeleton seems to be more vulnerable to damage imposed by obesity and diabetes and may offer a model to inform the underlying pathology associated

  5. Dietary pseudopurpurin improves bone geometry architecture and metabolism in red-bone Guishan goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChenChen Wu

    Full Text Available Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone.

  6. Generalized metabolic bone disease in Neurofibromatosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal abnormalities are a recognized component of Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), but a generalized metabolic bone defect in NF1 has not been fully characterized thus far. The purpose of this study was to characterize at the densitometric, biochemical, and pathological level the bone involvement ...

  7. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical activity seems to stimulate bone accretion in a dose-dependent manner with a low threshold home activity are important for osteoporosis prevention19. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the changes in handgrip strength and bone metabolism af- ter 6 months between aerobic and resistance exercise.

  8. Effect of magnesium deficiency on bone metabolism in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Al-Khshab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study undertakes the deficiency effect of dietary magnesium on bone metabolism and some biochemical parameters in female rats. Experimental diets included control diet (65 mg magnesium / 100 g and the deficient magnesium (3 mg/100g diet. Deionized water was supplied for drinking. Forty six albino female rats were divided into two main groups, the first group included 18 adult female rats, divided into 9 control and 9 animals given magnesium deficient diet. The second group included young female rats divided into two groups, the first group was treated from dams،and included 14 young female rats. They were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. The other one was treated at 28 days old and included 14 young female rats, which were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. Blood samples were obtained at specific times from each group for biochemical parameters: magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, albumin, calcium and phosphorus were estimated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femurs were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash (Ca, Mg. The results of adult female (Mg deficient group showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP activity, albumin, calcium (within normal range. Both young female rat groups showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP and albumin compared with control group. The mineral analysis in bone ash showed no significant differences in calcium level where a significant decrease in magnesium level was observed compared with the control groups. It was concluded from this study, that magnesium deficiency could be used for detection of osteoporosis and defect of bone formation in adult and young female rats, respectively.

  9. Effects of the antiresorptive therapy on bone metabolic activity in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić-Krejović Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis, a systemic disease of bones, represents a serious health and socio-economic problem because of its consequences - bone fractures. It is believed that 10% of the world population suffers from osteoporosis and it affects mostly postmenopausal women. Methods: The survey was conducted within a group of 80 postmenopausal women with osteopenia treated with antyresorptive therapy. The control group included 40 postmenopausal women who did not take any kind of therapy. Bone metabolic activity was evaluated by using osteocalcin as a parameter of bone formation. Blood analysis were made before therapy introduction and 3 months after initial therapy. The average value of osteocalcin three months after tibolone and HRT therapy was lower compared to the average value of osteocalcin before the treatment. Results: During implementation of tibolone and HRT therapy, osteocalcin serum concentrations were significantly lower than those before the therapy. Achieved results showed high efficiency of tibolone and HRT on bone resorption and suppressive effects on bone formation, what arises from connections between bone formation and resorption. Conclusion: Monitoring parameters of bone metabolic activity is also very useful diagnostic tool in assessing the effects of tibolone on bone metabolic activity and possibly forecast the final outcome on bone mass.

  10. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  11. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  12. Role of Osteal Macrophages in Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Cho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have been shown to have pleiotropic functions in various pathophysiologies, especially in terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity. Recently, the novel functions of bone marrow resident macrophages (called osteal macrophages were intensively studied in bone development, remodeling and tissue repair processes. This review discusses the current evidence for a role of osteal macrophages in bone modeling, remodeling, and fracture healing processes.

  13. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  14. Bone Metabolism and Osteoporosis in Oncological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Dumanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the current literature and our own researches data are presented. They are demonstrated the existence of close connection between malignant tumors and bone metabolism disorders. It manifests by an increase in the synthesis of osteopontin and osteocalcin, the activation of alkaline phosphatase, imbalance of osteoassociated macro- (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and microelements (cobalt, manganese, copper, strontium, chromium, zinc, etc, which involved in the pathogenetic constructions of cancer and osteoporosis. The latter can be complicated with bone fractures in these patients. Changes in bone metabolism are aggravated by ongoing chemo- and radiation therapy of cancer, and existing information about oncoinduced action of bisphosphonates, which are widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis, is now called into question. These data necessitate the development of anticancer therapy medical technology, which has protective effect toward bone metabolism, as well as the creation of antiosteoporotic treatment, simultaneously directed to the tumor process.

  15. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  16. Melatonin: Bone Metabolism in Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny López-Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life, bone tissue undergoes a continuous process of resorption and formation. Melatonin, with its antioxidant properties and its ability to detoxify free radicals, as suggested by Conconi et al. (2000 may interfere in the osteoclast function and thereby inhibit bone resorption, as suggested by Schroeder et al. (1981. Inhibition of bone resorption may be enhanced by a reaction of indoleamine in osteoclastogenesis. That it has been observed melatonin, at pharmacological doses, decrease bone mass resorption by suppressing through down regulation of the RANK-L, as suggested by Penarrocha Diago et al. (2005 and Steflik et al. (1994. These data point an osteogenic effect towards that may be of melatonin of clinical importance, as it could be used as a therapeutic agent in situations in which would be advantageous bone formation, such as in the treatment of fractures or osteoporosis or their use as, a bioactive surface on implant as suggested by Lissoni et al. (1991.

  17. Endocrine Regulation of Bone and Energy Metabolism in Hibernating Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H.; Florant, Gregory L.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination among organs is required to maintain homeostasis throughout hibernation. This is particularly true in balancing bone remodeling processes (bone formation and resorption) in hibernators experiencing nutritional deprivation and extreme physical inactivity, two factors normally leading to pronounced bone loss in non-hibernating mammals. In recent years, important relationships between bone, fat, reproductive, and brain tissues have come to light. These systems share interconnected regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism that potentially protect the skeleton during hibernation. This review focuses on the endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of bone/fat/energy metabolism in hibernators. Hibernators appear to have unique mechanisms that protect musculoskeletal tissues while catabolizing their abundant stores of fat. Furthermore, the bone remodeling processes that normally cause disuse-induced bone loss in non-hibernators are compared to bone remodeling processes in hibernators, and possible adaptations of the bone signaling pathways that protect the skeleton during hibernation are discussed. Understanding the biological mechanisms that allow hibernators to survive the prolonged disuse and fasting associated with extreme environmental challenges will provide critical information regarding the limit of convergence in mammalian systems and of skeletal plasticity, and may contribute valuable insight into the etiology and treatment of human diseases. PMID:24556365

  18. Donepezil regulates energy metabolism and favors bone mass accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimar, Hazem; Alebrahim, Sharifa; Manickam, Garthiga; Al-Subaie, Ahmed; Abu-Nada, Lina; Murshed, Monzur; Tamimi, Faleh

    2016-03-01

    The autonomous nervous system regulates bone mass through the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) favors bone loss whereas the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) promotes bone mass accrual. Donepezil, a central-acting cholinergic agonist, has been shown to down-regulate SNS and up-regulate PNS signaling tones. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the use of donepezil could have beneficial effects in regulating bone mass. To test our hypothesis, two groups of healthy female mice were treated either with donepezil or saline. Differences in body metabolism and bone mass of the treated groups were compared. Body and visceral fat weights as well as serum leptin level were increased in donepezil-treated mice compared to control, suggesting that donepezil effects on SNS influenced metabolic activity. Donepezil-treated mice had better bone quality than controls due to a decrease in osteoclasts number. These results indicate that donepezil is able to affect whole body energy metabolism and favors bone mass in young female WT mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures. Methods: A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60. Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular antiosteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment. Results: Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexes β-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment. Conclusions: The regular antiosteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  1. Bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.Th.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A 47 Ca calcitonin study is described which is used in combination with a conventional balance study in 5 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after therapy and in 1 control subject. The experimentally obtained data were analyzed according to Wendeberg and Dymling. The magnitude of the 47 Ca loss through perspiration could not be determined. This fact can affect the rate of accretion but not the other parameters of calcium kinetics. A markedly flow of tracer into bone (inflow, internal disappearance, accretion, rate of accretion) and of calcium out of bone (resorption, outflow) was observed

  2. Collagen-derived markers of bone metabolism in osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, A M; Hansen, M; Kollerup, Gina Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    )] were measured in 78 osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients to investigate bone metabolism in vivo and relate marker concentrations to phenotype and in vitro collagen I defects, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PICP and PINP were generally low....... The in vivo findings correlated with in vitro results of collagen I SDS-PAGE. Bone turnover is reduced in OI children and mildly affected OI adults, whereas bone resorption is elevated in severely affected adults. These findings may prove helpful for diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy in OI....

  3. Bisphenol A exposure disturbs the bone metabolism: An evolving interest towards an old culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Froemming, Gabriele Ruth Anisah; Muid, Suhaila

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) (2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane), a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED), is the exogenous chemical that mimic the natural endogenous hormone like oestrogen. Due to its extensive exposure to humans, BPA is considered to be a major toxicological agent for general population. Environmental exposure of BPA results in adverse health outcomes including bone loss. BPA disturbs the bone health by decreasing the plasma calcium level and inhibiting the calcitonin secretion. BPA also stimulated differentiation and induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the untoward effect of BPA against bone metabolism. The present review gives an overview on the possible mechanisms of BPA towards bone loss. The previous literature shows that BPA exerts its toxic effect on bone cells by binding to the oestrogen related receptor-gamma (ERγ), reducing the bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. BPA interrupts the bone metabolism via RANKL, apoptosis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. It is, however, still debated on the exact underlying mechanism of BPA against bone health. We summarised the molecular evidences with possible mechanisms of BPA, an old environmental culprit, in bone loss and enlightened the underlying understanding of adverse action of BPA in the society. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  5. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density (QUS-BMD value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 150 patients who were diagnosed with osteoporotic fracture in Nuclear Industry 417 Hospital between January 2010 and March 2017 were selected as the fracture group of the research, and 70 subjects with normal bone mineral density confirmed by physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the research. QUSBMD apparatus was used to measure bone mineral density of calcaneus, and the serum was collected to determine the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone turnover. Results: QUS-BMD value as well as serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of fracture group was significantly lower than those of control group while serum TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those of subjects with normal bone mass while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of subjects with normal bone mass; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than those of patients with osteoporosis while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of patients with osteoporosis. Conclusion: Calcaneal QUS-BMD is valuable for evaluating the bone metabolism activity and bone turnover process in patients with osteoporotic fracture.

  6. METABOLIC CHANGES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN CHILDREN WITH BONE CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Magomedov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of diagnostically important metabolism parameters in patients with bone cysts in different stages of the disease are presented. It is shown that an increase activity of protein banding collagenase, alkaline phosphatase and also of hydroxyproline, glycosaminoglycans contents due to lower levels of calcium and inorganic phosphate levels increase in blood serum are expressed in a stage osteolysis than the step of separating. Decreasing the amount of glycosaminoglycans and collagen in bone indicates an intensification of catabolic processes in the connective tissue matrix. Diagnostically important indicators of the degree of disturbance of bone metabolism are the level of collagen, proteoglycans and activity of marker enzymes — collagenase and alkaline phosphatase. Based on the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency of the obtained results, we can recommend the threshold values of the investigated parameters of basic organic components and mineral metabolism of bone for the differential diagnosis of stages of bone cysts in children, which will serve as a basis for the development of appropriate diagnostic tests.

  7. Interaction between bone, the neuroendocrine system and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Classically, the skeleton is defined by its mechanical properties, as a site for hematopoiesis and in mineral homeostasis. In recent years, a further-reaching role has been suggested for the skeleton. In this thesis, we investigate three novel aspects of human bone metabolism. In the first part we

  8. Collagen-derived markers of bone metabolism in osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, A M; Hansen, M; Kollerup, Gina Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    )] were measured in 78 osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients to investigate bone metabolism in vivo and relate marker concentrations to phenotype and in vitro collagen I defects, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PICP and PINP were generally low...

  9. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  10. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis | Hari Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP. Materials and Methods: ...

  11. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  12. Metabolic Bone Disease in the Bariatric Surgery Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has proven to be a life-saving measure for some, but for others it has precipitated a plethora of metabolic complications ranging from mild to life-threatening, sometimes to the point of requiring surgical revision. Obesity was previously thought to be bone protective, but this is indeed not the case. Morbidly obese individuals are at risk for metabolic bone disease (MBD due to chronic vitamin D deficiency, inadequate calcium intake, sedentary lifestyle, chronic dieting, underlying chronic diseases, and the use of certain medications used to treat those diseases. After bariatric surgery, the risk for bone-related problems is even greater, owing to severely restricted intake, malabsorption, poor compliance with prescribed supplements, and dramatic weight loss. Patients presenting for bariatric surgery should be evaluated for MBD and receive appropriate presurgical interventions. Furthermore, every patient who has undergone bariatric surgery should receive meticulous lifetime monitoring, as the risk for developing MBD remains ever present.

  13. Mineral metabolism and bone abnormalities in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Cheryl P

    2008-06-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism and changes in skeletal histology may contribute to growth impairment in children with chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, alterations in vitamin D and IGF synthesis and parathyroid gland dysfunction play significant roles in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and subsequently, bone disease in renal failure. The recent KDIGO conference has made recommendations to consider this as a systemic disorder (chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder) and to standardize bone histomorphometry to include bone turnover, mineralization and volume (TMV). The use of DXA to assess bone mass is controversial in children with chronic renal failure. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of bone measurements and difficulty in data interpretation especially in children with renal failure who are not only growth retarded but often have pubertal delay and osteosclerosis. The validity and feasibility of new modalities of skeletal imaging which can detect changes in both trabecular and cortical bone are currently being investigated in children. The management of mineral abnormalities and bone disease in chronic renal failure is multifactorial. To manage hyperphosphatemia, dietary phosphate restriction accompanied by intake of calcium-free and metal-free phosphate binding agents are widely utilized. Vitamin D analogs remain the primary therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, although the use of the less hypercalcemic agents is preferred due to concerns of calciphylaxis and vascular calcification. Future clinical studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of calcimimetic agents and bisphosphonate therapy in children with chronic renal failure.

  14. The Incidence and Topographic Distribution of Sutures Including Wormian Bones in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpan, Sibel; Aksu, Funda; Mas, Nuket

    2015-07-01

    The Wormian Bones are accessory bones located within the cranial sutures and fontanelles. The present article examines the incidence of Wormian Bones and compares the number and topographic distribution between the sutures including Wormian Bones in skulls of West Anatolian Population. One hundred fifty crania were examined. The parameters evaluated in the present study were as follows: the rate of skulls including Wormian Bones; the topographic distribution and frequencies of the sutures including Wormian Bones; the number of these sutures for each skull; the name and number of sutures that were bilaterally and symmetrically located on the right and left side of skull (paired sutures) and which coincidentally had Wormian Bones for each skull; the differences of frequencies between the paired sutures including Wormian Bones. The rate of skulls including Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3%. The maximum and minimum numbers of sutures, including Wormian Bones, were 6 in 1 skull and 1 in each of 30 skulls, respectively. The maximum and minimum rates of sutures that had Wormian Bones were found in left lambdoid 40.7% and right occipitomastoid 1.3% sutures, respectively. There was only a significant difference between the rate of right and left squamous sutures (P = 0.04). Forty-five skulls were including 55 pairs of bilaterally and symmetrically located sutures that coincidentally had Wormian Bones in each pair. Each of 35 skulls had 1 pair of sutures including Wormian Bones and each of 10 skulls had 2 pairs. In the present study, the rate of Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3% in West Anatolian Population. This incidence rate is considerably lower than the other reports, and it may be as a result of racial variations. These divergent bones were more frequently found in left lambdoid sutures (40.7%) and less frequently in right occipitomastoid sutures (1.3%). This study may guide the investigators dealing with the neurosurgery, orthopedy, radiology, anatomy, and

  15. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  16. [Bone metabolism in adults with phenylketonuria - Hungarian data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András Gellért; Sumánszki, Csaba; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria have lower bone mineral density compared to healthy people, however, the ethiology of these alterations is not clear. Hungarian data were missing in this topic. The main aim of our study was to survey the correlation between metabolic control and change of bone mineral density in early treated Hungarian adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this monocentric study bone mineral density of 59 adult PKU patients have been repeatedly measured in a 4-year interval using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Two subgroups have been established based on average blood phenylalanine levels. The correlation between the change in bone mineral density and average phenylalanine, tyrosine concentrations have been determined while initial bone mineral density and change have also been examined in the subgroups. Mean phenylalanine concentration was 614 (182-1222) micromol/L, whereas mean tyrosine concentration was 49 (24-99) micromol/L and the calculated ratio was 16 (4,5-35). Three patients have had severely decreased bone mineral density in either localisation while 22 have had mild decrease. Low bone mineral density compared to cronological age has been found by 9 patient. The mean change was +0.0380 (-0.1550-0.7800) g/cm 2 in femur, and +0.0120 (-0.57300-0.3130) g/cm 2 in the lumbar spine. There was a correlation in the change in Z-score neither with mean phenylalanine nor with tyrosine concentration. Bone mineral density was not changed and hardly influenced by the metabolic control in early-treated young adult phenylketonuria patients in a few years interval. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1868-1872.

  17. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  18. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  19. Advanced computational workflow for the multi-scale modeling of the bone metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Multi-scale modeling of the musculoskeletal system plays an essential role in the deep understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the biological phenomena and processes such as bone metabolic processes. Current multi-scale models suffer from the isolation of sub-models at each anatomical scale. The objective of this present work was to develop a new fully integrated computational workflow for simulating bone metabolic processes at multi-scale levels. Organ-level model employs multi-body dynamics to estimate body boundary and loading conditions from body kinematics. Tissue-level model uses finite element method to estimate the tissue deformation and mechanical loading under body loading conditions. Finally, cell-level model includes bone remodeling mechanism through an agent-based simulation under tissue loading. A case study on the bone remodeling process located on the human jaw was performed and presented. The developed multi-scale model of the human jaw was validated using the literature-based data at each anatomical level. Simulation outcomes fall within the literature-based ranges of values for estimated muscle force, tissue loading and cell dynamics during bone remodeling process. This study opens perspectives for accurately simulating bone metabolic processes using a fully integrated computational workflow leading to a better understanding of the musculoskeletal system function from multiple length scales as well as to provide new informative data for clinical decision support and industrial applications.

  20. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  1. Effects of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins On Bone Mineral Density and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Samancı

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins have been shown to have effects on bone metabolism in laboratory studies. While early clinic studies have showed lower risk for osteoporotic fractures among statin users than nonusers, subsequent studies have found mixed results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism. Thirty-five consecutive postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women who were treated for at least last 6 months with statins were included in the study. Seventy-five normocholesterolemic age-matched postmenopausal women were in the control group. Subjects with a history of any diseases and used drugs that may affect calcium or bone metabolism were excluded from the study. Age, associated illness, years since menopause, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from all the patients including the control group. Besides, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy D3, osteocalcin, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at femoral neck and 3rd lomber spine. Mean duration of statin use was 28.17±21.17 months. BMI was found to be statistically higher in statin users than nonusers (27.47±3.67kg/m2 and 25.46±3.91 kg/m2, respectively. The markers of bone metabolism used in the study were found to be similar between the groups. BMD was not different in statin users and nonusers at femoral neck and lomber spine. As conclusion, statin use did not affect BMD and bone metabolism in this study. In our opinion large randomised, controlled, prospective clinical trials are needed to accurately determine the role of statins in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection. At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  3. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Young

    2015-12-01

    It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  4. The effect of aromatase inhibitors on bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Bjarnason, Nina H; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors increase the disease-free survival in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex catalysing the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. These properties cause a significant increase in bone loss. In this MiniReview, we present...... data from the aromatase inhibitor studies and the studies designed to investigate aromatase inhibitor effect on bone metabolism. At the cellular level, oestrogen has profound effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Oestrogen decreases the osteoblastic production of resorptive cytokines...... in comparison with tamoxifen. We conclude that treatment with aromatase inhibitors leads to an increased bone loss and thus an increase in the risk of fractures in women with breast cancer....

  5. Metabolic and Clinical Consequences of Hyperthyroidism on Bone Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Gorka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1891, Von Recklinghausen first established the association between the development of osteoporosis in the presence of overt hyperthyroidism. Subsequent reports have demonstrated that BMD loss is common in frank hyperthyroidism, and, to a lesser extent, in subclinical presentations. With the introduction of antithyroid medication in the 1940s to control biochemical hyperthyroidism, the accompanying bone disease became less clinically apparent as hyperthyroidism was more successfully treated medically. Consequently, the impact of the above normal thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis may be presently underrecognized due to the widespread effective treatments. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism. The vast number of recent papers touching on this topic highlights the recognized impact of this common medical condition on bone health. Our focus in this review was to search for answers to the following questions. What is the mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism? What are the clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on BMD and fracture risk? What differences are there between men and women with thyroid disease and how does menopause change the clinical outcomes? Lastly, we report how different treatments for hyperthyroidism benefit thyroid hormone-induced osteoporosis.

  6. Controlled release pharmaceutical composition useful for the treatment of diseases and conditions affecting metabolism and/or structural integrity of cartilage and/or bone in male comprises strontium salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    ); such as osteoporosis (also including secondary osteoporosis induced by e.g. endocrine diseases, metabolic causes, nutritional conditions, drug substances and/or disorders of the collagen metabolism), osteoarthritis, osteopectoris, osteopenia, Paget's disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy, periodontal disease......, hyperparathyroidism, periarticular erosions in rheumatoid arthritis, osteodystrophy, myositis ossificans, Bechterew's disease, osteolytic lesions produced by bone metastasis, bone pain due to bone metastasis, bone loss due to sex steroid hormone deficiency, bone abnormalities due to steroid hormone treatment, bone...

  7. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  8. Interferon regulatory factor-8 regulates bone metabolism by suppressing osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baohong; Takami, Masamichi; Yamada, Atsushi; Wang, Xiaogu; Koga, Takako; Hu, Xiaoyu; Tamura, Tomohiko; Ozato, Keiko; Choi, Yongwon; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2009-09-01

    Bone metabolism results from a balance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Diseases such as periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by increased bone destruction due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Here we report that interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a transcription factor expressed in immune cells, is a key regulatory molecule for osteoclastogenesis. IRF-8 expression in osteoclast precursors was downregulated during the initial phase of osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), which is encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene. Mice deficient in Irf8 showed severe osteoporosis, owing to increased numbers of osteoclasts, and also showed enhanced bone destruction after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Irf8-/- osteoclast precursors underwent increased osteoclastogenesis in response to RANKL and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). IRF-8 suppressed osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the function and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Our results show that IRF-8 inhibits osteoclast formation under physiological and pathological conditions and suggest a model where downregulation of inhibitory factors such as IRF-8 contributes to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

  9. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, J.; van Ooij, C. P.; van den Akker, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    22 edentulous women, 11 with and 11 without signs of metabolic bone loss were treated by a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. Longitudinal studies showed a higher rate of resorption in women with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  10. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state. A 5-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; van den Akker, H. P.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.; van Ooij, C. P.

    1987-01-01

    92 patients, 31 with and 61 without signs of metabolic bone loss, were treated with a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. A 5-year follow-up showed a significantly higher rate of resorption in patients with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  11. Effect of vibration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, T.; Shimizu, N.; Wada, S.; Kondo, T.; Tabata, M. J.; Sodeyama, F.; Ijiri, K.; Hattori, A.

    In osteoclastic activity during space flight as well as hind limb unloading by tail suspension, inconsistent results have been reported in an in vivo study. The bone matrix plays an important role in the response to physical stress. However, there is no suitable in vitro co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts including bone matrix. On the other hand, fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in human bones. Recently, we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale. This system can detect the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers and precisely analyze the co-relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Using this system, we analyzed the bone metabolism under various degrees of acceleration (0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-G) by vibration with a G-load apparatus. After loading for 5 and 10 min, the scales were incubated for 6 and 24 h. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were then measured. The osteoblastic activities gradually increased corresponding to 1-G to 6-G acceleration. In addition, ER mRNA expression was the highest under 6-G acceleration. On the other hand, the osteoclastic activity decreased at 24 h of incubation under low acceleration (0.5- and 1-G). This change coincided with TRAP mRNA expression. Under 2-G acceleration, the strength of suppression in osteoclastic activity was the highest. The strength of the inhibitory action under 4- and 6-G acceleration was lower than that under 2-G acceleration. In our co-culture system, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the scale sensitively responded to several degrees of acceleration. Therefore, we strongly believe that our in vitro co-culture system is useful for the analysis of bone metabolism under loading or unloading.

  12. Association between basal metabolic function and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Makiko; Ide, Risa; Takizawa, Miho; Tanaka, Mizuho; Tetsuo, Tamaki; Sato, Asako; Iwasaki, Naoko; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for osteoporosis, and glycemic control is critical during osteoporosis treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, diabetic therapies have potentially adverse effects on bone metabolism. Additionally, biomarkers for bone metabolism are directly affected by drug therapies for osteoporosis. This study examined resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) as indices of bone metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D. Forty-six postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D were examined. Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, a fasting serum bone formation marker) and carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links-1 (CTX-1, a resorption marker) were evaluated, along with intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), urine microalbumin, motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity, R-R interval, body composition, REE, RQ, and bone mineral density at the nondominant distal radius. The mean T-score was low with high variance (-1.7 ± 1.6), and 18 patients (39%) met the criteria for osteoporosis. REE was positively correlated with body mass index (β = 0.517; r(2) = 0.250), serum calcium (β = 0.624; r(2) = 0.200), glycated hemoglobin A1C for the previous 6 mo (β = 0.395; r(2) = 0.137), and the serum P1NP/CTX-1 ratio (β = 0.380; r(2) = 0.144). RQ was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D (β = 0.387; r(2) = 0.131). The basal metabolic rate and diabetic pathophysiology are interrelated with bone turnover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal vitamin D and bone metabolism in women of reproductive age in urban Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liying; Zhang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and bone metabolism in healthy women of reproductive age. This study included 100 healthy female residents of Beijing (23-30 years old), who underwent bone ultrasonography as well as testing to evaluate serum25-hydroxy-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Mean 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in the winter (22.3±3.55 nmol/L) was significantly lower than that in the summer (46.2±16.3 nmol/L). In the winter, a negative correlation was observed between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone(r=0.300, p=0.002) and bone alkaline phosphatase (r=0.274, p=0.016). In the summer, a negative correlation was observed between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (r=0.386, pmetabolism status.

  14. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Bone metabolism of women in primary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    For development of the bone during adolescence, the increased estrogen plays an important role especially in young women as well as GH/IGF-Ⅰ system. Although primary amenorrhea can be caused by various pathological factors, almost of cases have a dysfunction of estrogen secretory systems. For Turner syndrome, which is well-known disease with primary amenorrhea,it is generally recommended that the estrogen therapy is started at adolescence and gradually increased up to adult dose level. Recently studies about the adequate dose of estrogen and the adequate age of adult dose in Turner syndrome revealed that intervention with adult dose of estrogen is required as soon as possible for gaining better bone mineral. In the point of view for bone fragility at the future, early diagnosis and adequate intervention for primary amenorrhea is important.

  15. Celiac disease: A missed cause of metabolic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a highly prevalent autoimmune disease. The symptoms of CD are varied and atypical, with many patients having no gastrointestinal symptoms. Metabolic bone disease (MBD is a less recognized manifestation of CD associated with spectrum of musculoskeletal signs and symptoms, viz. bone pains, proximal muscle weakness, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fracture. We here report five patients who presented with severe MBD as the only manifestation of CD. Materials and Methods: Records of 825 patients of CD diagnosed during 2002-2010 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, risk factors, signs, biochemical, and radiological parameters. Results: We were able to identify five patients (0.6% of CD who had monosymptomatic presentation with musculoskeletal symptoms and signs in the form of bone pains, proximal myopathy, and fragility fractures without any gastrointestinal manifestation. All the five patients had severe MBD in the form of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. Four of the five patients had additional risk factors such as antiepileptic drugs, chronic alcohol consumption, malnutrition, and associated vitamin D deficiency which might have contributed to the severity of MBD. Conclusion: Severe metabolic disease as the only presentation of CD is rare. Patients show significant improvement in clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters with gluten-free diet, calcium, and vitamin D supplementation. CD should be looked for routinely in patients presenting with unexplained MBD.

  16. Added value of SPECT / CT fusion to evaluate outbreaks with pathologically altered bone metabolism in patients with oncological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Chavdarova, L.; Hristov, A.; Piperkova, E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, SPECT / CT imaging has added a new dimension to the routine whole-body bone scintigraphy. The hybrid chambers combining SPECT and CT provide the ability to obtain diagnostic quality CT imaging of scintigraphically defined outbreaks that directly correlate with the SPECT image. The addition of targeted SPECT / CT after whole-body scanning facilitates the oncological diagnosis in inconclusive scintigraphic planar images. The purpose of this work is to determine the significance and contribution of 3D-SPECT / CT in assessing of outbreaks with increased bone metabolism with a vague (malignant / benign) characteristic of planar whole-body bone scintigraphy in patients with oncological diseases. Our study included 269 patients with a variety of oncology patients who underwent whole-body bone scintigraphy followed by SPECT / CT to assess outbreaks with increased bone metabolism. In 59% of the studied patients the unclear pathological characteristic of pathologically altered bone metabolism in whole-body scintigraphy correlated with benign bone changes in SPECT / CT, 24% correlated with osteosclerotic and osytic metastases and 17% remain undefined. In conclusion, SPECT / CT fusion significantly increases the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT for evaluating outbreaks with pathologically altered bone metabolism. [bg

  17. BONE METABOLISM AND ITS REGULATION IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bugrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS may exacerbate pain and functional disorders and increases the risk of fractures. The mechanisms  of its development in AS have not been adequately studied.Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD  and its regulation in patients with AS.Subjects and methods. 70 patients (mean age, 43.2±9.2 years with a documented diagnosis of AS (mean disease duration, 17.1±7.8 years and a control group of 30 healthy individuals were examined. All the patients underwent estimation of BMD and the serum concentrations of osteocalcin,  CrossLaps, and key regulators of osteoclastogenesis, such as osteoprotegerin (OPG  and a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL by an enzyme immunoassay. Results and discussion. In patients with AS, bone metabolism was characterized  by a decrease in bone formation and by some increase in bone tissue degradation especially in high AS activity. These patients showed the elevated levels of the major blocker of osteoclastogenesis OPG and the OPG/RANKL ratio, which can cause the process of ossification characteristic  of AS.

  18. Unusual case of metabolic bone disease in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, J.M.; Sainsbury, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease was diagnosed in an 11-month-old female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). It was depressed, reluctant to move, and was cachectic and small for its age. Laboratory findings included anaemia, azotaemia and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio. The radiological findings showed simultaneous signs of osteomalacia and soft-tissue calcification. There was decreased bone density with lytic areas in the pelvis and femur, and severe bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Postmortem examination revealed marked focal dystrophic calcification of the epi- and myocardium. Calcium and vitamin D3 deficiency (nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) was the most likely cause of the osteomalacia

  19. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The assessment of testosterone and radioisotopic index of bone metabolism and bone mineral density in men with testosterone deficiency after one year of testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryniszewski, Wieslaw; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Maziarz, Zbigniew; Nowak, Michal; Gadzicki, Mariusz; Radek, Maciej

    2018-01-10

    Testosterone deficiency in men is characterized by typical symptoms of hypogonadism and negative influence on the preservation of bone mass. In this study, we analysed the relationship between testosterone concentration and bone metabolism. Moreover, we assessed the impact of one-year compensation of testosterone deficiency in elderly men on bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Radioisotopic methods of bone metabolism assessment provide new research opportunities. Men with total testosterone concentration (TT) ≤ 3 ng/ml were included into this study. Patients with disorders or injuries of bone system, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), enlarged prostate, disorders of thyroid and liver, diabetes mellitus or a history of chemotherapy as well as those treated for a long time with antibiotics were excluded from this study. The results of 50 men aged 57.52 ± 6.71 years obtained before the treatment (I test) and after one year of oral testosterone supplementation (test II) were analysed in this study. The following examinations and analyses were performed: interview and physical examination, orthopaedic, neurological and urological consultations, blood biochemistry, determination of hormones levels, assessment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS), densitometric and radioisotope assessment of bone metabolism. Moreover, radioisotopic index of bone metabolism was calculated. Testosterone therapy with oral preparation Undestor Testo Caps (Organon) containing 40 mg of testosterone lasted for 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12 and Excel 2010 programs. Correlations between results before and after treatment were analysed. After 12 months of treatment, testosterone concentration increased by mean 78% and the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by 62%. TDS index increased from 0.53 ± 0.21 (in test I) to 1.91 ± 0.60 (in test II). After the therapy this index was significantly higher in all men (p Metabolism). We observed

  1. Effects of Denosumab on Bone Metabolic Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Treated with Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masato; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Togashi, Masaru; Wakui, Hideki; Takahashi, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices. BMD at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM). Results Denosumab therapy significantly reduced serum NTX and BAP levels from baseline after 12 months (from 19.2 to 13.9 nmol BCE/L; from 11.9 to 9.2 U/L, respectively). In 18 patients treated with bisphosphonates before the start of denosumab therapy, the improvements in the LSBMD and FNBMD values were 1.5%YAM/year and 1.1%YAM/year, respectively. The LSBMD and FNBMD values were both significantly higher 12 months after denosumab therapy (3.5%YAM/year and 3.0%YAM/year, respectively). The LSBMD gain was significantly higher after denosumab therapy than during bisphosphonate therapy. No fractures were observed in any patients during denosumab therapy. Conlusion Denosumab is effective and safe in preventing bone resorption and BMD loss in patients treated with long-term GCs for inflammatory diseases. This is the first study showing a significant increase in not only LSBMD but also FNBMD in GC-induced osteoporosis after denosumab therapy.

  2. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  3. Calcium metabolism, vitamin D and bone mineral density after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, T L; Paganotto, M; Radominski, R B; Kulak, C M; Borba, V C

    2015-02-01

    Lower bone mineral density, vitamin D deficiency, lower lean body mass, greater loss of excess weight, and increased bone turnover are complications found after bariatric surgery correlated in the literature with increased risk of fractures. The prevention and treatment of such complications should begin immediately after surgery. The aims of the study were to evaluate bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery by the Wittgrove technique after 1 year of the procedure and correlate it with body composition, weight loss, 25OH vitamin D levels, and markers of bone metabolism. The operated group (OG) participated in a clinical consultation; a blood sample taken and a body composition; and bone mineral density assessment by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results were compared with a control group (CG). Fifty-six subjects in the OG and 27 in the CG were included. The bone mineral density (BMD), after the surgery, at the lumbar spine (LS) was lower in the OG than in the CG. There was a positive correlation between total body (TB) BMD with 25OHD, body mass index (BMI), and lean mass and an inverse correlation with percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 60.41% (OG) and in 16.6% (CG). PTH was higher in the OG, with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 41.7%. In 26.5% and 14.2% of the OG, ALP and OC levels were above the reference values. In deficiency with high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover was detected. The prevention of bone loss should be initiated in the first months after surgery, which is a period associated with severe muscle loss and increased bone turnover.

  4. Study of bone metabolism in patients with chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaccioli, S; Del Giorno, R; Crapa, G; Sabatini, C; Panaccione, A; Di Cato, L; Lavagna, A; Fatati, G; Paladini, A; Frongillo, R; Puxeddu, A

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have confirmed the high incidence of skeletal homeostasis modifications in subjects who are carriers of chronic HIV infections, and specific pharmacological treatments, which modify the metabolism and condition both the weight loss and the reshaping of the bones. The presence of a reduction in body mass index seems to contribute to the progressive deterioration of the skeletal framework. The aim of this study was to see whether the presence of HIV-seropositivity could constitute a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis/osteopenia, even in the light of the fact that our group was composed of patients with a concentrated age span well under the limit for both post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis, and with a median age superimposable for both sexes. Our study involved 26 HIV+ patients with an average duration of infection equal to 6.7 +/- 4.8 years, and a range of seropositive duration between 6 months to 16 years. The prominent ultrasonometrical parameters are as follows: Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation, Speed of Sound, Stiffness Index or Quantitative Ultra-sound Index, Bone Mineral Density, and T-score. The biochemical study was carried out by assessing a marker of neoformation such as seric osteocalcine, and uninary pyridinoline and deoxipyridonoline as resorption markers. The results confirmed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in 46% of the samples (11%, and 35%, respectively), with a progressive reduction in bone mineral density in relation to the duration of HIV infection. Assessment of the marker for bone metabolism showed a significant increase in osteocalcine in the female population compared to the males, without any significant variations in the normal values. Extreme variability in the morphological appearance at bone level during the course of HIV infection would lead us to believe that in the genesis of various forms, depending on the mechanisms and the time involved only in the parts defined, other attributable factors

  5. Are there any positive effects of TNF-alpha blockers on bone metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osteoporosis (OP is a well-recognized complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Treatment with TNF-a blockers, might influence bone metabolism and prevent structural bone damage in RA, in particular at the periarticular regions. Objective: To assess the influence of anti-TNF-a therapy, on bone metabolism in RA patients. 36 RA patients were treated with stable therapy of prednisone (7.5 mg/day and methotrexate (MTX=10 mg/week. Nine of these RA patients further received etanercept (25 mg, twice/weekly and eleven infliximab (3mg/kg on 0, 2, 6, and every 8 weeks thereafter. A control group included 16 RA patients only with stable therapy (some dosage of prednisone and MTX. Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS bone densitometry was obtained at the metaphyses of the proximal phalanges of both hands with a DBM Sonic 1200 QUS device (IGEA, Carpi, Italy. Bone mineral density (BMD of the hip and lumbar spine were performed with a densitometer ( Lunar Prodigy, GE, USA at baseline and after 12 months. Soluble bone turnover markers [osteocalcin (OC, bone alkaline phospatase (ALP deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio (Dpd/Cr and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen / creatinine ratio (NTx/Cr] were measured using ELISA tests. Results: AD-SoS values were found increased by +4.55% after 12 months of treatment in the RA patients treated with anti-TNF-a therapy. On the contrary, the Ad-SoS levels decreased by -4.48% during the same period in the control RA group. BMD increased by +3.64% at lumbar spine and +2.90% at the hip (both p<0.001 in TNF-a blockers-treated patients and decreased by -2.89% and -3.10% (both p<0.001, respectively at lumbar spine and at the hip in RA patients without anti-TNF-a therapy. In RA patients treated with TNF-a blockers, OC and bone ALP levels were found significantly increased (p<0.01 and Dpd/Cr or NTx/Cr levels were found significantly decreased (p<0.01 at 12 months when compared to baseline values. Conclusion: During 12

  6. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  7. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery reduces bone mineral density and induces metabolic acidosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegg, Kathrin; Gehring, Nicole; Wagner, Carsten A; Liesegang, Annette; Schiesser, Marc; Bueter, Marco; Lutz, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to bone loss in humans, which may be caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption and subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, because these conditions occur frequently in obese people, it is unclear whether they are the primary causes of bone loss after RYGB. To determine the contribution of calcium and vitamin D malabsorption to bone loss in a rat RYGB model, adult male Wistar rats were randomized for RYGB surgery, sham-operation-ad libitum fed, or sham-operation-body weight-matched. Bone mineral density, calcium and phosphorus balance, acid-base status, and markers of bone turnover were assessed at different time points for 14 wk after surgery. Bone mineral density decreased for several weeks after RYGB. Intestinal calcium absorption was reduced early after surgery, but plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased, while levels of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D increased after surgery. RYGB rats displayed metabolic acidosis due to increased plasma lactate levels and increased urinary calcium loss throughout the study. These results suggest that initial calcium malabsorption may play a key role in bone loss early after RYGB in rats, but other factors, including chronic metabolic acidosis, contribute to insufficient bone restoration after normalization of intestinal calcium absorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is not involved in postoperative bone loss. Upregulated vitamin D activation may compensate for any vitamin D malabsorption.

  8. Correlation between sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lian Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation of sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: A total of 110 male patients with T2DM who were treated in Wuxi NO.2 People's Hospital from June 2015 to March 2016 were selected as the research subjects. All of the patients were assigned into the osteoporosis group (OP group, n=63 and normal bone mass group (NOP group, n=47 according to their bone mineral density. The following general parameters of the two groups were analyzed including age, body mass index, course of diabetes, fasting bloodglucose (FBG, 2 hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc, etc. Sex hormone levels such as estradiol (E2, progestone (P, testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and bone metabolic indexes such as BGP, bone alkaline phosphates (BAP, blood calcium, serum phosphorus, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters and Ward’s triangle were analyzed. The correlation between sex hormone levels and bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density was analyzed. Results: Compared with patients in the NOP group, patients in the OP group were elder and had longer courses of the disease, lower body mass indexes, lower levels of E2 and T, higher levels of BGP and BAP, and lower bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters and Ward’s triangle. The differences had statistically significant. There was no significant difference in FBG, 2hPBG, HbAlc, P, FSH, LH, PRL, blood calcium, serum phosphorus, urinary calcium/ creatinine ratio between the two groups. Partial correlation analysis showed that E2 and T were negatively correlated with BGP, BAP and urinarycalcium/creatinine ratio and were positively correlated with bone mineral densities of L2-4 lumbar, femoral neck, trochanters, Ward

  9. Founders lecture 2007. Metabolic bone disease: what has changed in 30 years?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Diagnostic Radiology, MSK, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-09-15

    To provide an update on imaging of metabolic bone disease based on new developments, findings, and changing practices over the past 30 years. Literature review of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's disease, bisphosphonates, with an emphasis on imaging. Cited references and pertinent findings. Significant developments have occurred in the imaging of metabolic bone disease over the past 30 years. (orig.)

  10. STATUS OF BONE METABOLISM AND LINEAR GROWTH OF INFANTS DEPENDENT ON MOTHER'S CALCIUM PROVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Shcheplyagina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analytical findings of the mineral metabolism, bone metabolism and linear growth along with the bone strength of the infants dependent on the mother's calcium and vitamin D provision during pregnancy. The researchers have prospectively examined 160 mother–newborn infant pairs and 87 children for 6–8 months. They confirmed that infant's calcium and vitamin D provision depends on calcium and vitamin d contained in mother's body. Prophylaxis and correction of the calcium and vitamin D deficit in the mother's body will ensure necessary rates of the linear growth, mineral metabolism, and bone remodeling both during antenatal period and within the first 6–8 months, following the birth, increase the bone strength and reduce the frequency of rachitic and rachiticblike changes in the infant skeleton.Key words: newborn infants, infants, calcium provision, bone metabolism, linear growth, bone strength.

  11. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  12. Bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect of disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Halberg, P; Kollerup, G

    1998-01-01

    The bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has previously been examined, but the results are conflicting. In the present study the bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and the appendicular skeleton was examined by means of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The bone...

  13. Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis During Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0364 TITLE: Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis during Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0364 Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis during Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (Appendix A). 15. SUBJECT TERMS calcium homeostasis , exercise, bone resorption, parathyroid hormone

  14. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  16. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  17. Effects of cadmium intake on bone metabolism of mothers during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hisayoshi; Ichikawa, Masayo; Seki, Yukio

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and it interacts with essential elements such as zinc, copper, iron, and calcium (Ca). Particularly, Cd interferes with Ca and vitamin D metabolism in bone kidney and intestine. The interaction between Cd and Ca in bone, intestine, and kidney may result in the disorder of bone metabolism. On the other hand, pregnancy and lactation are also important physiological factors affecting bone metabolism in the mother. Ca absorption is decreased by competition with Cd in the intestine, and more Ca is released from maternal bone and transferred to neonate by lactation. In the intestine, Cd uptake competes with Ca uptake. Cd causes a marked decrease in bone density compared to the normal decrease in bone mineral density during lactation. Lactation is an important factor contributing to the decrease in bone mineral density and Cd has an additive effect of decreasing bone metabolism of mother animal, although the Cd intake level is relatively low (approximately 3-14 microgCd/kg/day). The relationship among maternal Cd intake, renal function and bone metabolism and the interaction between Cd and Ca during lactation are reviewed herein, together with additional data obtained recently in our laboratory.

  18. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Se Young Kim

    2015-01-01

    It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies shoul...

  19. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  20. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  1. Questions from the clinician to the radiologist regarding the diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.; Schmidt, M.; Klinikum Bamberg

    1986-01-01

    Macromorphological X-ray findings in metabolic bone diseases can be established only in advanced stages. Micromorphological X-ray diagnostic procedures will support the diagnosis even in early stages. Mineralometric examinations are adjuvant methods for early diagnosis and survey of therapy in metabolic bone diseases. The synopsis of parameters of calcium phosphate metabolism, bone histology (histomorphometry) and radiological morphology enables the type and stage of osteopathy to be diagnosed. The supplementary diagnostic methods are helpful in distinguishing bone diseases with increased turnover, inpaired bone modelling and absorption, disturbed mineralization and ectopic calcification. Within the metabolic osteopathies, osteoporosis is gaining more and more importance as a socioeconomic problem; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of significant relevance. Hyper-, hypoparathyroidism and osteoidosis are diseases at can be cured if diagnosed early. (orig.) [de

  2. Questions from the clinician to the radiologist regarding the diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.; Schmidt, M.

    1986-12-01

    Macromorphological X-ray findings in metabolic bone diseases can be established only in advanced stages. Micromorphological X-ray diagnostic procedures will support the diagnosis even in early stages. Mineralometric examinations are adjuvant methods for early diagnosis and survey of therapy in metabolic bone diseases. The synopsis of parameters of calcium phosphate metabolism, bone histology (histomorphometry) and radiological morphology enables the type and stage of osteopathy to be diagnosed. The supplementary diagnostic methods are helpful in distinguishing bone diseases with increased turnover, inpaired bone modelling and absorption, disturbed mineralization and ectopic calcification. Within the metabolic osteopathies, osteoporosis is gaining more and more importance as a socioeconomic problem; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of significant relevance. Hyper-, hypoparathyroidism and osteoidosis are diseases at can be cured if diagnosed early.

  3. Association of osteoporosis susceptibility genes with bone mineral density and bone metabolism related markers in Koreans: the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Kun Ho; Son, Ho Young; Lee, Won Chul; Kang, Moo Il

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within eight osteoporosis susceptibility genes that were previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A total of 494 men and 493 postmenopausal women participating in the Chungju Metabolic Disease cohort study in Korea were included. The following 10 SNPs were genotyped: ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, ESR1 rs2941740, TNFRSF11B rs3134070, TNFRSF11B rs2073617, SOX6 rs711785, LRP5 rs599083, TNFSF11 rs227438, TNFSF11 rs9594782, and FOXL1 rs10048146; and the association between these SNPs and bone metabolism-related markers was assessed. Two SNPs, TNFSF11 rs2277438 and FOXL1 rs1004816, were associated with lumbar spine BMD. TNFSF11 rs2277438 in men and SOX6 rs7117858 and FOXL1 rs10048146 in postmenopausal women were found to be associated with lumbar BMD. ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, and LRP5 rs599083 showed significant associations with femur neck BMD. These three SNPs in men and MEF2C rs1366594 and ESR1 rs2941740 in postmenopausal women were associated with femur neck BMD. A significant association between MEF2C rs1366594 and serum calcium levels was observed in men. Serum phosphorus levels were related to SOX6 rs7117858. Serum PTH levels were significantly associated with TNFRSF11B rs3134070 in men, and SOX6 rs711858 in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our study independently confirmed associations between several SNPs: ZBTB40, MEF2C, ESR1, SOX6, LRP5, TNFSF11, and FOXL1 and bone marrow density in the Korean population.

  4. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluzzi F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flaminia Coluzzi,1,2 Joseph Pergolizzi,3,4 Robert B Raffa,5 Consalvo Mattia1,2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine – Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy; 2SIAARTI Study Group on Acute and Chronic Pain, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 4Naples Anesthesia and Pain Associates, Naples, FL, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1 the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2 reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3 chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine. Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. Keywords: opioids side effects, bone metabolism, fractures, OPIAD, endocrine system, chronic pain

  5. Studies of Bone Metabolism with the Aid of Radioactive Strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.C.; Copp, D.H., M.D.

    1948-04-01

    The kinetics of skeletal uptake and urinary excretion of radiostrontium were studied during the critieal first hour following intraperitoneal injection of a carrier-free dose. These experiments not only provided valuable data con.cerning the metabolism and fixation of this important fission product, but, because of the close similarity of strontium and calcium, also gave basic information on the process of calcification. Three groups of rats were compared: normal mature adults, young growing normal animals, and young rachitic rats. In all groups, the blood radioactive strontium rose to a maximum in 10-15 minutes, and then declined as the strontium continued to deposit in the skeleton or to be excreted in the urine. Muscle and skin strontium curves followed those of blood quite closely, suggesting a rapid equilibrium between their extracellular fluid and blood plasma. In all groups there was a continous uptake of strontium by the skeleton. In the adults, this was almost constant, suggesting uptek e by absorption and exchange with the calcium of the bone mineral. In the young rats, both normal and rachitic, the very rapid initial rate of uptake of radio-strontium tapered off sharply with time, indicating that some of this radio-element was coming back from the bone into the blood stream. This suggested a rapid labile combination of strontiunl in these animals, which, since it also occured in the rachitic group in which normal calcification is inhibited, probably associated with the protein osteoid matrix present in both. A hypothetical calcification mechanism was suggested by these findings. Urinary excretion and renal clearance of strontium was constant in all three groups, but the clearance was almost ten times as great in the rachitic as in the normal young and adult rats. This would seem to indicate a direct effect of rickets on the renal mechanism of radiostrontium (and calcium) excretion.

  6. Effect of the antidiabetic agent pioglitazone on bone metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkichi Kanda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonists used as therapy for type 2 diabetes. However, clinical studies reported that the therapeutic modulation of PPARγ activity using TZDs may induce negative effects on bone metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the TZD pioglitazone on bone metabolism in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with pioglitazone 5 or 20 mg/kg daily for 24 weeks. Bone strength was evaluated using a 3-point bending method, and bone histomorphometry was analyzed. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography, and serum biochemical markers were examined. Pioglitazone caused a decrease in cortical and trabecular BMD of whole femur. A reduction in bone strength properties of the femoral mid-diaphysis was observed in the 20 mg/kg pioglitazone treated group. Bone histomorphometric analysis revealed that osteoblast surface and mineralizing surface were decreased, whereas osteoclast surface and number were increased after treatment with 20 mg/kg pioglitazone. Altogether, this study demonstrated that pioglitazone may repress bone formation and facilitate bone resorption. The resulting imbalance of bone metabolism leads to a reduction in BMD with a subsequent increase in bone fragility.

  7. Diagnostic usefulness and changing value during irradiation of bone metabolic markers for metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kenji; Narabayashi, Isamu; Utsunomiya, Keita

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of Pyridinoline-cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal propep tide of the type I procollagen (PICP), as bone metabolic markers (BMM) that reflect the effects of radiotherapy in patients with metastatic bone tumors (MBT). One-hundred eight patients who had had malignant tumors and been suspected of developing MBT were measured for ICTP and PICP. Ninety six patients with recognized MBT and 12 patients without MBT were evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy of MBT. Out of the 96 cases, 49 received radiotherapy and were measured for ICTP and PICP before and after the treatment. The 49 cases were divided into 25 cases (Com group) that had all of the MBT irradiated and 24 cases (InCom group) that could not have all sites irradiated. Increase ratios from before to after the radiotherapy were compared between ICTP and PICP. In the 96 patients with MBT, both ICTP and PICP were observed to be significantly high. Diagnostic accuracy was 81.5% for ICTP, and 61.6% for PICP. InCom group showed an increase in ICTP by about 25% while no significant change was observed in the Com group. BMM has diagnostic significance in patients with MBT. Performing radiotherapy to every osseous lesion results in a decline or leveling-off of ICTP. (author)

  8. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Diabetic Neuropathy in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. The current therapy strategies, including glucose control and pain management, are not effective for most patients. Growing evidence suggests that infiltration of inflammation factors and deficiency of local neurotrophic and angiogenic factors contribute significantly to the pathologies of diabetic neuropathy. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs therapy represents a novel and promising strategy for tissue repair through paracrine secretion of multiple cytokines, which has a potential to inhibit inflammation and promote angiogenesis and neurotrophy in diabetic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss the clinical practice in diabetic neuropathy and the therapeutic effect of BMC. We subsequently illustrate the functional impairment of autologous BMCs due to the interrupted bone marrow niche in diabetic neuropathy. We anticipate that the functional restoration of BMCs could improve their therapeutic effect and enable their wide applications in diabetic neuropathy.

  9. High prevalence of hypogonadism and associated impaired metabolic and bone mineral status in subfertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobjer, Johannes; Bogefors, Karolina; Isaksson, Sigrid; Leijonhufvud, Irene; Åkesson, Kristina; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2016-08-01

    It is yet unknown to which degree young subfertile men present with signs of hypogonadism and whether low testosterone concentration, like in older men, is associated with risk of osteoporosis and metabolic derangements in those subjects. The objective was therefore to investigate the prevalence of hypogonadism and its association with metabolic and bone parameters in young subfertile men. Cross-sectional case-control study. Men from infertile couples (n = 192); 18-50 years; sperm concentration hypogonadism (total testosterone hypogonadism was increased among subfertile men (OR 10; 95% CI, 5·1, 22), being highest in those with nonobstructive azoospermia. Hypogonadal men had higher HbA1c concentration (mean diff. 2·8 mmol/mol; 95% CI, 0·64, 4·9; P = 0·011) and lower lumbar spine BMD (mean diff. 0·05 g/cm(2) ; 95% CI, 0·01, 0·10; P = 0·032) compared to eugonadal subfertile men, even more pronounced in subfertile men with subnormal testosterone levels. Young subfertile men have 10 times increased OR of hypogonadism, which is linked to increased HbA1c and decreased bone mineralization. Endocrine assessment and, if needed, measures to prevent metabolic sequelae and osteoporosis should be included in the routine management of men from infertile couples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Changes in bone sodium and carbonate in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis in the dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis were produced in adult dogs over 5- to 10-day periods. Midtibial cortical bone was analyzed for calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and carbonate. In acidosis bone CO3/Ca decreased 9.5% and bone Na/Ca decreased 6.3%. In alkalosis bone CO3/Ca increased 3.1% and bone Na/Ca increased 3.0%. Previous attempts to account for changes in net acid balance by summation of extra- and intracellular acid-base changes have uniformly resulted in about 40-60% of acid gained or lost being “unaccounted for.” If it is assumed that changes in tibial cortex reflect changes in the entire skeletal system, changes in bone CO3= are sufficiently large to account for the “unaccounted for” acid change without postulating changes in cellular metabolic acid production. PMID:5540172

  11. Role of reduced insulin-stimulated bone blood flow in the pathogenesis of metabolic insulin resistance and diabetic bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a

  12. Impact of Calcium and Two Doses of Vitamin D on Bone Metabolism in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahme, Maya; Sharara, Sima Lynn; Baddoura, Rafic

    2017-01-01

    The optimal dose of vitamin D to optimize bone metabolism in the elderly is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D, at a dose higher than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and mass. In this double-blind trial we randomized 257 ove...

  13. Fluorotoxic metabolic bone disease: an osteo-renal syndrome caused by excess fluoride ingestion in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayan, C V; Kochupillai, N; Madhu, S V; Gupta, N; Meunier, P J

    2006-10-01

    There is scant data available on the pathogenetic mechanisms of varied clinical presentation of bone disease in patients with excess fluoride ingestion in the Indian subcontinent. The present study is comprehensive and state of the art, incorporating all essential elements of bone mineral metabolism in patients with excess fluoride ingestion. We studied 24 patients (age 31 +/- 16 years) with fluorotoxic metabolic bone disease (FMBD) for their clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters like serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase (SAP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels, nephrologic parameters that assess renal handling of calcium and phosphorous and skeletal dynamics as revealed by bone histomorphometry. Major clinical manifestations were bone pain (79%), Tetany (12.5%) and dental mottling (38%). Radiological findings included osteosclerosis (96%), pseudofracture and ligamentous calcification (50%). These patients manifested hypocalcemia and raised SAP with normal serum phosphorus. There was a positive correlation between serum creatinine and phosphorous excretion index (PEI) and a negative correlation between declining endogenous creatinine clearance (Cr.Cl) and increasing renal loss of calcium and phosphorus as indicated by increased calcium to creatinine ratio and PEI. Bone histomorphometry revealed impairment of primary mineralization with hypomineralized lacunae, interstitial mineralization defects and very thick and extended osteoid seams. Autopsy findings in a patient who died of azotemia showed tubular atrophy with secondary glomerular changes. Fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the unique osteo-renal syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of bone and mineral metabolism in primary corticosteroid-sensitive pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Liern

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Steroid treatment for corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (CSNS could cause bone and mineral metabolism alterations, preventable with calcium and Vitamin D. Objectives: We carried out a preliminary retrospective study along 36 months with the following objectives. 1 To evaluate the relationship between Cumulative Corticosteroid Doses (CCD and 25-0 Vitamin D serum concentration and with Bone Mineral Content (BMC; 2 To evaluate the relationship between CCD and Bone Mineral Densitomety (BMD. Methods: We included patients between 2 and 12 years of age with corticosteroid sensitive primary nephrotic syndrome (CSNS (first episode, relapsing nephrotic syndrome, corticosteroid dependent nephrotic syndrome normotensive, eutrophic and FG>:90ml/min/1.73 m2, who were divided into three groups: GROUP A: =3 or 4 relapses/year, GROUP C: CSNS, we measured: a Quarterly: calcemia, phosphatemia, alkaline phosphatase; b half-yearly: 25-OH cholecalcipherol levels, CCD; c annually BMD in children >6 years (score Z and BMC, bone age, PTHi. Results: We evaluated 29 patients, average age: 4.4 years. The BMD was performed on 11 patients and there were no significant differences among the groups (p=0.08. No significant differences were seen between chronologic age and average bone age (p=0.3. Change in 25-OH cholecalcipherol levels due to the increase of ergocalcipherol dose was significant (T:32.4 Q:<0.001. There were significant correlation in the three groups, between Vitamin D dose and Vitamin D serum levels (Pearson correlation R=0.9, between CCD and 25 OH cholecalcipherol dose: (Pearson correlation R=0.62 and between CCD and BMC (Pearson correlation R=0.44. Finally, in these three groups the average increase of vitamin D was: 1833IU. Conclusions: We found a relationship between CCD and hypovitaminosis D, which could be corrected increasing Vitamin D dose.

  15. The role of interleukin-17 in bone metabolism and inflammatory skeletal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyun Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The balance between osteoblast-dependent bone formationand osteoclast-dependent bone resorption maintains bonehomeostasis. In inflammatory conditions, this balance shiftstoward bone resorption, causing osteolytic bone lesionsobserved in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. A recentlydiscovered family of cytokine IL-17 is widely reported tomediate diverse inflammatory processes. During the lastdecade, novel roles for IL-17 in skeletal homeostasis have beendiscovered indicating the potential importance of this cytokinein bone metabolism. This review will summarize and discussthe involvement of IL-17 during bone homeostasis in bothphysiologic and pathologic conditions. A better understandingof the role of IL-17 in skeletal systems warrants an advance inbone biology, as well as development of therapeutic strategiesagainst bone-lytic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis andperiodontitis. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10: 479-483

  16. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism reflect osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, N; Glerup, H; Rungby, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    factor (TNF) alpha, TNFbeta, and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta in marrow plasma aspirated from the biopsy area. MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION: The N-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (Ntx) in urine showed a strong positive correlation with the dynamic histomorphometric indices of bone resorption (r...... with the histomorphometric findings. MARKERS OF BONE FORMATION: Serum C-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PICP) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) showed significant correlations with the dynamic parameters of bone formation (r=0.57-0.58), whereas serum osteocalcin and serum total AP did not. CYTOKINES...... that measurements of the biochemical markers of bone metabolism may be useful in monitoring myeloma bone disease, and might thus be of use for dose titration of bisphosphonate therapy....

  17. Study on the relationship between bone metabolism indexes and osteoporosis in aged males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Nanping; Yang Daoli; Zhao Yutang; Peng Liyi; Liu Guixiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and significance of the changes of bone metabolism indexes related to the occurrence of osteoporosis in aged males. Methods: Serum interleukin 1β(IL-1β), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), parathyroid hormone (PTH-M) and 25-OH-D were measured by radio-immunoassay in 58 aged males with osteoporosis and 37 cases with bone mass loss. Bone density was measured in these subjects and all the indexes were compared with those in young and middle-aged and aged healthy controls. Results: IL-1β and PTH-M levels in aged males with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01), while IGF-II and 25-OH-D were lower than in normal controls, especially in osteoporosis group (P < 0.01). With the age increasing and the deterioration of the disorder, bone density in the two groups of patients were significantly lower than those in young and middle-aged controls (P < 0.01). Aged males with osteoporosis had a significantly lower bone density than patients with bone mass loss. Conclusion: Cytokines and disturbance of bone metabolism indexes are the main factors that lead to osteoporosis characterized by more bone absorption and less bone formation in aged males

  18. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  19. Markers of Bone Metabolism in Obese Individuals Undergoing Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollenberger, Asja E; Heinze, Jaana M; Meile, Tobias; Peter, Andreas; Königsrainer, Alfred; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2015-08-01

    Besides its advantages, bariatric surgery implicates a risk of nutritional deficiencies, which might result in impaired bone metabolism. We assessed the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on blood markers of bone metabolism in obese patients during a 3-year observation period. In 39 obese patients (29 women, 10 men, mean BMI 51.8 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)) undergoing LSG, we measured blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and N-telopeptides crosslinks (NTx) before LSG and up to 3 years postoperatively. Vitamin D and calcium supplementations were recorded. LSG caused an excess weight loss (EWL) of 54 ± 20 % after 3 years. Before surgery, we found decreased levels of 25(OH)D and calcium in 80 and 5 % of the subjects, respectively, while increased levels of PTH, BAP, and NTx were found in 39, 28, and 21 %, respectively. Mean levels of NTx and the prevalence of elevated levels of NTx increased within 2 years (p postoperatively. Morbid obesity is associated with pronounced changes of markers of bone metabolism; LSG did neither aggravate nor ameliorate vitamin D metabolism within a 3-year time period, but led to increased bone resorption 2 years postoperatively. Routine supplementation of calcium and vitamin D is not likely sufficient to compensate the obesity-associated deficiencies in bone metabolism.

  20. Further studies on the intermediary metabolism of bone in vitro and a monoclonal cell line (MMB-1) derived from bone: effects of parathyroid hormone and acetazolamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism/mechanisms by which PTH affects Ca homeostasis between blood and bone have not been clearly established. Most studies of metabolic acid production in bone took place during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since that time, assay techniques for metabolic acid production have been improved for greater sensitivity, more has been learned as to how PTH mediates its cellular responses, and techniques for cell isolation and culture have dramatically improved. These improvements have made possible new approaches to the study of short term effects of PTH on metabolic acid production in bone. Chapter 1 explores the potential of bone to utilize substrates other than glucose for metabolic energy transfer. Chapter 2 characterizes glucose metabolism in mouse calvaria in vitro and explores effects of PTH, acetazolamide, and C1 13,850 on calvaria oxidative metabolism. Chapter 3 describes PTH effects on glucose metabolism of MMB-1 cells, a monoclonal cell line reported to possess osteoblast-like characteristics

  1. Metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases including BPD, COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dennery, Phyllis A; Yao, Hongwei

    2018-01-04

    The metabolism of nutrient substrates including glucose, glutamine and fatty acids provides acetyl-CoA for the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate energy, and metabolites for the biosynthesis of biomolecules including nucleotides, proteins, and lipids. It has been shown that metabolism of glucose, fatty acid, and glutamine plays important roles in modulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, senescence, and inflammatory responses. All these cellular processes contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies demonstrate that metabolic reprogramming occurs in patients with and animal models of chronic lung diseases, suggesting that metabolic dysregulation may participate in the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases. In this review, we briefly discuss the catabolic pathways for glucose, glutamine and fatty acids, and focus on how metabolic reprogramming of these pathways impacts cellular functions and leads to the development of these chronic lung diseases. We also highlight how targeting metabolic pathways can be utilized in the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  2. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

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    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  3. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  4. Influence of immediate and early loading on bone metabolic activity around dental implants in rat tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miou; Ogawa, Toru; Yokoyama, Masayoshi; Koyama, Shigeto; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of immediate and early loading on dynamic changes in bone metabolism around dental implants using bone scintigraphy. Two titanium implants were inserted in the right tibiae of 21 rats. Closed coil springs with 4.0-N loads were applied parallel to the upper portion of the implants for 35 days. According to the load application timing, rats were divided into three groups: immediate loading (IL) group, early loading 1 day after implant insertion (1-D early loading [EL]) group, and loading 3 days after implant insertion (3-D EL) group. Rats were intravenously injected with technetium-99 m-methylene diphosphonate (Tc99 m-MDP) (74 MBq/rat) and scanned by bone scintigraphy at 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after load application. The ratio of accumulation of Tc99 m-MDP around the implants to that of a reference site (uptake ratio) was calculated to evaluate bone metabolism. In every group, the uptake ratio increased until 7 days after load application and then gradually decreased. It was significantly higher than baseline at 4, 7, 11, and 14 days (P load timing. Increases in bone metabolic activity differed according to load application timing; the later the load application, the more enhanced the bone metabolism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Quantification of Bone Fatty Acid Metabolism and Its Regulation by Adipocyte Lipoprotein Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bartelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance. We show that there are considerable site-specific variations in bone marrow fatty acid composition throughout the skeleton and that, especially in the tibia, marrow fatty acid profiles resemble classical BAT and WAT. Using a mouse model lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a master regulator of plasma lipid turnover specifically in adipocytes, we show that impaired fatty acid flux leads to reduced amounts of dietary essential fatty acids while there was a profound increase in de novo produced fatty acids in both bone marrow and cortical bone. Notably, these changes in fatty acid profiles were not associated with any gross skeletal phenotype. These results identify LPL as an important regulator of fatty acid transport to skeletal compartments and demonstrate an intricate functional link between systemic and skeletal fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  6. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  7. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

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    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  8. Relationship of Bone Metabolism Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Späte, Ulrike; Turner, Ryan; Wang, Ying; Chao, Raylien; Schulze, P Christian; Phipps, Kathy; Orwoll, Eric; Dam, Thuy-Tien

    2015-06-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tooth-supporting tissue leading to bone destruction and tooth loss. Periodontitis affects almost 50% of adults greater than 30 years of age. This study evaluated the association between biomarkers linked to bone formation and resorption with the occurrence and progression of periodontal disease in older men (≥ 65 y). The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study is a prospective, observational study among men 65 years of age and older. This ancillary study, Oral and Skeletal Bone Loss in Older Men, was conducted at two of the six MrOS study sites (Birmingham, AL and Portland, OR). Patients underwent medical and dental evaluation. Diagnoses of periodontitis were based on clinical attachment loss, pocket depth, calculus, plaque, and bleeding on a random half-mouth. Bone metabolism biomarkers included serum levels of calcium, phosphate (Pi), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX), N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen, isoform 5b of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and urine alpha- carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (alpha-CTX) and beta-CTX and serum levels of calciotropic hormones vitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH. The aim of this study is to correlate bone metabolism biomarkers with prevalence and progression of periodontal disease in older men. Patients with more severe periodontitis had significantly higher levels of PTH (P trend = .0004), whereas 25(OH)D was lower (P trend = .001). In a subset of men reevaluated at a second dental visit, improvement of periodontitis was associated with lower alpha-CTX, beta-CTX, and CTX levels at baseline after adjusting for age, site, and body mass index. This study suggests that a distinct set of biomarkers of bone metabolism are associated with more severe periodontal disease (PTH, 25(OH)D) and periodontal progression (alpha-CTX, beta-CTX, and CTX) over time.

  9. Effects of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats

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    Iveta Gradošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker is a widely used agent for the treatment of hypertension in human and veterinary medicine but detailed information about its effects on bone metabolism are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats. Amlodipine (0.3 mg/100 g body weight; gavage was administered to 8 rats for 8 weeks. Control group (n = 8 received aqua pro inj. (0.2 ml/100 g body weight; gavage. Bone marker concentrations of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I and aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in serum, and of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP in both serum and bone homogenate were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 in proximal tibia using Western blotting, and bone mineral density was measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in lumbar and caudal vertebrae and in femoral areas. Mechanical properties of the femurs were measured by three-point bending of the shaft and compression testing of the femoral neck. After 8 weeks of amlodipine administration there was a significant decrease in serum concentrations of BALP (p = 0.0009 and CTX-I (p = 0.003, and the content of BALP in bone homogenate (p = 0.026 compared to the control. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated increased BMP-2 protein concentration after amlodipine administration. Our findings suggest that amlodipine has a retarding influence on bone metabolism in rats by decreasing bone turnover, which probably in consequence increases expression of BMP-2.

  10. BEYOND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS: EFFECTS OF INCRETIN-BASED THERAPY ON BONE METABOLISM

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    ELENA eCECCARELLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporosis (OP are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture risk has been described both in type 1 (T1DM and in type 2 (T2DM diabetes. The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density (BMD. In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g. tiazolidinediones, insulin may deeply affect bone metabolism. In addition, the recently introduced class of incretin-based drugs (i.e. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells.Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients.

  11. Metabolic radionuclide therapy of metastatic bone pain using 89SrCl (metastron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancheva, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic radionuclide therapy of metastatic bone pain using 89 SrCl (metastron) is discussed in historical point of view and in perspective. Also its place among the conventional therapeutic options for bone pain palliation and the perspectives for an improvement in its efficiency is evaluated. Pharmacokinetics of 89 SrCl and the mechanism of its impact on pathophysiology of metastatic bone pain were considered. In regard to an optimal selection of patients, that would benefit most of the therapy, the indications, criteria and effectiveness of the therapy in patients in different stages of the malignancy or with different bone metastases were analyzed. In this article are also discussed current changes in treatment approaches. They consist in earlier administration of metastron in the course of the neoplastic disease and in more accurate selection of patients with predominant osteoblastic bone metastases. Radionuclide metabolic therapy has some advantages to conventional therapeutic approaches that are considered in this article. One of them is the opportunity for combined therapy using 89 SrCl and biphosphonates and/ or chemotherapy Together these approaches have a synergistic effect inducing better efficacy in bone pain palliation, delay in new incidence of metastatic bone process, decrease in metastatic bone related complications and may be a better life expectancy. (author)

  12. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed on 69 women who had premenopausal hysterectomy and 427 women with natural menopause 50 to 59 years old. Bone mineral density was measured...... in the distal forearm by single-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition and bone mineral density in the anteroposterior spine, proximal femur, and total body was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was determined by plasma osteocalcin, serum alkaline phosphatase, and fasting...... urinary calcium corrected for creatinine excretion. RESULTS: Women who had undergone premenopausal hysterectomy had similar bone mineral densities compared with women with an intact uterus in all compartments, apart from a 6% to 11% higher bone mineral density (p

  13. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  14. Neridronic acid for the treatment of bone metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Fracassi, Elena; Adami, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    Neridronic acid (6-amino-1-idroxyesilidene-1,1-bisphosphonate) is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate licensed in Italy for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget's disease of bone. The pharmacodynamic profile is similar to that of other nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and is characterized by its high affinity for bone tissue particularly at sites undergoing a process of remodeling. In growing children affected by osteogenesis imperfect, neridronic acid rapidly increases bone mineral density as measured by dual X-ray absortiometry and this is associated with a significant decrease in fracture cumulative number. Similar results have been obtained also in newborns ( 75% of bone turnover markers) in 95% of the patients. Neridronic acid treatment has been reported to be effective also in other skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, algodystrophy, hypercalcemia of malignancy and bone metastasis. Neridronic acid has been developed only for parenteral use, and it is the only one used as intramuscular injection. This avoids all the limitations of oral bisphosphonates and may be offered for a home treatment with simple nursing assistance.

  15. Population Risk Factors in the Genesis of Bone Metabolism Didorders in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

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    I.V. Pankiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents population risk factors involved in the genesis of bone metabolism disorders in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT. The results of the study of bone mineral density in patients with AIT are provided. The importance of population risk factors (female sex, menopause in women, weight deficit, age in the genesis of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis in patients with AIT has been studied.

  16. Vanadate effects on bone metabolism: fish cell lines as an alternative to mammalian in vitro systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago, Daniel M.; Laizé, Vincent; Aureliano, M.; Cancela, Leonor

    2007-01-01

    Vanadate, one of the most relevant forms of vanadium in solution, has been associated with the regulation of various enzyme activities (e.g. phosphatases, ribonucleases, ATPases, etc.) and shown to exhibit important biological effects. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have clearly demonstrated that any deficiency or excess of vanadium can seriously affect bone formation and its metabolism. Bone-related effects result largely from vanadium insulino-mimetic capabilities mediated by sp...

  17. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two-Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Ariane; Gonçalves, Stéphane; Autefage, Helène; Briand-Mesange, Fabienne; Lignon, Olivier; Fitremann, Juliette

    2010-12-02

    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  18. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two—Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Briand-Mesange

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  19. [Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) as well as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential hormones to maintain homeostasis of bone turnover by activating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Results from GH replacement therapy for primary osteoporosis and adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD) suggest that one year or more treatment period by this agent is required to gain bone mineral density (BMD) over the basal level after compensating BMD loss caused by dominant increase in bone resorption which was observed at early phase of GH treatment. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy of GH replacement therapy on increases in BMD in male patients with AGHD. Additional analyses are needed to draw firm conclusions in female patients with AGHD, because insufficient amounts of GH might be administrated to them without considerations of influence of estrogen replacement therapy on IGF-1 production. Further observational studies are needed to clarify whether GH replacement therapy prevent fracture risk in these patients.

  20. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed on 69 women who had premenopausal hysterectomy and 427 women with natural menopause 50 to 59 years old. Bone mineral density was measured in the ...

  1. Bone Mineral Metabolism Parameters and Urinary Albumin Excretion in a Representative US Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E.; Francis, Sheila E.; Chico, Timothy J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. Study Population and Measures We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FEalb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FEalb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FEalb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FEalb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7–28% p<0.001) and 17% (8–31% p = 0.001) respectively. Conclusion In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FEalb. PMID:24505486

  2. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ellam

    Full Text Available Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria.We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383 with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR <300 mg/g. Albuminuria was quantified as ACR and fractional albumin excretion (FE(alb.Increasing quintiles of dietary phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OHD was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OHD, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001 and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001 respectively.In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb.

  3. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E; Francis, Sheila E; Chico, Timothy J A

    2014-01-01

    Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb). The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb). Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb) that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb) associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001) and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001) respectively. In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb).

  4. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Locatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered.

  5. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Vittorio; Bianchi, Vittorio E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered. PMID:25147565

  6. Effect of the types of dietary fats and non-dietary oils on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga

    2017-03-04

    Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.

  7. The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of this study it was attempted to obtain a better insight into the possible influence of the diet on the development of human osteoporosis. This disease, which is a consequence of decalcification of the bones, occurs frequently in elderly people, particularly in postmenopausal

  8. Bone Metabolism after Total Hip Revision Surgery with Impacted Grafting: Evaluation using H215O and [18F]fluoride PET; A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Olivier; Raijmakers, Pieter; Heyligers, Ide; Comans, Emile; Lubberink, Mark; Teule, Gerrit; Lammertsma, Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bone blood flow and bone formation in patients after total hip revision surgery with impacted bone grafting using H2 15O and [18F]fluoride positron emission tomography (PET). Procedures: To asses bone blood flow and bone metabolism in bone allograft after impaction grafting,

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Panimal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  12. Effect of including damage at the tissue level in the nonlinear homogenisation of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrero-Florencio, Francesc; Manda, Krishnagoud; Margetts, Lee; Pankaj, Pankaj

    2017-10-01

    Being able to predict bone fracture or implant stability needs a proper constitutive model of trabecular bone at the macroscale in multiaxial, non-monotonic loading modes. Its macroscopic damage behaviour has been investigated experimentally in the past, mostly with the restriction of uniaxial cyclic loading experiments for different samples, which does not allow for the investigation of several load cases in the same sample as damage in one direction may affect the behaviour in other directions. Homogenised finite element models of whole bones have the potential to assess complicated scenarios and thus improve clinical predictions. The aim of this study is to use a homogenisation-based multiscale procedure to upscale the damage behaviour of bone from an assumed solid phase constitutive law and investigate its multiaxial behaviour for the first time. Twelve cubic specimens were each submitted to nine proportional strain histories by using a parallel code developed in-house. Evolution of post-elastic properties for trabecular bone was assessed for a small range of macroscopic plastic strains in these nine load cases. Damage evolution was found to be non-isotropic, and both damage and hardening were found to depend on the loading mode (tensile, compression or shear); both were characterised by linear laws with relatively high coefficients of determination. It is expected that the knowledge of the macroscopic behaviour of trabecular bone gained in this study will help in creating more precise continuum FE models of whole bones that improve clinical predictions.

  13. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  14. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.

  15. Acute effects of nasal salmon calcitonin on calcium and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Skousgaard, S G; Daugaard, H

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 200 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin (SCT) on calcium metabolism and biochemical markers of bone turnover were investigated in 12 healthy male volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. The nasal spray was given in the morning, and subsequently blood...

  16. Impact of an obesogenic diet program on bone densitometry, micro architecture and metabolism in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbaix Maude

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between fat mass and bone tissue are complex and not fully elucidated. A high-fat/high-sucrose diet has been shown to induce harmful effects on bone micro architecture and bone biomechanics of rat. When such diet leads to obesity, it may induce an improvement of biomechanical bone parameters in rodent. Here, we examined the impact of a high-fat/high-sucrose diet on the body composition and its resulting effects on bone density and structure in male rats. Forty three Wistar rats aged 7 months were split into 3 groups: 1 sacrificed before diet (BD, n = 14; 1 subjected to 16 weeks of high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, n = 14; 1 subjected to standard diet (Control, n = 15. Abdominal circumference and insulin sensitivity were measured and visceral fat mass was weighed. The bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed at the whole body and tibia by densitometry. Microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis were performed at L2 vertebrae and tibia to study the trabecular and cortical bone structures and the bone cell activities. Osteocalcin and CTX levels were performed to assess the relative balance of the bone formation and resorption. Differences between groups have been tested with an ANOVA with subsequent Scheffe post-hoc test. An ANCOVA with global mass and global fat as covariates was used to determine the potential implication of the resulting mechanical loading on bone. Results The HF/HS group had higher body mass, fat masses and abdominal circumference and developed an impaired glucose tolerance (p  Conclusions The HF/HS diet had induced obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. These changes resulted in an improvement of quantitative, qualitative and metabolic bone parameters. The fat mass increase partly explained these observations.

  17. Evaluation of bone metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Li

    2001-01-01

    Bone metabolism inpatients with chronic renal failure treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was evaluated. IRMA, RRA and RIA were used to detect PTH, 25 (OH)D 3 , 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , BGP, Ca and P levels in the blood of 24 CAPD patients. PTH and BGP were increased in uremic patients ad decreased after CAPD. 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 were decreased in the patients, but their levels were not changed further after CAPD. PTH had negative correlation with 25 (OH)D 3 (r = -0.379, P 2 D 3 (r = -0.451, P < 0.01). PTH had positive correlation with BGP (r 0.501, P < 0.01) in CAPD patients, and the correlativity was decreased by CAPD. The results showed: PTH hypersecretion is a main factor inducing bone metabolism disturbance, and bone turnover rate is decreased in these patients by CAPD

  18. Effects of manganese deficiency on serum hormones and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaojun, Wang; Lin, Wang; Zhenyong, Wang; Jian, Wang; Ran, Liu

    2013-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of manganese (Mn) deficiency on bone metabolism in chicks, ninety 1-day-old male Arbor Acre chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups and each group were given a diet having a different concentration of Mn (60 mg kg(-1), control group; 40 mg kg(-1), Mn-deficient group I; 8.7 mg kg(-1), Mn-deficient group II). The serum was collected at 42 days old. Tests were performed to evaluate the changes in the levels of PTH, CT, ALP, TrACP, HOP TNF-alpha, OC, Mn and Ca in the serum of the chicks and the results showed that the levels of CT, ALP, TrACP, HOP, and Mn decreased markedly (P manganese deficiency in the diet, which indicates that Mn deficiency results in disorder of bone regulatory hormones and enzymes of bone metabolism in the serum.

  19. Prevalence of Оsteoporosis and Low Bone Mineral Density in Ukrainian Women with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD in Ukrainian women with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 1,605 persons, whose mean age was 62.31 ± 9.52 years, the average body mass — 76.48 ± 14.65 kg. All women were in postmenopausal period. Patients were divided into three groups. First group (800 people included women without obesity, second one (572 persons — with obesity. Third group (233 people consisted of patients with metabolic syndrome. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometer (Prodigy, 2005. Conclusion about normal BMD, osteoporosis and low BMD was made according to the ISCD (2007 criteria for official position (updated in 2015. Results. The incidence of osteoporosis and low BMD in women from the second and third groups were compared with those in the first group. We have found no significant differences in performance of BMD between patients of second and third groups unlike the first group. Conclusions. In patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD is significantly lower as compared with the group of women without obesity, and metabolic syndrome and obesity have equally positive effect on bone mineral density.

  20. Microstructural, densitometric and metabolic variations in bones from rats with normal or altered skeletal states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Luu

    Full Text Available High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods.Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing.Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups.PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone tissue mineral density, as well as

  1. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  2. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-10-21

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups ( n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  3. [Utility of bone turnover markers in metabolic bone disease detection in patients with phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Freire Corbacho, Antonio; Rodríguez García, Javier; Leis, Rosaura; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2015-03-09

    Mineral bone disease is more common in phenylketonuric patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the usefulness of biochemical bone markers to identify phenylketonuric patients with mineral bone disease (MBD) and know the underlying bone remodeling alterations. Cross-sectional study of 43 phenylketonuric patients>7 years (range: 7.1-41 years). A nutritional survey was performed and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (PNP-1), beta-crosslaps and ratio calcium/creatinine in urine were determined. A percentage of 20.9 of patients had pathological biochemical bone markers, 90% of them being adults. BAP was decreased in 70% of them and beta-crosslaps in 42.8%. BAP values were more often pathological in phenylketonuric patients with a late diagnosis (41.7 vs. 10.7%; P<.05) and in patients with MBD (60 vs. 14.3%; P<.05). PNP-1 values and calcium/creatinine were similar among all phenylketonuric patients regardless of presenting MBD, late diagnosis or tetrahydrobipterin treatment (enzyme cofactor). Patients with decreased BAP and beta-crosslaps had lower natural protein intake: BAP (0.21 ± 0.13 vs. 0.65 ± 0.65 g/kg; P<.05); beta-crosslaps (0.29 ± 0.23 vs. 0.65 ± 0.66 g/kg; P<.05). None of the tetrahydrobiopterin treated patients showed altered values of BAP, PNP-1 or calcium/creatinine. Adult phenylketonuric patients with lower natural protein intake tend to have lower values of BAP, which is a marker that may be useful to identify patients at risk for MBD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation effects of heavy ion particles on bone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawajiri, Masahiko; Nomura, Yuuji; Takinami, Shuichi; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2005-01-01

    The osteoclast in the carbon ion irradiation animal were smaller than in the gamma ray irradiation animal in previous study, suggesting that carbon ion irradiation may inhibit the production of osteoblastic cells osteoclast-stimulating factors. Osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL and OPG mRNA expression after carbon ion irradiation were comparing with gamma ray irradiation. Since the ratios of RANKL to OPG expression levels are critical to the impact on osteoclast differentiation and controlling the balance in bone formation and resorption. Measurement of TRAP assay shows that the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by carbon ion irradiation. The ratio of RANKL to OPG in MC3T3-E1 cells with carbon ion irradiation was lower than untreated cultures. Contrary, gamma ray elevated RANKL levels and increased the RANKL/OPG ratio, mainly due to increased RANKL expression Carbon ion irradiation reduced RANKL expression and production in osteoblasts, led us to postulate that carbon ion irradiation acts primarily on cells of osteoblast, resulting in suppression of RANKL expression and production in osteoblastic cells. The reduced RANKL expression would lead to a decrease in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, which results an increase in bone volume. (author)

  5. IL-6 and IGF-1 signaling within and between muscle and bone: how important is the mTOR pathway for bone metabolism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.D.; Jaspers, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) play an important role in the adaptation of both muscle and bone to mechanical stimuli. Here, we provide an overview of the functions of IL-6 and IGF-1 in bone and muscle metabolism, and the intracellular signaling pathways that are well

  6. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  7. Interventions for metabolic bone disease in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Deirdre; Hodson, Elisabeth M; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-11-12

    Bone disease is common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and when untreated may result in bone deformities, bone pain, fractures and reduced growth rates. This is an update of a review first published in 2010. This review aimed to examine the benefits (improved growth rates, reduced risk of bone fractures and deformities, reduction in PTH levels) and harms (hypercalcaemia, blood vessel calcification, deterioration in kidney function) of interventions (including vitamin D preparations and phosphate binders) for the prevention and treatment of metabolic bone disease in children with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 8 September 2015 through contact with the Trial's Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant for this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different interventions used to prevent or treat bone disease in children with CKD stages 2 to 5D. Data were assessed for study eligibility, risk of bias and extracted independently by two authors. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR) or risk differences (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model. This review included 18 studies (576 children); three new studies were added for this update. Adequate sequence generation and allocation concealment were reported in 12 and 11 studies respectively. Only four studies reported blinding of children, investigators or outcome assessors. Nine studies were at low risk of attrition bias and 12 studies were at low risk of selective reporting bias.Eight different interventions were compared. Two studies compared intraperitoneal (IP) with oral calcitriol. PTH levels were significantly lower with IP compared with oral calcitriol (1 study: MD -501.00 pg/mL, 95% CI -721.54 to

  8. The consequences of chronic kidney disease on bone metabolism and growth in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Harambat, Jérôme; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2012-08-01

    Growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy (ROD) are common complications of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting from a combination of abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis, vitamin D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, hypogonadism, inadequate nutrition, cachexia and drug toxicity. The impact of CKD-associated bone and mineral disorders (CKD-MBD) may be immediate (serum phosphate/calcium disequilibrium) or delayed (poor growth, ROD, fractures, vascular calcifications, increased morbidity and mortality). In 2012, the clinical management of CKD-MBD in children needs to focus on three main objectives: (i) to provide an optimal growth in order to maximize the final height with an early management with recombinant GH therapy when required, (ii) to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to obtain acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status and (iii) to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen bone disease, growth and cardiovascular disease, i.e. metabolic acidosis, anaemia, malnutrition and 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the mineral, bone and vascular abnormalities associated with CKD in children in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management.

  9. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose

  10. Osteoblastoma is a metabolically active benign bone tumor on 18F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M; Al-Omari, Ma'moon H; Audat, Ziad A; Alqudah, Mohammad A

    2013-12-01

    We describe a case of a 9-y-old girl who on (18)F-FDG PET imaging was found to have a highly metabolically active sacral tumor with an average standarized uptake value of 6.2. The tumor was proven to be osteoblastoma by pathologic examination. Osteoblastoma is a relatively rare benign primary bone tumor and occurs predominantly in patients younger than 20 y. The most common area of involvement is the spine. Osteoblastoma has been reported to be metabolically active on (18)F-FDG PET imaging, with an average standarized uptake value of 3.2, which renders (18)F-FDG PET imaging unable to differentiate benign from malignant primary bone tumors. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of osteoblastoma evaluated by (18)F-FDG PET imaging have been reported in the literature; all were metabolically active on (18)F-FDG PET imaging. The objective of this case report is to show that a metabolically active primary bone tumor on (18)F-FDG PET imaging might be benign and not necessarily malignant.

  11. Changes of metabolism and mineral density of bone tissue during 6-months therapy with ossin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kupavtseva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate sodium fluoride (Ossin, "Grunental" influence on bone mineral density and metabolism in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. An 6-month open controlled investigation was carried out. 30 women were included in 2 groups: premenopausal (aged 20-40 years (PRM and postmenopausal (aged 50-65 years (PSM. 2 control groups were formed according to similar pairs method. Each contained 15 women of corresponding activity, disease duration and age. Pts received sodium fluoride 80 mg/day and Calcium Sandos 500 mg/day. Densitometry (QDR 1000 Hologic and bone metabolism biochemical markers examination were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bone phosphatase (BP C- terminal propeptid of type I collagen (PICP, osteocalcin in serum, deoxypiridinolin and piridinolin in urine were measured with immunoenzyme assay ("METRA Biosystems”. Results. BP level increased during follow up in both PSM and PRM groups (from 22,9±I4,0 to 37,7+16,0, p<0,00l and from 20,7±8,9 to 26,7±12,6, p<0,05 respectively. There were no changes of other BM. 2,5% increase of lumbar BMD was detected in PRM group (p<0,05 - Fisher exact lest. Control group lumbar BMD decreased by 4,45%. Conclusion. Ossin significantly increased lumbar BMD in premenopausal RA pts.

  12. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  13. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  14. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  15. Effects of dietary protein deficiency on mineral metabolism and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwoll, E; Ware, M; Stribrska, L; Bikle, D; Sanchez, T; Andon, M; Li, H

    1992-08-01

    The effects of dietary protein restriction on mineral and bone metabolism are uncharacterized. We studied growing rats fed a diet low in protein (5%) for 4, 6, and 8 wks (n = 10 animals/group) and compared them with animals pair-fed with a protein-replete (18%) diet. The low-protein diet rapidly induced a profound hypocalciuria that persisted for greater than or equal to 8 wk. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were not affected but serum total and free 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations as well as gastrointestinal calcium absorption were lower in the low-protein animals. Skeletal dimensions were reduced in the protein-deprived rats but there were no significant differences in bone mineral content between control and low-protein animals at 4, 6, and 8 wks. Hence, dietary protein deprivation resulted in slower growth but bone mineral density was maintained when there was a marked reduction in urinary calcium excretion.

  16. [Effect of milk product with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women: randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Antonia; Quesada Charneco, Miguel; Alvárez Guisado, Alejandro; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Fonollá Joya, Juristo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-02-04

    To analyze the effects of nutritional intervention with a milk product enriched with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women. We performed a double-blind controlled randomized trial in ninety-nine postmenopausal women. Group S women (n=48) were randomized to consume milk product enriched with soy isoflavone (50 mg/day) while group C (n=51) consumed product control for 12 months. Parameters of quality of life (Cervantes scale), markers of bone metabolism and bone mass estimated by ultrasound of the calcaneus (QUS) were evaluated. Overall, there was an improvement in the domains menopause (P=.015) and vasomotor symptoms (Pmilk products increases levels of 25-OH-vitamin D and decreases bone metabolism markers. Additional supplementation with soy isoflavones seems to improve quality of life and bone mass in Spanish postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for Bone and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Children With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rechter, Stéphanie; Bacchetta, Justine; Godefroid, Nathalie; Dubourg, Laurence; Cochat, Pierre; Maquet, Julie; Raes, Ann; De Schepper, Jean; Vermeersch, Pieter; Van Dyck, Maria; Levtchenko, Elena; D'Haese, Patrick; Evenepoel, Pieter; Mekahli, Djalila

    2017-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. Hypophosphatemia was demonstrated in adult patients with preserved renal function, together with high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and low soluble Klotho levels. The latter explained the relative FGF23 hyporesponsiveness in this cohort. Evaluating phosphate and bone mineral metabolism in children with ADPKD compared with what is known in adult ADPKD patients. Observational cross-sectional study. Multicenter study via ambulatory care in tertiary centers. Ninety-two children with ADPKD (52 males; mean ± standard deviation age, 10.2 ± 5.0 years) and 22 healthy controls (HCs, 10 males; mean ± standard deviation age, 10.3 ± 4.1 years). The predictor was early ADPKD stage. Bone mineral metabolism and renal phosphate handling were the main outcome measures. Performed measurements were serum phosphate, tubular maximum phosphorus reabsorption per glomerular filtration rate, FGF23, soluble Klotho, sclerostin, and bone alkaline phosphatase. ADPKD children had significantly lower serum phosphate levels compared with HC. Low tubular maximum phosphorus reabsorption per glomerular filtration rate was observed in 24% of patients, although not significantly different from HC. Serum FGF23 and soluble Klotho levels were comparable between patients and HC. In addition, we showed decreased bone alkaline phosphatase levels in ADPKD children, suggesting suppressed bone formation. This report demonstrates hypophosphatemia and suppressed bone formation in a pediatric ADPKD cohort, with preserved renal function, compared with HC. Although FGF23 levels were not different from controls, they should be considered inappropriate, given the concomitant hypophosphatemia. Further studies are required to elucidate underlying pathophysiology and potential clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Vitamin D status and PTH in young men: a cross-sectional study on associations with bone mineral density, body composition and glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L

    2010-01-01

    Although vitamin D and bone metabolism are closely related, few studies have addressed the effects of vitamin D status on bone in men at time of peak bone mass. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in a cross-sectional study in young men and the eff...... and the effects of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone mass, bone markers and metabolic function....

  19. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pfailed to show statistically significant association between circulating adiponectin levels and indices of bone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  20. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had......-carbonic acidosis during fasting may be a pathophysilogical factor of both nephrolithiasis and disturbed bone metabolism in stone formers with iRTA....

  1. Bioactivity of Ceftazidime and Fluconazole Included in Polymethyl Methacrylate Bone Cement for Use in Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, J; Merino, V; Nácher, A; Rodrigo, J L; Bonet Yuste, Blanca B; Merino-Sanjuán, M

    2017-10-01

    The microorganisms that most frequently cause prosthetic joint infection are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic bacillus. Studies have documented the efficacy of mixing antibiotics with polymethyl methacrylate, but that of antifungal drugs has not received much attention. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize the elution profile and bioactivity of ceftazidime and fluconazole when incorporated into bone cement in proportions intended for prophylaxis and treatment of bone infections. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement cylinders in a proportion of 1:40 and 4:40 (ratio of grams of antibiotic to grams of cement) were assayed. Drug delivery was investigated in a flow-through dissolution apparatus (SotaxCE7). To assess bioactivity, antibiotic concentrations were simulated in the joint space of 1000 patients. Antibacterial properties were evaluated by counting colony forming units and the inhibition-halo test. The ratio of released ceftazidime and fluconazole was 453% and 648%, respectively, higher when used for treatment proportions than prophylaxis proportions. A bioactivity simulation exercise showed that the efficacy of ceftazidime/fluconazole determined as the amount of drug is released at the active site in the first 3 days after surgery would depend on the sensitivity of the microorganism and would increase substantially after drain removal. The microbiology study showed that biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be a problem when ceftazidime was used in treatment or prophylaxis proportions. Our in vitro findings suggest that ceftazidime and fluconazole can be added into polymethyl methacrylate for the prevention/treatment of infections associated to joint surgery. Their efficacy depends on the sensitivity of the microorganism causing the infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of 24-hr whole-body retention of Tc-99mMDP with a thyroid uptake probe: quantitative assessment of metabolic and metastatic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, H.; Futatsuya, R.; Kamei, T.; Furumoto, N.; Ishizaki, Y.; Hada, M.; Kakishita, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for measurement of 24-hr whole body retention (WBR) of Tc-99mMDP, using a thyroid uptake probe was established and its clinical significance was evaluated in 102 patients with various bone disorders, including metabolic and metastatic bone diseases, aged above 20 years old. Reproducibility of 24-hr WBR in 10 patients was very good (r=0.996). The 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP in the normal subjects was 30.4 +- 4.6%. The WBR values of chronic renal failure, metastatic bone disease and hyperthyroidism groups were 98.4 +- 3.0, 44.0 +- 8.0, 40,6 +- 6.3% respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.001). However the WBR of steroid-induced osteoporotic group was significantly lower (17.3 +- 5.4%) as compared with the normal group (p < 0.001). Based on these results the method is simple, reproducible and accurate to measure 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP. Quantification of WBR is of great clinical value to diagnose metabolic bone disease and to follow-up metabolic and metastatic bone disease after treatment

  3. Mammalian hibernation as a model of disuse osteoporosis: the effects of physical inactivity on bone metabolism, structure, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Carey, Hannah V; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-12-01

    Reduced skeletal loading typically leads to bone loss because bone formation and bone resorption become unbalanced. Hibernation is a natural model of musculoskeletal disuse because hibernating animals greatly reduce weight-bearing activity, and therefore, they would be expected to lose bone. Some evidence suggests that small mammals like ground squirrels, bats, and hamsters do lose bone during hibernation, but the mechanism of bone loss is unclear. In contrast, hibernating bears maintain balanced bone remodeling and preserve bone structure and strength. Differences in the skeletal responses of bears and smaller mammals to hibernation may be due to differences in their hibernation patterns; smaller mammals may excrete calcium liberated from bone during periodic arousals throughout hibernation, leading to progressive bone loss over time, whereas bears may have evolved more sophisticated physiological processes to recycle calcium, prevent hypercalcemia, and maintain bone integrity. Investigating the roles of neural and hormonal control of bear bone metabolism could give valuable insight into translating the mechanisms that prevent disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel therapies for treating osteoporosis.

  4. AMPK Protects Leukemia-Initiating Cells in Myeloid Leukemias from Metabolic Stress in the Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yusuke; Chapple, Richard H; Lin, Angelique; Kitano, Ayumi; Nakada, Daisuke

    2015-11-05

    How cancer cells adapt to metabolically adverse conditions in patients and strive to proliferate is a fundamental question in cancer biology. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase, confers metabolic stress resistance to leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and promotes leukemogenesis. Upon dietary restriction, MLL-AF9-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activated AMPK and maintained leukemogenic potential. AMPK deletion significantly delayed leukemogenesis and depleted LICs by reducing the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), compromising glucose flux, and increasing oxidative stress and DNA damage. LICs were particularly dependent on AMPK to suppress oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow environment. Strikingly, AMPK inhibition synergized with physiological metabolic stress caused by dietary restriction and profoundly suppressed leukemogenesis. Our results indicate that AMPK protects LICs from metabolic stress and that combining AMPK inhibition with physiological metabolic stress potently suppresses AML by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in metabolic bone disease of women after obesity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, José A; Lafuente, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Galindo, Julio; Peromingo, Roberto; García-Moreno, Francisca; Rodriguez-Velasco, Gloria; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic bone disease may appear as a complication of obesity surgery. Because an imbalance in the osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system may underlie osteoporosis, we aimed to study this system in humans in the metabolic bone disease occurring after obesity surgery. In this study we included sixty women with a mean age of 47 ± 10 years studied 7 ± 2 years after bariatric surgery. The variables studied were bone mineral density, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links (a bone resorption marker), the bone formation markers osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1, serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Serum osteoprotegerin inversely correlated with the bone remodeling markers osteocalcin, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1. The osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio also correlated inversely with serum parathormone and osteocalcin. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was associated with age (β = -0.235, P = 0.046), percentage of weight loss (β = 0.421, P = 0.001) and osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio (β = 0.259, P = 0.029) in stepwise multivariate analysis (R 2  = 0.29, F = 7.49, P osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system is associated with bone markers and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine after obesity surgery.

  6. The consequences of pediatric renal transplantation on bone metabolism and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Ranchin, Bruno; Demède, Delphine; Allard, Lise

    2013-10-01

    During childhood, growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). These problems remain present in patients undergoing renal transplantation, even though steroid-sparing strategies are more widely used. In this context, achieving normal height and growth in children after transplantation is a crucial issue for both quality of life and self-esteem. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology of CKD-mineral bone disorder (MBD) in children undergoing renal transplantation and to propose keypoints for its daily management. In adults, calcimimetics are effective for posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, but data are missing in the pediatric population. Fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are associated with increased risk of rejection, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. A recent meta-analysis also demonstrated the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in short transplanted children. In 2013, the daily clinical management of CKD-MBD in transplanted children should still focus on simple objectives: to optimize renal function, to develop and promote steroid-sparing strategies, to provide optimal nutritional support to maximize final height and avoid bone deformations, to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to provide acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status, to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen both bone and growth (mainly metabolic acidosis, anemia and malnutrition), promote good lifestyle habits (adequate calcium intake, regular physical activity, no sodas consumption, no tobacco exposure) and eventually to correct native vitamin D deficiency (target of 25-vitamin D >75 nmol/l).

  7. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  8. Chronic antiepileptic monotherapy, bone metabolism, and body composition in non-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Griesmacher, Andrea; Tatarczyk, Tobias; Haberlandt, Edda; Strasak, Alexander; Zimmerhackl, Lothar-Bernd; Falkensammer, Gerda; Luef, Gerhard; Högler, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chronic monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on vitamin D levels, bone metabolism, and body composition. Eighty-five children (38 males, 47 females; mean age 12 y 5 mo, SD 3 y 4 mo) were treated with valproate and 40 children (28 males, 12 females; mean age 11 y 10 mo, SD 3 y) were treated with other AEDs (lamotrigine, sulthiame, or oxcarbazepine), comprising the non-valproate group. Forty-one healthy children (29 males 12 females; mean age 12 y 1 mo, SD 3 y 5 mo) served as a comparison group. Height, weight, body impedance analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, two bone resorption markers (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand [RANKL] and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b [TRAP5b]), osteoprotegerin, and leptin were measured. No child was vitamin D deficient as defined by a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level of less than 25 nmol/l (children than in the non-valproate group, as were calcium (p=0.027) and RANKL (p=0.007) concentrations. Similarly, leptin was significantly higher in the valproate group than in control participants (pchildren with epilepsy. Valproate therapy is associated with increases in weight, body fat, and leptin concentration, as well as with a bone metabolic profile that resembles slightly increased parathyroid hormone action.

  9. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaolin; Li Xiaohong; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241 Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  10. Metabolic control and bone health in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Subburaman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D have decreased bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk, yet the etiologies remain elusive. Early detection of derangements in bone biomarkers during adolescence could lead to timely recognition. In adolescents with T1D, we evaluated the relationships between metabolic control, BMD, and bone anabolic and turnover markers. Methods Cross-sectional study of 57 adolescent subjects with T1D who had HbA1c consistently ≥ 9% (Poor Control, PC n = 27 or Results There were no differences between HbA1c groups in BMD, components of the IGF system, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D abnormalities was similar to that seen in the general adolescent population. Few patients met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for vitamin D or calcium. Conclusions These data provide no evidence of association between degree of metabolic control and BMD in adolescents with T1D. Adolescents with T1D have a high prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D abnormalities. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the predictive value of vitamin D abnormalities on fracture risk.

  11. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  12. [The role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and LRP5 protein in metabolism of bone tissue and osteoporosis etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Hubert; Drwęska-Matelska, Natalia; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Łowicki, Zdzisław; Czerny, Bogusław

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease, manifested by decreased bone mineral density microarchitectural disturbances of bone tissue, and increased risk of bone fractures. Owing to large-scale morbidity particularly among postmenopausal women, nowadays osteoporosis constitutes a significant global health problem. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the role of signaling Wnt/β-catenin pathway and LRP protein in the pathomechanism of osteoporosis, indicating a possible contribution of polymorphic variants of the candidate LRP5 gene to disease development. The goal of our study is to present contemporary research on signaling Wnt/β-catenin pathway and mechanism of LRP protein action in the process of bone tissue metabolism and etiology of osteoporosis.

  13. Histopathologic investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 administered by different methods on tooth movement and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlaroğlu, Murat; Erdem, Abdulvahit

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the in vivo effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administered by different methods on orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism macroscopically, histopatologically, and biochemically. Forty-five young adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10/group), 1 positive control group (n = 10), and 1 negative control group (n = 5). The experimental rabbits were fitted with springs exerting 20-g reciprocal force on the maxillary incisors and PGE2 (10 µg/mL) was administered by the intravenous, submucosal, or intraligamentous route after appliance insertion and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 thereafter. All rabbits were sacrificed on day 21 and their premaxillae were resected for histologic evaluation. Tooth movement was observed in the experimental and positive control groups, but the intraligamentous PGE2 group had the highest values of all analyzed parameters, including serum calcium and phosphorus levels and osteoclastic and osteoblastic populations (p orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism, but the intraligamentous route seems to be more effective.

  14. Clinical studies of bone metabolism using a simple model of calcium tracer kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncari, G.

    1981-08-01

    Bone metabolism studies were performed in 44 subjects with and without bone disease using a calcium tracer kinetics model, the central feature of which is an expanding exchangeable calcium pool. In normal subjects the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool ranged from 1.49 to 8.45 (mean 3.9 +- 2.05) mg.d/sup -1/kg/sup -1/ and from 60 to 131 (mean 81.25 +- 18.11) mg.kg/sup -1/, respectively. The patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, Pierre Marie's disease and one out of two cases of hypoparathyroidism had values which fell within the normal range. Both the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool were significantly elevated in patients with Paget's disease and with hyperparathyroidism. Uremic patients with generalizated bone lesions had accretion rates or both parameters elevated. As far as patients with successful renal transplant are concerned, the results suggest that this method is a very poor means for detecting bone disorders with only focal lesions. In contrast, the method can be very useful when persistent renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism are suspected.

  15. Clinical studies of bone metabolism using a simple model of calcium tracer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncari, G.; Milan Univ., Varese

    1981-01-01

    Bone metabolism studies were performed in 44 subjects with and without bone disease using a calcium tracers kinetics model, the central feature of which is an expanding exchangeable calcium pool. In normal subjects the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool ranged from 1.49 to 8.45 (mean 3.9 +- 2.05) mg.d -1 kg -1 and from 60 to 131 (mean 81.25 +- 18.11) mg.kg -1 , respectively. The patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, Pierre Marie's disease and one out of two cases of hypoparathyroidism had values which fell within the normal range. Both the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool were significantly elevated in patients with Paget's disease and with hyperparathyroidism. Uremic patients with generalizated bone lesions had accretion rates or both parameters elevated. As far as patients with successful renal transplant are concerned, the results suggest that this method is a very poor means for detecting bone disorders with only focal lesions. In contrast, the method can be very useful when persistent renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism are suspected. (orig.) [de

  16. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Chu Shaolin; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E 2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E 2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P 2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  17. Prospective evaluation of the super scan of metabolic bone disease (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.A.; Khan, S.M.; Rauf, M.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 27 cases (23 females and 4 males) having super scan of metabolic bone disease were prospectively evaluated over a period of 2 years (Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD), institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar to identify various causes for the super scan picture on Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in our clinical environment. After the three observer confirmation of the bone scan, the serum calcium and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) estimation was done. The patients having serum PTH greater than 250 Pg/L under went two phase Parathyroid MIBI Scintigraphy 2PP MIBI scan) for the detection of parathyroid adenoma. The patients having positive scans for parathyroid Adenoma were subjected to surgery and histopathological confirmation was obtained. Selected cases under went a trial of deport preparation of vitamin D3 calcium supplementation. The final diagnosis of 16 patients was osteomalacia (59%), six patients had histopathologically confirmed parathyroid adenoma (22.2%), one case each was that of toxic thyroid adenoma (3.7%) and chronic renal failure (3.7%). In three cases the final diagnosis was not reached (11.21%). Osteomalacia and parathyroid adenoma are the two most common causes for the super scan picture on bone scintigraphy. (author)

  18. Biomarkers of bone metabolism in ankylosing spondylitis in relation to osteoproliferation and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Eva; Nurkkala, Merja; Carlsten, Hans; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2014-07-01

    To identify biomarkers for bone metabolism in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine the relationship between these biomarkers and disease activity, back mobility, osteoproliferation, and bone mineral density (BMD). Serum levels of Wingless protein (Wnt-3a), Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), sclerostin, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), and osteoprotegerin were assessed using ELISA. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis patient global score, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as disease activity measures, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) as a measure of spinal mobility. Lateral spine radiographs were scored for chronic AS-related changes (mSASSS). BMD was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Two hundred four patients with AS (NY criteria; 57% men), with a mean age of 50 ± 13 years and disease duration 15 ± 11 years, and 80 age and sex-matched controls were included. The patients with AS had significantly higher serum levels of Wnt-3a (p < 0.001) and lower levels of sclerostin (p = 0.014) and sRANKL (p = 0.047) compared with the controls. High CRP was associated with low sclerostin (r(S) = -0.21, p = 0.003) and DKK-1 (r(S) = -0.14, p = 0.045). In multiple linear regression analyses, increasing BASMI and mSASSS were independently associated with older age, male sex, high CRP, and elevated serum levels of Wnt-3a. In addition, mSASSS remained associated with a high number of smoking pack-years after adjusting for age. Low BMD of femoral neck was associated with high mSASSS after adjusting for age. Serum levels of Wnt-3a are elevated in AS and associated with increased BASMI and mSASSS, independent of age, indicating that Wnt-3a could be a biomarker for the osteoproliferative process.

  19. Effect of paricalcitol on mineral bone metabolism in kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Utiel, Francisco José; Bravo Soto, Juan Antonio; Merino Pérez, María José; González Carmelo, Isabel; López Jiménez, Verónica; García Álvarez, Teresa; Acosta Martínez, Yelenei; Mazuecos Blanca, María Auxiliadora

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients, and commonly results in hypercalcaemia; an association to osteopenia and bone fractures has also been observed. Paricalcitol has proved effective to control secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease in both dialysed and non-dialysed patients, with a low hypercalcaemia incidence. Currently available experience on paricalcitol use in kidney transplant recipients is scarce. Our main aim was to show the effect of paricalcitol on mineral bone metabolism in kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective multicentre study in kidney transplant recipients aged>18 years with a 12-month or longer post-transplantation course, stable renal function, having received paricalcitol for more than 12 months, with available clinical follow-up for a 24-month period. A total of 69 patients with a 120 ± 92-month post-transplantation course were included. Baseline creatinine was 2.2 ± 0.9 mg/dl y GFR-MDRD was 36 ± 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Paricalcitol doses were gradually increased during the study: baseline 3.8 ± 1.9 μg/week, 12 months 5.2 ± 2.4 μg/week; 24 months 6.0 ± 2.9 μg/week (P10mg/dl showed gradually decreasing levels. Fifteen (21.7%) patients had received prior calcitriol therapy. When shifted to paricalcitol, such patients required paricalcitol doses significantly larger than those not having received calcitriol. Paricalcitol was used concomitantly to cinacalcet in 11 patients with significant PTH reductions being achieved; clinical course was similar to other patients and paricalcitol doses were also similar. Paricalcitol is an effective therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients. Overall, no significant changes were observed in calcium and phosphorus levels or urinary excretion. Patients having previously received calcitriol required higher paricalcitol doses. When used in patients receiving cinacalcet

  20. Comparison of bone metabolism based on the different ages and competition levels of junior and high school female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Naka, Tatsuki

    2017-06-30

    This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts. For comparison by competition level, the 7 junior high school gymnasts were separated into 3 gymnasts who competed at national level (junior high school elite), and 4 gymnasts who did not compete at that level (junior high school non-elite), and the 12 high school gymnasts were separated into 7 gymnasts who competed at national level (high school elite) and 5 gymnasts who did not compete at that level (high school non-elite). The measurement items were bone mineral density, bone metabolism markers (undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx)). We also surveyed the gymnasts' height, weight and nutrition. In this study we found: 1) The high school gymnasts who competed at high-level rhythmic gymnastics had good results for bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density. 2) Elite high school gymnasts had restricted diets. 3) Nutritionally, their energy intake and carbohydrate intake was low, but their intake of protein, calcium, iron, vitamin D and vitamin K was good. The results found that the elite gymnastics showed a higher bone density than the non-elite group that suggests the possibility of inhibiting bone formation in the bone metabolism. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  1. Conversion of KEGG metabolic pathways to SBGN maps including automatic layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Tobias; Wybrow, Michael; Marriott, Kim; Schreiber, Falk

    2013-08-16

    Biologists make frequent use of databases containing large and complex biological networks. One popular database is the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) which uses its own graphical representation and manual layout for pathways. While some general drawing conventions exist for biological networks, arbitrary graphical representations are very common. Recently, a new standard has been established for displaying biological processes, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), which aims to unify the look of such maps. Ideally, online repositories such as KEGG would automatically provide networks in a variety of notations including SBGN. Unfortunately, this is non-trivial, since converting between notations may add, remove or otherwise alter map elements so that the existing layout cannot be simply reused. Here we describe a methodology for automatic translation of KEGG metabolic pathways into the SBGN format. We infer important properties of the KEGG layout and treat these as layout constraints that are maintained during the conversion to SBGN maps. This allows for the drawing and layout conventions of SBGN to be followed while creating maps that are still recognizably the original KEGG pathways. This article details the steps in this process and provides examples of the final result.

  2. Identification of a fish short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase associated with bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Joana; Cox, Cymon J; Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Although human and mouse genetics have largely contributed to the better understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis, much more remains to be uncovered. In this regard alternative and complementary systems have been sought and cell systems capable of in vitro calcification have been developed to study the mechanisms underlying bone formation. In gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a gene coding for an unknown protein that is strongly up-regulated during extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of a pre-osteoblast cell line was recently identified as a potentially important player in bone formation. In silico analysis of the deduced protein revealed the presence of domains typical of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDR). Closely related to carbonyl reductase 1, seabream protein belongs to a novel subfamily of SDR proteins with no orthologs in mammals. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR confirmed the strong up-regulation of sdr-like expression during in vitro mineralization but also revealed high expression levels in calcified tissues. A possible role for Sdr-like in osteoblast and bone metabolism was further evidenced through (i) the localization by in situ hybridization of sdr-like transcript in pre-osteoblasts of the operculum and (ii) the regulation of sdr-like gene transcription by Runx2 and retinoic acid receptor, two regulators of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Expression data also indicated a role for Sdr-like in gastrointestinal tract homeostasis and during gilthead seabream development at gastrulation and metamorphosis. This study reports a new subfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in vertebrates and, for the first time, provides evidence of a role for SDRs in bone metabolism, osteoblast differentiation and/or tissue mineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Copolymer Scaffold Functionalized with Nanodiamond Particles Enhances Osteogenic Metabolic Activity and Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohammed A; Mustafa, Kamal; Xing, Zhe; Sun, Yang; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Leknes, Knut N

    2017-06-01

    Functionalizing polymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles (nDPs) has pronounced effect on the surface properties, such as improved wettability, an increased active area and binding sites for cellular attachment and adhesion, and increased ability to immobilize biomolecules by physical adsorption. This study aims to evaluate the effect of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) scaffolds, functionalized with nDPs, on bone regeneration in a rat calvarial critical size defect. Poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds functionalized with nDPs are also compared with pristine scaffolds with reference to albumin adsorption and seeding efficiency of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Compared with pristine scaffolds, the experimental scaffolds exhibit a reduction in albumin adsorption and a significant increase in the seeding efficiency of BMSCs (p = 0.027). In the calvarial defects implanted with BMSC-seeded poly(LLA-co-CL)/nDPs scaffolds, live imaging at 12 weeks discloses a significant increase in osteogenic metabolic activity (p = 0.016). Microcomputed tomography, confirmed by histological data, reveals a substantial increase in bone volume (p = 0.021). The results show that compared with conventional poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds those functionalized with nDPs promote osteogenic metabolic activity and mineralization capacity. It is concluded that poly(LLA-co-CL) composite matrices functionalized with nDPs enhance osteoconductivity and therefore warrant further study as potential scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  5. Effects of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on Bone Cell Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten S S; Tencerova, Michaela; Frølich, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged. The aim of this MiniReview was to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the in vivo and in vitro effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism. We...... identified a total of 30 pre-clinical and clinical investigations of the effects of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-1RAs on bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), bone microarchitecture and fracture risk. Studies conducted in cell cultures and rodents demonstrated that GIP and GLP-1 play a role in regulating...... skeletal homeostasis, with pre-clinical data suggesting that GIP inhibits bone resorption whereas GLP-1 may promote bone formation and enhance bone material properties. These effects are not corroborated by clinical studies. While there is evidence of effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism in pre...

  6. Labeling the human skeleton with {sup 41}Ca to assess changes in bone calcium metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denk, E.; Hurrell, R.F.; Walczyk, T. [Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hillegonds, D.; Vogel, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Livermore, CA (United States); Synal, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute/ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Geppert, C.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Fattinger, K. [University Hospital Bern, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Hennessy, C.; Berglund, M. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Bone research is limited by the methods available for detecting changes in bone metabolism. While dual X-ray absorptiometry is rather insensitive, biochemical markers are subject to significant intra-individual variation. In the study presented here, we evaluated the isotopic labeling of bone using {sup 41}Ca, a long-lived radiotracer, as an alternative approach. After successful labeling of the skeleton, changes in the systematics of urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion are expected to directly reflect changes in bone Ca metabolism. A minute amount of {sup 41}Ca (100 nCi) was administered orally to 22 postmenopausal women. Kinetics of tracer excretion were assessed by monitoring changes in urinary {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios up to 700 days post-dosing using accelerator mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Isotopic labeling of the skeleton was evaluated by two different approaches: (i) urinary {sup 41}Ca data were fitted to an established function consisting of an exponential term and a power law term for each individual; (ii) {sup 41}Ca data were analyzed by population pharmacokinetic (NONMEM) analysis to identify a compartmental model that describes urinary {sup 41}Ca tracer kinetics. A linear three-compartment model with a central compartment and two sequential peripheral compartments was found to best fit the {sup 41}Ca data. Fits based on the use of the combined exponential/power law function describing urinary tracer excretion showed substantially higher deviations between predicted and measured values than fits based on the compartmental modeling approach. By establishing the urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion pattern using data points up to day 500 and extrapolating these curves up to day 700, it was found that the calculated {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios in urine were significantly lower than the observed {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios for both techniques. Compartmental analysis can overcome this limitation. By identifying

  7. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Stress fracture in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes, especially in long-distance runner, jumping sports and gymnastics in female athletes. The pathology of stress fracture mainly includes repeated biomechanical loading, which leads to bone micro-damage and failure of bone structure. Female athlete triad(FAT), which includes low energy availability with or without an eating disorder, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is a serious healthcare concern in female athletes. For prevention and treatment of stress fracture, management of biomechanical factors modifying the load applied to a bone is important, and especially in female athletes, management for FAT is one of the important factors. This report outlines the current knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of stress fracture, relating to FAT in female athletes.

  8. One year B and D vitamins supplementation improves metabolic bone markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Susanne H; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin B deficiency are common in elderly subjects and are important risk factors for osteoporosis and age-related diseases. Supplementation with these vitamins is a promising preventative strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins D3 and B supplementation on bone turnover and metabolism in elderly people. Healthy subjects (n=93; >54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either daily vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or only vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate (group B) in a double blind trial. We measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of supplementation vitamins, metabolites, and bone turnover markers. At baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was low (40 or 30 nmol/L) and parathormone was high (63.7 or 77.9 pg/mL). 25(OH)D and parathormone correlated inversely. S-Adenosyl homocysteine and S-adenosyl methionine correlated with bone alkaline phosphatase, sclerostin, and parathormone. One year vitamin D3 or D3 and B supplementation increased plasma 25(OH)D by median 87.6% (group A) and 133.3% (group B). Parathormone was lowered by median 28.3% (A) and 41.2% (B), bone alkaline phosphatase decreased by 2.8% (A) and 16.2% (B), osteocalin by 37.5% (A) and 49.4% (B), and tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase 5b by 6.1% (A) and 36.0% (B). Median total homocysteine (tHcy) was high at baseline (group A: 12.6, group B: 12.3 µmol/L) and decreased by B vitamins (group A) to 8.9 µmol/L (29.4%). tHcy lowering had no additional effect on bone turnover. One year vitamin D3 supplementation with or without B vitamins decreased the bone turnover significantly. Vitamin D3 lowered parathormone. The additional application of B vitamins did not further improve bone turnover. The marked tHcy lowering by B vitamins may modulate the osteoporotic risk.

  9. Phenytoin-induced changes in the bone mineral metabolism in young males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalesh Rohatgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs have an adverse effect on the bone mineral metabolism. Patients and Methods: The objective of the study was to determine the bone loss and change in bone mineral parameters in patients treated with phenytoin sodium. We prospectively studied 36 young males aged 20–30 years, with new-onset epilepsy, and treated with phenytoin. Patients were clinically examined and subjected to determination of the bone mineral density (BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the femur neck, spine, and lower third of radius. We also assessed Vitamin 25-OH-Vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and osteocalcin at the onset and after 1 year of treatment. Results: There were no significant changes noted in the 25-OH-Vitamin D3, (20.7 ± 10 ng/dl before and 18.5 ± 7.3 ng/dl after therapy, P = 0.198, and serum parathyroid levels (8.8 ± 6.8 pg/ml before and 14.2 ± 11.5 pg/ml, P = 0.114 at the end of 1-year therapy. There was declines in BMD at all the three sites; the spine (0.943 ± 0.11 vs. 0.943 ± 0.12 g/cm2, P = 0.15, femur neck (0.912 ± 0.0.12 vs. 0.896 ± 0.124 g/cm2, P = 0.093, and a statistically significant decline lower third of radius (0.659 ± 0.07 vs. 0.644 ± 0.073 g/cm2, P ≤ 0.001. We did not find any significant change in levels of 25-OH-Vitamin D3, PTH, and serum alkaline phosphatase, but found significant elevation in levels of osteocalcin. Conclusions: Phenytoin therapy in young male patients for 1-year causes a bone loss at femur and spine in the absence of Vitamin D deficiency and significant bone loss in the cortical bone radius. DXA should be done in patients during the treatment with AEDs to identify patients who are susceptible to increased risk of fractures.

  10. EFFECTS OF SHORT TERM PRACTICE OF BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON METABOLIC FITNESS (METF AND BONE INTEGRITY (BI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Bal Baljinder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was conducted with the objective to determine the short term practice of bhastrika pranayama on Metabolic Fitness and Bone Integrity. Material: 30 university level females between the age group of 21-26 years were selected. The subjects were randomly matched and assigned into two groups: Group-A: Experimental (n 1=15; Group-B: Control (n 2=15. The subjects from Group-A: Experimental were provided to a 4-weeks bhastrika pranayama. Statistical Analysis: Student t test for paired samples was utilized to compare the means of the pre-test and the post-test. Results & Conclusions: Based on the analysis of the results obtained, we conclude that the significant differences were found in Metabolic Fitness (i.e., Maximal Oxygen Consumption (V O2max and blood pressure of University Level Girls. Insignificant between-group differences were noted in Blood Lipid, Blood Sugar and Bone Integrity of University Level Girls.

  11. Monitoring Bone Tissue Engineered (BTE) Constructs Based on the Shifting Metabolism of Differentiating Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Aaron D; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2018-01-01

    Ever-increasing demand for bone grafts necessitates the realization of clinical implementation of bone tissue engineered constructs. The predominant hurdle to implementation remains to be securing FDA approval, based on the lack of viable methods for the rigorous monitoring of said constructs. The study presented herein details a method for such monitoring based on the shifting metabolism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as they differentiate into osteoblasts. To that end, rat MSCs seeded on 85% porous spunbonded poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds were cultured in flow perfusion bioreactors with baseline or osteoinductive media, and levels of key physio-metabolic markers (oxygen, glucose, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin) were monitored throughout culture. Comparison of these non-destructively obtained values and current standard destructive analyses demonstrated key trends useful for the concurrent real-time monitoring of construct cellularity and maturation. Principle among these is the elucidation of the ratio of the rates of oxygen uptake to glucose consumption as a powerful quality marker. This ratio, supported on a physiological basis, has been shown herein to be reliable in the determination of both construct maturation (defined as osteoblastic differentiation and accompanying mineralization) and construct cellularity. Supplementary monitoring of OPG and OCN are shown to provide further validation of such metrics.

  12. Effect of Dietary Induced Metabolic Acidosis on Bone Mineral Acquisition in 2-8 Month Old Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Hackett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary induced metabolic acidosis (MA results in a negative calcium balance in normal animals. In order to maintain acid-base homeostasis the body's primary base buffer source calcium is mobilized from bone. This study examined the impact of dietary induced MA on bone in an adolescent ovine model. We hypothesized that a MA diet would reduce bone mineral density (BMD in growing sheep. Twelve 2 month old lambs of mixed sex were divided into 2 groups. The MA group consumed a ration that was relatively acidogenic compared to the control diet (CD for 6 months. DXA was performed on days 0 and 180. Arterial blood samples were evaluated on days 0, 30, 120, 150 and 180 for pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCT, Na, K, ionized Ca, HCO 3 – , TCO 2 , base excess (BE, and O 2 saturation. Histomorphometry of the femoral diaphysis was performed from samples harvested at 180 days. Statistical analysis consisted of a 2-way ANOVA for sex and diet with repeated measures for bone mineral content (BMC and blood parameters, a 2-way ANOVA for one time measurements at 180 d including BMD of the whole body, radii, femora and lumbar vertebrae, and 1-way ANOVA to compare histomorphometric measurements. Percent increase from baseline for BMD of the whole body was 1.8x greater in the CD group than the MA group. BMC of the whole body and lumbar vertebrae was significantly less in the MA group. Lumbar BMD on day 180 was 30% less in the MA group. Cortical bone was less affected. Radii and femora BMD was 18% and 21% less, respectively, in the MA group than in the CD group. MA treatment significantly decreased pH, HCT, iCa, HCO 3 – , TCO 2 and BE. However, no blood parameters were outside the normal range for this species. Histomorphometry revealed significantly decreased cortical area and thickness and increased mineral apposition rate and endosteal active surface length in the femoral cortex of the MA group compared to the CD group. This study demonstrated a well compensated dietary

  13. The role played by phytase and metabolism in the accumulation of uranium in the poultry bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Manso Guevara, M.V.; Vanin, V.R.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Helene, O.A.M.; Martins, M.N.; Gouveia, A.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cestari, A.C.; Jorge, S.A.C. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), SP (Brazil); Nogueira, G.P.; Fonseca, L.E.C. [UNESP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Zamboni, C.B.; Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jorge, S.A.C. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Imunologia Viral; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F [Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba); Garcia, F. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Groups of seven days old Cobb broilers were fed with feed doped with uranyl nitrate at a fixed concentration of 20 ppm-U, and two concentrations of phytase (120 and 180 ppm). Two animals per group were sacrificed weekly up to their adultness. The uranium content in tibia was measured by neutron activation analysis. It was observed that the biokinetics of U does not change by administration of phytase, but the U concentration in the bones increased by up to a factor of 2, and in a non expected periodically time oscillating fashion. Quite surprising too, the concentration of uranium ({mu}g-U/g-bone) is decreasing all along the animal life spanning period of 14-42 days, meaning that the skeleton mass is growing faster than the corresponding accumulation of uranium is. This last finding is interpreted as a possible interplay between two metabolic peculiarities, associated both with U transfer to (uptake), and U removed from (clearance) the bones, respectively. (author)

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Cistanoside A on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cistanoside A (Cis A, an active phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma, has received our attention because of its possible role in the treatment of osteoporosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Cis A on an ovariectomized (OVX mice model and investigated its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. After 12 weeks of orally-administrated intervention, Cis A (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight/day exhibited significant antiosteoporotic effects on OVX mice, evidenced by enhanced bone strength, bone mineral density and improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. Meanwhile, the activities of bone resorption markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, deoxypyridinoline (DPD and cathepsin K, were decreased, and the bioactivity of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP was increased. Mechanistically, Cis A inhibited the expression of TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6, an upstream molecule that is shared by both nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways and subsequently suppressed the levels of receptor activators of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL, downregulated the expression of NF-κB and upregulated osteoprotegerin (OPG, PI3K and Akt, which means Cis A possessed antiosteoporotic activity in ovariectomized mice via TRAF6-mediated NF-kappaB inactivation and PI3K/Akt activation. Put together, we present novel findings that Cis A, by downregulating TRAF6, coordinates the inhibition of NF-κB and stimulation of PI3K/Akt pathways to promote bone formation and prevent bone resorption. These data demonstrated the potential of Cis A as a promising agent for the treatment of osteoporosis disease.

  15. Effects of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant (Implanon®) on bone metabolism during lactation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltemir Duvan, Candan; Onaran, Yuksel; Aktepe Keskin, Esra; Yüce, Ebru; Yanık, Burcu; Kafali, Hasan; Ozturk Turhan, Nilgun

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant (Implanon ® ) on bone metabolism in lactating women using markers for bone formation and resorption. This single-centre, prospective cohort study was conducted in Turgut Ozal University Medical Faculty Obstetrics and Gynecology Department with healthy lactating women aged between 24 and 38 years to compare the effect on bone metabolism of 6 months' use of either the implant or a non-hormonal contraceptive method. The study group ( n =25) used an implant and the control group ( n =25) used a non-hormonal contraceptive intrauterine device inserted 40 days' postpartum. Bone metabolism differences at the time of insertion and after 6 months were assessed quantitatively by biochemical analysis of serum and urine samples. At baseline, serum levels of bone metabolism parameters were similar for the two groups. In the implant group, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels decreased ( p =0.004) and total protein levels increased ( p =0.045) at 6 months. In the control group, serum levels of bone metabolism parameters did not change at 6 months compared to baseline. However, serum levels of phosphorus ( p =0.013) and ALP ( p =0.003) decreased at 6 months compared to baseline. Six months' postpartum use of Implanon was found to have no deleterious impact on bone turnover in healthy lactating women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Comparison of bone metabolism based on the different ages and competition levels of junior and high school female rhythmic gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Taewoong; Naka, Tatsuki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. [Methods] The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts. For c...

  17. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (ppilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (ppilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (ppilates group (ppilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.

  18. Influencia de los glucocorticoides inhalados sobre la densidad mineral ósea y el metabolismo óseo Inhaled glucocorticoids: influence on bone mineral density and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2000-04-01

    effects of IGs on bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density in adults and in pediatric patients. The reviewed studies do not provide uniform results. Nevertheless, in general they suggest that IGs can affect metabolism and bone mineral density, especially: 1 when high doses are administered (more than 400 µg/day in children and more than 800 µg/day in adults, 2 in pediatric patients, in whom growth in stature can also be affected, 3 in patients whose intake of calcium and vitamin D is inadequate, and 4 in postmenopausal women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy. In general, at therapeutically equivalent doses, beclomethasone has a greater deleterious effect on bone than does budesonide, which in turn has more of an effect than does fluticasone. In addition to the obvious precaution of using the lowest effective dose, other proposed preventive measures include: 1 adequate instruction on the use of aerosols, 2 the use of large volume spacer devices, 3 rinsing the mouth after administering IGs, and 4 dietary adjustments or supplements in order to ensure an adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.

  19. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  20. The association of bone metabolism with bone mineral density, serum sex hormone concentrations, and regular exercise in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, T; Väisänen, S B; Mahonen, A; Huuskonen, J; Kröger, H; Jurvelin, J S; Penttilä, I M; Rauramaa, R

    2004-08-01

    Physical activity is an important factor in attaining bone mass. Our aim was to investigate if low to moderate intensity exercise affects bone resorption [serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b activity] and formation (serum osteocalcin concentration) in a randomized controlled exercise intervention trial in Finnish middle-aged men. In addition, the relations of these bone turnover markers with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum sex hormone concentrations [circulating testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations] were evaluated. Serum TRAP 5b activity and osteocalcin concentration were measured at randomization and after 1 and 4 years of the exercise intervention. BMDs of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, and total proximal femur were measured with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At randomization, TRAP 5b activity was strongly correlated with the osteocalcin concentration (Spearman r = 0.541, P bone turnover markers. After 1 year of exercise intervention, TRAP 5b activity was significantly lower in the exercise than reference group (P = 0.006). However, after 4 years of exercise intervention, the difference was no longer statistically significant. There were no differences in the osteocalcin concentrations between the study groups during the intervention. Our results show a connection between serum TRAP 5b activity and osteocalcin concentration. Furthermore, our results suggest that low to moderate exercise intervention and serum sex hormone concentrations may induce changes in bone metabolism in middle-aged men. However, exercise-induced effects on bone metabolism should be confirmed in other randomized controlled exercise trials taking into account exercise intensity and dose-response issues.

  1. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  2. Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery (Pro K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Shackelford, L.; Heer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss is not only a well-documented effect of spaceflight on astronauts, but also a condition that affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures aimed at preventing bone loss during spaceflight have been proposed, and many have been evaluated to some degree. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have targeted dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during spaceflight. The "Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery" investigation ("Pro K") is one of the first inflight evaluations of a dietary countermeasure to lessen bone loss of astronauts. This protocol will test the hypothesis that the ratio of acid precursors to base precursors (specifically animal protein to potassium) in the diet can predict directional changes in bone mineral during spaceflight and recovery. The ratio of animal protein to potassium in the diet will be controlled for multiple short (4-day) periods before and during flight. Based on multiple sets of bed rest data, we hypothesize that a higher ratio of the intake of animal protein to the intake of potassium will yield higher concentrations of markers of bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during flight and during recovery from bone mineral loss after long-duration spaceflight.

  3. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had...

  4. The role of selenium in the metabolism of 45Ca and 99Sr in the bones of hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowosad, R.

    1977-01-01

    Under experimental conditions it was stated that the application of selenium at the dose of 5 mcg per animal led to some disturbances in mineral metabolism in the skeletal system of hens. That was expressed by a decrease of ash content in died mass, a decrease of 45 Ca and 90 Sr in bones, and the diminished activity of calcium. (author)

  5. Bone metabolism and mineral density in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundar, U.; Kupesiz, A.; Yesilipeck, A.; Ozdem, S.; Gultekin, M.; Gilgil, E.; Tuncer, T.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate bone metabolism in patients with beta-thalassemia major and to determine the factors associated with the development of osteoporosis. We studied 25 patients with thalassemia major with a mean age of 18.4 years (rang 5-31), age and gender matched 24 healthy controls who were attending the outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital between January 2004 and March 2004 in Turkey. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine (L-1-L4) and proximal femur were determined using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Venous blood samples were obtained for determination of blood cell count and markers of bone formation and resorption. The BMD values, both at lumbar and femoral neck levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. Serum N-telopeptide level was slightly higher, whereas osteocalcin was slightly lower in patients, however, the values were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin like growth factor for binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were significantly lower in patients. Also, serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in females, luteinizing, hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in both genders were significantly lower in patients. Serum levels of free testosterone and total testosterone were lower in patients, but not statistically significant. Patients also had significantly higher serum phosphorous levels and lower serum calcitonin levels compared to controls. The BMD is decreased in thalassemic patients. Growth retardation, growth hormone/IGF-I/IGFP-3 axis dysfunction, gonadal dysfunction and hypothalomo-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction may be responsible for the development of osteoporosis in the patients with beta-thalassemia major. (author)

  6. The Effects of Liver Transplantation on the Bone Metabolism and Gonadal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atamaz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of liver transplantation (LT on the bone mineral density (BMD, characteristics of bone turnover, mineral metabolism and sex hormons. Fifty one patients (34 men, 11 women aged 43.5 ± 12.1, who underwent LT were studied, assessing the following parameters: lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD, osteocalcin, deoxypyridinoline (DPD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, free testesterone (FT, gonadotropins (FSH, LH, tyroid hormones, growth hormone (GH and blood/ 24-hours urine Ca and P. All the measures were obtained at baseline and at 3rd month after LT. At baseline, 12 patients (%23.5 had osteoporosis, 22 patients (%43.1 had osteopenia and the mean BMD was 0.892 ± 0.1 for lumbar spine. Whereas, osteoporosis was seen less at femoral neck and total femur: 5 (%9.8 and 4 (%7.8, respectively. Three months after LT, 3.9% drop for lumbar spine, 5.3% drop for femur neck, 6.3% drop for total femur were observed, in BMD these decreases were statistically significant for all sites (p<0.05. The thyroid hormones, GH, PTH, blood Ca, P and osteocalcin levels and urinary DPD excretion were within normal range, while the levels of FSH and LH in women and level of FT in men were lower than normal range. After LT, statistically significant increases were observed in the PTH, osteocalcin, DPD, FSH, LH and FT levels (p<0.05. There was a highly significant negative correlation between duration of liver disease and all the BMD measures (p<0.01. Consequently, the increased osteoporosis ratio which was characterized by high bone turnover was found in patients who underwent LT in this study. The normalization of liver functions following LT was characterized by an early rise in sex hormones.

  7. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric...... turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity......./min/ 1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results: Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum...

  8. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Schreiber

    Full Text Available Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272. Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001 and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001. Median β-Crosslaps (CTx and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001 and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001, respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002 and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001 in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  9. Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure, with and without growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; de Jong, M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Lilien, M. R.; van Wijk, J. A.; Kist-van Holthe, J. E.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Pols, H. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH

  10. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have

  11. Micronuclei in Bone Marrow and Liver in relation to Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Response due to Coexposure to Chloroform, Dichloromethane, and Toluene in the Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Belmont-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity in cells may occur in different ways, direct interaction, production of electrophilic metabolites, and secondary genotoxicity via oxidative stress. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and toluene are primarily metabolized in liver by CYP2E1, producing reactive electrophilic metabolites, and may also produce oxidative stress via the uncoupled CYP2E1 catalytic cycle. Additionally, GSTT1 also participates in dichloromethane activation. Despite the oxidative metabolism of these compounds and the production of oxidative adducts, their genotoxicity in the bone marrow micronucleus test is unclear. The objective of this work was to analyze whether the oxidative metabolism induced by the coexposure to these compounds would account for increased micronucleus frequency. We used an approach including the analysis of phase I, phase II, and antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress biomarkers, and micronuclei in bone marrow (MNPCE and hepatocytes (MNHEP. Rats were administered different doses of an artificial mixture of CLF/DCM/TOL, under two regimes. After one administration MNPCE frequency increased in correlation with induced GSTT1 activity and no oxidative stress occurred. Conversely, after three-day treatments oxidative stress was observed, without genotoxicity. The effects observed indicate that MNPCE by the coexposure to these VOCs could be increased via inducing the activity of metabolism enzymes.

  12. Reduced bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type III: evidence for a possible connection between metabolic imbalance and bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Rossi, Alessandro; Pivonello, Rosario; Del Puente, Antonio; Pivonello, Claudia; Cangemi, Giuliana; Negri, Mariarosaria; Colao, Annamaria; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2016-05-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). It is characterized by liver, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle involvement. The presence of systemic complications such as growth retardation, ovarian polycystosis, diabetes mellitus and osteopenia/osteoporosis has been reported. The pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis is still unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in GSDIII patients and the role of metabolic and endocrine factors and physical activity on bone status. Nine GSDIII patients were enrolled (age 2-20years) and compared to eighteen age and sex matched controls. BMD was evaluated by Dual-emission-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Clinical and biochemical parameters of endocrine system function and bone metabolism were analyzed. Serum levels of the metabolic control markers were evaluated. Physical activity was evaluated by administering the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). GSDIII patients showed reduced BMD detected at both DXA and QUS, decreased serum levels of IGF-1, free IGF-1, insulin, calcitonin, osteocalcin (OC) and increased serum levels of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). IGF-1 serum levels inversely correlated with AST and ALT serum levels. DXA Z-score inversely correlated with cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels and directly correlated with IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. No difference in physical activity was observed between GSDIII patients and controls. Our data confirm the presence of reduced BMD in GSDIII. On the basis of the results, we hypothesized that metabolic imbalance could be the key factor leading to osteopenia, acting through different mechanisms: chronic hyperlipidemia, reduced IGF-1, Insulin and OC serum levels. Thus, the mechanism of osteopenia/osteoporosis in GSDIII is probably multifactorial

  13. Bofu-tsu-shosan, an oriental herbal medicine, exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect on a mouse model of human metabolic disorders with visceral obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Azushima

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system.

  14. Assessment of lumbar trabecular bone density by means of single energy quantitative CT in hospital control children and bone metabolic disorders, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akie; Imai, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Yumiko; Hayashi, Kitami; Mitsuishi, Yoichi; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi; Shigeta, Teiko

    1990-01-01

    We studied the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone mineral density in 59 cross-sectional pictures of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with CaCO 3 phantom for 28 hospital control children and 30 cases of suspected bone metabolic disorders. The QCT value of bone mineral density of control children showed neither age dependency nor sexual difference before puberty: for males was 221.8±30.2 mg CaCO 3 /cm 3 (Mean±SD) under 4 years, 218.1±39.7 at 5∼9 years and 217.2±30.9 at 10∼15 years; and for females 220.9±18.3 under 4 years and 240.0±29.4 at 5∼9 years. The QCT values of bone mineral density in bed-ridden patients, children receiving glucocorticoids, and children receiving anticonvulsants were significantly lower than that in control children (p<0.005). The QCT value of bone mineral density of bed-ridden patients was significantly lower than that of children receiving glucocorticoids and of children receiving anticonvulsants (p<0.05, p<0.005 respectively). Our study confirmed that single energy quantitative CT was very useful in pediatric clinical application. (author)

  15. Multiple fractures and impaired bone metabolism in Wolfram syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Bellone, Federica; Cicala, Giuseppe; Giandalia, Annalisa; Morabito, Nunziata; Cucinotta, Domenico; Russo, Giuseppina Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is a rare and lethal disease characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hearing loss. To date, osteoporotic related fractures have not been reported in affected patients. Here, we describe the case of a man affected by WS complicated by several bone fragility fractures. A 50-year-old Caucasian man was hospitalized because of tibia and fibula fractures. His clinical features included diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy and deafness that were consistent with an unrecognized WS diagnosis, which was confirmed by the identification of a specific mutation in gene WFS1 encoding wolframin. Bone mineral density by phalangeal quantitative ultrasound demonstrated severe osteoporosis, with high serum levels of surrogate markers of bone turn-over. Previously unidentified rib fractures were also detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of osteoporotic related fractures in a patient affected by WS. Although no effective treatments are currently available to delay the progression of the disease, this case report suggests to evaluate fracture risk in the diagnostic work-up of WS.

  16. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Doyon

    Full Text Available The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort.Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b, sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23 normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group.Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score.Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  17. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  18. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  19. Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sha; Cui, Luying; Shi, Cheng; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Jingwen; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism including nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase-related targets in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A

    2011-01-01

    The clinical data on the use of the orally active phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitors sildenafil (VIAGRA™), vardenafil (LEVITRA™), and tadalafil (CIALIS™) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction have boosted research activities on the physiology and pharmacology of the organs of the lower urinary tract (LUT). This includes both intracellular signal transduction in the prostate, urinary bladder (detrusor), and urethra, as well as central brain and spinal cord pathways controlling the function of the LUT. Such efforts provided the basis for the development of new therapeutic modalities into the management of dysfunctions/ syndromes of the LUT, some of which are already offered to the patients. The pharmacological treatment of the overactive bladder and the so-called benign prostatic syndrome, including LUT symptomatology and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic enlargement, has primarily focused on selective, orally available drugs acting by influencing intracellular regulatory mechanisms. These agents are regarded efficacious, have a fast onset of drug action in the target tissue and an improved effect-to-side-effect ratio. Better understanding of the functional significance of proteins related to cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathways, such as nitric oxide synthase, cytosolic and membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases, PDE isoenzymes and cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases, the relative distribution in tissues of the LUT, and the consequences for urogenital function, seems to be of particular interest in order to identify new or more selective pharmacological approaches to manage disorders of the LUT. The present review focuses on cyclic nucleotide-related targets involved in the control of the function of the bladder, prostate, and urethra and the significance of those proteins in the process of evolving new pharmacological options for the treatment of LUT symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as

  1. Current status of hyphenated mass spectrometry in studies of the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific contributions on the identification and/or quantification of metabolites of drugs of abuse in in vitro assays or various body samples using hyphenated mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches are considered and discussed if they have been reported in the last five years and are relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control. Workup and artifact formation are discussed, and typical examples of studies of the metabolism of designer drugs, doping agents, herbal drugs, and synthetic cannabinoids are provided. Procedures for quantifying metabolites in body samples for pharmacokinetic studies or in enzyme incubations for enzyme kinetic studies are also reviewed. In conclusion, the reviewed papers showed that both GC-MS and LC-MS still have important roles to play in research into the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

  2. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  3. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  4. A 7-week reduction in salt intake does not contribute to markers of bone metabolism in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natri, A-M; Kärkkäinen, M U M; Ruusunen, M; Puolanne, E; Lamberg-Allardt, C

    2005-03-01

    Sodium intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may thus lead to negative calcium balance and bone loss. We hypothesised that reducing sodium intake would reduce urinary calcium excretion and have a beneficial influence in bone metabolism. A total of 29 subjects, 14 males and 15 females, were divided into two study groups. One group (low-sodium group (LS)) reduced sodium intake for 7 weeks by substituting low-salt alternatives for the most important dietary sources of sodium. The other group, serving as a control group (C), was given the same food items in the form of normally salted alternatives. Fasting serum samples as well as 24-h urine samples were obtained in the beginning and at the end of the study. Urinary sodium, urinary calcium, urinary creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphate, serum creatinine, serum parathyroid hormone (s-PTH), serum C-terminal telopeptides of Type-I collagen and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (s-B-ALP) were analysed. The LS group showed a significant decline (P = 0.001) in urinary sodium/creatinine ratio without a significant effect on urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. In the LS group, s-PTH increased (P = 0.03). The C group showed an increase in s-PTH (P = 0.05) and in s-B-ALP, but no differences were observed between the study groups in the changes of serum markers of calcium and bone metabolism. We have shown that reducing the sodium intake of young, healthy people with adequate calcium intake over a 7-week period does not affect the markers of bone metabolism.

  5. Histopathologic investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 administered by different methods on tooth movement and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Cağlaroğlu, Murat; Erdem, Abdulvahit

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the in vivo effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administered by different methods on orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism macroscopically, histopatologically, and biochemically. Methods Forty-five young adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10/group), 1 positive control group (n = 10), and 1 negative control group (n = 5). The experimental rabbits were fitted with springs exerting...

  6. Osseointegration of dental implants in 3D-printed synthetic onlay grafts customized according to bone metabolic activity in recipient site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Al-Abedalla, Khadijeh; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Alkhraisat, Mohammad H; Bassett, David C; Gbureck, Uwe; Barralet, Jake E

    2014-07-01

    Onlay grafts made of monolithic microporous monetite bioresorbable bioceramics have the capacity to conduct bone augmentation. However, there is heterogeneity in the graft behaviour in vivo that seems to correlate with the host anatomy. In this study, we sought to investigate the metabolic activity of the regenerated bone in monolithic monetite onlays by using positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in rats. This information was used to optimize the design of monetite onlays with different macroporous architecture that were then fabricated using a 3D-printing technique. In vivo, bone augmentation was attempted with these customized onlays in rabbits. PET-CT findings demonstrated that bone metabolism in the calvarial bone showed higher activity in the inferior and lateral areas of the onlays. Histological observations revealed higher bone volume (up to 47%), less heterogeneity and more implant osseointegration (up to 38%) in the augmented bone with the customized monetite onlays. Our results demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to achieve osseointegration of dental implants in bone augmented with 3D-printed synthetic onlays. It was also observed that designing the macropore geometry according to the bone metabolic activity was a key parameter in increasing the volume of bone augmented within monetite onlays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns through a wastewater reuse process, including WWTP and SAT concerning depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Yugo; Kameda, Ippei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumitake; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2014-09-01

    In this study, changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns by BIOLOG assay were discussed through a sequential wastewater reuse process, which includes activated sludge and treated effluent in wastewater treatment plant and soil aquifer treatment (SAT), especially focussing on the surface sand layer in conjunction with the vadose zone, concerning sand depth. A SAT pilot-scale reactor, in which the height of packed sand was 237 cm (vadose zone: 17 cm and saturated zone 220 cm), was operated and fed continuously by discharged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) treated water. Continuous water quality measurements over a period of 10 months indicated that the treatment performance of the reactor, such as 83.2% dissolved organic carbon removal, appeared to be stable. Core sampling was conducted for the surface sand to a 30 cm depth, and the sample was divided into six 5 cm sections. Microbial activities, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate, sharply decreased with increasing distance from the surface of the 30 cm core sample, which included significant decreases only 5 cm from the top surface. A similar microbial metabolic pattern containing a high degree of carbohydrates was obtained among the activated sludge, A2O treated water (influent to the SAT reactor) and the 0-5 cm layer of sand. Meanwhile, the 10-30 cm sand core layers showed dramatically different metabolic patterns containing a high degree of carboxylic acid and esters, and it is possible that the metabolic pattern exhibited by the 5-10 cm layer is at a midpoint of the changing pattern. This suggests that the removal of different organic compounds by biodegradation would be expected to occur in the activated sludge and in the SAT sand layers immediately below 5 cm from the top surface. It is possible that changes in the composition of the organic matter and/or transit of the limiting factor for microbial activities from carbon to phosphorus might have contributed to the observed dramatic changes

  8. The bone matrix protein secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24): bone metabolism regulator and starting material for biotherapeutic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Tian, Haijun; Francis, Timothy; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that appears to be derived primarily from the liver and delivered to other tissues in a protective complex. A significant role in bone growth and turnover is suggested by genetic studies that associate the gene locus (SPP2) with bone mineral density and bone quality. The function of this protein in the normal bone environment is unknown but clues are given by the fact that Spp24, or proteolytic products of Spp24, bind cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily and also activate intracellular signaling pathways. Several potential biotherapeutics have been engineered from this protein including materials that enhance BMP-induced bone healing and, on the other hand, materials that inhibit BMPs in clinical situations where this is called for such as reducing BMP-induced inflammation and inhibiting tumors dependent on BMP autocrine systems. As understanding of the structure and function of this protein increases, more opportunities for rationally developed therapeutics will become apparent.

  9. Effect of dietary boron on growth performance, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T A; Spears, J W

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary boron (B) on growth performance, bone mechanical properties, and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism in pigs. Thirty-six barrows were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to receive one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) low-B basal diet (control), 2) basal + 5 mg B/kg diet, and 3) basal + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. Barrows remained on their respective experimental diets throughout the nursery (35 d) and growing (30 d) phases of production. Blood samples were obtained from each barrow at the end of each phase. Following the 30-d growing period, eight barrows per treatment were transferred to stainless steel metabolism crates. Barrows had an adjustment period of 7 d, followed by a 7-d total collection of urine and feces. All barrows were fed at 90% of the previous ad libitum grower intake of the control animals during the adjustment and collection periods. At the end of the 7-d collection period, barrows were killed and femurs and fibulas were harvested for the assessment of bone mechanical properties. During the nursery phase, ADG and ADFI were increased (P 0.05) by dietary B. These data indicate that B supplementation to pigs can increase growth and bone strength without greatly affecting Ca and P metabolism.

  10. Deletion of Adseverin in Osteoclasts Affects Cell Structure But Not Bone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yixuan; Wang, Yongqiang; Sprangers, Sara; Picavet, Daisy I.; Glogauer, Michael; McCulloch, Christopher A.; Everts, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and

  11. Effects of Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) Laser Irradiation on Bone Metabolism During Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuka, Yuji; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Kunimatsu, Ryo; Su, Shao-Ching; Fujii, Eri; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on orthodontic tooth movement and histological examination. Eleven male Wistar rats (aged 10 weeks) were included. To produce experimental tooth movement in rats, 10 g force was applied to maxillary first molars with nickel titanium closed coil springs. Right molars were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24, while un-irradiated left molars were used as control. Distance between mesial side of second molar and distal side of first molar was measured on μCT image during tooth movement and the rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after the initiation of tooth movement. The amount of tooth movement was significantly greater in the irradiation group (0.20 ± 0.06) than in the control group (0.14 ± 0.03) during the first week (P laser irradiation group, but it was not statistically significant. In immuno-histological examination, expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were higher at the pressure site of the laser irradiation group than the control group, whereas there was no difference in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. The results suggest that low-level Nd:YAG laser may stimulate osteoclast and osteoblast activation and accelerate bone metabolism during tooth movement.

  12. Survey on the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and bone metabolic markers and evaluation of their correlations with osteoporosis in perimenopausal woman in Xi'an region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that vitamin D (VD plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the levels of VD in people of different regions are quite different and there is still no final conclusion on the significant correlation between VD and osteoporosis. 245 cases of peri-menopausal women were collected to study the relationship between VD and osteoporosis in western China. The mean value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for the participants was 14.39 ng/mL. The average values of parathyroid hormone (PTH, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P were 47.62 pg/mL, 2.26 mmol/L and 1.18 mmol/L, respectively. The average value of bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar vertebrae was -1.20 SD and that in femoral neck was -0.04 SD. Compared with normal group, PTH of VD deficiency group was significantly increased (P 0.05. VD was in positive correlation with the age (P 0.05. The risk factors resulting in the occurrence of osteoporosis in the lumbar vertebrae of the participants covered Ca increase (OR = 66.247, P<0.05, age growth (OR = 1.194, P<0.01 and menopause (OR = 2.285, P<0.05. This study has found that the status of VD deficiency showed no significant correlation with the level of BMD, which hinted that independent measurement of the bone metabolic markers, including Ca, P, VD and PTH, was difficult to accurately reflect the status of BMD in peri-menopausal women of this region. It's necessary to combine multi-site bone scanning to diagnose the patients' status of osteoporosis so as to provide reasonable guidance for early clinical prevention and treatment.

  13. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  14. A comparative analysis of bone and cartilage metabolism in two strains of guinea-pig with varying degrees of naturally occurring osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huebner, J.L.; Hanes, M.A.; Beekman, B.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Kraus, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interaction of bone and cartilage in knee osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis in two guinea-pig strains with appreciable differences in bone metabolism. Design: Two guinea-pig strains were evaluated for their susceptibilities to OA using semi-quantitative histological grading

  15. Effects of Chronic Estrogen Administration in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (VMH) on Fat and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Liu, J; Veldhuis-Vlug, A G; Su, Y; Foppen, E; van der Eerden, B C J; Koedam, M; Bravenboer, N; Kalsbeek, A; Boelen, A; Fliers, E; Bisschop, P H

    2016-12-01

    Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of systemic, central, and targeted VMH administration of E2 on fat and bone metabolism in OVX rats. Subcutaneous administration of E2 for 4 weeks decreased body weight, gonadal and perirenal fat, and bone formation rate in OVX rats. This effect was completely mimicked by intracerebroventricular injections of E2, once every 4 days for 4 weeks. Administration of E2 locally in the VMH by retromicrodialysis (3 h) acutely increased expression of the lipolytic gene hormone-sensitive lipase in gonadal and perirenal fat. Finally, chronic administration of E2 in the VMH for 8 weeks decreased perirenal fat but did not affect body weight, trabecular bone volume, or cortical thickness. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular E2 replacement reduces body weight gain, ameliorates intraabdominal fat accumulation, and reduces bone formation in the OVX rats. E2 administration selectively in the VMH also reduced intraabdominal fat but did not affect bone metabolism.

  16. The Impact of Vitamin D, Calcium, Protein Supplementation, and Physical Exercise on Bone Metabolism After Bariatric Surgery: The BABS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitz, Christian; Kocijan, Roland; Haschka, Judith; Zendeli, Afrodite; Pirker, Thomas; Geiger, Corinna; Müller, Andrea; Tschinder, Bettina; Kocijan, Annemarie; Marterer, Christina; Nia, Arastoo; Muschitz, Gabriela Katharina; Resch, Heinrich; Pietschmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are common and effective methods to treat severe obesity, but these procedures can adversely influence bone metabolism and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). This was a prospective 24-month single-center interventional two-arm study in 220 women and similarly aged men (median age 40.7 years) with a body mass index (BMI) >38 kg/m(2) after RYGB and SG procedures. Patients were randomized into: 1) an intervention group receiving: 28,000 IU cholecalciferol/wk for 8 weeks before bariatric surgery, 16,000 IU/wk and 1000 mg calciummonocitrate/d after surgery, daily BMI-adjusted protein supplementation and physical exercise (Nordic walking, strength perseverance, and equipment training); 2) a non-intervention group: no preoperative loading, nutritional supplementation, or obligatory physical exercise. At study endpoint, when comparing the intervention group to the non-intervention group, the relative percentage changes of serum levels of sclerostin (12.1% versus 63.8%), cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX, 82.6% versus 158.3%), 25-OH vitamin D (13.4% versus 18.2%), phosphate (23.7% versus 32%, p bone score (TBS) values (p exercise decelerates the loss of aBMD and LBM after bariatric surgery. Moreover, the well-known increases of bone turnover markers are less pronounced. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Bone density and amenorrhea in ballet dancers are related to a decreased resting metabolic rate and lower leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Becky A; Warren, Michelle P; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2002-06-01

    Osteopenia, which is correlated with amenorrhea and poor nutritional habits, has been well documented in elite ballet dancers. Estrogen replacement therapy and recovery from amenorrhea have not been associated with normalization of bone density. Thus, the osteopenia may be related to changes brought about by chronic dieting or other factors, such as a hypometabolic state induced by poor nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of chronic dieting and resting metabolic rate (RMR) to amenorrhea and bone density. RMR, bone density, eating disorder assessments, leptin levels, and complete menstrual and medical histories were determined in 21 elite ballet dancers and in 27 nondancers (age, 20-30 yr). No significant correlations were found between high EAT26 scores, a measure of disordered eating, and RMR, bone densities, body weight, body fat, or fat-free mass. However, when RMR was adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), a significant positive correlation was found between RMR/FFM and bone density in both the arms (P ballet dancers, but not in the normal controls. The dancers also demonstrated significantly higher EAT scores (22.9 +/- 10.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.4; P nutritional habits in ballet dancers, causing significant depression of RMR, particularly for those with a history of amenorrhea.

  18. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  19. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  20. Chronic kidney disease associated with decreased bone mineral density, uric acid and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo-Lin; Loke, Song-Seng

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. The associations among metabolic syndrome (MetS), serum uric acid and CKD are also unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between decreased BMD, MetS, serum uric acid and CKD in a general population. A total of 802 subjects who visited a medical center in Southern Taiwan and underwent a BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) during a health examination were enrolled in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Either osteopenia or osteoporosis was defined as decreased BMD. CKD was defined as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Simple and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between variables, decreased BMD and CKD. Of the 802 subjects with a mean age of 54.4±10.2 years, the prevalence of decreased BMD was 62.9%, and CKD was 3.7%. Simple logistic analysis showed that sex (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.21-10.12, p = 0.021), age (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21, puric acid (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.49-2.27, pmetabolic syndrome (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.29-5.67, p = 0.009), and decreased BMD (OR 3.998, 95% CI 1.38-11.57, p = 0.011) were significantly associated with CKD. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, puric acid (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.59, puric acid and MetS were significantly associated with CKD.. Further large and prospective cohort studies are necessary to investigate whether management of osteoporosis, hyperuricemia, or MetS might prevent the progression of CKD.

  1. The regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin contributes to unloading-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi; Sun, Weijia; Li, Yuheng; Ling, Shukuan; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Song, Jinping; Song, Hailin; Li, Jinqiao; You, Linhao; Nie, Guangjun; Chang, Yanzhong; Li, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload inhibits osteoblast function and promotes osteoclastogenesis. Hepcidin plays an important role in this process. The changes in iron content and the regulation of hepcidin under unloading-induced bone loss remain unknown. A hindlimb suspension model was adopted to simulate unloading-induced bone loss in mice. The results showed that iron deposition in both liver and bone was markedly increased in hindlimb unloaded mice, and was accompanied by the upregulation of osteoclast activity and downregulation of osteoblast activity. The iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) reduced the iron content in bone and alleviated unloading-induced bone loss. The increased iron content in bone was mainly a result of the upregulation of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 with iron response element (DMT1+IRE), rather than changes in the iron transporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The hepcidin level in the liver was significantly higher, while the FPN1 level in the duodenum was substantially reduced. However, there were no changes in the FPN1 level in bone tissue. During hindlimb unloading, downregulation of hepcidin by siRNA increased iron uptake in bone and liver, which aggravated unloading-induced bone loss. In summary, these data show that unloading-induced bone loss was orchestrated by iron overload and coupled with the regulation of hepcidin by the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone Metabolism in Adolescent Athletes With Amenorrhea, Athletes With Eumenorrhea, and Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Karla; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Lamparello, Brooke; Cord, Jennalee; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Gupta, Nupur; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that, despite increased activity, bone density would be low in athletes with amenorrhea, compared with athletes with eumenorrhea and control subjects, because of associated hypogonadism and would be associated with a decrease in bone formation and increases in bone-resorption markers. METHODS In a cross-sectional study, we examined bone-density measures (spine, hip, and whole body) and body composition by using dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry and assessed fasting levels of insulin-like growth factor I and bone-turnover markers (N-terminal propeptied of type 1 procollagen and N-telopeptide) in 21 athletes with amenorrhea, 18 athletes with eumenorrhea, and 18 control subjects. Subjects were 12 to 18 years of age and of comparable chronologic and bone age. RESULTS Athletes with amenorrhea had lower bone-density z scores at the spine and whole body, compared with athletes with eumenorrhea and control subjects, and lower hip z scores, compared with athletes with eumenorrhea. Lean mass did not differ between groups. However, athletes with amenorrhea had lower BMI z scores than did athletes with eumenorrhea and lower insulin-like growth factor I levels than did control subjects. Levels of both markers of bone turnover were lower in athletes with amenorrhea than in control subjects. BMI z scores, lean mass, insulin-like growth factor I levels, and diagnostic category were important independent predictors of bone mineral density z scores. CONCLUSIONS Although they showed no significant differences in lean mass, compared with athletes with eumenorrhea and control subjects, athletes with amenorrhea had lower bone density at the spine and whole body. Insulin-like growth factor I levels, body-composition parameters, and menstrual status were important predictors of bone density. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine whether amenorrhea in athletes adversely affects the rate of bone mass accrual and therefore peak bone mass. PMID:18519482

  3. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piert, Morand; Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A.; Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [ 18 F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K 1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f H2O ) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [ 15 O]H 2 O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [ 18 F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K 1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K i ), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K i and k 3 (P H2O , f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [ 18 F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f H2O and K i values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [ 18 F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [ 18 F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [ 18 F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  4. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piert, Morand [Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A. [Radiopharmacy Section, PET Center, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T. [Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K{sub 1} values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f{sub H2O}) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K{sub 1} values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K{sub i}), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3} (P<0.05), which was mainly caused by an increase of the fraction of bound tracer in tissue (P<0.01). In contrast, f{sub H2O}, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [{sup 18}F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [{sup 18}F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f{sub H2O} and K{sub i} values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [{sup 18}F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease

  5. Old age and the associated impairment of bones' adaptation to loading are associated with transcriptomic changes in cellular metabolism, cell-matrix interactions and the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Harris, Marie A; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Harris, Stephen E; Price, Joanna S

    2017-01-30

    In old animals, bone's ability to adapt its mass and architecture to functional load-bearing requirements is diminished, resulting in bone loss characteristic of osteoporosis. Here we investigate transcriptomic changes associated with this impaired adaptive response. Young adult (19-week-old) and aged (19-month-old) female mice were subjected to unilateral axial tibial loading and their cortical shells harvested for microarray analysis between 1h and 24h following loading (36 mice per age group, 6 mice per loading group at 6 time points). In non-loaded aged bones, down-regulated genes are enriched for MAPK, Wnt and cell cycle components, including E2F1. E2F1 is the transcription factor most closely associated with genes down-regulated by ageing and is down-regulated at the protein level in osteocytes. Genes up-regulated in aged bone are enriched for carbohydrate metabolism, TNFα and TGFβ superfamily components. Loading stimulates rapid and sustained transcriptional responses in both age groups. However, genes related to proliferation are predominantly up-regulated in the young and down-regulated in the aged following loading, whereas those implicated in bioenergetics are down-regulated in the young and up-regulated in the aged. Networks of inter-related transcription factors regulated by E2F1 are loading-responsive in both age groups. Loading regulates genes involved in similar signalling cascades in both age groups, but these responses are more sustained in the young than aged. From this we conclude that cells in aged bone retain the capability to sense and transduce loading-related stimuli, but their ability to translate acute responses into functionally relevant outcomes is diminished. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PTH (1-84) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism: Effects on bone metabolism and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikjær, Tanja Tvistholm; Rejnmark, Lars; Tietze, Anna

    Conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues causes reduced bone turnover and over-mineralized bone. We studied 62 patients with known hypoPT randomized into 2 groups of treatment with either PTH (1–84) 100 µg/d s.c. or placebo......, as an add-on therapy. We investigated the changes in bone structure and density using µCT in 44 iliac crest bone biopsies (23 on PTH treatment) obtained after 24-wks of treatment. Trabecular tunnelling was evident in 11 (48%) biopsies from the PTH-group, whereas no tunnelling was detected in the placebo...... group. Patients showing tunnelling had significantly higher levels of biochemical markers of bone resorption (NTX and CTX) and formation (osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, PINP). Compared with placebo, PTH-treatment resulted in lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th*) (p

  7. PTH (1-84) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism: Effects on bone metabolism and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikjær, Tanja Tvistholm; Rejnmark, Lars; Tietze, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues causes reduced bone turnover and over-mineralized bone. We studied 62 patients with known hypoPT randomized into 2 groups of treatment with either PTH (1–84) 100 µg/d s.c. or placebo......, as an add-on therapy. We investigated the changes in bone structure and density using µCT in 44 iliac crest bone biopsies (23 on PTH treatment) obtained after 24-wks of treatment. Trabecular tunnelling was evident in 11 (48%) biopsies from the PTH-group, whereas no tunnelling was detected in the placebo...... group. Patients showing tunnelling had significantly higher levels of biochemical markers of bone resorption (NTX and CTX) and formation (osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, PINP). Compared with placebo, PTH-treatment resulted in lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th*) (p

  8. Cardiovascular diseases in older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture: prevalence, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism, and bidirectional links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Fisher,1,3 W Srikusalanukul,1 M Davis,1,3 P Smith2,31Departments of Geriatric Medicine, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, The Canberra Hospital, 3Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Considerable controversy exists regarding the contribution of mineral/bone metabolism abnormalities to the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and osteoporotic fractures.Aims and methods: To determine the relationships between mineral/bone metabolism biomarkers and CVD in 746 older patients with hip fracture, clinical data were recorded and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, troponin I, parameters of bone turnover, and renal, liver, and thyroid functions were measured.Results: CVDs were diagnosed in 472 (63.3% patients. Vitamin D deficiency was similarly prevalent in patients with (78.0% and without (82.1% CVD. The CVD group had significantly higher mean PTH concentrations (7.6 vs 6.0 pmol/L, P < 0.001, a higher prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SPTH (PTH > 6.8 pmol/L, 43.0% vs 23.3%, P < 0.001, and excess bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline corrected by creatinine [DPD/Cr] > 7.5 nmol/µmol, 87.9% vs 74.8%, P < 0.001. In multivariate regression analysis, SHPT (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, P = 0.007 and high DPD/Cr (OR 2.8, P = 0.016 were independent indictors of CVD. Compared to those with both PTH and DPD/Cr in the normal range, multivariate-adjusted ORs for the presence of CVD were 17.3 (P = 0.004 in subjects with SHPT and 9.7 (P < 0.001 in patients with high DPD/Cr. CVD was an independent predicator of SHPT (OR 2.8, P = 0.007 and excess DPD/Cr (OR 2.5, P = 0.031. CVD was predictive of postoperative myocardial injury, while SHPT was also an independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death.Conclusion: SHPT and excess bone resorption are independent pathophysiological mediators underlying the bidirectional associations

  9. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shreef, Fadwa M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Abd El-Kader, Shehab M

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been shown in many studies to be associated with reduced bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in diabetic patients in prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type of effective osteogenic exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in handgrip strength and bone metabolism after 6 months between aerobic and resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients in Jeddah area. One hundred non-insulin dependent diabetic male patients participated in this study and were divided into two equal groups; the first group (A) received aerobic exercise training, where the second group (B) received resistance exercise training. The program consisted of three sessions per week for six months. The mean values of serum calcium and Hand grip strength were significantly increased, while the mean values of parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased in both groups .Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Aerobic exercise training on treadmill is appropriate to improve markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

  10. Bone quantitative ultrasound measurements in relation to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulló, M; Garcia-Aloy, M; Basora, J; Covas, M I; Salas-Salvado, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether metabolic syndrome, its individual components, or the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with a better bone status estimated by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics. 251 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED study were included. MetS was defined according to the ATPIII diagnosis criteria. Calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment was performed using the Sahara system. Subjects with MetS showed significantly lower 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (u-DPD/creatinine) levels and higher broadband ultrasound attenuation, and a tendency to higher bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) than their counterparts. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) showed a significantly higher bone broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and QUI than their non-diabetic counterparts, despite they shown a higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that quantitative ultrasound parameters were positively associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. Of the bone biochemical markers, only u-DPD/creatinine was related to MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia component of the MetS, and the number of features that define the MetS. This is the first study showing a positive association between MetS or T2DM with better bone status and lower bone resorption markers measured by quantitative ultrasound. Our results suggest that metabolic abnormalities have a positive effect on healthy bone in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 1. Extraction and ESR analysis of bones from mechanically recovered poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocol EN 1786 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was not conceived for the detection of irradiated bone-containing ingredients included in low concentration in non-irradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at 55 degrees C, has been

  12. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Schoenmakers, Inez; Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2016-03-09

    There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R 2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by osteocalcin. This study, to our

  13. Evaluation of the effect of a chicken comb extract-containing supplement on cartilage and bone metabolism in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Masafumi; Aoba, Yukihiro; Watari, Taiji; Momomura, Rei; Watanabe, Keita; Tomonaga, Akihito; Matsunaga, Michitaka; Suda, Yoshimasa; Lee, Woo Young; Asai, Katsuhito; Yoshimura, Kaori; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Nagaoka, Isao

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study, we revealed that a commercially available product of dietary supplement containing a chicken comb extract (CCE), which is rich in hyaluronan, not only relieves joint pain and other symptoms, but also potentially improves the balance of type II collagen degradation/synthesis in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Since soccer is one of the sports most likely to cause knee osteoarthritis (OA), we evaluated the effect of a CCE-containing supplement on cartilage and bone metabolism in athletes. Fourteen and 15 subjects (all midfielders) were randomly assigned to receive the test product (test group) and the dummy placebo containing only vehicle (placebo group), respectively, for 12 weeks. The daily oral intake of the CCE-containing test product clearly decreased the urinary levels of both C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of cartilage-specific type II collagen (CTX-II) as a type II collagen degradation marker and the N-terminal telopeptides of bone-specific type I collagen (NTx) as a marker of bone resorption at 12 weeks after the initiation of the intervention. By contrast, no significant reduction was detected in the placebo group at any timepoint during the intervention. These observations indicate that the test product is effective in inhibiting, not only cartilage degradation, but also bone remodeling. Thus, the CCE-containing supplement may be useful for the management of joint health in athletes.

  14. Effect of basal metabolic rate on the bone mineral density in middle to old age women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Fan, Chun-Hao; Lin, Zin-Rong; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) reflects a combination of cardiopulmonary function and lean body mass resulting from regular physical activity. Though many studies have examined the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, little is known regarding the relationship between BMD and BMR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BMR, anthropometric parameters, body composition and BMD in postmenopausal women in Taiwan. Two hundred and eighty-nine women between the ages of 40 and 80 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: height, body weight, total body fat (TBF), BMR, waist-to-hip ratio, grip strength, and back strength. Differences in all variables between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women (categorized according to decades in age) were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Multiple linear regression with a backward stepwise approach was performed to evaluate the relationship between these measurements and BMD. Among women over 50 years of age, those who were non-osteoporotic had higher BMR, BMI, and body fat by comparison to their osteoporotic counterparts (pBMR and body fat significantly predicted BMD of the femoral neck (adjusted beta coefficients of 0.304 and 0.190, respectively; pBMR and body fat also predicted an increased vertebral BMD (adjusted beta coefficients of 0.310 and 0.141, respectively; pBMR is closely associated with BMD in elderly persons, and may be a novel target for interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in BMD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

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    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  16. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17.  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, osteoprotegerin and its soluble ligand sRANKL and bone metabolism in girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Ostrowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Only scarce data exist concerning the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and/or its sulfate form DHEAS and bone status in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN.Aim:We investigated whether a relationship existed between DHEAS and bone metabolism (as assessed based on serum osteocalcin [OC], and collagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide [CTx]. We also aimed to establish whether the above mentioned relationship might be affected by osteoprotegerin (OPG and its soluble ligand sRANKL.Material/Methods:Fifty-six female patients with AN and 21 healthy female subjects aged 13 to 16 years participated in the study. Serum DHEAS, OC, CTx, OPG and sRANKL were measured by ELISA.Results:Our female patients with AN demonstrated significant suppression of DHEAS and bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL levels, and a reduction of the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio correlated positively with BMI. A significant positive correlation was also observed between DHEAS and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, OC and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and CTx and sRANKL. The correlation was negative in the case of DHEAS and CTx, DHEAS and sRANKL, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and sRANKL and the OPG/sRANKL ratio.Discussion/DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa was associated with a decrease in the levels of bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL concentrations and a significant decrease in the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa might have a harmful effect on their bone tissue, probably via a shift in the OPG/RANKL ratio toward a functional excess of sRANKL.

  18. [Different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats and related bone metabolism of the hormone influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shun-cheng; Ma, Xue-jun; Guo, Cheng-ji; Liu, Hong-zhen

    2012-05-01

    To explore the influence of different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats on the bone metabolism, so as to provide the training intensity of teenagers to set theory support. Select 70 male four weeks Wistar rats according to body weight randomly divided into seven groups (n = 10): the control group and the exercise group. According to the VO2max the exercise group was divided into 6 groups: 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% group. Nine weeks treadmill training, training six days a week, each group of training three times, each time not less than 10min, the interval was 30 min. The last movement after 24 h, took the femur and blood to measured the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), resist tartaric acid acidic phosphatase (Str-ACP). 1. The femoral BMD (0.1393 +/- 0.0031), BMC (0.4525 +/- 0.0335) of 70% group were significantly higher than those in the control group (BMD: 0.1200 +/- 0.0095, BMC: 0.3238 +/- 0.0485) and the other sports group (65% BMD:0.1339 +/- 0.0062, BMC: 0.4058 +/- 0.0492, 75% BMD: 0.1296 +/- 0.0015, BMC: 0.3869 +/- 0.0254, 80% BMD: 0.1223 +/- 0.0082, BMC: 0.3454 +/- 0.0483, 85% BMD: 0.1250 +/- 0.0044, BMC: 0.3731 +/- 0.0381, 90% BMD: 0.1171 +/- 0.0047, BMC: 0.3051 +/- 0.0286) (P growth period rat bone mass and bone mineral density to increase obviously.

  19. Description and assessment of a registration-based approach to include bones for attenuation correction of whole-body PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry R; Patrick, John; Laidley, David; Prato, Frank S; Butler, John; Théberge, Jean; Thompson, R Terry; Stodilka, Robert Z

    2013-08-01

    Attenuation correction for whole-body PET/MRI is challenging. Most commercial systems compute the attenuation map from MRI using a four-tissue segmentation approach. Bones, the most electron-dense tissue, are neglected because they are difficult to segment. In this work, the authors build on this segmentation approach by adding bones using a registration technique and assessing its performance on human PET images. Twelve oncology patients were imaged with FDG PET/CT and MRI using a Turbo-FLASH pulse sequence. A database of 121 attenuation correction quality CT scans was also collected. Each patient MRI was compared to the CT database via weighted heuristic measures to find the "most similar" CT in terms of body geometry. The similar CT was aligned to the MRI with a deformable registration method. Two MRI-based attenuation maps were computed. One was a standard four-tissue segmentation (air, lung, fat, and lean tissue) using basic image processing techniques. The other was identical, except the bones from the aligned CT were added. The PET data were reconstructed with the patient's CT-based attenuation map (the silver standard) and both MRI-based attenuation maps. The relative errors of the MRI-based attenuation corrections were computed in 14 standardized volumes of interest, in lesions, and over whole tissues. The squared Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated over whole tissues. Statistical testing was done with ANOVAs and paired t-tests. The MRI-based attenuation correction ignoring bone had relative errors ranging from -37% to -8% in volumes of interest containing bone. By including bone, the magnitude of the relative error was reduced in all cases (pbone was improved from a mean of -7.5% to 2% (pbone reduced the magnitude of relative error in three cases (pbone slightly increased relative error in lung from 7.7% to 8.0% (p=0.002), in fat from 8.5% to 9.2% (pbone from -14.6% to 1.3% (pbone was included or not. The approach to include bones in MRI

  20. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L.; Vestergaard, C. H.; Moeller, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex- and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS. METHODS...

  1. Bone mass and mineral metabolism alterations in adult celiac disease: pathophysiology and clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Michele; Mengoli, Caterina; Bergonzi, Manuela; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2013-11-22

    Osteoporosis affects many patients with celiac disease (CD), representing the consequence of calcium malabsorption and persistent activation of mucosal inflammation. A slight increase of fracture risk is evident in this condition, particularly in those with overt malabsorption and in postmenopausal state. The adoption of a correct gluten-free diet (GFD) improves bone derangement, but is not able to normalize bone mass in all the patients. Biomarkers effective in the prediction of bone response to gluten-free diet are not yet available and the indications of guidelines are still imperfect and debated. In this review, the pathophysiology of bone loss is correlated to clinical aspects, defining an alternative proposal of management for this condition.

  2. Bone Mass and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Adult Celiac Disease: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Di Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis affects many patients with celiac disease (CD, representing the consequence of calcium malabsorption and persistent activation of mucosal inflammation. A slight increase of fracture risk is evident in this condition, particularly in those with overt malabsorption and in postmenopausal state. The adoption of a correct gluten-free diet (GFD improves bone derangement, but is not able to normalize bone mass in all the patients. Biomarkers effective in the prediction of bone response to gluten-free diet are not yet available and the indications of guidelines are still imperfect and debated. In this review, the pathophysiology of bone loss is correlated to clinical aspects, defining an alternative proposal of management for this condition.

  3. Bone metabolism and RANKL/RANK/OPG trail in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupkallo Lukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology. In order for it to appear there must come to an imbalance between the effects of pathogens and host defense mechanisms. As a result of its course the destruction of structures supporting the teeth appears (periodontium, cement, bone, and consequently leads to teeth loosening and loss. In recent years, the participation of RANKL/RANK/OPG in bone remodeling process was highligted.

  4. [Effect of growth hormone combined with Radix Dipsaci on the body growth and the bone metabolism of hypophysectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-ke; Zhang, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Qiong

    2011-12-01

    , and improve the bone metabolism.

  5. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  6. Effects of dexamethasone, celecoxib, and methotrexate on the histology and metabolism of bone tissue in healthy Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhi Liu,1,2,* Yang Cui,3,* Yan Chen,1 Xiang Gao,4 Yanjie Su,1 Liao Cui1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, 2School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 3Department of Rheumatism Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, 4Stem Cell Research and Cellular Therapy Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of three antiarthritics, namely dexamethasone, celecoxib, and methotrexate on the histology and metabolism of intact bone tissue in rats.Methods: Thirty-two 12-week-old healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups: 1 control (saline, daily; 2 dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, twice weekly; 3 celecoxib (50 mg/kg, daily; and 4 methotrexate (0.5 mg/kg, twice weekly. The drugs were administered to the rats for 12 weeks and the animals were weighed on a weekly basis. The femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for bone mineral density and bone mechanical properties analyses. The proximal tibiae were processed for bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography analyses.Results: The following results were obtained: 1 dexamethasone strongly inhibited bone formation rate accompanied with a decrease in bone mineral density and bone biomechanical properties; 2 celecoxib stimulated bone resorption, leading to a decrease of bone mass and femur biomechanic properties; and 3 methotrexate caused bone loss and bone quality deterioration to a lesser extent due to the increase of the bone turnover rate on the proximal tibial metaphysis of the rats.Conclusion: This study provides a comparative profile of the long-term effects of clinical doses of celecoxib, methotrexate, and dexamethasone on intact skeletons of the rats

  7. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  8. Metabolic-mineral study in patients with renal calcium lithiasis, severe lithogenic activity and loss of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; De Haro-Muñoz, Tomas De; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in patients with severe lithogenic activity and compared their metabolisms with those in patients without lithiasis or with mild lithogenic activity. From a sample of 182 patients, those with osteopenia/osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine were studied separately in a two-pronged study. 66 patients with bone mineral densities (BMDs) lithiasis (n = 15); group A2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 22); and group A3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 29). Similarly, 86 patients with BMDs lithiasis (n = 15); group B2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 29); and group B3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 42). Patients from group A3 exhibited significantly higher levels of bone remodelling markers as compared to groups A1 and A2. Urinalysis also revealed higher excretion of calcium in 24-hour assessments in this group. Patients from group B3 differed from groups B1 and B2 mainly in bone remodelling markers and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, which were significantly elevated in patients from group B3. Patients with calcium lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity in addition to osteopenia/osteoporosis present with higher levels of hypercalciuria and negative osseous balance, which possibly perpetuate and favour lithiasic activity.

  9. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kawakita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available S Kawakita1, F Marotta2, Y Naito3, U Gumaste4, S Jain5, J Tsuchiya1, E Minelli21Biokenkyusho Research Laboratory, Shizuoka, Japan; 2WHO-cntr for Biotechnology and Natural Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Immunology Research Institute and Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 5Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the combined effect of a quality-controlled red clover extract (RCE standardized to contain 40% isoflavones by weight (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin present as hydrolyzed aglycones together with a modified alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic and biomechanical parameters in an experimental model of surgically-induced menopause. Sprague–Dawley female rats were maintained under controlled standard conditions of light and fed with conventional food of standard calcium content and no alfalfa or soybean components. Rats were randomized into four groups: Group A represented normal rats (sham operated while three other groups were ovariectomized (OVX and fed for three months as follows: standard food (group B, 6 mg/kg/day food mixed with RCE (Group C, or given 6 mg/kg/day of RCE plus a modified alkaline supplementation (BP through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 16 mg (group D. The animals were killed 90 days after surgery. As compared to group B, RCE or RCE + BP treatments brought about significantly higher level of estradiol and mitigated the weight loss of the uterus and improved maximum load of the femoral neck. Osteocalcin level showed an over 65% increase in group B but both RCE and RCE + BP treatments prevented such abnormality with a significantly better result in RCE + BP group which virtually normalized such parameter as well as urinary excretion of DPD. Group C and D reduced the over 20% loss of bone mineral density and bone mineral content

  10. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D₃ supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Neef, Nadja; Leiterer, Matthias; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D₃ on bone and mineral metabolism. Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D₃ (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D₃. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D₃ supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D₃ supplementations (vitamin D₃, CaP + vitamin D₃), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D₃ significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D₃ have no beneficial effect on bone remodelling markers and on

  11. Influence of ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. II: Role in recovering osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Bertoni, Laura; Cavani, Francesco; Zavatti, Manuela; Resca, Elisa; Carnevale, Gianluca; Benelli, Augusta; Zanoli, Paola; Palumbo, Carla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation, which represents an extension of a previous study, was to investigate the effect of ferutinin in recovering severe osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency after rat ovariectomy and to compare phytoestrogen effects with those of estrogens commonly used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The animal model used was the Sprague–Dawley ovariectomized rat. Ferutinin was orally administered (2 mg kg−1 per day) for 30 or 60 days starting from 2 months after ovariectomy (i.e. when osteoporosis was clearly evident) and its effects were compared with those of estradiol benzoate (1.5 μg per rat twice a week, subcutaneously injected) vs. vehicle-treated ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on trabecular bone of lumbar vertebrae (4th and 5th) and distal femoral epiphysis, as well as on cortical bone of femoral diaphysis. Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that ferutinin seems to display the same effects on bone mass recorded with estradiol benzoate, thus suggesting that it could enhance the recovery of bone loss due to severe estrogen deficiency in OVX rats. On this basis, the authors propose listing ferutinin among the substances representing a potential alternative for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which occurs as a result of estrogen deficiency. PMID:20492429

  12. Association of Bone Metabolic Markers With Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in Elderly Chinese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jingyun; Zhong, Yong; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Ou; Huang, Ping; Li, Chunying; Qu, Bin; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Caixia; Niu, Meng; Yu, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common and specific microvascular complication of diabetes. The association of bone metabolic markers with the risk of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) is unclear. We investigated the association between bone turnover markers commonly examined in a clinical setting and DR and DME risk in elderly Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 408 patients aged 55-70 years with T2DM were included. We first performed univariable logistic regression followed by multivariable logistic regression that included variables selected using purposeful selection. Fasting blood glucose (P = 0.007) and duration of diabetes (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with DME in multivariable logistic regression; however, the association of beta C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (β-CTx) with DME risk was not statistically significant (P = 0.053). Sex-stratified analysis showed that β-CTx was significantly associated with DME only in female subjects (P = 0.011). β-CTx had no significant association with DR. It was significantly associated with DME in female patients with T2DM, but not in male patients with T2DM. More prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to validate our findings. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SPECT/spiral-CT hybrid imaging in unclear foci of increased bone metabolism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Kuwert, T. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen/Nuernberg (Germany); Beckmann, M.W. [Frauenklinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen/Nuernberg (Germany); Forst, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Orthopaedie mit Orthopaedischer Chirurgie, Friedrich-Alexander Univ. Erlangen/Nuernberg (Germany); Bautz, W. [Radiologisches Inst., Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen/Nuernberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In bone scintigraphy, the differentiation between degenerative processes and bone metastases is still difficult. Therefore, additional radiological studies are regularly needed after bone scintigraphy. The now introduced hybrid-cameras combining single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and spiral-CT are unique in the sense that they offer the opportunity to correlate the functional information with morphology in one session. We herein present two patients in whom this technological setup allowed a definite diagnosis in scintigraphically unclear vertebral lesions. In a patient with breast cancer, hypermetabolic lesions were clearly correlated with osteolyses. In another patient with synovial carcinoma, spondylosis and spondylarthrosis caused focal tracer uptake in the lumbar spine. In addition to an improved diagnostic accuracy, SPECT/Spiral-CT will considerably abbreviate the diagnostic process. (orig.)

  14. Practical aspects of sup(99m)technetium-methylene-diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Lore, F.; Nuti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetic studies in man have shown that sup(99m)Tc-MDP is rapidly taken up by the skeleton or excreted in urine, only negligible quantities being retained by soft tissues. It can be assumed that the amount of the tracer retained in the whole body up to 24 h after the injection (WBR) is completely bound to bone and represents the total skeletal uptake. On the basis of this assumption we have considered the possibility that the evaluation of WBR might be applied in clinical medicine as an index of bone turnover. The method has been used in a large number of patients with a variety of disorders known to affect bone turnover. The results obtained are reported in this paper

  15. INTERRELATION AMONG SERUM LITHIUM LEVELS AND BONE METABOLISM AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PRE AND POST-MENAUPOSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruken Esra Demirdöğen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study is to determine the interrelation among serum Li level on bone metabolism (Ca, P, Parathormon, and Vitamin-D, sex and metabolic hormones (estrogen, FSH, LH and TSH, and some biochemical parameters in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The study is carried out with 10 women: 5 premenopausal and 5 postmenopausal women. The serum Li levels, bone metabolism indicators (i.e., ALP, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and some biochemical parameters such as serum tryglyceride, alkalene phosphatase, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and cholesterol levels were determined. The estrogen blood level of women in menopause period was found to be lower than that of women in pre-menopause period (p<0.01 and the FSH level was found to be higher (p<0.01. In the lipid profile the triglyceride level in the post-menopause period was found to be low (p<0.05 and HDL (p<0.001, LDL (p<0.001 and the cholesterol levels were found to be high (p<0.001. The alkalene phosphatase (p<0.001 and Vitamin-D levels (p<0.001 were found to decrease. When the mineral levels were investigated no meaningful difference was observed in the serum magnesium and copper levels while zinc (p<0.01 and phosphorus (p<0.005 levels were observed to increase, the calcium levels (p<0.05 decreased and Li levels considerably decreased (p<0.0001. According to the results obtained it was determined for the first time that Li defficiency can be related with menopause and the related diseases and thus Li therapy can be used in developing new treatment protocols of menopause as an alternative method.

  16. Japanese medaka: a non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying sex and age-related bone metabolism in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admane H Shanthanagouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human, a reduction in estrogen has been proposed as one of the key contributing factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rodents are conventional models for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the major limitation is that ovariectomy is needed to mimic the estrogen decline after menopause. Interestingly, in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes, we observed a natural drop in plasma estrogen profile in females during aging and abnormal spinal curvature was apparent in old fish, which are similar to postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen associated disorders in bone metabolism might be predicted and prevented by estrogen supplement in aging O. latipes, which could be corresponding to postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In O. latipes, plasma estrogen was peaked at 8 months old and significantly declined after 10, 11 and 22 months in females. Spinal bone mineral density (BMD and micro-architecture by microCT measurement progressively decreased and deteriorated from 8 to 10, 12 and 14 months old, which was more apparent in females than the male counterparts. After 10 months old, O. latipes were supplemented with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, a potent estrogen mimic at 6 and 60 ng/mg fish weight/day for 4 weeks, both reduction in spinal BMD and deterioration in bone micro-architecture were significantly prevented. The estrogenic effect of EE2 in O. latipes was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four key estrogen responsive genes in the liver. In general, bone histomorphometric analyses indicated significantly lowered osteoblasts and osteoclasts numbers and surfaces on vertebrae of EE2-fed medaka. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate osteoporosis development associated with natural drop in estrogen level during aging in female medaka, which could be attenuated by estrogen treatment. This small size fish is a unique alternative non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying estrogen-related molecular

  17. Japanese Medaka: A Non-Mammalian Vertebrate Model for Studying Sex and Age-Related Bone Metabolism In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui R.; Chao, Liang; Chiang, Michael W. L.; Singaram, Gopalakrishnan; Cheung, Napo K. M.; Zhang, Ge; Au, Doris W. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In human, a reduction in estrogen has been proposed as one of the key contributing factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rodents are conventional models for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the major limitation is that ovariectomy is needed to mimic the estrogen decline after menopause. Interestingly, in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), we observed a natural drop in plasma estrogen profile in females during aging and abnormal spinal curvature was apparent in old fish, which are similar to postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen associated disorders in bone metabolism might be predicted and prevented by estrogen supplement in aging O. latipes, which could be corresponding to postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Principal findings In O. latipes, plasma estrogen was peaked at 8 months old and significantly declined after 10, 11 and 22 months in females. Spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architecture by microCT measurement progressively decreased and deteriorated from 8 to 10, 12 and 14 months old, which was more apparent in females than the male counterparts. After 10 months old, O. latipes were supplemented with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, a potent estrogen mimic) at 6 and 60 ng/mg fish weight/day for 4 weeks, both reduction in spinal BMD and deterioration in bone micro-architecture were significantly prevented. The estrogenic effect of EE2 in O. latipes was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four key estrogen responsive genes in the liver. In general, bone histomorphometric analyses indicated significantly lowered osteoblasts and osteoclasts numbers and surfaces on vertebrae of EE2-fed medaka. Significance We demonstrate osteoporosis development associated with natural drop in estrogen level during aging in female medaka, which could be attenuated by estrogen treatment. This small size fish is a unique alternative non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying estrogen-related molecular regulation in postmenopausal

  18. Impaired bone metabolism in glycogen storage disease type 1 is associated with poor metabolic control in type 1a and with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy in type 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, D; Pivonello, R; Cozzolino, M; Della Casa, R; Balivo, F; Del Puente, A; Dionisi-Vici, C; Cotugno, G; Zuppaldi, C; Rigoldi, M; Parini, R; Colao, A; Andria, G; Parenti, G

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD1) is a rare and genetically heterogeneous metabolic defect of gluconeogenesis due to mutations of either the G6PC gene (GSD1a) or the SLC37A4 gene (GSD1b). Osteopenia is a known complication of GSD1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poor metabolic control and/or use of GSD1-specific treatments on bone mineral density (BMD) and metabolism in GSD1 patients. In a multicenter, cross-sectional case-control study, we studied 38 GSD1 (29 GSD1a and 9 GSD1b) patients. Clinical, biochemical and instrumental parameters indicative of bone metabolism were analyzed; BMD was evaluated by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound. Both GSD1a and GSD1b patients showed reduced BMD compared with age-matched controls. In GSD1a patients, these abnormalities correlated with compliance to diet and biochemical indicators of metabolic control. In GSD1b patients, BMD correlated with the age at first administration and the duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. Our data indicate that good metabolic control and compliance with diet are highly recommended to improve bone metabolism in GSD1a patients. GSD1b patients on G-CSF treatment should be carefully monitored for the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis.

  19. Serum Heme Oxygenase-1 and BMP-7 Are Potential Biomarkers for Bone Metabolism in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tong-Ling; Chen, Jin; Tong, Yan-Li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yi; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (p pathways in the two types of arthritis.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Cortex acanthopanacis Aqueous Extract on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, calcitonin (CT, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were determined. Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. Treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. Effects of peripheral stem cell or bone marrow reinfusion on peripheral serotonin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; van der Graaf, WTA; Kema, IP; Sibinga, CTS; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    1999-01-01

    Reinfusion of autologous hematopoietic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) or bone marrow is often accompanied by flushing, dyspnea, abdominal cramping, nausea and diarrhea. These symptoms and the observation that they can be prevented by ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, led to the

  2. Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis during Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    activation of bone resorption. The working model portends that excessive dermal Ca loss (i.e., sweating) causes a decline in serum ionized Ca (iCa...and 4) added syncope to the risks of blood draw and IV catheter placement. PAM004-1: This was approved 13 Jun 2013 at the time of Continuing Review

  3. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  4. Effects of growth hormone administration on bone mineral metabolism, PTH sensitivity and PTH secretory rhythm in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Franklin; Ahmad, Aftab M; Ul-Haq, Mazhar; Durham, Brian H; Whittingham, Pauline; Fraser, William D; Vora, Jiten P

    2008-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement improves target organ sensitivity to PTH, PTH circadian rhythm, calcium and phosphate metabolism, bone turnover, and BMD in adult GH-deficient (AGHD) patients. In postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis, GH and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations are low, and administration of GH has been shown to increase bone turnover and BMD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We studied the effects of GH administration on PTH sensitivity, PTH circadian rhythm, and bone mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. Fourteen postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were compared with 14 healthy premenopausal controls at baseline that then received GH for a period of 12 mo. Patients were hospitalized for 24 h before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after GH administration and half-hourly blood and 3-h urine samples were collected. PTH, calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO(4)), nephrogenous cyclic AMP (NcAMP), beta C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (betaCTX), procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Circadian rhythm analysis was performed using Chronolab 3.0 and Student's t-test and general linear model ANOVAs for repeated measures were used where appropriate. IGF-1 concentration was significantly lower in the women with established osteoporosis compared with controls (101.5 +/- 8.9 versus 140.9 +/- 10.8 mug/liter; p bone mineral metabolism. GH administration to postmenopausal osteoporotic women improves target organ sensitivity to PTH and bone mineral metabolism and alters PTH secretory pattern with greater increases in bone formation than resorption. These changes, resulting in a net positive bone balance, may partly explain the mechanism causing the increase in BMD after long-term administration of GH in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis shown in previous studies and proposes a further component in the development of age

  5. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A

    2014-01-01

    grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g...

  6. 18 F-Fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography for noninvasive in vivo quantification of pathophysiological bone metabolism in experimental murine arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evaluation of disease severity in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis is inevitably associated with assessment of structural bone damage. A noninvasive imaging technology allowing objective quantification of pathophysiological alterations of bone structure in rodents could substantially extend the methods used to date in preclinical arthritis research for staging of autoimmune disease severity or efficacy of therapeutical intervention. Sodium 18 F-fluoride (18 F-NaF) is a bone-seeking tracer well-suited for molecular imaging. Therefore, we systematically examined the use of 18 F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI)–induced arthritis for quantification of pathological bone metabolism. Methods F-fluoride was injected into mice before disease onset and at various time points of progressing experimental arthritis. Radioisotope accumulation in joints in the fore- and hindpaws was analyzed by PET measurements. For validation of bone metabolism quantified by 18 F-fluoride PET, bone surface parameters of high-resolution μCT measurements were used. Results Before clinical arthritis onset, no distinct accumulation of 18 F-fluoride was detectable in the fore- and hindlimbs of mice immunized with G6PI. In the course of experimental autoimmune disease, 18 F-fluoride bone uptake was increased at sites of enhanced bone metabolism caused by pathophysiological processes of autoimmune disease. Moreover, 18 F-fluoride signaling at different stages of G6PI-induced arthritis was significantly correlated with the degree of bone destruction. CT enabled identification of exact localization of 18 F-fluoride signaling in bone and soft tissue. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that small-animal PET/CT using 18 F-fluoride as a tracer is a feasible method for quantitative assessment of pathophysiological bone metabolism in experimental arthritis. Furthermore, the

  7. An Updated Look at the Pro K Experiment: Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort (1). Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest (2). In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. Two subject's samples are awaiting return from ISS via Space-X, and the final subject has one more collection session planned in November 2014. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses will show the relationships between diet and flight on markers of bone metabolism. The results from this study, which represent healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. These data will be important as nutritional requirements and food systems are developed for future exploration-class missions. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of NASA Human Research Program.

  8. WNT-mediated Modulation of Bone Metabolism: Implications for WNT Targeting to Treat Extraskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Whitney A; Robling, Alexander G

    2017-10-01

    The WNT-signaling pathway is involved in cellular and tissue functions that control such diverse processes as body axis patterning, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and life span. The long list of molecules that can participate or modify WNT signaling makes this pathway one of the most complex in cell biology. In bone tissues, WNT signaling is required for proper skeletal development, and human mutations in various components of the cascade revealed insights into pharmacologic targeting that can be harnessed to improve skeletal health. In particular, mutations in genes that code for the WNT-signaling inhibitor sclerostin or the WNT coreceptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 have highlighted the potential therapeutic value of recapitulating those effects in patients with low bone mass. A constant challenge in this area is selectively modifying WNT components in the tissue of interest, as WNT has manifold effects in nearly every tissue.

  9. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P

    1993-01-01

    very-low-calorie diet. Before treatment the bone mineral content of the distal forearm was increased compared to normals (51.9 U vs. 43.7 U, p alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Serum alkaline phosphatase was increased (187.8 U/l vs 147.4 U/l, p......, the bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p ... 25.2 molar ratio x 10(-3), p alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin remained...

  10. EFFECTS OF THE FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES (FOS AND INULIN ON BONE METABOLISM OF THE SKELETALLY MATURE FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cardoso NETTO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was establish if the fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin alone or together attenuate age related bone loss in skeletally mature female rats. Forty 10-month old female rats were randomly assigned to four diet groups for 2 months: control, FOS, inulin and FOS + inulin. Bone mineral density (BMD using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, femur quality using morphometry and biomechanic properties, biochemical assays by the determination of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, degradation products of C-terminal peptides of type I collagen (CTX-I, osteocalcin (OC, osteoprotegerin (OPG and nuclear factor κappa B ligand (RANk-L. The FOS increased hip axis BMD (0.255 ± 0.005 g/cm2 and femur neck width (2.19 ± 0.01 mm and reduced PTH (4.0 x 10-3 ± 0.0006 µg/L, FOS + inulin increased the femur proportional limit (87.2 ± 1.0 N and reduced PTH (2.5 x 10-3 ± 0.0006 µg/L and ALP (23.2 ± 5.1 U/L, all the prebiotics reduced OPG (FOS = 1.1 ± 0.3, inulin = 1.1 ± 0.3, FOS + inulin = 1.4 ± 0.4 µg/L and RANk-L (FOS = 1.65 x 10-2 ± 0.003, inulin = 1.78 x 10-2 ± 0.003, FOS + inulin = 2.83 x 10-2 ± 0.006 µg/L , no prebiotics changed OC and CTX-I. The results suggested that the consumption of FOS or FOS + inulin may reduce the bone turnover, however, further studies about prebiotics and their synergistic effect on age related bone loss are required.

  11. Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses show that urinary excretion of sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is a significant predictor of urinary n-telopeptide (NTX). Dietary sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is also a significant predictor of urinary NTX. The results from this study, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Su Noh Ryu; Mi Young Kang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body...

  13. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on bone metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Gao Wenjin; Wang Mingtao; Hu Haiqiang

    2006-01-01

    To study the effects of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on bone metabolism in liver cirrhosis, 44 patients with hepatic cirrhosis were divided into 3 groups according to disease severity (Child Pugh Score) and 38 healthy subjects served as controls. Serum levels of IGF-I and osteocalcin(BGP) were measured in all patients and controls. Results showed that levels of IGF-I, BGP, and BMD were lower significantly in patients with liver cirrhosis than that in controls. When the condition of cirrhosis more deteriorated, these changes became much lower significantly. Serum levels of BGP and BMD were positively correlated with IGF-I. The decreasing level of IGF-I might be an important factor causing osteoporosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. (authors)

  14. State of Bone Health, Metabolic and Immunological Abnormalities in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Shevchenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the progression of pathological changes in the joints of adolescents with osteoarthritis we studied state of bone tissue at the initial manifestations of the disease and analyzed its relationship with biochemical, immunological and genetic characteristics. Structural and functional state of bone tissue was examined using ultrasound densitometry in 51 adolescents (31 female and 20 males aged 12–14 years (33.3 % and 15–18 years (67.7 % with established diagnosis of initial stage of osteoarthritis of the knee. We have studied immunological (cellular and humoral immunity, cytokine content, biochemical (glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulfates in blood, uronic acid in urine, hydroxyproline excretion, the activity of acidic and alkaline phosphatase, collagenase, elastase, elastase inhibitors, content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and genetic (incidence of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations parameters. There has been revealed a significant incidence of osteopenia (60.7 %, mainly of first degree, in females under the age of 14 years in the formation of osteoarthritis on the background of reactive arthritis, reducing the height of the articular cartilage and the presence of synovitis. Analysis of the correlation of Z-score with biochemical and immunological parameters, as well as with the level of chromosomal aberrations showed a significant effect of changes in various systems of homeostasis on state of bone tissue in adolescents with osteoarthritis.

  15. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  16. Study of vitamin D status of rheumatoid arthritis patients Rationale and design of a cross-sectional study by the osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases study group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental role of Vitamin D has been long known in regulating calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. An increased contribution of Vitamin D was recently described in association with a lower incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. This must not be surprising, as the immunomodulating effects of Vitamin D are clear, which have been attributed protective effects in autoimmune disorders such as some chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes. An interaction was suggested between Vitamin D metabolism and inflammation indexes through mediation of TNF-a which is also especially involved in osteoclastic resorption and therefore in bone loss processes. Some preliminary data would indicate an association between seasonal changes of Vitamin D serum levels, latitude and disease activity (DAS28 in RA patients. Consequently, the Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases Study Group of SIR believes that there are grounded reasons for assessing the Vitamin D status of RA patients in order to investigate whether this is to be related to physiopathological and clinical aspects of disease other than those of bone involvement. Primary end point of the study will be to assess the levels of 25 OH Vitamin D in RA patients. Secondary endpoints will include correlation with disease activity, densitometry values and bone turnover. The cross-sectional study will enrol patients of both sex genders, age ranging between 30 and 75 years according to the 1988 ACR criteria, onset of symptoms at least 2 years prior to study enrollment. Patients will be excluded suffering from osteometabolic diseases, liver and kidney insufficiency and those administered Vitamin D boli in the previous 12 months. Disease activity will be evaluated with the HAQ. Haematochemical tests and femoral and lumbar bone densitometry will be performed, unless recently undergone by patients. Blood levels of 25 OH C Vitamin D and PHT and of the two bone remodeling markers

  17. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Metabolic Markers in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Vinod; Banerjee, Debasish; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Jha, Vivekanand

    2018-03-01

    Use of active forms of vitamin D is advocated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for treatment of mineral bone disease because of the presumption that native forms of vitamin D would not undergo significant activation to calcitriol, the most active biological form of vitamin D. We present secondary analysis looking at bone turnover in subjects who completed the randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in nondiabetic CKD stage G3-G4 and vitamin D ≤20 ng/mL (Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either two directly observed oral doses of 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. Of the 120 subjects enrolled, 58 in the cholecalciferol group and 59 in the placebo group completed the study. At 16 weeks, the serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2 D levels increased in the cholecalciferol group but not in the placebo group (between-group difference in mean change: 23.40 ng/mL; 95% CI, 19.76 to 27.06; p p = 0.007, respectively). Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) decreased in the cholecalciferol group (between-group difference in mean change -100.73 pg/mL (95% CI, -150.50 to -50.95; p p = 0.008 for SAP; -12.54 U/L; 95% CI, -22.09 to -2.98 U/L; p = 0.013 for BAP; and -0.21 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.05 ng/mL; p = 0.05 for CTX-1). Correlation analysis showed significant correlation of Δ25(OH)D with ΔiPTH (r = -0.409, p D (r = 0.305, p = 0.001), ΔSAP (r = -0.301, p = 0.002), ΔBAP (r = -0.264, p = 0.004), and ΔCTX-1 (r = -0.210, p = 0.0230). Cholecalciferol supplementation corrects vitamin D deficiency and is effective in lowering serum intact parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers in early stages of CKD. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  18. [Study on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with kidney deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Li, H; Liu, Y

    1999-04-01

    To Study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with Kidney Deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance. Clinical observation was taken in 52 patients, who were divided into two groups, the control group (treated with hypoglycemic agent alone) and the treated group (treated with hypoglycemic agent and CHM). Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood alkaline phosphatase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) level, urinary beta 2-MG, calcium and phosphorus level, but lower serum estradiol level than those in normal subjects. After 3 months' treatment, no apparent change on serum estradiol level was observed, but other parameters were all lowered obviously in the two groups, the changes revealed more obvious in the treated group. The symptoms of Kidney Deficiency, such as lumbodorsal pain, general fatigue, palpitation and vertigo, were improved after treatment, and the improvement was also more obvious in the treated group. CHM for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney was effective in improving Kidney Deficiency and mineral substance loss of bone in middle and aged women diabetes patients. The CHM and western drugs may acted synergistically.

  19. Metabolomic profiles delineate signature metabolic shifts during estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in rat by GC-TOF/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a complicated and multi-factorial disease. To study the metabolic profiles and pathways activated in osteoporosis, Eight rats were oophorectomized (OVX group to represent postmenopausal osteoporosis and the other eight rats were sham operated (Sham group to be the control. The biochemical changes were assessed with metabolomics using a gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolomic profile using serial blood samples obtained prior to and at different time intervals after OVX were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA and Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. The conventional indicators (bone mineral density, serum Bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP and N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx of osteoporosis in rats were also determined simultaneously. In OVX group, the metabolomics method could describe the endogenous changes of the disease more sensitively and systematically than the conventional criteria during the progression of osteoporosis. Significant metabolomic difference was also observed between the OVX and Sham groups. The metabolomic analyses of rat plasma showed that levels of arachidonic acid, octadecadienoic acid, branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, homocysteine, hydroxyproline and ketone bodies (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid significantly elevated, while levels of docosahexaenoic acid, dodecanoic acid and lysine significantly decreased in OVX group compared with those in the homeochronous Sham group. Considering such metabolites are closely related to the pathology of the postmenopausal osteoporosis, the results suggest that potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis or the pathogenesis of osteoporosis might be identified via metabolomic study.

  20. Serum Heme Oxygenase-1 and BMP-7 Are Potential Biomarkers for Bone Metabolism in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-ling Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (p<0.01. In RA group, HO-1 was positively correlated with BMP-7, Runx2, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b (p<0.05, resp., BMP-7 was positively correlated with Runx2 and TRAP-5b (p<0.05, resp., and Runx2 was negatively correlated with N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (NMID (p<0.05. In AS group, we observed identical correlation between HO-1 and BMP-7, but opposite correlations between BMP-7 and TRAP-5b and between Runx2 and NMID, when comparing with the RA cohort. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that HO-1 and BMP-7 are potential biomarkers for bone metabolism in patients with RA and AS. The different correlations between the bone markers point to distinct differences in bone remodeling pathways in the two types of arthritis.

  1. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on energy expenditure and bone metabolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abegg, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery, including the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), is currently the only effective long-term treatment for morbid obesity. Contrary to the traditional classification of RYGB as a restrictive and malabsorptive procedure, these factors seem to play a minor role. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in gut hormone levels, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), may account for the majority of the effects. One major side effect of RYGB surgery is a decrease in bone density...

  2. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  3. [Effect of tumour necrosis factor α blockade on bone metabolism in chronic inflammatory joint diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Del Rey, Francisco Javier; García Portales, Rosa; Haro Liger, Manuel; Rodríguez Andreu, José; Casals Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez González, Rita

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF treatments on bone mineral density (BMD), bone remodelling markers (BRM) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with chronic inflammatory joint diseases. A longitudinal prospective study was performed under clinical practice conditions on 31 patients diagnosed of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy and ankylosing spondylitis who had received treatment with anti-TNF alpha drugs for one year. BMD, OPG and RANKL soluble form (sRANKL) were studied at the onset and end of the study. During the study (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month), disease activity (SDAI, BASDAI and CRP), functional capacity (HAQ, BASFI), BRM and vitamin D were studied. BMD was not modified after one year of treatment. The patients who took corticosteroids had a mean bone mass loss of 3% in the lumbar spine (±1.6, P=.02). In regards to the BRM, did not experience significant changes over the course of the study. Disease activity, both SDAI (P=.002) and BASDAI (P=.002), decreased. OPG was maintained without changes during the year of treatment while both the sRANKL (0.28±0.22, P=.013) and sRANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased (0.04±0.03, P=.031). The patients being treated with anti-TNF did not present with a significant loss of DMO during the study (one year), at the same time experiencing an improvement in disease activity. This protection has been clearer in the responding patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Change of urinary fluoride and bone metabolism indicators in the endemic fluorosis areas of southern china after supplying low fluoride public water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated health impacts, especially biomarker changes, following implementation of a new environmental policy. This study examined changes in water fluoride, urinary fluoride (UF), and bone metabolism indicators in children after supplying low fluoride public water in endemic fluorosis areas of Southern China. We also assessed the relationship between UF and serum osteocalcin (BGP), calcitonin (CT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bone mineral density to identify the most sensitive bone metabolism indicators related to fluoride exposure. Methods Four fluorosis-endemic villages (intervention villages) in Guangdong, China were randomly selected to receive low-fluoride water. One non-endemic fluorosis village with similar socio-economic status, living conditions, and health care access, was selected as the control group. 120 children aged 6-12 years old were randomly chosen from local schools in each village for the study. Water and urinary fluoride content as well as serum BGP, CT, ALP and bone mineral density were measured by the standard methods and compared between the children residing in the intervention villages and the control village. Benchmark dose (BMD) and benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL) were calculated for each bone damage indicator. Results Our study found that after water source change, fluoride concentrations in drinking water in all intervention villages (A-D) were significantly reduced to 0.11 mg/l, similar to that in the control village (E). Except for Village A where water change has only been taken place for 6 years, urinary fluoride concentrations in children of the intervention villages were lower or comparable to those in the control village after 10 years of supplying new public water. The values of almost all bone indicators in children living in Villages B-D and ALP in Village A were either lower or similar to those in the control village after the intervention. CT and BGP are sensitive bone metabolism

  5. Heterozygous PTCH1 Mutations Impact the Bone Metabolism in Patients With Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Likely by Regulating SPARC Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yingying; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhang, Heyu; Li, Xuefen; Qu, Jiafei; Zhai, Jiemei; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Feng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bone and skin abnormalities and a predisposition to various tumors. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), which are common tumors of the jaw that cause extensive damage to the jawbone, are usually accompanied with NBCCS. Germline PTCH1 mutations in NBCCS tumorigenesis have been frequently studied; however, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of bone abnormalities in this disease. This study sought to investigate the mechanism underlying heterozygous PTCH1 mutation-mediated abnormal bone metabolism in patients with NBCCS. Stromal cells were isolated from the fibrous capsules of patients with NBCCS-associated or non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors and non-syndromic tumor stromal cells without PTCH1 mutations served as controls. Germline PTCH1 heterozygous mutations were confirmed in all NBCCS samples and differential protein expression was identified using tandem mass tag-labeled proteomics analysis. Our findings revealed that osteonectin/SPARC expression was significantly downregulated in syndromic stromal cells compared with non-syndromic stromal cells. SPARC expression was even lower in stromal cells carrying PTCH1 protein truncation mutations. PTCH1 siRNA transfection demonstrated that SPARC downregulation correlates with decreased PTCH1 expression. Furthermore, exogenous SPARC promoted osteogenic differentiation of syndromic stromal cells with enhanced development of calcium nodules. In addition, bone mineral density tests showed that patients with NBCCS exhibit weak bone mass compared with sex- and age-matched controls. This study indicates that germline PTCH1 heterozygous mutations play a major role in bone metabolism in patients with NBCCS, in particular in those with PTCH1 protein truncation mutations. SPARC may represent an important downstream modulator of PTCH1 mediation of bone metabolism. Thus, bone mineral density monitoring is critical

  6. Mammalian hibernation as a model of disuse osteoporosis: the effects of physical inactivity on bone metabolism, structure, and strength

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Carey, Hannah V.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced skeletal loading typically leads to bone loss because bone formation and bone resorption become unbalanced. Hibernation is a natural model of musculoskeletal disuse because hibernating animals greatly reduce weight-bearing activity, and therefore, they would be expected to lose bone. Some evidence suggests that small mammals like ground squirrels, bats, and hamsters do lose bone during hibernation, but the mechanism of bone loss is unclear. In contrast, hibernating bears maintain bala...

  7. The role of estrogen in hypothalamic regulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, energy homeostasis and bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences have been found in many homeostatic domains, including the stress response, energy metabolism and fat distribution. In the present thesis, I study the involvement of the female hormone estrogen in the occurrence of these sex-differences, more specifically I focused on the

  8. Cranial osteology of the pampathereHolmesina floridanus(Xenarthra: Cingulata; Blancan NALMA), including a description of an isolated petrosal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Timothy J; Lyon, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    The present study entails descriptions of several well-preserved skulls from the pampathere species Holmesina floridanus , recovered from Pliocene localities in central Florida and housed in the collections of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Bone by bone descriptions have allowed detailed reconstructions of cranial morphology. Cranial foramina are described and illustrated in detail, and their contents inferred. The first ever description of an isolated pampathere petrosal is also included. Cranial osteology of Holmesina floridanus is compared to that of Pleistocene species of Holmesina from both North and South America ( Holmesina septentrionalis , Holmesina occidentalis ), as well as to the other well-known pampathere genera, to closely related taxa among glyptodonts ( Propalaehoplophorus ), and to extinct and extant armadillos ( Proeutatus, Euphractus ). This study identifies a suite of apomorphic cranial features that serve to diagnose a putative, progressive series of more inclusive monophyletic groups, including the species Holmesina floridanus , the genus Holmesina , pampatheres, pampatheres plus glyptodonts, and a clade formed by pampatheres, glyptodonts, and Proeutatus . The study highlights the need for further anatomical investigations of pampathere cranial anatomy, especially those using modern scanning technology, and for analyses of pampathere phylogenetic relationships.

  9. Bone morphogenetic proteins in inflammation, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgurevic, Lovorka; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schulz, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    homeostasis (anaemia, hemochromatosis) and oxidative damage. The second and third parts of this review focus on BMPs in the development of metabolic pathologies such as type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The pancreatic beta cells are the sole source of the hormone insulin and BMPs have recently been...... implicated in pancreas development as well as control of adult glucose homeostasis. Lastly, we review the recently recognized role of BMPs in brown adipose tissue formation and their consequences for energy expenditure and adiposity. In summary, BMPs play a pivotal role in metabolism beyond their role...... in skeletal homeostasis. However, increased understanding of these pleiotropic functions also highlights the necessity of tissue-specific strategies when harnessing BMP action as a therapeutic target....

  10. Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Bone Mineral Density, Bone Metabolism Markers and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy Post-menopausal Women: a Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza tavakoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has been shown to positively influence on calcium and bone metabolism in experimental animals and cell culture, but there are limited human data available.Material and Methods: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study was done on 76 healthy post-menopausal women (aged 55.1 which randomly assigned to receive daily four CLA capsules G80 containing 3.2 g isomer blend (50:50% cis-9, trans-11: trans-10, cis-12 isomers or four capsules containing high oleic sunflower oil as placebo for 12 weeks. Urine and blood samples were collected at weeks 0 and 12 and were analyzed for biomarkers of calcium and bone metabolism and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6. Subjects completed 3-day dietary records during the trial, in weeks 0 (baseline, 6 and 12.Results: supplementation with 3.2 g CLA isomer blend (50:50% cis-9,trans-11:trans-10,cis-12 isomers for 12 weeks had no significant effects on bone formation markers (serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase or bone resorption (urine C-telopeptide-related fraction of type 1 collagen degradation products, parathyroid hormone (PTH, urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and CTP to creatinine ratio. But serum interlukine-6 did not change significantly over 12 weeks in postmenopausal women.Conclusion: Under the conditions tested in postmenopausal women, 3.2 g CLA isomer blend (50:50% cis-9, trans-11: trans-10, cis-12 isomers did not affect markers of bone metabolism and calcium.

  11. PARTICULAR OF THE BONE METABOLISM IN CHILDREN WITH THE EXTREMITIES’ FRACTURES

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    T. A. Galiatina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 children with extremities’ long bones fractures of the different localization were examined. The medium age (10.5 ± 2.0 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy children: without pathology of the supporting-motor apparatus, medium age 10.5 ± 3.0. The single study of the systemic and ionized calci-um, phosphorus, magnesium and alkaline concentration and phosphatase’s activity in the blood serum was realized using automatic analyzers «Cobas 6000 SWA» (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland.The forming and bone resorption process activity was appreciated according to the P1NP (N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen content in the blood serum, osteocalcin аnd β-СrossLaps (β-isomerized carboxy-terminal cross-linking region of type I collagen on the modular platform «Cobas 6000 SWA» (Roche Diagnostics,Switzerland. The mineral turnover’s regulation was determined by parathyroid hor-mone, thyrocalcitonin and 25(ОН-D3 in the blood serum. The growth process activity was determined by content of the somatotropic hormone in the blood serum. Osteocalcin and somatotropic hormone de-termination was done by analyzer «Immulite One» (USА.The statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out with application program package Statistica 6.0 for Windows. The distribution normalcy control was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test. Data were presented as Ме (LQ–UQ, where Ме is median, (LQ–UQ is interquartile dis-persion. To reveal the differences between groups concerning quantitative readings the Mann–Whitney and Craskell–Wallace tests were used. The disparities were counted as statistically significant in р < 0.05. The correlation analysis was carried out by means of Spearman criterion.Children with extremities’ long bones fractures demonstrated the decrease of the bony tissue synthesis markers P1NP and calcium ions in the blood serum that speaks for the relative predominance of the resorptive activity of

  12. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  13. Bone Metabolism and the c.-223C > T Polymorphism in the 5'UTR Region of the Osteoprotegerin Gene in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Kaczmarek-Ryś, Marta; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Michalak, Michał; Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Marzena; Drwęska-Matelska, Natalia; Marcinkowska, Michalina; Eder, Piotr; Łykowska-Szuber, Lilianna; Wysocka, Ewa; Linke, Krzysztof; Słomski, Ryszard

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is more frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A reduction in bone mineral mass in these individuals is caused not only by inflammatory processes in the bowel, because osteoporosis occurs already in very young IBD patients and in newly diagnosed individuals who have not yet undergone any pharmacological treatment. One of individual determinants of the bone turnover parameters is osteoprotegerin (OPG) encoded by the TNFRSF11B gene. The c.-223C > T polymorphism in this gene has been extensively studied in post-menopausal osteoporosis patients. However, no such studies exist for osteoporosis related to IBD. The aim of our study was to determine whether the c.-223C > T (rs2073617) polymorphism in the 5'UTR region of the gene encoding osteoprotegerin is a functional polymorphism which may change the gene expression and resulting OPG levels, and so be associated with osteopenia and osteoporosis, and impaired bone metabolism in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Our study included 198 IBD patients and 41 healthy controls. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density, T-score, Z-score as well as OPG, RANKL, vitamin D, calcium and interleukin 4 and 10 concentrations were determined for all study subjects. Genotyping of the TNFRSF11B polymorphic site was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistica software. Odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals, and P values were calculated using the HWE calculator. Our results did not allow determining an unequivocal association between the polymorphic variants of the TNFRSF11B 5'UTR region and a susceptibility to osteoporosis in IBD patients. We have shown, however, that the c.-223T allele was twice as more frequent in Crohn's disease (CD) patients than among controls (OR = 1.99, P value = 0.009). Interestingly, average osteoprotegerin levels in CD patients did not significantly differ from those in

  14. Acute effects of nasal salmon calcitonin on calcium and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Skousgaard, S G; Daugaard, H

    1993-01-01

    and urine samples were collected for 26 hours. There was a significant decrease in serum ionized calcium with a nadir 4 hours after administration of nasal SCT accompanied by a significant increase in serum parathyroid hormone (P = 0.01) and serum calcitriol (P = 0.04). Nasal SCT did not reduce urinary...... hydroxyproline/creatinine. Urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine was lowered significantly 2 hours after administration of nasal SCT and throughout the first 24 hours, but remained unchanged for the last 2 hours. On a 24-hour basis, urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine decreased from 14.1 (3.5) nmol/mmol to 11.......7 (3.2) nmol/mmol after nasal SCT (P = 0.04). Nasal SCT did not change the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen. The results indicate that nasal SCT given as a single dose provokes a modest decrease in bone resorption lasting...

  15. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P

    1993-01-01

    serum osteocalcin was lower than in the controls (0.67 nmol/l vs 0.98 nmol/l, p creatinine ratio, was not increased in the obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months......, the bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p creatinine ratio (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs...... 25.2 molar ratio x 10(-3), p creatinine ratio did still increase (from 25.8 molar ratio x 10(-3) to 30.1 molar ratio x 10(-3), p serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin remained...

  16. Disrupted bone metabolism in contaminant-exposed white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in southwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E; Bortolotti, Gary R; Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Tella, Jose L; Hoffmann, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the Aznalcóllar mine tailings dyke in southwestern Spain broke, flooding the Agrio-Guadiamar river system with acid tailings up to the borders of one of the largest breeding colonies of white storks in the western Palearctic, Dehesa de Abajo. Over the following years, a high proportion of nestlings developed leg defects not seen before the spill, prompting this study. Nestlings with deformed legs had significantly lower plasma phosphorous (P) and higher Ca:P ratios than non-deformed cohorts in the first two years, but in the third year, when more, younger birds were studied, plasma P ranged from much higher to much lower in the affected colony compared with reference birds. Coefficients of variation for phosphorous were 19% and 60%, in reference and contaminated colonies, respectively. Storks from the contaminated colony were unable to control P levels and Ca:P ratios within the narrow limits necessary for normal bone development.

  17. Parathyroid ultrasonography and bone metabolic profile of patients on dialysis with hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães; Guimarães, Milena Maria Moreira; Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa; Souza, Bruno das Neves; Leite, Anderson Ferreira; de Deus, Leonardo Martins Caldeira; Machado, Lucas José de Campos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the parathyroid ultrasonography and define parameters that can predict poor response to treatment in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure. METHODS This cohort study evaluated 85 patients with chronic kidney disease stage V with parathyroid hormone levels above 800 pg/mL. All patients underwent ultrasonography of the parathyroids and the following parameters were analyzed: Demographic characteristics (etiology of chronic kidney disease, gender, age, dialysis vintage, vascular access, use of vitamin D), laboratory (calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase), and the occurrence of bone changes, cardiovascular events and death. The χ2 test were used to compare proportions or the Fisher exact test for small sample frequencies. Student t-test was used to detect differences between the two groups regarding continuous variables. RESULTS Fifty-three patients (66.4%) had parathyroid nodules with higher levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus. Sixteen patients underwent parathyroidectomy and had higher levels of phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus product (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively). They also had lower mortality (32% vs 68%, P = 0.01) and lower incidence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (27% vs 73%, P = 0.02). Calcium × phosphorus product above 55 mg2/dL2 [RR 1.48 (1.06, 2.08), P = 0.03], presence of vascular calcification [1.33 (1.01, 1.76), P = 0.015] and previous occurrence of vascular events [RR 2.25 (1.27, 3.98), P < 0.001] were risk factors for mortality in this population. There was no association between the occurrence of nodules and mortality. CONCLUSION The identification of nodules at ultrasonography strengthens the indication for parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure. PMID:27648407

  18. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Bone Formation and Lipid Metabolism of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Rats through Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF has been suggested as a promising method alternative to drug-based therapies for treating osteoporosis (OP, but the role of PEMF in GIOP animal models still remains unknown. This study was performed to investigate the effect of PEMF on bone formation and lipid metabolism and further explored the several important components and targets of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in GIOP rats. After 12 weeks of intervention, bone mineral density (BMD level of the whole body increased significantly, serum lipid levels decreased significantly, and trabeculae were thicker in GIOP rats of PEMF group. PEMF stimulation upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt10b, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and Runx2 and downregulated Axin2, PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, FABP4, and Dkk-1. The results of this study suggested that PEMF stimulation can prevent bone loss and improve lipid metabolism disorders in GIOP rats. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in bone formation and lipid metabolism during PEMF stimulation.

  19. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Bone Formation and Lipid Metabolism of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Rats through Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Gou, Hui; Wang, Sanrong; Zhu, Jiang; Tian, Si; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been suggested as a promising method alternative to drug-based therapies for treating osteoporosis (OP), but the role of PEMF in GIOP animal models still remains unknown. This study was performed to investigate the effect of PEMF on bone formation and lipid metabolism and further explored the several important components and targets of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in GIOP rats. After 12 weeks of intervention, bone mineral density (BMD) level of the whole body increased significantly, serum lipid levels decreased significantly, and trabeculae were thicker in GIOP rats of PEMF group. PEMF stimulation upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt10b, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and Runx2 and downregulated Axin2, PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, FABP4, and Dkk-1. The results of this study suggested that PEMF stimulation can prevent bone loss and improve lipid metabolism disorders in GIOP rats. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in bone formation and lipid metabolism during PEMF stimulation. PMID:26941827

  20. Effect of Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment on fracture healing, microcirculation and bone metabolism in elder patients with fracture of distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Nian Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment on fracture healing, microcirculation and bone metabolism in elder patients with fracture of distal radius. Methods: A total of 200 elderly patients with fracture of distal radius treated from September 2010 to September 2015 were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=100. Control group received routine surgical treatment, and observation group underwent Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment. Fracture healing was compared between two groups, serum microcirculation and bone metabolism indexes were detected 1 week after operation, X-ray examination was performed 6 months after operation and imaging parameters were measured. Results: Regression time of postoperative affected-side limb swelling and radiographic healing time of broken ends of fractured bone of observation group were significantly shorter than those of control group; 1 week after operation, serum TXB2, CTX-I, CTX-II, RANK, RANKL and TRACP5b levels as well as TXB-2/6-Keto-PGF1α ratio of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and 6-Keto-PGF1α, ALP, OPG, PICP, BGP and 1,25(OH2D3 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Gukang capsule-assisted surgery helps promote the fracture healing in elderly patients with fracture of distal radius and can improve microcirculation and bone metabolism.

  1. Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone metabolism mediators around titanium and zirconia dental implant abutments following a minimum of 6 months of clinical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwacz, Christopher A; Brogden, Kim A; Stanford, Clark M; Dawson, Deborah V; Recker, Erica N; Blanchette, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant abutments are fundamental prosthetic components within dentistry that require optimal biocompatibility. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to preliminarily assess differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and bone metabolism mediator protein expression in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) adjacent to transmucosal abutments. Abutments were fabricated from either titanium or zirconia in patients previously receiving single-tooth implant therapy. All subjects sampled in this study had an identical implant system and implant-abutment connection. Participants (n = 46) had an average time of clinical function for 22 months (6.2-72.8 months, ±SD 17 months) and received a clinical and radiographic examination of the implant site at the time of PICF sampling using a paper strip-based sampling technique. Cytokine, chemokine, and bone metabolism mediator quantities (picograms/30 s) were determined using a commercial 22-multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay instrument. A total of 19 pro-inflammatory cytokines and seven bone metabolism mediators were evaluated. Multivariable analyses provided no evidence of a group (titanium or zirconia), gender, or age effect with regard to the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators evaluated. Significant (P = 0.022) differences were observed for the bone mediator leptin, with titanium abutments demonstrating significantly elevated levels in comparison with zirconia. Osteopontin demonstrated a significant (P = 0.0044) correlation with age of the subjects. No significant differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine or bone metabolism mediator profiles were observed biochemically, with the exception of leptin, for the abutment biomaterials of titanium or zirconia The molecular PICF findings support the observed clinical biocompatibility of both titanium and zirconia abutments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative study of positron emission tomography and quantitative digital radiography (QDR) in detecting effects of aging and diet on bone metabolism of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Inoue, Tomio; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Sarwar, M.; Oriuchi, Noboru; Mizunuma, Hideki; Endo, Keigo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare positron emission tomography and quantitative digital radiography (QDR) in detecting the effects of aging and diet on bone metabolism. Bone imaging of guinea pigs was performed with fluorine-18 fluoride ions using a high-resolution animal PET system to analyze bone metabolism quantitatively in different age groups of guinea pigs, young (8 weeks), adult (36 weeks), and aged groups (96 weeks), and also in a dietary manipulation group (low calcium and low vitamin D 3 diet for 1, 2, and 3 weeks). A three-compartment kinetic model was applied for the analysis of bone metabolism to evaluate the rate constant (K, K1-K4). There was a significant difference in K-constant between the young and other groups. The K-constant was higher (0.100±0.005 ml/min/ml) in the young group than in adults (0.028±0.001 ml/min/ml) (p 2 ) than in the adult (0.230±0.021 g/cm 2 ) (p 2 ). There was no significant difference in BMD between the adult and aged groups. Although there was no difference in BMD between the control and dietary manipulation groups, PET study revealed a significant difference in K-constant between them (0.028±0.001 vs. 0.090±0.009 ml/min/ml) (p 18 F fluoride ions was more sensitive and superior in the early detection of metabolic disorders in bone disease than QDR. (author)

  3. Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone metabolism mediators around titanium and zirconia dental implant abutments following a minimum of six months of clinical function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwacz, Christopher A.; Brogden, Kim A.; Stanford, Clark M.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Recker, Erica N.; Blanchette, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Dental implant abutments are fundamental prosthetic components within dentistry that require optimal biocompatibility. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to preliminarily assess differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and bone metabolism mediator protein expression in the peri-implant crevicular fluid adjacent to transmucosal abutments. Material and Methods Abutments were fabricated from either titanium or zirconia in patients previously receiving single-tooth implant therapy. All subjects sampled in this study had an identical implant system and implant-abutment connection. Participants (n=46) had an average time of clinical function for 22 months (6.2–72.8 months, ±SD 17.0 months) and received a clinical and radiographic exam of the implant site at the time of peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) sampling using a paper strip-based sampling technique. Cytokine, chemokine, and bone metabolism mediator quantities (picograms/30 s) were determined using a commercial 22-multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay instrument. A total of 19 pro-inflammatory cytokines and 7 bone metabolism mediators were evaluated. Results Multivariable analyses provided no evidence of a group (titanium or zirconia), gender, or age effect with regard to the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators evaluated. Significant (p=0.022) differences were observed for the bone-mediator leptin, with titanium abutments demonstrating significantly elevated levels in comparison to zirconia. Osteopontin demonstrated a significant (p=0.0044) correlation with age of the subjects. Conclusions No significant differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine or bone metabolism mediator profiles were observed biochemically, with the exception of leptin, for the abutment biomaterials of titanium or zirconia The molecular PICF findings support the observed clinical biocompatibility of both titanium and zirconia abutments. PMID:24417614

  4. Trace elements and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofková, Ivana; Nemcikova, Petra; Matucha, Petr

    2013-08-01

    The importance of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well known. Moreover, bone health is positively influenced by certain elements (e.g., zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, magnesium, iron and boron). Deficiency of these elements slows down the increase of bone mass in childhood and/or in adolescence and accelerates bone loss after menopause or in old age. Deterioration of bone quality increases the risk of fractures. Monitoring of homeostasis of the trace elements together with the measurement of bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism should be used to identify and treat patients at risk of non-traumatic fractures. Factors determining the effectivity of supplementation include dose, duration of treatment, serum concentrations, as well as interactions among individual elements. Here, we review the effect of the most important trace elements on the skeleton and evaluate their clinical importance.

  5. Administration of Clinoptilolite to Broiler Chickens During Growth and Its Effect on the Growth Rate and Bone Metabolism Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Straková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate and bone metabolism indicators were monitored in broiler chickens receiving the feed supplemented with clinoptilolite. One-day-old broiler chickens ROSS 308 were divided into control (C and experimental (E groups with 100 males and 100 females per group. The chickens received the complete feed mixture BR1 from 1 to 10 days of age, followed by the feed mixture BR2 until the age of 30 days, and the feed mixture BR3 until the end of the experiment (40 days. The feed mixtures of the experimental group were supplemented with clinoptilolite (commercial additive ZeoFeed at a level of 0.5% (BR1, 1.5% (BR2 and 2.5% (BR3, replacing the corresponding portion of wheat. Feed mixtures and drinking water were provided ad libitum. The live weight of broiler chickens in both the control and experimental group increased steadily during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, live weights of experimental females (2,416 g and males (2,829 g were higher than those of control females (2,345 g and males (2,694 g by 3% and 5%, respectively. Significant differences in the live weight between groups were found from the age of 30 days (P ⪬ 0.05 and P ⪬ 0.01. At the age of 40 days, the chickens were slaughtered and the femur and tibiotarsus of the right leg were analysed for the content of dry matter, ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The ash content in dry matter ranged from 53.0 to 54.1% in group C and from 51.7 to 53.2% in group E. The Ca and P contents in dry matter in group E were lower than those in group C, except for Ca and P in the male tibiotarsus. In both groups, regardless of sex, the ash content was higher in the tibiotarsus than in the femur. Since fat levels in bones of the experimental group were increased (females by 19.5% in the femur and 21.3% in the tibiotarsus; males by 22.0% in the femur and 26.3% in the tibiotarsus, which could affect the values obtained, ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were determined in the

  6. Relationship between renal dysfunction and bone metabolism disorder in male rats after long-term oral quantitative cadmium administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Yamauchi, Y; Nakakita, M; Tanaka, H; Asami, S; Seki, Y; Yoshikawa, H

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the importance of the cadmium (Cd) exposure condition in the evaluation of toxic effect on renal function and bone metabolism, six groups of Male Wistar rats were given Cd at respective daily doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg (as CdCl2) via a gastric tube for 6 consecutive days a week for 60 weeks. In the groups given a low Cd dose (2, 5 and 10 mgCd/kg), relatively more Cd accumulated in the kidney without liver damage than in the liver. In the high Cd dose groups (20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg), on the other hand, more Cd accumulated in the liver than in the kidney. The daily intake of Cd dose from the intestinal tract in each experimental group was deduced to be about 0.36%-0.54% of the cumulative dose of oral Cd administration. The daily intake of Cd into the body was estimated as 7, 22, 40, 100, 120, 260 microgCd/kg/day in the experimental groups of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg/day, respectively. Increase of plasma enzyme activity (GOT, GPT) and of urinary enzyme excretion (NAG, AAP, GST), reflecting hepatic damage and renal dysfunction, was found in the high Cd dose groups (30 and 60 mgCd/kg) from the 5th week. Non-CdMT concentration in the kidney was also significantly high in the high Cd dose groups. In the low Cd dose groups (2 and 5 mgCd/kg), although the renal Cd concentration was higher than that of the high Cd dose groups, prominent renal dysfunction and hepatic damage were not observed. Regeneration, vacuolization, and eosinophilic bodies in proximal tubular tissue were mainly observed in the groups subjected to 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg administration. Very slight regeneration was also observed in the renal proximal tubular tissue at the 30th week for the 5 mgCd/kg and 10 mgCd/kg groups, and at the 60th week for the 2 mgCd/kg group. Remarkable decrease of bone mineral density at the midpoint of the femur was found in the high Cd dose groups. Also, the decrease in bone mineral density was observed before or after the manifestation of the

  7. The diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) in patients with recurrent breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamby, C; Egsmose, C; Söletormos, G

    1993-01-01

    Serum bone Gla protein (S-BGP), a marker of bone metabolism, was measured in 60 patients included in a staging programme for recurrent breast cancer. Other diagnostic procedures comprised S-alkaline phosphatase (S-AP), bone scan (B-scan), bilateral iliac crest bone marrow biopsies, and radiological...... bone survey. The sites of recurrence were bone (61%), bone marrow (46%), soft tissue (52%), lung (13%), pleura (11%), liver (4%), and brain (2%). Radiology and bone biopsy served as key diagnoses as to the presence or absence of bone metastases. The diagnostic efficiency of B-scan and S-AP was greater...

  8. The Effect of Ongoing Vitamin D and Low-Fat Milk Intake on Bone Metabolism in Female High-School Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Aoi; Arimitsu, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Fujita, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients for bone health. In addition, vitamin D suppresses inflammatory cytokines and increases bone resorption. Therefore, improvements in bone health by calcium and vitamin D supplementation have the potential to not only improve calcium metabolism but also suppress inflammation associated with exercise training. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ongoing vitamin D supplementation and low-fat milk intake by female high-school endurance runners would improve bone metabolism by suppressing inflammatory cytokines and the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Twenty female high-school runners were assigned to a vitamin D supplement and low-fat milk intake group (MKD) or a control group (CON). Participants in the MKD group consumed a vitamin D supplement (1,000 IU/day) and low-fat milk (Ca 315 mg/day) for 6 months. Bone mineral density measurements, blood samples, and questionnaires (regarding menses and diet) were carried out. The UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number is UMIN000027854. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in MKD was sustained and PTH concentration was decreased regardless of the state of menses. The correlation coefficients of 25(OH)D or PTH concentrations and bone metabolism markers were analyzed by partial correlation coefficient via adjusting the model for frequency of menses. CTX and 25(OH)D concentration were significantly and inversely correlated at baseline (r = -0.61, P P = 0.02), and 6 months (r = -0.53, P = 0.02). CTX and PTH were significantly and positively correlated at 3 months (r = 0.63, P P = 0.02). The bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)/CTX ratio and 25(OH)D concentration were significantly and positively correlated at 3 months (r = 0.59, P = 0.01) and 6 months (r = 0.56, P = 0.01). The BAP/CTX ratio and PTH were significantly and inversely correlated at 3 months (r = -0.59, P = 0.01) and 6 months (r = -0.58, P D and low-fat milk supplementation improves bone metabolism by sustaining

  9. Subsequent somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism responses to a low-zinc diet with or without phytase inclusion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is required for normal bone development and cartilage formation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of with adding organic Zn (alone or phytase inclusion) at the reduced dose to growing male Ross 308 chickens on somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism. 200 one-day old broilers were divided into the negative control group fed diet without Zn or phytase inclusion, positive control group receiving Zn in the 100% of daily recommended dose from ZnO, and two experimental groups fed diet introduced Zn in 25% of daily recommendation as a glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) with or without phytase inclusion (500 FTU·kg-1). Supplemental organic Zn increased bone Zn and Mg content, serum IGF-1, growth hormone and leptin concentration. Additional phytase inclusion increased body weight gain, blood plasma Ca, Fe, Zn and osteocalcin concentration and tibia ash percentage when compared to the Zn-deprived control. Bone geometry, yield and ultimate strengths were enhanced in both organic Zn supplemented groups, and the overall mechanical strength parameters of bone were better in these groups than in the positive control group supplemented with standard dose of inorganic Zn. Also marked improvements in the thickness of articular and the growth plate cartilages as well as real bone volume and thickness of metaphyseal trabeculae were achieved in all broilers fed Zn-supplemented diet irrespective of phytase inclusion, however, the highest cancellous bone mass and the best trabecular structure were noted after ZnO supplementation. In concludion, although dietary organic Zn given to growing broilers in 25% of daily recommended dose improved general bone properties and mechanical strength, the obtained results do not allow to unambiguously state that organic Zn supplementation at this level, even after phytase inclusion, is sufficient for proper bone development.

  10. [Relationship among anthropometric and gluco-metabolic parameters, bone mineral density and endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-González, Edna J; de la Garza-Casas, Yolanda E; Salazar-Montalvo, Raúl G; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    women with endometriosis may have a decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Several studies have shown that accumulation of adipose tissue profoundly affects BMD. It has also been documented that excess body fat is associated with risk of developing endometriosis. The aim was to analyze the relationship between BMD, fat mass, and the insulin-glucose axis in women with endometriosis. thirty women with a diagnosis of endometriosis established by surgery were enrolled to participate in an observational prospective study. Anthropometry was performed to determine body mass index, and a dual X-ray densitometry to collect data on body composition and BMD. Glucose and insulin determinations were performed. Women were divided in two groups: with normal weight (n = 18) or overweight (n = 12). For the analysis of the results, we used descriptive statistics and Pearson's test. normal weight/overweight: mean age 32.5/35.2 years; body mass index 21.5/30.2; adiposity index: 27.7 %/36.1 %; fat mass index: 35.4/45.8 %; overweight women showed a significant value with p < 0.05. overweight, high values of adiposity index and fat mass index were related to endometriosis. This could support the hypothesis about a common pathogenesis among endometriosis, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity.

  11. Disrupted bone metabolism in contaminant-exposed white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Judit E. [Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: judit.smits@usask.ca; Bortolotti, Gary R. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 52 Campus Drive, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.ca; Baos, Raquel [Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., 41013 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: raquel@ebd.csic.es; Jovani, Roger [Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Tella, Jose L. [Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Hoffmann, Walter E. [University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Medicine, Champagne-Urbana, IL (United States)]. E-mail: wally@uiuc.edu

    2007-01-15

    In 1998, the Aznalcollar mine tailings dyke in southwestern Spain broke, flooding the Agrio-Guadiamar river system with acid tailings up to the borders of one of the largest breeding colonies of white storks in the western Palearctic, Dehesa de Abajo. Over the following years, a high proportion of nestlings developed leg defects not seen before the spill, prompting this study. Nestlings with deformed legs had significantly lower plasma phosphorous (P) and higher Ca:P ratios than non-deformed cohorts in the first two years, but in the third year, when more, younger birds were studied, plasma P ranged from much higher to much lower in the affected colony compared with reference birds. Coefficients of variation for phosphorous were 19% and 60%, in reference and contaminated colonies, respectively. Storks from the contaminated colony were unable to control P levels and Ca:P ratios within the narrow limits necessary for normal bone development. - Since a large mine tailings spill near a stork colony in southwestern Spain, nestlings had leg deformities and could not control serum phosphorous levels and Ca:P ratios.

  12. CELL EXPANSION-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATORY AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF HUMAN BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA PRIETO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new area in regenerative medicine allowing the recovery of viable tissues. Among the many sources of adult stem cells, bone marrow-derived are easy to expand in culture via plastic adherence and their multipotentiality for differentiation make them ideal for clinical applications. Interestingly, several studies have indicated that MSCs expansion in vitro may be limited mainly due to cell aging related to the number of cell divisions in culture. We have determined that MSCs exhibit a progressive decline across successive passages in the expression of stem cell markers, in plasticity and in the inflammatory response, presenting low immunogenicity. We have exposed human MSCs after several passages to TLRs ligands and analyzed their inflammatory response. These cells responded to pro-inflammatory stimuli (i.e., NOS-2 expression and to anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., HO1 and Arg1 until two expansions, rapidly declining upon subculture. Moreover, in the first passages, MSCs were capable to release IL1β, IL6 and IL8, as well as to produce active MMPs allowing them to migrate. Interestingly enough, after two passages, anaerobic glycolysis was enhanced releasing high levels of lactate to the extracellular medium. All these results may have important implications for the safety and efficacy of MSCs-based cell therapies.

  13. Effects of omega-loop gastric bypass on vitamin D and bone metabolism in morbidly obese bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Maria; Kruschitz, Renate; Langer, Felix; Prager, Gerhard; Walker, Melanie; Marculescu, Rodrig; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Schindler, Karin; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    Bariatric patients often suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Little is known about vitamin D levels and bone metabolism in patients undergoing omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB). We, therefore, evaluated parameters of vitamin D metabolism preoperatively and during the first postoperative year. Within our cohort study, we retrospectively evaluated the respective parameters pre-, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively in patients with OLGB, between February 2011 and February 2013. In patients [n = 50; age 46 (15) years, mean (SD); 12 male, 38 female] BMI was 45.4 (6.6) kg/m(2) preoperatively and decreased to 29.1 (3.8) kg/m(2) after 12 months, corresponding to a total body weight loss of 36 %. Preoperatively, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 96 and 30 % demonstrated elevated parathyroid hormone yielding a prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism of 17 %. Postoperatively, subjects received individually adjusted vitamin D3 supplementation (95 % CI 200-3000 IU/day), according to the available guidelines at that time. Nevertheless, every third patient was vitamin D deficient at 12 months (80 %). In patients with preoperative BMI >45 vs. deficiency over 12 months [OR = 3.10, 95 % CI (1.01-9.51), p = 0.048]. To avoid vitamin D deficiency, morbidly obese patients, particularly those with higher preoperative BMI, should be regularly screened pre- and postoperatively. Standard postsurgical supplementation has not been adequate to restore 25-OHD status and current guidelines are not very specific in terms of timing and dosing of vitamin D3 supplementation. Consequently, further trials to enhance the evidence on vitamin D supplementation are warranted.

  14. [Unawareness of the K/DOQI guidelines for bone and mineral metabolism in predialysis chronic kidney disease: results of the OSERCE Spanish multicenter-study survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, J; Górriz, J L; Martín de Francisco, A L; Caravaca, F; Barril, G; Molinero, L M

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2003, the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become a worldwide reference. The aim of this study was to analyze the observance to these guidelines in patients with a glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1,73m2 not yet included in dialysis in a Spanish multicenter cohort. A questionnaire by investigator/centre was completed by 32 different nephrologists participating in the OSERCE study and representing the overall Spanish public health net. We observed that biochemical parameters were measured less frequently than recommended, except in CKD stage 3. The therapeutic goals for intact PTH were not properly reported by 59 % of the consulted nephrologists for stages 3 and 4, whereas only 22% did not report them properly for stage 5. The goals for phosphorus were not adequately reported in 50 % of cases (stages 3 y 4) and 60 % (stage 5). For calcium, these values were 70 %, 73.3 % and 65.5 % for stages 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A corrected plasma calcium between 9.5 and 10.2 mg/dl is still considered adequate for 31%. As much as 87% nephrologists stated that they did not sistematically measure calcidiol plasma levels. In general, these results demonstrate that there is a great degree of unawareness of K/DOQITM predialysis guidelines. Thus, their poor implementation is probably not only due to the lower availability of approved therapeutic agents, the difficult achievement of goals or the disbelief on current recommendations. It would be desirable that forthcoming guidelines such as the KDIGO could also consider the need of educational efforts for CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder.

  15. Diagnostic performance of bone metabolic indexes for the detection of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the diagnostic performance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, and osteocalcin (OC in predicting stroke. Methods: This retrospective survey was conducted in The Second Affiliated Hospital to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. involved 121 cerebral infarction patients and 103 cerebral hemorrhage patients as the experimental groups, 100 volunteers as the healthy control group and 80 brain trauma patients as the disease control group. The 25(OHD, PTH, BALP, and OC levels of all participants were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The serum concentration of 25(OHD in stroke patients was appreciably lower than that of the control groups (p<0.05, and subsequently, the deficiency level of 25(OHD in the stroke population was considerably higher than that of the control groups (p<0.05. The serum concentrations of PTH and OC in stroke patients exceeded those found in the control groups (p<0.05, and the abnormal level in the stroke patients was also higher than that of the control. Compared with the control group, BALP concentrations in cerebral infarction patients were increased significantly. Additionally, abnormal levels of BALP in stroke patients were found to be higher than those in the control groups. However, concentrations and abnormal levels of BALP in cerebral hemorrhage patients were not found to be significantly different than those found in cerebral infarction and the control groups, There were no substantial differences between the 2 control groups. Conclusion: Lack of 25(OHD and excessive PTH, BALP, and OC could indicate a high risk of stroke.

  16. Effect of changes of serum IGF-II and CT contents on bone metabolism in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Rongxing; Chen Wenhan; Chen Shaozhu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of changes of serum insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II) and calcitonin (CT) on bone metabolism in both male and female healthy subjects of different age groups. Methods: Serum IGF-II and CT contents were determined with RIA in 180 healthy subjects of both sexes in 5 age groups (27-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and over 70). Results: The serum contents of IGF-II and CT decreased gradually as the age increased. The IGF-II contents in subjects above 70 were significantly lower than those in all other subjects (P<0.01); the values in subjects of the age group 27-39 were also significantly higher than those in the 60-69 group (P<0.05). Again, the serum CT contents in subjects over 50 were significantly lower than those in subjects below 50 (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were little differences among the levels in both sexes, with the exception of a slight but not significant lower value in the females above 50. Conclusion: In older subjects, the decreased contents of serum IGF-II would exert less modulation on osteoblastic activity while the decreased contents of CT would exert less inhibition on osteolytic activity. The contents in older females were even lower due to the decreased estrogen level. Combination of these two factors would lead to the initiation and development of osteoporosis. (authors)

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions: Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It ... in infants and young children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue (tiredness), slow heart rate, excessive ...

  18. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  19. [[GUIDELINES FOR THE PREVENTION, MONITORING AND THERAPY OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE-METABOLIC BONE DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Pavlović, Draško; Šmalcelj, Ružica; Tomić-Brzac, Hrvojka; Orlic, Lidija; Radić, Josipa; Vujičić, Božidar; Lovčić, Vesna; Pavić, Eva; Klarić, Dragan; Gulin, Marijana; Spasovski, Goce; Ljutić, Dragan; Danic, Davorin; Prgomet, Drago; Resić, Halima; Ratković, Marina; Kes, Petar; Raćki, Sanjin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a systemic disease with numerous complications associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease-metabolic bone disease (CKD-MBD) starts at early stages of CKD with phosphorus accumulation and consequent initiation of numerous events that result with the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism with changes on bones and extraskeletal tissues. The most important and clinically most relevant consequences of CKD-MBD are vascular calcifications which contribute to cardiovascular mortality. Patients with the increased risk for the development of CKD-MBD should be recognized and treated. Prevention is the most important therapeutic option. The first step should be nutritional counseling with vitamin supplementation if necessary and correction of mineral status. Progression of CKD requires more intensive medicamentous treatment with the additional correction of metabolic acidosis and anemia. Renal replacement therapy should be timely initiated, with the adequate dose of dislaysis. Ideally, preemptive renal transplantion should be offered in individuals without contraindication for immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Evaluation of the trauma and bone metabolism after internal absorbable screw and metal screw fixation treatment of tibia-fibula fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Bin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the trauma and bone metabolism after internal absorbable screw and metal screw fixation treatment of tibia-fibula fracture. Methods: 78 patients with tibia-fibula fracture who received internal fixation surgery in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2015 were selected and randomly divided into absorbable group and metal group (n=39 who accepted internal absorbable screw fixation and internal metal screw fixation respectively. 3 d after operation, serum was collected to determine the levels of inflammatory factors, pain mediators, stress hormones and bone metabolism indexes. Results: Serum inflammatory mediators procalcitonin (PCT, Resistin, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, pain mediators substance P (SP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and NPY, stress hormones norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (E and cortisol (Cor as well as bone resorption marker molecules C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I and C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen (CTX-II levels of absorbable group were significantly lower than those of metal group (P<0.05 while bone formation marker molecules N-MID osteocalcin (N-MID and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP levels were significantly higher than those of metal group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The trauma degree of internal absorbable screw fixation treatment of tibia-fibula fracture is weaker than that of internal metal screw fixation, and the bone metabolism activity is better than that of internal metal screw fixation.

  1. Vitamin D status and PTH in young men: a cross-sectional study on associations with bone mineral density, body composition and glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L

    2010-01-01

    and the effects of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone mass, bone markers and metabolic function. Design and Participants  The study population consisted of 783 men aged 20-29 years. Measurements  Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured. dual-energy X...... (serum 25OHD PTH were inversely associated with BFAT......, whereas 25OHD also was inversely associated with body mass index, waist-hip ratio, ViFM and ScFM after adjustment for confounders. The associations were found only to be present in participants with insufficient levels of 25OHD. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D and PTH were inversely related to insulin resistance...

  2. Evaluation of a short dynamic 18F-fluoride PET/CT scanning method to assess bone metabolic activity in spinal orthopedics

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marloes J. M.; Wierts, Roel; Jutten, Elisabeth M. C.; Halders, Serv? G. E. A.; Willems, Paul C. P. H.; Brans, Boudewijn

    2015-01-01

    Objective A complication after spinal fusion surgery is pseudarthrosis, but its radiological diagnosis is of limited value. 18F-fluoride PET with its ability to assess bone metabolism activity could be of value. The goal of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of calculating the static standardized uptake value (SUV) from a short dynamic scan without the use of blood sampling, thereby obtaining all dynamic and static parameters in a scan of only 30?min. This approach was tested o...

  3. Effect of α-lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery. Methods: A total of 110 patients with femoral fracture who received surgical treatment in the hospital between January 2015 and January 2017 were collected and divided into the control group (n=55 and study group (n=55 by random number table. Control group received postoperative nerve growth factor therapy, and study group received postoperative 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy. The differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After treatment, serum bone metabolism indexes BGP and PⅠNP contents of study group were higher than those of control group while CTX-Ⅰ and TRAP contents were lower than those of control group; serum oxidative stress indexes TAC, CAT and SOD contents of study group were higher than those of control group while MDA content was lower than that of control group; limb nerve conduction velocity SCV and MCV levels of study group were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy after femoral fracture surgery can effectively balance osteoblast/ osteoclast activity, reduce oxidative stress and improve limb nerve conduction velocity.

  4. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  5. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  6. From “Kidneys Govern Bones” to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of “Kidneys Govern Bones.” Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.

  7. The metabolic bone disease associated with the Hyp mutation is independent of osteoblastic HIF1α expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Hum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 controls key responses to systemic phosphate increases through its phosphaturic actions on the kidney. In addition to stimulation by phosphate, FGF23 positively responds to iron deficiency anemia and hypoxia in rodent models and in humans. The disorder X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH is characterized by elevated FGF23 in concert with an intrinsic bone mineralization defect. Indeed, the Hyp mouse XLH model has disturbed osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation with altered expression of a wide variety of genes, including FGF23. The transcription factor Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α has been implicated in regulating FGF23 production and plays a key role in proper bone cell differentiation. Thus the goals of this study were to determine whether HIF1α activation could influence FGF23, and to test osteoblastic HIF1α production on the Hyp endocrine and skeletal phenotypes in vivo. Treatment of primary cultures of osteoblasts/osteocytes and UMR-106 cells with the HIF activator AG490 resulted in rapid HIF1α stabilization and increased Fgf23 mRNA (50–100 fold; p < 0.01–0.001 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Next, the Phex gene deletion in the Hyp mouse was bred onto mice with a HIF1α/Osteocalcin (OCN-Cre background. Although HIF1α effects on bone could be detected, FGF23-related phenotypes due to the Hyp mutation were independent of HIF1α in vivo. In summary, FGF23 can be driven by ectopic HIF1α activation under normal iron conditions in vitro, but factors independent of HIF1α activity after mature osteoblast formation are responsible for the disease phenotypes in Hyp mice in vivo.

  8. Effect of low-dose prednisone (with calcium and calcitriol supplementation) on calcium and bone metabolism in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; van Veen, G. J.; Gerrits, M. I.; Jacobs, J. W.; Houben, H. H.; van Rijn, H. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The administration of moderate to high doses of corticosteroids is associated with bone loss. This probably results from the uncoupling of bone formation (decreased) and bone resorption (unchanged or increased). We examined the effect of low-dose (10 mg/day) prednisone (LDP) and the possible

  9. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  10. Comparative investigation of viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability of tissue-engineered bone preserved in sealed osteogenic media at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hengjian; Liu Guangpeng; Zhou Guangdong; Cen Lian; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin, E-mail: cuileite@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.co [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Preservation of tissue-engineered (TE) bone is one of the key problems needed to be solved for its clinic application and industrialization. Traditional cryopreservation has been restricted because of the damages caused by ice formation and solution. Hypothermic preservation at 4 {sup 0}C has been widely used for the preservation of transplanted organ despite potential negative effects on viability of cells and tissue. 37 {sup 0}C is the best temperature for maintaining cellular bioactivities. However, 37 {sup 0}C also has a potential negative effect on preserved cells due to consumption of nutrients and accumulation of by-products. No studies have reported which temperature is more suitable for the preservation of TE bone constructs. The current study explored the feasibility of preservation of TE bone constructs in sealed osteogenic media at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded into partially demineralized bone matrix (pDBM) scaffolds and cultured for 7 days to form TE bone constructs. The constructs were preserved in sealed osteogenic media at either 37 {sup 0}C or 4 {sup 0}C for 5, 7, 9 and 11 days, respectively. Growth kinetics, viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability were evaluated to explore the feasibility of preservation at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C. The constructs cultured in osteogenic media at humidified 37 {sup 0}C/5%CO{sub 2} served as the positive control. The results demonstrated that all the constructs preserved at 4 {sup 0}C showed negative osteogenic capability at all time points with a much lower level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism compared to the positive control. However, the constructs preserved at 37 {sup 0}C showed good osteogenic capability within 7 days with a certain level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism, although an obvious decrease in osteogenic capability was observed in the constructs preserved at 37 {sup 0}C over 9 days. These results indicate that the

  11. The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira A O; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Zach, Patrícia Lins; Kunii, Ilda S; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Castro, Marise Lazaretti

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.

  12. Large artery stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness in relation to markers of calcium and bone mineral metabolism in African women older than 46 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafane, L F; Schutte, R; Kruger, I M; Schutte, A E

    2015-03-01

    Vascular calcification and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with altered bone metabolism. We explored the relationships of arterial pressures and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and their ratio (PTH:25(OH)D3) as well as a marker of bone resorption (CTX) in lean and overweight/obese African women. A population of 434 African women older than 46 years was divided into lean and overweight/obese groups. We assessed brachial blood pressure, central pulse pressure (cPP) and CIMT, and determined PTH, 25(OH)D3 and CTX concentrations. Overweight/obese women had elevated PTH and PTH:25(OH)D3 compared with lean women (both Pwomen had higher CTX (Pwomen CIMT was independently associated with PTH:25(OH)D3 (R(2)=0.22; β=0.26; P=0.003), whereas in obese women cPP was associated with both PTH:25(OH)D3 (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.017) and CTX (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.025). In conclusion, we found that in African women with increased adiposity, cPP (as a surrogate measure of arterial stiffness), was positively associated with alterations in bone metabolism and calciotropic hormones, whereas CIMT of lean women was positively associated with PTH:25(OH)D3. Our results suggest that alterations in bone and calcium metabolism may contribute to arterial calcification in older African women.

  13. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: focus on the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Gioia, A; Biagioli, A; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG polymorphism and bone metabolism is highly controversial. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the independent role of AR CAG repeat polymorphism on bone metabolism improvement induced by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the effects of TRT have to be distinguished from those resulting from concomitant administration of pituitary function replacing hormones. 12 men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [mean duration of hypogonadism 8.3 ± 2.05 (SD) months] were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT (from 74 to 84 weeks after the beginning of therapy). The following measures were studied: parameters of bone metabolism [serum markers and bone mineral density (BMD)], pituitary dependent hormones and genetic analysis (AR CAG repeat number). Total testosterone, estradiol, free T4 (FT4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased between the two phases, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased. While serum markers did not vary significantly between the two phases, BMD improved slightly but significantly in all the studied sites. The number of CAG triplets correlated negatively and significantly with all the variations (Δ-) of BMDs. Conversely, Δ-testosterone correlated positively and significantly with all studied Δ-BMDs, while Δ-FSH, Δ-estradiol, Δ-FT4, and Δ-IGF-1 did not correlate significantly with any of the Δ-BMDs. Multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for Δ-testosterone, showed that CAG repeat length was negatively and significantly associated with ∆-BMD of all measured sites. Our data suggest that, in post-surgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR CAG tract is independently associated with greater TRT-induced improvement of BMD.

  14. Low-level laser therapy stimulates bone metabolism and inhibits root resorption during tooth movement in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Selly Sayuri; Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Suzuki, Hideo; Ervolino, Edilson; Moon, Won; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone remodeling, tooth displacement and root resorption, occurred during the orthodontic tooth movement. Upper first molars of a total of sixty-eight male rats were subjected to orthodontic tooth movement and euthanized on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days and divided as negative control, control and LLLT group. Tooth displacement and histomorphometric analysis were performed in all animals; scanning electron microscopy analysis was done on days 3, 6 and 9, as well as the immunohistochemistry analysis of RANKL/OPG and TRAP markers. Volumetric changes in alveolar bone were analyzed using MicroCT images on days 14 and 21. LLLT influenced bone resorption by increasing the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the RANKL expression at the compression side. This resulted in less alveolar bone and hyalinization areas on days 6, 9 and 14. LLLT also induced less bone volume and density, facilitating significant acceleration of tooth movement and potential reduction in root resorption besides stimulating bone formation at the tension side by enhancing OPG expression, increasing trabecular thickness and bone volume on day 21. Taken together, our results indicate that LLLT can stimulate bone remodeling reducing root resorption in a rat model. LLLT improves tooth movement via bone formation and bone resorption in a rat model. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Long-term effects of intermittent equine parathyroid hormone fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, Katharina U; Winkelsett, Sarah; Martin-Rosset, William; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Parvizi, Nahid; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an anabolic therapy for osteoporotic conditions in humans. This study evaluated the effects of equine PTH fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in 12 healthy horses. Six horses each were treated once daily for 120days with subcutaneous injections of 0.5μg/kg ePTH-1-37 or placebo. Blood was collected to determine ionized calcium (Ca(++)), total Ca (Ca(T)), inorganic phosphorus, serum equine osteocalcin (eOC), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry of the metacarpus and calcaneus. Significantly higher blood Ca(++) and plasma Ca(T) concentrations were measured 5h after ePTH-1-37 administration compared to placebo. Higher serum eOC concentrations were found for ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 90 (P<0.05) and 120 (P=0.05). Significantly higher serum ICTP levels were observed with ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 60 and 90. For both study groups, BMD increased significantly in the calcaneus. Long-term use of ePTH-1-37 seemed to have no negative effects on bone metabolism in healthy horses. The absence of undesirable side effects is the premise to ensure safety for further clinical investigations in horses with increased bone resorption processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of calcium and phosphorus supplementation on metabolic bone disorders in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabi, Z.; Moemeni, N.; Ahmadiafshar, A.; Mazloomzadeh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of calcium and phosphorus on radiological and biochemical characteristics of osteopenia in premature infants. Methods: The randomised clinical trial study was conducted at Valie-e-Asr Hospital of Zanjan city, Iran, from December 2010 to June 2011. It involved monitoring 40 premature neonates over a period of six months. The babies, who were fed with breast milk and 400 units of vitamin D daily, were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received supplement of calcium and phosphorus. Serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels as well as growth parameters (including weight, height, and head circumference) were measured every two weeks. At the end of the study, wrist X-ray was done for evaluation of osteopenia. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: Radiological changes, characteristic of osteopenia, were found in 8(40%) cases and 13(65%) controls (p<0.113). The mean of weight, length and head circumference increased significantly from second to sixth week during follow-up (p<0.0001). Phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly from second to sixth week of follow-up (p<0.02, p<0.01 respectively). However, repeated measurement analyses did not show significant effect of intervention in biochemical and growth parameters in the trial group. Conclusion: The study didn't show significant effect of calcium and phosphorus on prevention of osteopenia and improvement of growth. Further studies of longer duration and with different doses of supplement are recommended. (author)

  17. Impact of mild versus moderate intensity aerobic walking exercise training on markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in moderate hemophilic A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharif, Fadwa Al-Ghalib; Al-Jiffri, Osama Hussien; El-Kader, Shehab Mahmoud Abd; Ashmawy, Eman Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Patients with hemophilia A have low bone density than healthy controls. It is now widely recognized that physical activity and sports are beneficial for patients with hemophilia. To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in male patients with moderate hemophilia A. Fifty male patients with moderate hemophilia, and age range from 25 to 45 years. The subjects were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups; the first group (A) received moderate intensity aerobic exercise training. The second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. There was a 32.1% and 24.8% increase in mean values of serum calcium and hand grip strength respectively and 22.7 % reduction in mean values of parathyroid hormone in moderate exercise training group (A). While there was a 15.1 % and 15 % increase in mean values of Serum Calcium and Hand grip strength respectively and 10.3 % reduction in mean values of parathyroid hormone in mild exercise training group(B). The mean values of serum calcium and hand grip strength were significantly increased, while the mean values of parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased in both groups . There were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training on treadmill is appropriate to improve markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in male patients with hemophilia A.

  18. Aesculin modulates bone metabolism by suppressing receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and transduction signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Chen, Lin-Feng; Wang, Zhen

    2017-06-17

    Aesculin (AES), a coumarin compound derived from Aesculus hippocasanum L, is reported to exert protective role against inflammatory diseases, gastric disease and cancer. However, direct effect of AES in bone metabolism is deficient. In this study, we examined the effects of AES on osteoclast (OC) differentiation in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW264.7 cells. AES inhibits the OC differentiation in both dose- and time-dependent manner within non-toxic concentrations, as analyzed by Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The actin ring formation manifesting OC function is also decreased by AES. Moreover, expressions of osteoclastogenesis related genes Trap, Atp6v0d2, Cathepsin K and Mmp-9 are decreased upon AES treatment. Mechanistically, AES attenuates the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB activity upon RANKL induction, thus leading to the reduction of Nfatc1 mRNA expression. Moreover, AES inhibits Rank expression, and RANK overexpression markedly decreases AES's effect on OC differentiation and NF-κB activity. Consistently, AES protects against bone mass loss in the ovariectomized and dexamethasone treated rat osteoporosis model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that AES can modulate bone metabolism by suppressing osteoclastogenesis and related transduction signals. AES therefore could be a promising agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphi, Berit; Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; de Vrese, Michael; Açil, Yahya; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium and their consumption may reduce bone resorption and thus contribute to prevent bone loss. We tested the hypothesis that bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium inhibits the nocturnally enhanced bone resorption more markedly than fermented milk alone, and postulated that this effect was most pronounced when calcium absorption enhancers were added. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 2 weeks we investigated the short-term effects of two fermented milks supplemented with calcium from milk minerals (f-milk + Ca, n = 28) or calcium from milk minerals, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides (f-milk + Ca + ITF + CPP; n = 29) on calcium and bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women, and compared them with the effect of a fermented control milk without supplements (f-milk, n = 28). At bedtime 175 ml/d of either test milk was consumed. Fasting blood samples and 48 h-urine were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Urine was divided into a pooled daytime and nighttime fraction. Multifactorial ANOVA was performed. Fermented milk independent of a supplement (n = 85) reduced the nocturnal excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption, from 11.73 +/- 0.54 before to 9.57 +/- 0.54 micromol/mol creatinine at the end of the intervention (P = 0.005). No effect was seen in the daytime fraction. Differences between the three milks (n = 28 resp. 29) were not significant. Fermented milk reduced bone alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, from 25.03 +/- 2.08 to 18.96 +/- 2.08 U/l, with no difference between these groups either. Fermented milk increased the nocturnal but not daytime urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. The effects on calcium and phosphorus excretion were mainly due to the group supplemented with Ca + ITF + CPP. Bedtime consumption of fermented milk reduced the nocturnal bone resorption by decelerating its turnover

  20. Three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide improves vertebral and peripheral bone density, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties without accelerating bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao-Kawabata, Ryoko; Isogai, Yukihiro; Takakura, Aya; Shimazu, Yukari; Sugimoto, Emika; Nakazono, Osamu; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya; Oda, Hiromi; Ishizuya, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    Daily and weekly administration of teriparatide (PTH1-34) reduces the risk of osteoporotic bone fractures. However, their effects on markers of bone formation and bone resorption differ. These results indicate that the dosing frequency of teriparatide may affect bone metabolism and bone structure, with different effects on bone strength. In the present study, to evaluate the dose-related effects of a low administration frequency of teriparatide on bone status, we investigated the effects of three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide (1.1, 5.6, or 28.2 µg/kg) for 12 months on bone parameters, including bone metabolism markers, bone mineral density (BMD), micro-computed tomography, and bone strength, using 6-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide dose-dependently increased the BMD of the lumbar vertebra and femur in OVX rats, and increased serum osteocalcin (a marker of bone formation), but not type I collagen C-telopeptide (a marker of bone resorption). The trabecular number and thickness increased in the vertebrae and femur, as in prior reports of daily teriparatide administration in OVX rats. Cortical thickness increased only toward the endocortical side of the femur, unlike with daily administration. Bone strength of the vertebrae and proximal and shaft of the femur was correlated with the changes in BMD and bone structure. These results demonstrate the effects of low frequency, intermittent administration of teriparatide on the biomechanical, and microstructural properties of bone in OVX rats.

  1. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  2. Which preoperative factors, including bone bruise, are associated with knee pain/symptoms at index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)? A Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) ACLR Cohort Study.

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    Dunn, Warren R; Spindler, Kurt P; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T; Kaeding, Christopher C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Parker, Richard D; Harrell, Frank E; An, Angel Q; Wright, Rick W; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Flanigan, David C; Huston, Laura J; Jones, Morgan H; Wolcott, Michelle L; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R

    2010-09-01

    Increased knee pain at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may potentially predict more difficult rehabilitation, prolonged recovery, and/or be predictive of increased knee pain at 2 years. A bone bruise and/or other preoperative factors are associated with more knee pain/symptoms at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the presence of a bone bruise would be associated with specific demographic and injury-related factors. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. In 2007, the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database began to prospectively collect surgeon-reported magnetic resonance imaging bone bruise status. A multivariable analysis was performed to (1) determine if a bone bruise, among other preoperative factors, is associated with more knee symptoms/pain and (2) examine the association of factors related to bone bruise. To evaluate the association of a bone bruise with knee pain/symptoms, linear multiple regression models were fit using the continuous scores of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) symptoms and pain subscales and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) bodily pain subscale as dependent variables. To examine the association between a bone bruise and risk factors, a logistic regression model was used, in which the dependent variable was the presence or absence of a bone bruise. Baseline data for 525 patients were used for analysis, and a bone bruise was present in 419 (80%). The cohort comprises 58% male patients, with a median age of 23 years. The median Marx activity level was 13. Factors associated with more pain were higher body mass index (P pain at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. None of the factors included in the SF-36 bodily pain model were found to be significant. After controlling for other baseline factors, the following factors were associated with a bone bruise: younger age (P = .034) and not jumping at the time of injury (P = .006

  3. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

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    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  4. Study on the relationship between serum IL-6, Sgp80, Sgp130 levels and bone metabolism in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyu; Mu Junqing; Zou Jianwen; Liu Songtao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum IL-6, Sgp80, Sgpl30 levels and bone metabolism in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of IL-6 (with RIA), Sgp80, Sgpl30 (with ELISA) as well as BMD of proximal femur region were determined in 78 patients with Graves' disease (26 not treated yet, 26 partially remitted and 26 in remission) and 30 controls. Results: The serum IL-6 and Sgpl30 levels in all the patients with Graves' disease were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , FT 4 , phosphorous, BGP and urinary hydroxy proline levels. BMD of the proximal femur region in patients partially remitted were much lower than that in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Sgp80 level might be taken as an important parameter in studying of Graves' disease. Bone loss, both cortical and trabecular, occurred in patients with Graves' disease. Increase of bone formation as well as bone resorption were primary, not secondary to each other. (authors)

  5. Serum concentrations of somatomedins and growth hormone in relation to bone metabolism in acromegaly and thyroid dysfunction

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    Bijlsma, J. W.; Duursma, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Many hormones are involved in the complex process of formation and resorption of bone. However, only somatomedin is found to directly stimulate cell replication and collagen synthesis in bone. This study was undertaken to examine a possible regulatory role of somatomedin in mediating the effects of

  6. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

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    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  7. Effects of high dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy on bone mass and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-month randomized prospective controlled study.

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    Frediani, Bruno; Falsetti, Paolo; Bisogno, Stefania; Baldi, Fabio; Acciai, Caterina; Filippou, Georgios; Bacarelli, Maria Romana; Filipponi, Paolo; Galeazzi, Mauro; Marcolongo, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    To study the effects of one year of high dose 6-methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) on bone mass, seric bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDpyr) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to compare results with those of patients with active RA treated with oral methylprednisolone (OMP). Thirty-one women with active RA were given 1000 mg of MP IV for 3 alternate days, with a mean interval of administration of 76 days (+/- 8.3 SD) for one year (MPPT group). Bone mineral density (BMD) (total body, lumbar spine, and femur neck), plasma levels of sBAP, and urinary concentrations of uDpyr were assessed at the beginning of the treatment and every 3 months until the end of the study. Moreover, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Thompson joint score, and early morning stiffness were assessed at study entry and every month. The control group, 31 women with active RA treated with oral MP, was followed in the same way (OMP group). In the MPPT group there was no significant reduction of BMD at any site compared to significant reductions in lumbar BMD at 6 and 12 months and total body BMD and femur neck BMD at 12 months in the OMP group. Also in the OMP group, a significant reduction in the mean sBAP was observed. The mean uDpyr levels were not significantly reduced in either group. Our results show that MPPT, compared to continuous therapy with oral corticosteroids, preserves bone mass without modifying the biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

  8. The ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade enhances bone structure and metabolism following angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blockade.

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    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-07-15

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) regulates numerous systemic functions and is expressed locally in skeletal tissues. Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) is a beneficial member of the RAS, and the therapeutic effects of a large number of angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) are mediated by an Ang1-7-dependent cascade. This study examines whether the reported osteo-preservative effects of losartan are mediated through the angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE-2)/Ang1-7/Mas pathway in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sham and OVX animals received losartan (10mg/kg/d p.o.) for 6 weeks. A specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered via mini-osmotic pumps during the losartan treatment period. Serum and urine bone metabolism biomarker levels were measured. Bone trabecular and cortical morphometry were quantified in distal femurs, whereas mineral contents were estimated in ashed bones, serum and urine. Finally, the expression of RAS components, the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) was determined. Losartan significantly improved the elevated bone metabolism marker levels and altered trabecular and cortical structures in OVX animals, and restored normal urinary and skeletal mineral levels. Mas receptor inhibition significantly abolished all osteo-protective effects of losartan and enhanced the deleterious effects of OVX. Losartan enhanced OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor and RANKL expression, and increased ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG expression in OVX animals. However, A-779 significantly eradicated the effects of losartan on RAS components and RANKL/OPG expression. Thus, Ang1-7 are involved in the osteo-preservative effects of losartan via Mas receptor, which may add therapeutic value to this well-known antihypertensive agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments exert a low activity on reproductive organs and on hepatic metabolism of estradiol in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Chevalier, Joelle; Desmetz, Catherine; Pinnert, Marie-France; Berges, Raymond; Jover, Emmanuel; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Coxam, Veronique; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2007-01-01

    The use of soy isoflavones is a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal bone-loss prevention. Nevertheless, phytoestrogens can target other organs and may disrupt cell proliferation, or could modify endogenous steroid hormone metabolism. These mechanisms could be linked to an increased risk of developing cancer. We therefore studied the possible side effects of such treatments in an experimental model of menopause. Forty adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and fed with a genistein-, daidzein- or equol-supplemented diet at bone-sparing levels (10 mg/kg BW/day) for 3 months. The estrogenic effects were assessed by histological and molecular analyses on reproductive organs. The impact on the oxidative metabolism of estradiol and on associated cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities was evaluated in liver microsomes. The relative wet weights of both the uterus and the vagina were increased in the equol group, but no significant changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen or hormone receptor mRNA expression were noticed. In contrast, genistein and daidzein did not induce uterotrophy but caused an overexpression of estrogen receptor α mRNA which could correspond to a long-lasting effect of physiological concentrations of estrogens. The hepatic metabolism of estradiol was influenced by daidzein which increased the synthesis of putative mutagenic derivatives. At the same time, genistein favored estrogen 2-hydroxylation, and equol decreased 4-hydroxyestrogen production. Surprisingly, no significant alteration in hepatic CYP activities was detected. Taken together, these results demonstrate that isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments are able to cause side effects on other estrogen-sensitive target organs when given in the long-term

  10. Effect of mid-frequency pulse therapy combined with external fixation on bone metabolism, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in patients with osteoporotic distal radial fractures

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    Bao-Ning Luo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of mid-frequency pulse therapy combined with external fixation on bone metabolism, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in patients with osteoporotic distal radial fractures. Methods: A total of 72 patients with osteoporotic distal radial fractures who were treated in the hospital between September 2015 and January 2017 were collected and divided into control group (n=36 and observation group (n=36 according to the random number table method. Control group received routine external fixation, and observation group received mid-frequency pulse therapy combined with external fixation. The differences in serum levels of bone metabolism indexes, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indexes were compared between two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum levels of bone metabolism indexes, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After 1 month of treatment, serum BGP, TAC and SOD levels of both groups of patients were higher than those before treatment while β-CTX, AKP, TRAP, CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and MDA levels were lower than those before treatment, and serum BGP, TAC and SOD levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while β-CTX, AKP, TRAP, CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and MDA levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Mid-frequency pulse therapy combined with external fixation can promote fracture healing and reduce postoperative inflammatory response and oxidative stress response in patients with osteoporotic distal radial fracture.

  11. Characteristics of bone mineral metabolism in patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: results of the OSERCE study.

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    Górriz, José L; Molina, Pablo; Bover, Jordi; Barril, Guillermina; Martín-de Francisco, Angel L; Caravaca, Francisco; Hervás, José; Piñera, Celestino; Escudero, Verónica; Molinero, Luis M

    2013-01-18

    OSERCE is a multi-centre and cross-sectional study with the aim of analysing the biochemical, clinical, and management characteristics of bone mineral metabolism alterations and the level of compliance with K/DOQI guideline recommendations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The study included a total of 634 patients from 32 different Spanish nephrology units, all with CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and not on dialysis (K/DOQI stage: 33% stage 3, 46% stage 4, and 21% stage 5). In 409 of these patients, laboratory parameters were also measured in a centralised laboratory, including creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OH-vitamin D, and 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D levels. The rates of non-compliance with the K/DOQI objectives for calcium, phosphorous, intact PTH, and calcium x phosphate product among these patients were 45%, 22%, 70%, and 4%, respectively. Of the 70% of patients with intact PTH levels outside of the target range established by the K/DOQI guidelines, 55.5% had values above the upper limit and 14.5% had values below the lower limit. Of the 45% of patients with calcium levels outside of the target range, 40% had values above the upper limit and 5% had values below the lower limit. Of the 22% of patients with phosphorous levels outside of the target range, 19% had values above the upper limit, and 3% had values below the lower limit. Finally, 4% of patients also had values for the calcium x phosphate product that were outside of the recommended range. Only 1.8% of patients complied with all four K/DOQI objectives. The values detected in centralised laboratory analyses were not significantly different from those measured in the laboratories at each institution. In addition, 81.5% of patients had a deficiency of calcidiol (25-OH-D3) (<30 ng/ml); of these, 35% had moderate-severe deficiency (<15 ng/ml) and 47% had mild deficiency (15-30 ng/ml). Calcitriol (1,25-OH2-D3

  12. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other

  13. Novel bone metabolism-associated hormones: the importance of the pre-analytical phase for understanding their physiological roles.

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    Lombardi, Giovanni; Barbaro, Mosè; Locatelli, Massimo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The endocrine function of bone is now a recognized feature of this tissue. Bone-derived hormones that modulate whole-body homeostasis, are being discovered as for the effects on bone of novel and classic hormones produced by other tissues become known. Often, however, the data regarding these last generation bone-derived or bone-targeting hormones do not give about a clear picture of their physiological roles or concentration ranges. A certain degree of uncertainty could stem from differences in the pre-analytical management of biological samples. The pre-analytical phase comprises a series of decisions and actions (i.e., choice of sample matrix, methods of collection, transportation, treatment and storage) preceding analysis. Errors arising in this phase will inevitably be carried over to the analytical phase where they can reduce the measurement accuracy, ultimately, leading discrepant results. While the pre-analytical phase is all important, in routine laboratory medicine, it is often not given due consideration in research and clinical trials. This is particularly true for novel molecules, such as the hormones regulating the endocrine function of bone. In this review we discuss the importance of the pre-analytical variables affecting the measurement of last generation bone-associated hormones and describe their, often debated and rarely clear physiological roles.

  14. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

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    Dilek Torun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.2 ± 17.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.4 ± 32.7 months were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH >1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v. vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca +2 , phosphate (P, Ca × P product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT, median weekly erythropoietin (EPO dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca +2 (P = 0.853, P (P = 0.447, Ca × P product (P = 0.587, PTH (P = 0.273, ferritin (P = 0.153 and TSAT (P = 0.104. After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P = 0.048. The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.4 ± 12.0 to 60.0 ± 24.4 mg/day (P = 0.01. There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients.

  15. A dairy product fermented by lactobacilli cancels the adverse effects of hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor on bone metabolism in growing rats.

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    Takasugi, Satoshi; Ashida, Kinya; Maruyama, Suyaka; Komaba, Yukari; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Yamaji, Taketo

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of hypochlorhydria induced by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration and intake of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli (DFL) on bone metabolism in growing rats. Male rats, aged 3 weeks, were divided into two groups: a control group fed a casein-based diet and a group fed a DFL-based diet. Each group was fed its respective experimental diets for 9 d. At day 5 of the feeding period, each group was divided into two subgroups: one that received a saline injection and one that received a PPI injection. Rats were subcutaneously administered saline or PPI for 5 d. Faecal Ca excretion was determined from day 6 to day 9. At the end of the experiment, plasma and femurs were collected. Administration of PPI significantly decreased bone mineral density (shown by X-ray computerised tomography) and bone strength (shown by a three-point bending test) in the control group. Plasma osteocalcin, type I collagen C-telopeptides, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated by PPI administration in the control group. Faecal Ca excretion and urinary P excretion in the control group were remarkably increased by PPI administration. On the other hand, these adverse effects of PPI were not observed in the DFL group. These results suggest that hypochlorhydria-induced bone loss may result from high bone turnover induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism due to Ca malabsorption and that DFL intake cancels these adverse effects probably via improving Ca malabsorption in growing rats.

  16. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Daniel Courteix

    Full Text Available Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD.We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention.This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC.After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  17. Measurement of bone density in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Doyle, Shevaun M; Vogiatzi, Maria G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of pediatric bone density. Osteoporosis of the adult is a well established clinical problem, and algorithms to diagnose and treat this disease are recognized throughout the medical community. Osteoporosis or 'low bone mass' in pediatrics, on the other hand, is a rather new and evolving area, with certain unique diagnostic and clinical challenges. Recent findings in the literature include benefits and limitations of pediatric bone densitometry techniques, proper interpretation of the results of these various techniques, efforts to establish standards and guidelines for diagnosing low bone mass in children and adolescents, optimization of bone growth and mineral accrual for life, pediatric bone mineral density and fracture risk prediction, as well as a clearer awareness of bone fragility in children. Throughout the last decade, great strides have been made in our understanding of pediatric metabolic bone disease. These will be the focus of this review.

  18. Diagnostic Workup for Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in the Era of KDIGO Guidelines

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    Luigi Francesco Morrone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes is an international nonprofit organization devoted to “improve the care and outcomes of kidney disease patients worldwide through promoting coordination, collaboration, and integration of initiatives to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines.” The mineral and bone disorder (MBD in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD has been the first area of interest of KDIGO international initiative. KDIGO guidelines on CKD-MBD were published in 2009 with the intent to modify the previous KDOQI guidelines that had failed to consistently change the global outcome of CKD patients. After the publication of KDOQI guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in 2003, a large number of observational data emerged in literature linking disordered mineral metabolism with adverse clinical outcomes. Notwithstanding this large body of observational data, a paucity of evidence from high-quality clinical trials was available for the development of KDIGO guidelines. Herein, a summary will be provided of the most important findings of KDIGO guidelines regarding the diagnostic workup and clinical monitoring of CKD-MBD patients.

  19. Metabolic bone disease as a presenting manifestation of primary Sjögren′s syndrome: Three cases and review of literature

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    Deepak Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Sjögren′s syndrome (pSS is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands with varying degrees of systemic involvement. Chronic inflammation compromises the glands′ function that leads to dry symptoms in the mouth/eyes. Renal involvement is a well recognized extraglandular manifestation of pSS. Metabolic bone disease (MBD, however, rarely occurs as the primary manifestation of a renal tubule disorder due to pSS. To the best of our knowledge there are only 6 reported cases of metabolic bone disease as the primary manifestation of pSS to date. Four of these had distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA, and 2 had a combined picture of distal and proximal tubular dysfunction. We herein present our experience of 3 cases who presented to us with a clinical picture suggestive of MBD. While investigating these patients, we found evidence of RTA, which was found to be secondary to pSS.

  20. Assessment of the trauma degree and bone metabolism after minimally invasive subtalar arthrodesis treatment of traumatic subtalar arthritis caused by calcaneal fracture

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    Zhi-Wen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the trauma degree and bone metabolism after minimally invasive subtalar arthrodesis treatment of traumatic subtalar arthritis caused by calcaneal fracture. Methods: A total of 76 patients with traumatic subtalar arthritis caused by calcaneal fracture were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=38, control group received open talocalcaneal arthrodesis treatment, observation group received minimally invasive subtalar arthrodesis, and then the differences in postoperative trauma degree as well as the values of bone metabolism indexes and imaging parameter indexes was compared between two groups of patients. Results: 7 d after operation, serum SP, IL-6, PGE2, β-EP, MYO, IMA and MDA levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while TAC level was significantly higher than that of control group; 1 month after operation, serum ALP, BGP and CT levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while ACP and PTH levels were significantly lower than those of control group; 3 months after operation, talocalcaneal height under X-ray of observation group was higher than that of control group, and calcaneus-talus angle, talar tilt angle and calcaneal compensation angle were greater than those of control group. Conclusions: Minimally invasive subtalar arthrodesis helps to relieve the trauma degree and promote osteogenesis process in patients with traumatic subtalar arthritis, eventually improving patients' quality of life.

  1. Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone

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    Richard J. Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone.

  2. Giant Cell Tumor with Secondary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Shows Heterogeneous Metabolic Pattern on18F-FDG PET/CT: A Case Report.

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    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2016-12-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18 F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on 18 F-FDG PET/CT.

  3. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  4. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  5. Is Bone Tissue Really Affected by Swimming? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Gónzalez-Agüero, Alejandro; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Background Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. Aim This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. Methods A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. Conclusion Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone. PMID:23950908

  6. Is bone tissue really affected by swimming? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Gónzalez-Agüero, Alejandro; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone.

  7. Is bone tissue really affected by swimming? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez-Bruton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. AIM: This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. METHODS: A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. RESULTS: It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. CONCLUSION: Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone.

  8. Implant rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla including immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting: a review of 1-year outcome data from a long-term prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljanic, Joseph A; Baer, Russell A; Ekstrand, Karl; Thor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The literature suggests that predictable integration can be achieved when dental implant placement is combined with immediate fixed provisional restoration in a variety of clinical situations. Fewer data are available, however, regarding outcomes for immediate provisional restoration of implants in the edentulous maxilla. This report presents 1-year data acquired from a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to assess outcomes following the immediate provisional fixed restoration of implants in the atrophic edentulous maxilla without the use of bone augmentation. Fifty-one subjects diagnosed with an atrophic edentulous maxilla received a total of 306 implants (six implants per subject) followed by fixed provisional restoration within 24 hours of implant placement. No subjects underwent grafting to enhance bone volume in preparation for implant treatment. Data acquired included bone quantity and quality, implant dimensions, implant locations, and implant placement stability. Subjects returned for 1-year follow-up examinations to assess implant integration and restoration function. Periapical radiographs were obtained and compared to baseline images to assess marginal bone height maintenance. At the 3-month follow-up examination, 294 of 306 implants placed in 51 subjects were found to be integrated. This represents a cumulative implant survival rate of 96%. At the 1-year follow-up examination, mean marginal bone loss of 0.5 mm was noted, with no further loss of implants. These results support the contention that predictable long-term outcomes may be obtained for the atrophic edentulous maxilla when treated with an implant rehabilitation protocol that includes immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting. This strategy offers a promising treatment alternative for the patient with an atrophic edentulous maxilla.

  9. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical investigations of early bone damage following incorporation of optimal carcinogenic doses of 239-plutonium in male rats of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamer, A.O.

    1988-02-01

    There is early damage to bone at small carcinogenic amounts of the nuclide, including heavy defects of bone structure and bone marrow osteoporotic features of trabecular bone and only histomorphometrically detectable changes in bone metabolism. The dependence of radiation dose to skeleton and the spacial distribution of the nuclide on age and growth of the experimental animals is demonstrated and correlated to the histological findings. It is also shown that growth and metabolism parameters of bone influence the decorporation performance of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.) [de

  10. Semi-quantitative metabolic values on FDG PET/CT including extracardiac sites of disease as a predictor of treatment course in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Mitsutomi; Soine, Laurie A; Vesselle, Hubert J

    2017-08-18

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is associated with major adverse cardiac events including cardiac arrest, for which anti-inflammatory treatment is indicated. Oral corticosteroid is the mainstay among treatment options; however, adverse effects are a major concern with long-term use. It would be beneficial for providers to predict treatment response and prognosis for proper management strategy of sarcoidosis, though it remains challenging. Fluorine (F)-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) has an advantage over anatomical imaging in providing semi-quantitative functional parameters such as standard uptake value (SUV), metabolic volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), which are well-established biomarkers in oncology. However, the relationship between these parameters and treatment response has not been fully investigated in cardiac sarcoidosis. Also, the prognostic value of extracardiac active inflammation noted on FDG-PET/CT in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis is unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic value of semi-quantitative values of both cardiac and extracardiac disease sites derived from FDG-PET/CT in predicting treatment course in cardiac sarcoidosis. Sixteen consecutive patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, who demonstrated abnormal myocardial activity on cardiac-inflammation FDG-PET/CT encompassing the entire chest/upper abdomen and subsequently underwent corticosteroid therapy for diagnosis of active cardiac sarcoidosis, were included. Semi-quantitative values of hypermetabolic lesions were derived from all visualized organ system and were compared to daily corticosteroid dose at 6 months.  Of the 16 patients, 81.3% (13/16) of the patients showed extracardiac involvement. The lesion with the greatest SUV was identified in the heart in 11 patients (68.7%), in the liver in 1 patient (6.3%), and in lymph nodes in 4 patients (25%). The maximum SUV across all visualized

  11. Change in subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism and gene network expression during the transition period in dairy cows, including differences due to sire genetic merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Hosseini, A; Burrell, S; Rocco, S M; McNamara, J P; Loor, J J

    2013-04-01

    Adipose metabolism is an essential contributor to the efficiency of milk production, and metabolism is controlled by several mechanisms, including gene expression of critical proteins; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how lactational state and the genetic merit of dairy cattle affects adipose tissue (AT) metabolism and mRNA expression of genes known to control metabolism. Animals of high (HGM) and low genetic merit (LGM) were fed to requirements, and weekly dry matter intake, milk production, blood glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids were measured. Subcutaneous AT biopsies were collected at -21, 7, 28 and 56 d in milk (DIM). The mRNA expression of genes coding for lipogenic enzymes [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble) (PCK1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD)], transcription regulators [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG), thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP), wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B (WNT10B), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ)], lipolytic enzymes [hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE), patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 (PNPLA2), monoglyceride lipase (MGLL), adrenoceptor β-2 (ADRB2), adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP), and α-β-hydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5)], and genes controlling the sensing of intracellular energy [phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A); PDE3B; protein kinase, AMP-activated, α-1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1); PRKAA2; and growth hormone receptor (GHR)] was measured. Dry matter intake, blood glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations did not differ between genetic merit groups. Milk production was greater for HGM cows from 6 to 8 wk postpartum. As expected, the rates of lipogenesis decreased in early lactation, whereas stimulated lipolysis increased. At 7 DIM, lipogenesis in HGM cows increased as a function

  12. Combined bioavailable isoflavones and probiotics improve bone status and estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thybo, Catrine Bundgaard; Lykkeboe, Simon

    2017-01-01

    postmenopausal osteopenic women supplemented with calcium (1200 mg/d), magnesium (550 mg/d), and calcitriol (25 mg/d) given either RCE (60 mg isoflavone aglycones/d and probiotics) or a masked placebo [control (CON)]. Results: RCE significantly attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the L2–L4 lumbar spine......, improved bone turnover, promoted a favorable estrogen metabolite profile (2-OH:16a-OH), and stimulated equol production in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. RCE intake combined with upplementation (calcium, magnesium, and calcitriol) was more effective than supplementation alone. This trial...

  13. Appliance-induced osteopenia of dentoalveolar bone in the rat: effect of reduced bone strains on serum bone markers and the multifunctional hormone leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Jayaseelan K; Patel, Kaval J; Lih, Wei-Song; Seow, Yian-San; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2013-12-01

    To understand, in greater detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between mechanical strain and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic treatment, passive cross-arch palatal springs were bonded to the maxillary molars of 6-wk-old rats, which were killed after 4 and 8 d. Outcome measures included serum assays for markers of bone formation and resorption and for the multifunctional hormone leptin, and histomorphometry of the inter-radicular bone. The concentration of the bone-formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly reduced at both time points in the appliance group, accompanied by a 50% reduction in inter-radicular bone volume; however, osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) levels remained unaffected. Bone collagen deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks increased 2.3-fold at 4 d only, indicating a transient increase in bone resorption; in contrast, the level of the osteoclast-specific marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), was unchanged. Leptin levels closely paralleled ALP reductions at both time points, suggesting an important role in the mechanostat negative-feedback loop required to normalize bone mass. These data suggest that an orthodontic appliance, in addition to remodeling the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface, may exert unexpected side-effects on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone, and highlights the importance of recognizing that bone strains can have negative, as well as positive, effects on bone mass. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Reconstruction of orbital floor blow-out fractures with autogenous iliac crest bone: a retrospective study including maxillofacial and ophthalmology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, John Edward; Hartnett, Claire; Hickey-Dwyer, Marie; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    This is a 10-year retrospective study of patients with an isolated unilateral orbital floor fracture reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The following inclusion criteria applied: isolated orbital floor fracture without involvement of the orbital rim or other craniofacial injuries, pre-/post-operative ophthalmological/orthoptic follow-up, pre-operative CT. Variables recorded were patient age and gender, aetiology of injury, time to surgery, follow-up period, surgical morbidity, diplopia pre- and post-operatively (Hess test), eyelid position, visual acuity, and the presence of en-/or exophthalmos (Hertel exophthalmometer). Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 29 years. The mean follow up period was 26 months. No patient experienced significant donor site morbidity. There were no episodes of post-operative infection or graft extrusion. Three patients had diplopia in extremes of vision post-operatively, but no interference with activities of daily living. One patient had post-operative enophthalmos. Isolated orbital blow-out fractures may be safely and predictably reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone. The rate of complications in the group of patients studied was low. The value of pre- and post-operative ophthalmology consultation cannot be underestimated, and should be considered the standard of care in all patients with orbitozygomatic fractures, in particular those with blow-out fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the effects of canola oil versus sunflower oil on the biochemical markers of bone metabolism in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Azemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, omega-3 fatty acids are in the center of attention for their potent anti-inflammatory effects. Osteoporosis as a chronic senile disease is associated with inflammation, and the role of inflammatory mediators has been demonstrated in the recent years. The beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on bone were proven in many animal studies, while to date, no conclusive data is available in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of n-3 fatty acids on bone biomarkers in osteoporotic women. Material and Methods: Forty osteoporotic post-menopausal women were recruited in the study and randomized in receiving either 40 g canola oil or the same amount sunflower oil per day as their dietary oil for 3 months. Serum levels of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, N telo peptide collagen (NTX and 25- hydroxy vitamin D3 were measured at baseline and at the end of the third month in both groups. Results: In the canola oil group, BALP and NTX were increased after 3 months while Osteocalcin decreased in both groups slightly; however,none of these changes were significant. In both groups, serum vitamin D3 was increased significantly; however, this change between groups was not significant. Conclusion: Canola oil did not affect bone formation and resorption significantly after 3 months consumption. Further investigations with longer follow up are recommended.

  16. Bone marrow transplantation as an established approach for understanding the role of macrophages in atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Hofker, Marten H.

    Purpose of review Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) technology is a firmly established tool for studying atherosclerosis. Only recently it is helping us to understand the inflammatory mechanisms leading to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Here we review the use of

  17. Effects of a moderately high-protein diet and interval aerobic training combined with strength-endurance exercise on markers of bone metabolism, microarchitecture and turnover in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Elena; Aparicio, Virginia A; Coll-Risco, Irene; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Heimel, Patrick; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana; Slezak, Paul; Redl, Heinz; Porres, Jesús M; López-Jurado, María; Pietschmann, Peter; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-11-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome, and the protein level of the diets seem to be crucial for the development and maintenance of bone. The nature of exercise and whether exercise in combination with moderately high-protein dietary interventions could protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. To investigate the effects of a moderately high-protein diet and interval aerobic training combined with strength-endurance exercise (IASE) protocol on bone status, and to assess potential interaction effects (i.e. diet*IASE). Male Zucker fatty rats were randomized distributed into 4 groups (n=8): normoprotein+sedentary; normoprotein+exercise; moderately high-protein+sedentary, and moderately high-protein+exercise. Training groups conducted an IASE program, 5days/week for 2months. Markers of bone metabolism were measured in plasma. Parameters of bone mass and 3D outcomes for trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture were assessed by micro-computed tomography. Femur length, plasma osteocalcin, sclerostin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, insulin, leptin, PTH, uric acid and urinary phosphorus levels were lower in the moderately high-protein compared to the normoprotein groups (all, palkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and urinary uric acid concentrations, and cortical total volume (TV) and bone volume (BV) were higher in the moderately high-protein (all, palkaline phosphatase levels were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary (both, peffective to enhance trabecular bone microarchitecture and BMD, and has a partial impact on cortical bone in obese rats. Nevertheless, they do not induce any alteration on the bone turnover markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is al...... mastocytosis (SM) where pathogenic mechanisms for bone manifestations probably involve effects of mast cell mediators on bone metabolism, the mechanisms responsible for increased fracture risk in other chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are not known........ Chronic inflammation has been suggested to explain the initiation of clonal development and progression in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Decreased bone mineral density and enhanced fracture risk are well-known manifestations of many chronic systemic inflammatory diseases. As opposed to systemic...

  19. Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Validandi, Vakdevi

    2017-10-23

    A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study included 824 participants with an age of 8-15 years. The results of the study reviled that dental fluorosis was significantly higher in affected than control area children. Urinary fluoride was significantly higher (p children as compared to the control area school children. Nutritional status of affected children was lower than control area children. The chronic kidney damage (CKD) was higher in affected than control school children. Thyroid function was affected more in affected than control area schools. Serum creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 1, 25(OH) 2 vitamin D, and osteocalcin were significantly higher in affected school children (p school children, whereas there was no significant difference in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 25-OH vitamin D among the two groups. There was a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the affected area school children compared to control. In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children.

  20. Toxicological study of DTPA as a drug, 6; Effects of intravenously injected Ca-DTPA, Ca-EDTA, CBMIDA and orally administered Zn-DTPA to bone metabolism in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Hseih Yuyuan; Chen Wehzhi

    1991-06-01

    Effects of four kinds of chelating agents, Ca-DTPA (calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), Ca-EDTA (calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), CBMIDA (catechol-3, 6-bis(methyleiminodiacetic acid)) and Zn-DTPA (zinc DTPA), on bone metabolism were examined in beagle dogs by bone histomorphometry and measurement of serum biochemical constituents related to bone metabolism. Ca-DTPA, Ca-EDTA or CBMIDA (150 {mu}mol/kg) was injected intravenously to dogs for 1 month, respectively. Three doses (30, 150 and 300 {mu}mol/kg) of Zn-DTPA were administered orally to dogs for 1 month, respectively. All dogs received twice tetracycline hydrochloride injections at an interval of 7 days before the beginning of administration of chelating agents and also twice calcein injections at the same time schedule prior to sacrifices for analyzing bone dynamics. Bone samples were obtained from ilium and undecalcified bone sections were made. Bone histomorphometry of cancellous bone area of ilium was performed using an image analyzer. Bone volume and mean trabecular thickness did not change in any of the groups. Osteoid volume in the CBMIDA group increased. Osteoid volume and mean osteoid thickness in the 150 {mu}mol/kg of Zn-DTPA group decreased. Mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate did not change in any groups except the CBMIDA and 150 {mu}mol/kg of Zn-DTPA groups, in which fluorescent bone labeling was absent or obscure, revealing inhibition of bone mineralization. Serum total calcium levels did not change in any of the groups. Serum phosphorus level decreased significantly in the 30 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA group. Parathyroid hormone level increased in the 30 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA, while it decreased in the 150 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA group. The results suggests that the protracted therapy using the above four kinds of chelating agents may incur damages of bone such as decrease of bone volume and inhibition of mineralization. (author).

  1. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and its interaction with vitamin D receptor genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a high-Na, high-protein (calciuric) diet on Ca and bone metabolism was investigated in postmenopausal women (aged 5067 years) who were stratified by vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype. In a crossover trial, twenty-four women were randomly assigned to a diet high in protein (90 g...... samples collected at the end of each dietary period. The calciuric diet significantly (Pbasal diet, but had no effect on circulating 25(OH)D-3, 1,25(OH)(2)D-3, PTH, osteocalcin or B-Alkphase in the total group (n 24). There were...... no differences in serum markers or urinary minerals between the basal and calciuric diet in either VDR genotype groups. While the calciuric diet significantly increased urinary NTx (by 25.6%, P

  2. Connective tissue metabolism in patients with unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis. Relationship to disease activity, bone mineral density, and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    (RA) and 21 patients had unclassified polyarthritis. Patients with RA were divided into groups according to the mean disease activity and to magnetic resonance imaging and radiographically detected bone erosions in the hands. RESULTS: Patients with RA had significantly higher serum concentrations...... tissue metabolism were measured in 72 patients with symmetrically swollen and tender second and third metacarpophalangeal or proximal interphalangeal joints for at least 4 weeks and less than 2 years. At 2 years, 51 patients fulfilled the American College Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis...... of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) at baseline and higher mean concentrations of serum MMP-3 and pyridinoline (Pyd) during the first 6 and 12 months than patients with unclassified polyarthritis. RA patients with persistent disease activity and erosive disease had significantly higher concentrations...

  3. Radioiodine therapy in elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism due to non-voluminous nodular goiter and its effect on bone metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Endocrinology Service

    2013-05-01

    Objective: To evaluate {sup 131}I therapy in elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) due to nodular disease and who did not receive antithyroid drugs (ATDs), and the effect of the treatment on bone metabolism. Subjects and methods: Thirty-six patients with TSH {<=} 0.1mIU/L and non-voluminous goiter (< 60 cm{sup 3} were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 17 women with osteopenia. Results: Mean 24-h {sup 131}I uptake was 17.5%. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis were reported by two (5.5%) patients in the first week after therapy. One year after radioiodine treatment, SCH was resolved in 30 (83.3%) patients, and hypothyroidism was detected in one (2.7%). In the patients in whom TSH returned to normal, femoral and lumbar spine BMD increased by 1.9% and 1.6%, respectively, in average. Conclusions: In elderly patients with SCH and non-voluminous goiter, radioiodine not preceded by ATDs is a safe and effective therapeutic alternative. Resolution of SCH has beneficial effects on BMD in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. (author)

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  5. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  6. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  7. Effects of MK-801 treatment across several pre-clinical analyses including a novel assessment of brain metabolic function utilizing PET and CT fused imaging in live rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, R P; Bhandari, J K; Hui, P A; Tian, Y; Farncombe, T; Mishra, R K

    2014-02-01

    Functional imaging studies in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated metabolic brain abnormalities during cognitive tasks. This study aimed to 1) introduce a novel analysis of brain metabolic function in live animals to characterize the hypo- and hyperfrontality phenomena observed in schizophrenia and following NMDA antagonist exposure, and 2) identify a robust and representative MK-801 treatment regimen that effectively models brain metabolic abnormalities as well as a range of established behavioural abnormalities representative of schizophrenia. The validity of the MK-801 animal model was examined across several established pre-clinical tests, and a novel assessment of brain metabolic function using PET/CT fused imaging. In the present study, MK-801 was administered acutely at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, and sub-chronically at 0.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Acute treatment at 0.5 mg/kg-disrupted facets of memory measured through performance in the 8-arm radial maze task and generated abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, social interaction and locomotor activity. Furthermore, this treatment regimen induced hyperfrontality (increased brain metabolic function in the prefrontal area) observed via PET/CT fused imaging in the live rat. While PET and CT fused imaging in the live rat offers a functional representation of metabolic function, more advanced PET/CT integration is required to analyze more discrete brain regions. These findings provide insight on the effectiveness of the MK-801 pre-clinical model of schizophrenia and provide an optimal regimen to model schizophrenia. PET/CT fused imaging offers a highly translatable tool to assess hypo- and hyperfrontality in live animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of regional bone metabolism from whole-body {sup 18}F-fluoride PET static images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Musib; Blake, Glen M.; Frost, Michelle L.; Moore, Amelia E.B.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, Osteoporosis Screening and Research Unit, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Puri, Tanuj; Marsden, Paul K. [King' s College London, PET Imaging Centre, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    We evaluate a new quantitative method of acquiring and analysing {sup 18}F positron emission tomography (PET) studies that enables regional bone plasma clearance (K{sub i}) to be estimated from static scans acquired at multiple sites in the skeleton following a single injection of tracer. Dynamic lumbar spine {sup 18}F PET data from two clinical trials were used to simulate a series of static scans acquired 30-60 min after injection. Venous blood samples were taken at 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and K{sub i} evaluated by Patlak analysis and the static scan method. The data were used to evaluate the precision errors of the Patlak and static scan methods expressed as the percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) and compare their response to 6 months of treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide. Static scan K{sub i} measurements 30-60 min after injection were highly correlated with the Patlak results (r > 0.99). The %CV for the static scan method was 17.5% 30 min after injection, decreasing to 14.5% at 60 min, compared with 13.0% for Patlak analysis. Response to teriparatide treatment was +25.2% for the static scan method compared with +24.3% for Patlak analysis. The mean ratio (SD) of the static scan and Patlak K{sub i} results was 1.006 (0.015) at 30 min after injection decreasing to 0.965 (0.015) at 60 min. {sup 18}F-Fluoride bone plasma clearance can be estimated from a static scan and venous blood samples acquired 30-60 min after injection. The method enables K{sub i} to be estimated at multiple skeletal sites with a single injection of tracer. (orig.)

  9. Standard and routine metabolic rates of juvenile sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus), including the effects of body mass and acute temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd, William Wesley; Brill, R W; Bushnell, P G; Musick, J A

    2006-01-01

    Standard and routine metabolic rates (SMRs and RMRs, respectively) of juvenile sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus) were measured over a range of body sizes (n=34) and temperatures normally associated with western Atlantic coastal nursery areas. The mean SMR Q(10) (increase in metabolic rate with temperature) was 2.9 +/- 0.2. Heart rate decreased with increasing body mass but increased with temperature at a Q(10) of 1.8-2.2. Self-paired measures of SMR and RMR were obtained for 15 individua...

  10. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomize...

  11. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  12. Effects of short-term resistance training and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone metabolism and joint function in severe haemophilia A patients with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhampour, Behrouz; Torkaman, Giti; Hoorfar, Hamid; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ravanbod, Roya

    2014-05-01

    To assess the effects of short-term resistance training and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone metabolism and joint function in patients with haemophilia with osteoporosis. A randomized, controlled, patient and blood sample assessor-blinded, six-week trial, three times weekly. Hospital outpatients with severe haemophilia A and osteoporosis. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned to resistance training (RT, n = 13), combined resistance training with pulsed electromagnetic fields (RTPEMF, n = 12), pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF, n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. The RT group received 30-40 minutes of resistance exercises and placebo pulsed electromagnetic fields. The RTPEMF group received the same exercises with lower repetition and 30 minutes of pulsed electromagnetic fields. The PEMF group was exposed to 60 minutes of pulsed electromagnetic fields (30 Hz and 40 Gauss). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, and joint function, using the modified Colorado Questionnaire, were measured before and after the programme. The absolute change of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was significant in the RT and RTPEMF groups compared with the control group (25.41 ± 14.40, 15.09 ± 5.51, and -4.73 ± 2.93 U/L, respectively). The absolute changes in the total score for joint function were significant for knees, ankles, and elbows in the RT group (9.2 ± 1.38, 5.1 ± 0.5, and 3.2 ± 0.8, respectively) and the RTPEMF group (7.7 ± 1.0, 3.3 ± 0.6, and 2.5 ± 0.7, respectively) compared to the PEMF and control groups. This value was significant for knee joints in the PEMF group compared to the control group (3.4 ± 0.5 and 0.66 ± 0.4, respectively). Resistance training is effective for improving bone formation and joint function in severe haemophilia A patients with osteoporosis.

  13. Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Affects Testicular and Bone Development, Glucose Metabolism and Response to Overnutrition in Weaned Horses Up to Two Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Robles

    Full Text Available Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts.Twenty-four saddlebred mares were fed forage only (n = 12, group F or cracked barley and forage (n = 12, group B from mid-gestation until foaling. Colts were gelded at 12 months of age. Between 20 and 24 months of age, all yearlings were overfed (+140% of requirements using an automatic concentrate feeder. Offspring were monitored for growth between 6 and 24 months of age, glucose homeostasis was evaluated via modified frequently sampled intra veinous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT at 19 and 24 months of age and osteoarticular status was investigated using radiographic examinations at 24 months of age. The structure and function of testicles from prepubertal colts were analyzed using stereology and RT-qPCR.Post-weaning weight growth was not different between groups. Testicular maturation was delayed in F colts compared to B colts at 12 months of age. From 19 months of age, the cannon bone was wider in B vs F yearlings. F yearlings were more insulin resistant at 19 months compared to B yearlings but B yearlings were affected more severely by overnutrition with reduced insulin sensitivity. The osteoarticular status at 24 months of age was not different between groups.In conclusion, nutritional management of the pregnant broodmare and the growing foal may affect sexual maturity of colts and the metabolism of foals until 24 months of age. These effects may be deleterious for reproductive and sportive performances in older horses.

  14. Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Affects Testicular and Bone Development, Glucose Metabolism and Response to Overnutrition in Weaned Horses Up to Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Morgane; Gautier, Camille; Mendoza, Luis; Peugnet, Pauline; Dubois, Cédric; Dahirel, Michèle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Caudron, Isabelle; Guenon, Isabelle; Camous, Sylvaine; Tarrade, Anne; Wimel, Laurence; Serteyn, Didier; Bouraima-Lelong, Hélène; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts. Twenty-four saddlebred mares were fed forage only (n = 12, group F) or cracked barley and forage (n = 12, group B) from mid-gestation until foaling. Colts were gelded at 12 months of age. Between 20 and 24 months of age, all yearlings were overfed (+140% of requirements) using an automatic concentrate feeder. Offspring were monitored for growth between 6 and 24 months of age, glucose homeostasis was evaluated via modified frequently sampled intra veinous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) at 19 and 24 months of age and osteoarticular status was investigated using radiographic examinations at 24 months of age. The structure and function of testicles from prepubertal colts were analyzed using stereology and RT-qPCR. Post-weaning weight growth was not different between groups. Testicular maturation was delayed in F colts compared to B colts at 12 months of age. From 19 months of age, the cannon bone was wider in B vs F yearlings. F yearlings were more insulin resistant at 19 months compared to B yearlings but B yearlings were affected more severely by overnutrition with reduced insulin sensitivity. The osteoarticular status at 24 months of age was not different between groups. In conclusion, nutritional management of the pregnant broodmare and the growing foal may affect sexual maturity of colts and the metabolism of foals until 24 months of age. These effects may be deleterious for reproductive and sportive performances in older horses.

  15. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy findings representing osteoporosis