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Sample records for metabolically active gamma-irradiated

  1. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  2. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  3. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  4. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  5. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  6. Impact of Gamma Irradiation on The Metabolism of Some Seed Borne Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, M.A.; Ahmad, S.M.; Moussa, H.R.; Ismael, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the metabolism of some seed born fungi isolated from maize and wheat grains, collected from different localities of El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt, was the target of this study. The most common fungi isolated are Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mostly all doses of gamma irradiation applied decreased carbohydrates and total lipids. Meanwhile, certain doses increased total proteins which suggested that protein might play a part in protection against the harmful effect of radiation. Application of gamma irradiation treatment inhibited α-amylase activities but increased cellulase, protease and organic acids production by Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus fumigatus. The present data showed a pronounced reduction in total free amino acids upon increasing the gamma radiation doses. The results showed that 69 protein bands of molecular weights from 11.5 to 178 kDa were observed. Aspergillus fumigatus contains 31 protein bands from 15 to 120 kDa and Aspergillus terricola contains 27 protein bands from 12 to 91 kDa. According to the results from SDS-PAGE, 5 common bands could be seen between A. fumigatus and A. terricola while SDS-PAGE electrophoresis demonstrated emphasis of 2 new bands under influence of gamma irradiation with molecular weights of 60.4 kDa identified as phytochelatin synthase in Aspergillus fumigatus treated with 1 kGy and 66.7 kDa as protein from chaperone family in Aspergillus terricola treated with 1 kGy. It could be concluded that the major advantages of gamma irradiation treatment to maize and wheat seeds before storage can reduce the pathogenic fungi and preserve the quality and quantity of processed d seeds

  7. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  8. Examination into the gamma irradiation of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, S.; Forster, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    This study has shown that the treatment of activated sludge by gamma irradiation resulted in a deterioration in the filterability, a decrease in the size of the floc particles and an increase in the organic matter present in the sludge supernatant. A significant difference was found between the results obtained for filamentous and non-filamentous sludges in relation to the amount of soluble polysaccharide produced. (author)

  9. Glucose metabolism in gamma-irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of 30 kR in rice seeds caused marked inhibition in seedling growth, and prevented the release of reduced sugar during the period of 25 to 76hr after soaking. The C 6 /C 1 ratio following irradiation continued to decrease up to the 76th hour of soaking; the control's ratio tended to increase with comparable soaking time. The percentage recovery of 14 C in carbon dioxide from glucose -1- 14 C was lower in irradiated than in control seeds. These results indicate that gamma-irradiation reduces the participation of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose catabolism during an early period of germination. (author)

  10. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microstructure and post-mortem anaerobic metabolism of bovine muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.-S.; Lee, J.-W.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, M.-K.; Song, C.-W.; Byun, M.-W.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on morphological properties and post-mortem metabolism in bovine M. sternomandibularis with special reference to ultrastructure, shear force, pH and ATP breakdown. The shortening of sarcomere was not observed in gamma-irradiated muscle, however, the disappearance of M-line and of A- and I-bands was perceptible. During cold storage, the destruction of muscle bundles was faster in the gamma-irradiated muscle than in the non-irradiated with a dose-dependent manner. The same is true for the post mortem pH drop and ATP breakdown. So, experimental results confirmed that the anaerobic metabolism and morphological properties are noticeably affected by gamma irradiation in beef

  12. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Physical Characteristics of Sargassum thunbergii Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Song, E.J.; Lee, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (3-20 kGy) on the antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and physical characteristics of Sargassum thunbergii (ST) extracts. When ST powder was treated by gamma irradiation, the yields and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of water extracts were increased, but radical scavenging activities were not changed. When ST extract was irradiated, the TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activities were increased. In addition, gamma irradiation of ST extract decreased viscosity and removed color. These results suggest that gamma irradiation would be a useful method for improving the physical characteristics of ST extract while maintaining native biological activities

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Gaikwad, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a medium dose of gamma radiation on antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka was studied. Radiation doses were 0, 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Antioxidant activity was screened by using different assay. With increasing dose the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contributes to the increase in the antioxidant activity. MRPs are formed as a result of Maillard reaction. In ABTS [2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid di-ammonium salt] assay, ethanol extract showed increase in scavenging activity. It also showed a marked increase in polyphenolic contents. The present study reveals that gamma irradiation can be an efficient process to increase antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka. (author)

  14. Influence of whole-body gamma irradiation upon arachidonic acid metabolism in rat platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lognonne, J.L.; Ducousso, R.; Rocquet, G.; Kergonou, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of whole-body gamma irradiation (8.4 Gy) were studied on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rat's blood platelets, from day D + 1 to day D + 10 after irradiation. AA conversion into thromboxane B 2 (TxB 2 ) increased at D + 1 and then gradually decreased to very low values from D + 7 to D + 10. This decrease in the conversion of exogenous AA into TxB 2 was due to a lower AA incorporation into platelets and not to a decrease of cyclooxygenase and thromboxane-synthetase activities. AA incorporation into membrane phospholipids of blood platelets was much more decreased than AA incorporation into whole platelets; moreover, the lipid composition of the platelet membranes was markedly modified after irradiation, which must have resulted in structural and functional changes in these membranes; from these effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on platelets, the latter's membranes appeared as a major site of in vivo radiation damage in these cells

  15. The effects of multiply ionizing gamma irradiations on the xenobiotic metabolizing system in the liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavodnik, L.B.; Buko, V.U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the work was the studying the effect of multiply low doses of gamma-irradiation in a total doze 1 and 2 Gy on processes lipid peroxidation and xenobiotics metabolizing in rat liver. It was shown the multiply irradiation causes the expressed activation of lipid peroxidation, by increase of TBARS level and dien conjugates. The system of microsomal oxidations was broken at the same time. (authors)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbak, V; Macho, L; Sedlak, J; Hromadova, M

    1976-03-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma irradiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity being after the former dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in a decrease of biological activity already during first month. The structural changes in the molecule of TSH were apparently not very extensive, since a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while uv absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by the decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that TSH molecule may be affected in ..beta.. subunit or in its connection with ..cap alpha...

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Antioxidant Activity and Curcuminoids of Curcuma longa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Kulchanapakawat, Tiwat; Sajjabut, Surasak; Pongpat, Suchada; Eamsiri, Jaruratana

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy is one of the methods to reduce microbial contamination of medicinal herbs. Since irradiation may also affect active compounds of the herbs, the objective of this research was to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 kGy) on antioxidant activity and curcuminoids contents of Curcuma longa L. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl H) was used to study antioxidant activity and UV-spectrophotometry was used to study curcuminoids contents. The results showed that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not significantly affect antioxidant activity and curcuminoids contents of C. longa

  18. Epinephrine Injection effect on serotonin metabolism in small intestines of gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H.N.; Mahdy, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The response of serotonin metabolism to epinephrine injection was examined in the small intestine of normal and whole body gamma irradiated rats. The data revealed that a single dose of 6 Gy induced decrease in serotonin content associated with increase of monoaminoxidase activity (MAO), and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA); at one and four hours, and one, three and seven days after exposure. Intraperitoneal administration of epinephrine to normal unirradiated rats at a dose of 0.2 mug/g increased serotonin content, decreased (MAO) activity, and (5-HIAA) level, one and four hours after treatment. No significant changes were recorded later. Injection of epinephrine to rats, 15 minutes before irradiation, resulted in no significant changes of serotonin content, MAO activity and 5-HIAA level at one, four hours and one day after irradiation. At three and seven days, the changes were less significant. The results obtained suggest that the effect of epinephrine on serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the small intestine of rats is mediated by the opposing effect of epinephrine on the radiation induced increase of intestinal MAO activity

  19. Modulation of Enzymatic Activities of Dual Functional Peroxiredoxin by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Park, Chul Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    Recently, enzymes have frequently been used as catalysts in various bio-industrial, commercial, and pharmaceutical applications, because they are more stable, more efficient, and less toxic than the synthetic catalysts. However, one of their major disadvantages is their low thermostability, which leads the researchers to develop new forms of industrially important enzymes with increased resistance to inactivation and aggregation. This study describes a strategy for modifying the molecular chaperone activity of peroxiredoxin (Prx) by using gamma irradiation. Prxs are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes. Upon oxidation of their peroxidatic Cys, the molecules undergo a structural conversion from a low-molecular-weight (LMW) species acting as a peroxidase to a high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex functioning as a chaperone. In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma irradiation on PP1084 with respect to its protein structure and enzymatic function. The use of gamma irradiation as a physical treatment can increase the cohesive strength of the protein by forming cross-links. The aims of the present work were (1) to improve the chaperone activity of PP1084 by gamma irradiation, (2) to identify the 'optimal' intensity of gamma irradiation, and (3) to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on protein hydrophobicity as related to chaperone function. Following PP1084 treatment with 30 kGy gamma irradiation, the PP1084 chaperone activity enhanced by about 3-4-fold compared with nonirradiated PP1084, while the peroxidase activity decreased. Ongoing research efforts are addressing the physical modifications of PP1084 protein by gamma irradiation

  20. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae-Young; Byung, Yeoup Chung

    2012-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment.

  3. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon; Lee, Ju Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment

  4. Early effects of external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niatsetskaya, Z.; Nadolnik, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The exposure of the thyroid gland to therapeutic doses of external gamma irradiation is frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction. Although late irradiation effects are well documented, little is still known about the early functional alterations in the thyroid subjected to radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the early effect of single external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in the thyroid. The Wistar female rats were irradiated using a 60 Co installation with a constant capacity of 0.64 Gy/min. The doses used were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 Gy. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours following the irradiation. T he thyroid organ culture was cultivated during 24 h and than was irradiated with a single dose of 5 Gy. The thyroid tissue was assayed for thyro-peroxidase activity and concentrations of total, free and protein -binding iodide. It was shown that the 0.25 Gy irradiation depressed thyroid iodide uptake, which was manifested in decreasing total iodide by 25%. The same tendency was observed after the 0.5 Gy irradiation. In the 1, 2, 5 Gy groups, the concentrations of total and free iodide increased by 26 -34% and 50-68%, accordingly. The level of protein-binding iodide in these groups was within the control values. However, protein-binding/total iodide and protein binding/ free iodide ratios decreased by 17 -41%, suggesting inhibition of thyroglobulin iodination. Thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis by catalyzing both the iodination of thyroglobulin and the coupling some of the iodo-tyrosyl residues. After 24 hours on irradiation, a 31.5-54% dose-dependent inhibition of T.P.O. activity was shown in the 1, 2 and 5 Gy groups. The irradiation of the rat thyroid organ culture with a single dose of 5 Gy also led to significant inhibition of T.P.O. by 56.91% after 2 hours. We compared the enzyme kinetics of thyro-peroxidase from thyroid microsomal fraction control and

  5. Synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes under acute and continuous gamma-irradiation - fluorescent microspectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhova, N.A.; Sergiyevich, L.A.; Aksenova, G.Y.; Karnaukhov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of acute and continuous gamma-irradiation on the synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange were studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. Male rats were exposed to acute gamma-irradiation with doses of 7.5, 4 and 3 Gy, or to continuous irradiation with dose rates of 14.4, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.43 cGy/day, respectively. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes occurred in three main stages after acute gamma-irradiation and in four stages under continuous irradiation. The stages reflect the processes of depression and activation of the immune system under irradiation. Essential differences between the acute and continuous effects were observed in the first stage. After acute gamma-irradiation, the synthetic activity decreased sharply, indicating the predominant contribution of the damaging effect of irradiation, whereas under continuous irradiation, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low-dose irradiation, the synthetic activity increased during the first stage. (orig.)

  6. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  7. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    β-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, β-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated β-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated β-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated β-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated β-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized β-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  8. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    β-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, β-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated β-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated β-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated β-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated β-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized β-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  9. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by gamma-irradiated hemoproteins. Pt. 1. Nitrite reducing activity of gamma-irradiated hemoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oku, Tadatake; Kondo, Mitutaka; Sato, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Nishio, Toshiyuki; Ito, Teiichiro [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine

    1994-08-01

    In nature, nitrite reductases located in microorganisms as well as in plants convert nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) into ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). It is rather difficult to isolate nitrite reductase because of very low content in microorganisms and plants. Bovine blood hemoglobin (Hb), horse cardiac muscle myoglobin (Mb) and horse cardiac muscle cytochrome c (Cyt c) in 50{mu}M aqueous solution were treated by gamma-irradiation at doses of 10-30 kGy in the presence of air. The present study shows that NO{sub 2}{sup -} is connected into NH{sub 4}{sup +} by gamma-irradiated hemoprotein in the presence of sodium hydrosulfite as a reducing agent and methyl viologen as an electron carrier. The concentration of NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} after reaction were determined by using diazo-reaction and ninhydrin reaction, respectively, after separation by HPLC. NO{sub 2}{sup -} remained and NH{sub 4}{sup +} formed by 10 kGy irradiated Cyt c, Hb and Mb at pH4 at 60 min were, 0% and 46%, 17% and 31%, 31% and 24%, respectively. Formation of hydroxylamine by reaction of NO{sub 2}{sup -} was not recognized in this reaction. The process of conversion of NO{sub 2}{sup -} to NH{sub 4}{sup +} is a net 6 electrons, 8-proton reaction. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated Hb, Mb and Cyt c can be used as a substituent of nitrite reductase. (J.P.N.).

  10. Influence of gamma irradiation on electro active properties of copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magerramov, A.M; Rustamova, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Fluoropolymers are known, as one of the most promising polymers of electro active materials and they are very sensitive to radiation, with the prone to decomposition processes. One way to stabilize the piezoelectric properties of Fluor polymers may be their radiation modification of gamma-irradiation. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma-irradiation on the piezoelectric properties of the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene-P (VDF-TeFE). The polarization produced in the optimal range for the electric field. Irradiation of the films performed at the facility Rahm-gamma-30 both before and after polarization. For gamma irradiation, apparently as a result of conformational transitions alpha and beta is a change of relations of ferroelectric and par electric phases in upward of crystallinity, i e an increase in the ferroelectric polymer. It was discussed possible mechanisms of changes in the dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties (hysteresis loops, the values of the coercive field) with a residual polarization of Fluor polymers when exposed to gamma-irradiation.

  11. Permanent metabolic stimulation in leaves induced by small gamma irradiation doses and its bioenergetical bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozsar, B.

    1979-01-01

    According to Schober (1896) the physiological functions of plants can be stimulated by small-dose acute gamma irradiation. The activity of the alcohol dehydrogenase was tested by the production of the acetaldehyde mg, related to 200 mg fresh leaf weight of bean (Pinto variety) and peas (BR-13 and DCP-94 varieties) plants. The stimulating effect of different reducing compounds (glutathione, ascorbic acid, cysteine) in additive treatment was also investigated in the respect of the alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The reducing compounds remarkably increase the activity of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The experimental results indicate that the primary water ionization is followed by secondary long-lasting proton transport through the reducing compounds to the dehydrogenase system. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Son, J.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation

  13. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendranathan, K.K.; Nair, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  14. In vitro growth, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated Tacca (Tacca leontopetaloides) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betalini Widhi Hapsari; Andri Fadillah Martin; Tri Muji Ermayanti

    2016-01-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze is tuberous plant belongs to family Taccaceae. Tacca plant has a potential as the source of natural antioxidant. Radiation with Gamma radiation done either by in vitro or ex vitro plants is often used to increase chemical content of plants including antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and phytochemical content and as well as the antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated tacca plant. Phytochemical analysis was done to detect alkaloids, flavonoids, steroid, tannin and saponin compounds, meanwhile, antioxidant activity was carried by DPPH analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiated tacca plant had lower growth compared to the control. Phytochemical analysis showed that tacca plant contains an alkaloid, flavonoid, and steroid. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from tacca clone number 30 Gy 3.1.3.1 with an IC_5_0 value of 50.85 μg/mL. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbak, V.; Macho, L.; Sedlak, J.; Hromadova, M.

    1976-01-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma radiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity after the 0.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in decreased biological activity already during the first month. The structural changes in the TSH molecule were apparently not very extensive, as a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1 M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while UV absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by a decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that a TSH molecule may be affected in a β subunit or in its connection with α. (author)

  16. Enhancement of Antibacterial activity of Chitosan by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.; Ibrahim, H.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of irradiated and non-irradiated chitosan against E.coli, S.aureus, Salmonella, Strep. fecalis,Closteridium and P. aerugenosa was studied. Up to 1.25 mg/l, chitosan hardly suppressed the growth of all the strains while 3 mg/l of chitosan clearly inhibited the growth of all the studied strains. Therefore, the concentration of 3 mg/l of chitosan in the medium was adopted in this study. Irradiation at 100 KGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity of chitosan and the growth of bacterial strains which was completely inhibited. It was also found that the addition of chitosan to dressing membranes present good barrier properties against microbes especially that irradiated at 100 KGy

  17. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L −1 , respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Livestock effluent showed strong estrogenic activity due to E2, E1 and EE2. ► EE2 remained in all effluents after gamma-irradiation even at a dose of 10 kGy. ► DOMs in effluents inhibited degradation and activity of estrogenic compounds.

  18. Gamma irradiation effect on soy protein modification, protein - phenolic interaction and antioxidant activity in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Vinutha, T.; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    Soy protein is one of the most important sources of protein to feed the world population in the future. Consumption of soybean quality protein and their texture is dependent on the protein modification. In the present study, four soybean genotypes PL5039 (black), EC 472143 (black), Pusa 9814 (yellow) and SL525 (yellow), differing in their seed coat colour were gamma irradiated at 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and the extent of protein modification and parameters affecting it viz. free phenolics, bound phenolics, lip oxygenase and antioxidant activity were analysed. Modifications of soybean proteins were investigated by chemical analysis and electrophoresis. The irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy showed decreased turbidity, protein oxidation, surface hydrophobicity but increased solubility and sulfhydryl and disulfide contents in all the genotypes. Further, SDS PAGE profile of treated soybean seeds revealed remarkable difference in electrophoretic bands as compared to the untreated seeds. Lipoxygense activity in all the genotypes decreased with increased exposure of gamma irradiation, which produced peroxide products that changes the structural characteristics of soy protein. Free phenolics, bound phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured in terms of FRAP in all the genotypes increased significantly at a dose of 2.0 kGy and it declined at a dose of 5.0 kGy. Antioxidant potential measured in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity showed an increasing trend with dose, indicating that radiation processing as a method of food preservation has a positive nutritional implication. Hence, it is suggested that, mild gamma irradiation upto 2.0 kGy may reduce the protein oxidation, enhance the antioxidant activity and improve the soybean protein quality compared to higher dose 5.0 kGy, which reduced the protein quality. (author)

  19. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  20. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Antioxidative activity of carnosine in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of carnosine as a natural antioxidant in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties was studied. Samples of ground beef, in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, as well as raw and cooked beef patties prepared with 1.5% salt (NaCl), in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, were gamma irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 KGy. Then, the extent of oxidation in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of ground beef and raw beef patties was determined during refrigerated (4± 1 degree C) and frozen (-18 degree C) storage, while was determined for cooked beef patties during refrigerated storage only. Moreover, the determination of metmyoglobin (MetMb) accumulation and sensory evaluation for the visual colour were carried out for samples of ground beef and raw patties. The results indicated that salt or salt and cooking can accelerate the oxidative processes and significantly increased the peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the prepared non-irradiated samples. However, salt slowed down the accumulation of MetMb in raw patties. Irradiation treatments and storage in absence of carnosine significantly increased with higher rates the PV and TBARS in salted or salted and cooked beef samples. Moreover, irradiation and storage significantly increased the formation of MetMb in ground beef and raw patties in absence of carnosine. Addition of carnosine significantly reduced the oxidative processes and MetMb formation (proportionally to the used concentration) in samples post irradiation and during storage. Furthermore, carnosine exerted significant efficacy in maintaining an acceptable visual red colour post irradiation and during storage of ground beef and raw patties. These results demonstrate that carnosine can be successfully used as a natural antioxidant to increase the oxidative stability in gamma irradiated raw and cooked meat products

  2. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed . It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production. - Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • The hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed .

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm 2 area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  5. Activity and selectivity of manganese oxides in alcohols Conversion as influenced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doheim, M.M.; Ahmed, A.S.; El-Shobaky, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Manganese oxide samples obtained from thermal decomposition of manganese carbonate at 400 and 600 deg C were subjected to different doses of g-irradiation within the range 0.2 to 1.6 MGy. The surface and catalytic properties of the above samples were studied using nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at -196 deg C and catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol at 300-400 deg C using micropulse technique. The results obtained revealed that manganese oxides obtained at 400 deg C consisted of a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and MnO 2 while the samples calcined at 600 deg C composed entirely of Mn 2 O 3 . Gamma-irradiation resulted in a decrease in the particle size of manganese oxide phases with subsequent increase in their specific surface areas. Gamma-irradiation with 0.2 and 0.8 MGy effected a measurable progressive decrease in the catalytic activity in dehydration and dehydrogenation of both alcohols. However, the treated catalyst retained their initial activity upon exposure to a dose of 1.6 MGy. Also, g-irradiation increased the selectivities of the investigated solids towards dehydrogenation of both alcohols. The catalyst samples precalcined at 600 deg C exhibited higher catalytic activities than those precalcined at 400 deg C. (author)

  6. Properties of an endonuclease activity in Micrococcus luteus acting on. gamma. -irradiated DNA and on apurinic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, G; Haas, P; Coquerelle, Th; Hagen, U [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik und fuer Toxikologie von Spaltstoffen

    1980-01-01

    A protein fraction from Micrococcus luteus with endonuclease activity against ..gamma..-irradiated DNA was isolated and characterized. An additional activity on apurinic sites could not be separated, either by sucrose gradient sedimentation or by gel filtration through Sephadex G 100. From gel filtration, a molecular weight of about 25 000 was calculated for both endonuclease activities. The endonuclease activity against ..gamma..-irradiated DNA was stimulated five-fold with 5 mM Mg/sup + +/, whereas that against apurinic sites was less dependent on the Mg/sup + +/ concentration. 100 mM KCl inhibited the ..gamma..-ray endonuclease, but not the apurinic endonuclease activity. In ..gamma..-irradiated DNA the protein recognized 1.65 endonuclease sensitive sites per radiation-induced single-strand break, among which are 0.45 alkali labile lesions in the nucleotide strand. The was evaluated resulting in a Ksub(m)-value of 73 nM.

  7. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Active Components in Essential Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Gamma irradiation is one of the methods utilized to reduce microbial contamination of medicinal herbs. Since irradiation may also affect active compounds of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on active compounds in essential oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl by using GC-MS. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy does not significantly affect active components in essential oils such as alpha-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-copaene, benzaldehyde, linalool, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-0l, alpha-terpineol, benzylacetaldehyde, Z-cinnamaldehyde, E-cinnamaldehyde, and cinnamic acid

  8. Synthesis of alginate oligomers by gamma irradiation and to investigate its antioxidant and prebiotic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoir, S.A.; Chawla, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate oligomers formed by alginate lyase have been reported to possess antioxidant activity as well as prebiotic activity. Hence, utility of gamma radiation to depolymerise alginate in its aqueous solution was investigated and its antioxidant and prebiotic activities were screened. 1% aqueous solution of sodium alginate was subjected to gamma irradiation and it's reducing power and ability to scavenge DPPH". and O_2"."."-, chelate iron and prevent heat induced β-carotene bleaching was determined. Prebiotic activity was determined by using alginate oligomers to promote prebiotic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against E coli. Gamma radiation induced depolymerisation of alginate resulted in formation of oligomers with antioxidant and prebiotic activity. These polymers are potential candidates for utilization as natural preservatives and functional foods

  9. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Bhattacharya, A K

    1988-06-01

    The incorporation of [14C]adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with 60Co gamma-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of gamma-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after higher doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m-2) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as gamma-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells.

  10. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  11. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  12. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Pastorova, B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  13. Effect of low-dose 60Co gamma irradiation on the photosynthetic activity of maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis investigations were carried out on maize seedlings treated with 1000 rad of 60 Co gamma irradiation prior to sowing. The aim of the work was to find out, to what degree the individual processes of photosynthesis are affected by small doses of irradiation. The increase in weight, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotinoid content as well as the photosynthetic O 2 -evolution and 14 CO 2 -fixation of the seedlings were measured. The results indicate that, in contradiction to the data given in the literature, the occasional increase in weight caused by small-dose irradiation is not in connection with the membrane-bound part of the photosynthetic apparatus, but it is the consequence of the increased activity of the Calvin-cycle enzymes in the stroma of the chloroplasts. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of some microorganisms producing biogenic amines in some foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bassiony, K.R.A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition ( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, ph) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 degree C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.

  15. Comparative flight activities and pathogen load of two stocks of honey bees reared in gamma-irradiated combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp. have deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the pigments and the biological activities of methanolic extracts from leaves of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro) have been previously identified as having beneficial effects medically and cosmetically. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on pigment removal and biological activities of centipedegrass extracts to promote industrial application were investigated. The methanolic extracts were exposed to gamma irradiation at dose ranging from 2 to 20 kGy. The major pigments of centipedegrass extracts, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl-)glucoside, were found to be effectively removed by gamma irradiation above 10 kGy. Although the reddish-orange color of the cyanidins was markedly decreased by gamma irradiation, the biological activities were relatively unaffected. The biological activities such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and inhibition of elastase activity in methanolic extracts were modulated from 50.5% to 70.2%, from 50.9% to 65.8% and from 65.6% to 94.0%, respectively. Surprisingly, the biological activities have the highest activities after 6–8 kGy of gamma irradiation. These results indicate that despite pigment degradation, biological activities were maintained or increased by gamma irradiation. Based on these results, gamma irradiation may be a useful tool to remove the undesirable reddish-orange color present in centipedegrass without any loss of biological activities, thereby promoting its utility in industrial applications such as manufacturing of cosmetic products. - Highlights: • The pigments of centipedegrass extracts were decreased by gamma irradiation. • The contents of maysin and its derivatives were slightly changed by gamma irradiation. • The biological activities of centipedegrass extracts were retained or increased by gamma irradiation

  17. Comparative Flight Activities and Pathogen Load of Two Stocks of Honey Bees Reared in Gamma-Irradiated Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia I. de Guzman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen stores in colonies that used non-irradiated combs. These data suggest that gamma irradiation of combs can help minimize the negative impact of DWV in honey bees. Since colonies with irradiated combs stored more pollen than those with non-irradiated combs, crop pollination efficiency may be further improved when mite-resistant stocks are used, since they performed more flights and had longer flight durations.

  18. Changes In Certain Enzymes Activities In Tribolium CONFUSUM As Affected By Vanillin Or GAMMA Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, S.A.; SHOMAN, A.A.; AHMED, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of 1 or 4 g vanillin/100 g whole wheat flour on the alkaline phosphatase of one day old larvae revealed that the mean enzyme activity was highly significantly increased in male and non-significant in female Triboluim confusum. As pupae were irradiated, the mean enzyme activity was significantly decreased in males and females (except at dose 300 Gy). Alanine transaminase (ALT or GPT) activity was decreased in males due to the effect of 4% vanillin and increased by irradiation while in female, the activity of ALT was increased when the larvae were reared on flour containing 1% or 4% vanillin and increased when pupae were irradiated at all doses used. There was a positive relationship between all treatments and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST or GOT) in both sexes. The activity of AST was increased when the male or female larvae were reared on wheat flour containing 1 or 4 % vanillin and when pupae of males or females were irradiated. The choline esterase enzyme in T. confusum adults of both sexes was inhibited according to the effect of treatments with vanillin or gamma irradiation. Treated larvae with 1 or 4 % vanillin or irradiated as pupae at 300, 600 and 800 Gy led to decrease in the activity of choline esterase enzyme with the same pattern in both sexes.

  19. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, A; Bhattacharya, A K

    1988-06-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of ..gamma..-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after high doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m/sup -2/) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as ..gamma..-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells.

  20. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, T.M.M.; EL MASRY, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  1. Endonuclease activities in extracts of Micrococcus luteus that act on. gamma. -irradiated DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen-Bopp, A; Schaefer, G; Hagen, U [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

    1977-03-01

    Several protein fractions containing endonuclease activity against ..gamma..-irradiated DNA (..gamma..-endonuclease) were isolated from M.luteus. The crude extract was eluted on a phosphocellulose column and chromatographed on TEAE cellulose and subsequently on hydroxypatite. Five peaks of ..gamma..-endonuclease were obtained from each preparation. Repeated experiments showed comparable chromatographic behaviour of the fractions. There was no detectable activity of uv-endonuclease in the fractions with ..gamma..-endonuclease but a small contamination of endonuclease against unirradiated DNA and against DNA with apurinic sites. The ..gamma..-endonuclease was stimulated by, but was not dependent on, magnesium. Several tests for endonuclease activity have been used: the analysis of strand breaks in calf-thymus DNA or in PM2 DNA, and the determination of end-groups formed by endonuclease, either 3'OH end-groups or phosphomonoester end groups. From the results obtained it can be assumed that the strand breaks induced by the ..gamma..-endonuclease carry 3'OH and 5' phosphate end groups.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants. - Highlights: • The irradiation affects quantitatively the chemical composition of EO of AMPs. • The irradiation affected significantly the antimicrobial activity. • The antimicrobial activity was more pronounced at higher doses for gram−. • The irradiation up to a dose of 30 kGy did not affect the antioxidant activities. • The irradiation at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation and zinc on changes of the activity of adaptive enzymes in the poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Kafka, I.; Kalenicova, Z.; Luptakova, L.

    2008-01-01

    We observed changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum of broiler chicks after single whole-body gamma irradiation in time gap 3., 7., 14. and 21 day. We applied zinc to organism of chicks after irradiation. Our observations showed that most of the changes in the enzyme activity were very different at irradiation groups and zinc groups of chickens compared to controls. (authors)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the change of solubility and anti-inflammation activity of chrysin in macrophage cells and LPS-injected endotoxemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Byun, Eui-Hong; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the changes of solubility and anti-inflammatory properties of structurally modified gamma-irradiated chrysin. Chrysin was irradiated at various doses for a physical analysis and determining any structural changes and solubility. As shown through the physical analysis, the main peak of the chrysin was decreased as the irradiation dose increased, and it was concomitant with the appearance of several new peaks, which were highly increased in 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin. The solubility was markedly increased in the gamma-irradiated groups. As shown through a physiological analysis, both gamma-irradiated- (15–50 kGy) and intact-chrysin (0 kGy) did not exert cytotoxicity to bone-marrow derived macrophages. The treatment of LPS-stimulated macrophages with 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS-mediated NO, PGE 2 , COX-2, and cell surface marker (CD80 and CD86), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), when compared to the intact-chrysin treated group. Mechanically, we found that the inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators induced by gamma-irradiated chrysin occurred through an inhibition of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38) and the NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity remained in the LPS-injected animal model. In this model, gamma-irradiated chrysin treatment highly increased the mouse survival, and significantly decreased the serum cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) levels. From these findings, the anti-inflammatory action by gamma-irradiated chrysin may be closely mediated with structural modification. It seems likely that gamma irradiation can be an effective tool for improvement of the physical and physiological properties of polyphenols. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation leads to the structural modification of chrysin. • Gamma irradiation improved the solubility of chrysin. • Gamma-irradiated chrysin significantly

  5. Assessing antioxidant activity of some varieties of gamma-irradiated Brazilian soybean by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R.R.; Mastro, N.L. Del

    2004-01-01

    Soybean production and utilization as food has increased during the last decades. The protein and oil contents are high in quantity and quality. Soy is natural source of flavonoids - biologically active components that are thought to possess antioxidant effects in vivo and in vitro systems. Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. This study was undertaken to investigate by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the stability of free radicals generated by radiation processing on three different soybean cultivars. The soybean cultivars investigated were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 kGy. Both irradiation and EPR measurements were performed at room temperature. The EPR signal intensity correlated well with the ionizing radiation dose. EPR spectra were recorded 16 h, 11 days and 40 days after irradiation. The results showed that the EPR signal intensities remained almost constant up to 40 days after irradiation for all the varieties assayed. Further experiments are required in order to identify the species responsible for the EPR peaks and the proper antioxidant capability of these soybean cultivars against the radiation-induced oxidative shock. (Author)

  6. An appraisal of certain larval behavioural activities as affected by gamma irradiation of Spodoptera larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sehgal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their locomotor activity. The food perception range and feeding behaviour of the larvae were also impaired. Of various dosages tested, 4 Krad (the sterilizing dose for larvae) caused a decline in locomotor speed. The first instar larvae, for instance showed decline in a speed of 3.74 cm/min to 2.96 cm/min. Similarly at this dose, the third instar larvae exhibited a reduction in speed to the extent of 38 to 45 per cent, the normal speed being 8.02 cm/min. The reactive distances of the first and third instar normal larvae were 5.30 cm and 7.36, respectively. This reactive distance was reduced by about 25 per cent after irradiation at 4 Krad, thus decreasing the food perception capacity significantly. The feeding behaviour too was significantly affected whereas the dose range less than 4 Krad did not induce such a marked impact. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  7. Assessing antioxidant activity of some varieties of gamma-irradiated Brazilian soybean by ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.R.R.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, P.O. Box 11049 cep. 0422-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Soybean production and utilization as food has increased during the last decades. The protein and oil contents are high in quantity and quality. Soy is natural source of flavonoids - biologically active components that are thought to possess antioxidant effects in vivo and in vitro systems. Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. This study was undertaken to investigate by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the stability of free radicals generated by radiation processing on three different soybean cultivars. The soybean cultivars investigated were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 kGy. Both irradiation and EPR measurements were performed at room temperature. The EPR signal intensity correlated well with the ionizing radiation dose. EPR spectra were recorded 16 h, 11 days and 40 days after irradiation. The results showed that the EPR signal intensities remained almost constant up to 40 days after irradiation for all the varieties assayed. Further experiments are required in order to identify the species responsible for the EPR peaks and the proper antioxidant capability of these soybean cultivars against the radiation-induced oxidative shock. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of gamma irradiation impact on antibacterial activity, chemical and physical characteristics of the sodium cifteraxon compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Hammouda, A.; Al-Baroudi, H.

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of ceftriaxon sodium salt (C18H16N8Na2O7S3) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporins. Solid Ceftriaxon as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of ceftriaxon have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxon was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of ceftriaxon, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxon on E. Coli.(author)

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, I.A; Afify, S.A; Hasanin, F.R; El Sahy, K.M

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ⁒, ethanol 80⁒: methanol 50⁒, methanol 80⁒ and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2 ' ,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-Carotene⁒linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50⁒ peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g -1 , 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g -1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g -1 ,106.78 mg QE 100 g -1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50⁒ extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50⁒ extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50⁒ extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

  10. The influence of the hypoxia on bio electric activity of myocardium cells after acute gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykhina, A.P.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate bio electric activity of the heart after acute gamma-irradiation and the hypoxia. Female rats (5 - 6 month old) was acute irradiated at 0,5 Gy dose (dose rate 0,1 mGy/sec) and was examined in a 10, 30, 90 and 180 days later. Electrophysiological study of the isolated right rat auricle was conducted by means of microelectrode registration of intracellular bio electric activity. It was shown that gamma-irradiation at 0,5 Gy resulted in decrease of amplitude and duration of action potentials of right auricle cells, attenuation of the dependence of the electrophysiological characteristics upon the stimulation frequency. Exposure of the rats to acute gamma-irradiation leaded to the depression of the interval of the cardio myocyte reaction on the hypoxia. The revealed post-radiation changes determined the reduction in function resistance of heart cells bio electric activity and can promote the initiation of arrhythmias

  11. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  12. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, β-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  13. Impact of Gamma Irradiation and Phenol on the Biological Activity of the Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Sileem, Th.M.; Sayed, W.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma irradiation and Simple Phenole could potentially be used as a new approach to control the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Inherited sterility (IST) technique using sub-sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation and /or different concentrations of phenol were tested on the biological activity of S. littoralis. The biological as pects included egg hatch ability; larval mortality pupation, survival, adult emergence, sex ratio and longevity were tested. It was noticed that the phenol concentrations (2.5 and 5%) and sub-sterilizing dose of gamma irradiation 100 Gy were the most promising for combination treatment. The results indicated that the combined treatments drastically decreased the percentages of pupation and survival more than separate treatments, to reach 3.0 and 2.0%, respectively in the case of 100 Gy + 5%. Also, the deleterious effect of combined treatment son growth inhibition, relative growth index, growth index was sharply decreased in F1 generation than each treatment. The reduction of F1 progeny in combined treatments was higher than could be expected from the sum of. the two treatments. It was concluded that insect suppression was more pronounced in the case of 100 Gy + 5% phenol than in the case of 100 Gy + 2.5% phenol. These findings indicate that the IS technique might be considered as an environmentally compatible alternative or supplement to the phenol for Spodoptera littoralis pests management

  14. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  15. Changes in Protein Content and Urease Activity Due to Soaking Treatment of gamma irradiated Soybean Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The total protein measurement revealed that both soaking time and radiation affected protein content of soybean seeds. Amount of protein content increased gradually with time up to 6 h. The amount recorded 388, 396 and 465 mg/g.d.wt in control, 10, 25, 50 Gy, respectively. Then the amount decreased at and 24 h whereas, protein content of cotyledonary leaves (120 h) increased by 25 and 50 Gy reaching 7305 and 80.6 mg/g.d.wt as compared to 68.5 mg/g.d wt in case on control. On comparison with control samples, 10 Gy appeared to have no effect on protein content while 25 and 50 Gy increased protein in a dose dependant matter. Maximum increase in urease activity was recorded at 6 h of soaking (1110, 1162 and 1200 unit/g f.wt in control, 10, 25 and 50 Gy respectively) Moreover, the 25 and 50 Gy increased urease activity at all time intervals. After sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied, bands could be segregated into high molecular weight bands they are represented from band No 1 with 200 KDa to band No 8 with 100 kDa. On the other hand low molecular weight are presented from band No 9 with 75 kDa to band No 14 with 10 kDa. Characteristic bands No 4 and 10 were common in all samples and several other bands were characteristic to the time or gamma-radiation applied. Calculated similarity index (SI) showed similarity between control and 25 Gy treated samples (except at 6 h). In contrast, the similarity index between control and 50 Gy decreased from zero up to 6 h then increased to 1 at 120 h (the same trend was also observed between 25 and 50 Gy). From similarity index study it could be concluded that at cotyledonary stage(120 h) there were no differences between different samples, thus indicating a recovery from the effect of gamma irradiation

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Gamma Irradiated and Stored Anise (Pimenella Anisum) and Black Cumin (Negilla Sativa) Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Anise and black cumin seeds were gamma irradiated to doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 kGy then these seeds were stored to periods of 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. In all treatments, essential oils were extracted at concentrations 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. The inhibitory effect of the different oil concentrations was tested against some microorganism which included bacteria (E. coli and B. cereus), fungi (A. niger and P. citrinum) and yeast (S. lypoytica and K. marxianus). Each of the extracted oil showed different magnitudes to inhibit the growth of the tested microorganisms. However, exposing the aromatic seeds to gamma irradiation before oil extraction was resulted in stimulation in the biological activity of the produced oil. Maximum stimulation was exerted at irradiation dose of 20 kGy. However, the antimicrobial activity of the tested oils was relatively declined when seeds were stored up to 12 months but this decrease was counteracted when seeds were irradiated before storage, thus, gamma radiation showed a beneficial impact to maintain the biological activity of the essential oils during seeds storage.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological, phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun'im, Abdul; Ramadhani, Fitria; Chaerani, Kartika; Amelia, Lili; Arrahman, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gamma irradiation is an effective technique can be used to reduce contaminants in herbal products. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth belongs to Piperaceae family has some biological activity, such as antioxidant and ACE inhibitor. The aimed of this research was to determine the effects of

  19. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  20. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( palpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  1. Possible effect of pentoxifylline on oxidative stress and certain metabolic disorders in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; El Tahawy, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative and phospho-di esterase inhibitor used to treat cerebral, diabetic or functional disorders of vascular system. It lowers blood viscosity and improves erythrocyte flexibility and it has anti-oxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, PTX effects on antioxidant status of cerebral cortex and certain organ functions in rats subjected to 2 fractionated irradiation doses 4 and 8 Gy were investigated. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: which served as a control. Group 2: in which PTX was administered (1200 mg/ L daily for 6 rats) in drinking water for 8 and 16 days. Group 3: which was irradiated with fractionated irradiation at dose levels of 4 and 8 Gy (2 Gy every 4 days) for 8 and 16 days. Group 4: in which PTX was administered together with fractionated irradiation 4 and 8 Gy for 8 and 16 days. The cerebral cortex levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined. Serum ALT and AST activities and contents of glucose, uric acid and liver glycogen were also measured. Fractionated irradiation of 4 and 8 Gy significantly elevated GSH and MDA contents and SOD activity in cerebral cortex, while CAT activity was depressed. Exposure to fractionated dose level of 8 Gy caused significant elevation of serum ALT and AST activities, as well as liver glycogen contents and depressed uric acid level. PTX depressed MDA level and elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex. ALT, AST activities and levels of uric acid and liver glycogen were lowered by PTX administration. Serum glucose was significantly decreased by all treatments applied. PTX might hold promise, as a useful therapeutic intervention, reducing late radiation injury via antioxidant pathway

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-01-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D 10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D 10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-07-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  4. Changes of basic metabolic parameters after single gamma irradiation in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falis, M.; Benova, K.; Toropila, M.; Sesztakova, E.; Vargova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms helps us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The presented study focused on changes in the concentration of corticosterone, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers irradiated with gamma rays. The serum corticosterone had increased on day one after irradiation. The increase in serum corticosterone can be ascribed to the stress action of ionizing radiation on the broilers. (authors)

  5. Gamma-Irradiation modified polypropylene and nano silver hybrid films: antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, Washigton L.; Alcantara, Mara T.S.; Lima, Luis F.C.P. de; Bueno, Nelson R.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Huenuman, Nilton E.L.; Santos, Priscila M. dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of films based on blends of polypropylene (PP) with radiation modified PP and insertion of silver nanoparticles aiming bactericide effect. The use of silver (Ag) gives important antibacterial properties since silver is highly toxic for bacteria. The blend of 50/50 PP and gamma irradiated PP was processed in a twin screw extruder. The polypropylene was processed for five PP-Nanocomposite AgNPs in different concentrations of 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 2.0% and 4.0% in wt%. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity assay and reduction colony-forming unit (CFU). The analyzed films showed agglomeration of silver particles and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The interactions of the nano silver bactericidal effect with E. coli and S. aureus were assessed. (author)

  6. Gamma-Irradiation modified polypropylene and nano silver hybrid films: antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliani, Washigton L.; Alcantara, Mara T.S.; Lima, Luis F.C.P. de; Bueno, Nelson R.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: washoliani@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Huenuman, Nilton E.L.; Santos, Priscila M. dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Microbiologia; Riella, Humberto G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a study of films based on blends of polypropylene (PP) with radiation modified PP and insertion of silver nanoparticles aiming bactericide effect. The use of silver (Ag) gives important antibacterial properties since silver is highly toxic for bacteria. The blend of 50/50 PP and gamma irradiated PP was processed in a twin screw extruder. The polypropylene was processed for five PP-Nanocomposite AgNPs in different concentrations of 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 2.0% and 4.0% in wt%. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity assay and reduction colony-forming unit (CFU). The analyzed films showed agglomeration of silver particles and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The interactions of the nano silver bactericidal effect with E. coli and S. aureus were assessed. (author)

  7. Combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation. Vitamin complex effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban'kovskij, A.A.; El'chaninova, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Combined inhalation effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation on the activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat lung tissue was studied. The possibility of fitting the parameters studied by the vitamin PP, A and E and complex was shown. At investigation of white rats in conditions of formaldehyde inhalation in concentration 10 mg/m 3 and gamma-irradiation by dose 0.25 Gy the changes of activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in the rat lung tissue were detected. An injection of PP, A and E vitamin complex after combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation contributes to normalization of studied parameters. The K(C -1 ) constant is reduced. On this basis it is proposed that in such conditions formaldehyde stabilizes membranes and protects important metabolic processes against damages. Thus, vitamin complex is capable to level a toxic combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Synthesis of PVA-Chitosan Hydrogels for Wound Dressing Using Gamma Irradiation. Part II: Antibacterial Activity of PVA/Chitosan Hydrogel Synthesized by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Benamer, S.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Larbi Youcef, S.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a synthetic polymer used in a large range of medical, commercial, industrial and food applications, manufacture of paper products, surgical threads, wound care, and food-contact applications. It was recently used as a coating for dietary supplements and pharmaceutical capsules. Cross-linked PVA microspheres are also used for controlled release of oral drugs. Chitin, a polysaccharide from which chitosan is derived, is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide after cellulose. Chitin is obtained from the exoskeletons (crab, shrimps and squid pen) fungi, insects, and some algae. Chitosan, a non toxic and biocompatible cationic polysaccharide, is produced by partial deacetylation of chitin; these properties of chitosan provide high potential for many applications. Chitosan has been widely used in vastly diverse fields, such as in biomedical applications drug delivery in agriculture metal ion sorption. The most important characteristic of chitosan is the deacetylation degree (DD) which influences its physical and chemical behaviors. Evaluation of DD can be carried out by FT-IR spectroscopy potentiometric titration, first derivative UV spectrophotometry, 1 H-NMR and X-ray diffraction. Chitosan extracted from squid pen chitin is inherently purer than crustacean chitosans, it does not contain large amounts of calcium carbonate, and it does contain large amounts of protein. The purity of squid pen chitosan makes it particularly suitable for medical and cosmetic application. Application of radiation for the formation of hydrogels for medical use offers a unique possibility to combine the formation and sterilization of the product in a single technological step. The main aim of this study is to synthesis poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels containing different moieties of chitosan by gamma irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy, and investigate the antibacterial effect of chitosan contained in the hydrogel

  9. Technical Report for a Study on the Improvement of Extraction Process and Physiological Activities of Polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Min Chul; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Hak Jyung

    2010-06-01

    By reason of Undaria pinnatifida growth is temperature dependent, U. pinnatifida produced in April and May are obtained as the main byproducts and it is normally wasted. The objective of the this study was investigated to the improvement of extraction process and physiological activities of polysaccharides from U. pinnatifida by gamma irradiation. The extraction yield of fucoidan and laminarrin was increased by gamma irradiation, and the molecular weight of extracted polysaccharides was decreased by irradiation. The effect of gamma irradiation on storage of U. pinnatifida was investigated. No viable cells were observed in samples irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy. Finally, fucoidan and laminarin were applied in the pork patty, and it was shown that lower lipid oxidation and positive effect on microbial stability and quality of the pork patty. These results will suggest that radiation technology can be applied for the extraction of functional materials and storages safe of the seaweeds

  10. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M.B.K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum. - Highlights: ► Malted and un-malted Sorghum flours irradiated (10 kGy) and re-irradiated (25 kGy). ► Complete decontamination only achieved after re-irradiation. ► Significant reduction (p<0.05) in malt amylase activity. ► Microbial growth, starch breakdown and acidification unaffected during fermentation. ► Viscosity of sorghum porridge lowered due to weakened starch granules.

  11. Gamma irradiation as activator of antioxidant activity and essential oil contents in lavender (Lavandula multifida) plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, H.A.; Atallah, R.K.; Aly, A.A.; Maraei, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the stimulation effect of γ-irradiation on the chemical composition of essential oils, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in lavender plantlets (Lavandula multifida) at three multiplication stages. Lavender plantlets were irradiated using different γ- irradiation dose levels (0.0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy). After irradiation; plantlets were sectioned to start the multiplication stage (three subcultures). Increasing irradiation dose levels at multiplication stages significantly increased the total phenolic content and reached to the maximum increment at the dose level of 75 Gy (26.88 g/100 g DW) in zero time stage in comparison with the untreated plantlets (7.250 g/100 g DW). The highest content of flavonoids (21.50 g/100 g DW) was detected at dose level of 75 Gy at zero time stage (M0). The highest applied irradiation dose of 75 Gy gave the highest reducing power activity compared with control at zero time stage (M0). Scavenging activity by DPPH was increased gradually by increasing irradiation dose levels in all multiplication stages until the high dose of 75 Gy which gave the maximum scavenging activity (91.05%) in zero time stage. Also, there was a significant increase in antioxidant activity on linoleic acid system with increasing the dose of γ-irradiation level. The application of γ-irradiation at dose level of 15 Gy and M3 stage produced the highest value of essential oil content (0.12%), followed by 5 Gy treatments (0.082%). The most increased volatile oil compounds by γ-irradiation were; limonene which increased from 4.87% to 5.37% at 0.0 and 5 Gy, respectively and linalool increased from 86.07% to 91.5% at 0.0 and 15 Gy respectively. The present study suggests that γ-irradiation led to increase antioxidant activities of lavender plantlets by increasing the availability of free polyphenolic compounds and also the content of volatile oil. This shows that lavender plants may be

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial, chemical quality and the biological activity of some spices and herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalek, H H [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation on both the microbial and the chemical quality of cumin, caraway and Mix Spice Powder (MSP) as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Irradiation at 10.0 kGy eliminated yeasts and molds, pathogenic bacteria and reduced the total mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria to the permissible limits of WHO. The storage of the irradiated samples at ambient temperature did not significantly affected its microbial quality. Also ? irradiation at 10.0 kGy significantly decreased moisture content and elevated the peroxide value (PV) of all tested spices. On the other hand, such dose did not change the volatile oil content of cumin and caraway seeds, while it was decreased in the case of MSP. In addition, this treatment resulted in 4.4 % reduction in total amino acids of caraway; it resulted in an increase of 3.5 and 4.1 % in case of cumin and MSP, respectively. GLC analysis of essential oils showed irradiation (10.0 kGy) resulted in 2.9 % and 4.4 % loss in the total volatile oil components of cumin and MSP, respectively. On the other hand, such dose did not change in the total volatile oil components of caraway seeds. The storage at ambient temperature for one year of the studied spices (irradiated and non-irradiated) resulted in a decrease in all of the studied chemical properties except peroxide value (PV) which showed gradual increase by extending the storage. The application of the essential oil of cumin, caraway and MSP (200 ppm) compared with BAH and BHT showed significant delay in the oxidation rate in sunflower oil and enhanced the shelf life of the oil. gamma irradiation (10 kGy) showed no significant effect on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil of cumin, caraway and MSP. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the tested spices and herbs essential oils were studied. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were recorded for MSP essential oil. The cumin

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial, chemical quality and the biological activity of some spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation on both the microbial and the chemical quality of cumin, caraway and Mix Spice Powder (MSP) as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Irradiation at 10.0 kGy eliminated yeasts and molds, pathogenic bacteria and reduced the total mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria to the permissible limits of WHO. The storage of the irradiated samples at ambient temperature did not significantly affected its microbial quality. Also ? irradiation at 10.0 kGy significantly decreased moisture content and elevated the peroxide value (PV) of all tested spices. On the other hand, such dose did not change the volatile oil content of cumin and caraway seeds, while it was decreased in the case of MSP. In addition, this treatment resulted in 4.4 % reduction in total amino acids of caraway; it resulted in an increase of 3.5 and 4.1 % in case of cumin and MSP, respectively. GLC analysis of essential oils showed irradiation (10.0 kGy) resulted in 2.9 % and 4.4 % loss in the total volatile oil components of cumin and MSP, respectively. On the other hand, such dose did not change in the total volatile oil components of caraway seeds. The storage at ambient temperature for one year of the studied spices (irradiated and non-irradiated) resulted in a decrease in all of the studied chemical properties except peroxide value (PV) which showed gradual increase by extending the storage. The application of the essential oil of cumin, caraway and MSP (200 ppm) compared with BAH and BHT showed significant delay in the oxidation rate in sunflower oil and enhanced the shelf life of the oil. gamma irradiation (10 kGy) showed no significant effect on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil of cumin, caraway and MSP. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the tested spices and herbs essential oils were studied. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were recorded for MSP essential oil. The cumin

  14. Effects of Heat, pH, and Gamma Irradiation Treatments on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.H.; Kim, K.B.W.R.; Kim, M.J.; Sunwoo, C.; Jung, S.A.; Kim, H.J.; Jeong, D.H.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, T.W.; Cho, Y.J.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of Sagassum thunbergii (ST) against porcine pancreatic lipase was assessed after heat treatment, pH changes, and gamma irradiation. This analysis revealed that the ST ethanol extract exhibited high lipase inhibitory activity (37.37%) at 5 mg/mL. The ST ethanol extract was treated with heat at 60°C for 10, 30, and 60 min; 80 and 100°C for 10 and 20 min; and 121°C for 15 min, pH (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and γ -irradiation (3, 7 and 20 kGy). The lipase inhibitory activity of the ST ethanol extract increased in all heat treatments, especially at 121°C for 15 min (51.55%) compared with the control. With regard to pH stability, the ST ethanol extract showed no significant changes at pH 4 ~ 8, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2 (26.25%) and 10 (29.93%). On the other hand, the ST ethanol extract was not affected by γ -irradiation treatment conditions used in this study. These results suggest that ST has a potential role as a functional food agent. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenin, A E

    1973-01-01

    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  16. Evolution of microbial activity in a mediterranean ecosystem submitted to chronic gamma irradiation. Investigation of nitrogen transfer with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, R.

    1987-07-01

    A mediterranean ecosystem located on the site of Cadarache (France) has been experimentally by irradiated over the past fifteen years. The potential effects of ionizing radiations for different doses of its ecological system has been studied. The objective of the work was to demonstrate the level of soil microbial population and its activity. Chronic exposures reduced the biomass and the dehydrogenase activity by a factor of 50% and increased the amount of nitrate in the soil. To measure the direct impact of irradiations on soil microorganisms, we have irradiated soil sample in laboratory at 0.1; 0.5; 1 kGy, and observed its evolution during a period of six weeks thereafter. We have a reduction of the dehydrogenase activity and an increase of nitrate being proportionaly to the dose delivered. Using nitrogen labelled, we state that this high rate of nitrate production is due to an inhibition of the organization of this form of nitrogen. Conversely, the ammonification and the nitrification are not affected. Also, for anaerobic conditions created by glucose, the nitrate labelled (15N) permitted us to show that in untreated soil, 45% of nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas by denitrification and 24% of nitrate was reduced to ammonium by dissimilation in the irradiated soil. These experiments show that gamma irradiations are of great interest for studying soil microorganisms. As of now, very little is known on the effects of this kind of stress for attention and need to be pursued on such ecosystems. Further investigations call [fr

  17. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.F.; Roushdy, H.M.; Hassan, S.H.M.; Elkashef, H.S.; Mahdy, A.M.; Elsayeh, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  18. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D.O.; Okyere, A.A.; Asare, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb. - Highlights: • The doses used did not affect the phytochemicals and radical scavenging activity. • The antioxidant potential were enhanced by the solvent used in extraction. • Irradiation had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. • Tetrapleura tetraptera is safe to consume as far as trace mental levels

  19. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D. O.; Okyere, A. A.; Asare, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb.

  20. Possible role of calcium dependent protein phosphorylation in the modulation of wound induced HRGP gene activation in potatoes after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ussuf, K.K.; Laxmi, N.H.; Nair, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein (HRGP) gene is induced in both control and gamma irradiated potato tubers after wounding. The enhanced RNA synthesis in response to wounding correlated well with the accumulation of both HRGP gene transcripts and protein. Initially, the level of HRGP gene expression in gamma irradiated potatoes in response to wounding was 30% more than the corresponding controls. After post irradiation storage of 3-5 weeks, HRGP gene expression in response to wounding was significantly lower than the unirradiated samples. This low level of HRGP gene expression in irradiated potatoes was partially retrieved by 5 mM Ca 2+ treatment. Prior treatment with trifluoperazine, a calcium channel blocker resulted in 35% reduction in wound induced HRGP gene expression in control potatoes, further providing evidence for the involvement of Ca 2+ dependency for HRGP gene activation. A comparative study on in vivo protein phosphorylation induced by wounding in control and irradiated potatoes exhibited significant differences. A good correlation was observed in the modulation of phosphorylation and HRGP gene expression by Ca 2+ in irradiated potatoes. Wound induced signal transduction system and subsequent Ca 2+ dependent protein phosphorylation for the activation of HRGP gene is affected in potatoes after gamma irradiation, thus impairing the wound healing process adversely. (author). 25 refs., 5 figs

  1. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 14 C]adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with 60 Co γ-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of γ-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after high doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m -2 ) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as γ-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells. (author)

  2. [The restoration of the enzyme activity of chernozem soil after gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2006-01-01

    The Influence of gamma-radiation by dozes 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy on enzyme activity of ordinary chemozem were studied. Dynamics of the restoration of the enzyme activity after the influence of gamma-radiation in model experiments in 3, 30, 90 and 180 days was investigated. The doze 1 kGy did no statistically significant influence on the investigated enzymes. Dehydrogenase is more radiosensitive enzyme than catalase. Values of the saccharase activity differed a significant variation so in most cases it has not been registered statistically significant changes. In 90-180 days of the incubation enzymes activity was restored up to control values. Dehydrogenase activity in 180 days in variants with dozes 10 and 20 kGy was restored up to a level of the control, over variants with dozes 1 and 5 kGy--is higher than the control over 78% and 23% accordingly. Saccharase activity in 180 days after the influence of gamma-radiation with a doze 20 kGy was on 61% lower than the control.

  3. In vitro gamma irradiation of some purified polypeptide hormones and their biological and radioimmunological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadova, M.; Macho, L.; Strbak, V.; Vigas, M.; Mikulaj, L.

    1979-01-01

    Some polypeptide hormones (adrenocorticotropin - ACTH, human and bovine growth hormone - GH, human menopausal gonadotropin - HMG, human luteinizing hormone - LH, and bovine thyrotropin - TSH) were irradiated either with 2.5 or 12.5 Mrad (1.1 Mrad/h) or both and their biological activity or immunoreactivity was tested within few days or 3 to 5 months after irradiation. Biological activity of irradiated ACTH (estimation of corticosterone released into medium by incubated adrenals - Saffran and Schally 1955) was not decreased in both time intervals tested. Ten days after irradiation of bovine GH no changes in biological activity (tibia test - Wilhelmi 1973) were found. No decrease of biological activity of irradiated HMG (augmentation of ovarian and uterine weight - Butt 1973) was found 4 months after irradiation and, finaly, no decrease of bovine TSH activity (radioiodine release from prelabelled thyroid in mice - McKenzie 1958) was found 2 to 30 days after irradiation with 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease was observed after 12.5 Mrad. Three to five months after irradiation, however, there was a decrease of biological activity after both doses. The immunological reactivity of irradiated HMG and LH did not differ from that of nonirradiated samples. The same was found with human GH after 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease of reactivity after 12.5 Mrad was detected. It was concluded that, in most of cases, the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (2.5 Mrad) did not affect the biological activity of polypeptide hormones and that their sensitivity to irradiation appears to differ. (author)

  4. Modulation of the brain acetylcholinesterase activity after gamma irradiation or cytokine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarencon, D.; Multon, E.; Galonnier, M.; Fournier, C.; Fatome, M.; Gourmelon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The central nervous system exhibits a functional radiosensitivity, with different abnormalities in the neuronal transmission. In particular we observed a decrease in AChE activity in the rat brain after a whole body gamma exposure. This could not be explained by a direct effect on the protein: the AChE is particularly radioresistant, since several hundred of grays are necessary to modify the in vitro enzymatic activity. Radiations have no effect on primary neuronal culture, and the in vivo radiogenic decrease in brain AChE activity could imply more complex mechanisms than nervous transmissions alone, involving the participation of several intercellular communication systems. The second part of our experimental results showed that both peripheral or central administration of IL-6 can reproduce the decrease in the brain AChE activity observed after an irradiation. The role of inflammatory mediators in the acute radiation syndrome is now well documented. The way these cellular mediators could activate the CNS remains unclear. An induction of messengers of IL-1 and TNF in different brain areas has been recently demonstrated. However, it could be mentioned that, by using primary neuronal cultures, neither the membranes-bound nor the release enzyme activities were modified by incubation with IL-6. On the other hand, when the primary neurons were plated with a subculture of glial cells, the release of enzyme was greatly reduced during a few hours after incubation with IL-6, but the membrane-bound enzyme, which represent more than 90% of the total activity, was not modified. Hence, the mechanisms by which cytokines act on the CNS seem to be more complex, with the participation of glial cells. We suggest that the peripheral early inflammatory response which occurs after irradiation might participate in the nervous damage. (N.C.)

  5. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  6. Enzyme activity and allosteric characteristics of gamma-irradiated solid aspartate transcarbamylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, W.N.; Tolbert, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase purified from E. coli was lyophilized, irradiated in vacuo with γ radiation from a cesium-137 source, redissolved in buffer under a nitrogen atmosphere, and assayed for enzyme activity. Lyophilized and redissolved enzyme had normal catalytic and allosteric kinetic characteristics. The average D 37 observed with saturating substrate, 25 mM aspartate, was 4.1 Mrad. With less than saturating substrate, 5 mM aspartate, the activity increases from zero to 1.6 Mrad and then decreases with a D 37 of 7.2 Mrad. Inclusion of 1 mM CTP, an allosteric inhibitor, in the 5 mM aspartate assays results in a more pronounced maximum in the activity curve occurring at slightly higher dose, 2.2 Mrad. Inhibitability by CTP has a D 37 of 2.3 Mrad with doses below the activity maximum. Enzyme lyophilized in the presence of 1 mM CTP has a D 37 of 2.9 Mrad. ATCase activity changes caused by irradiation of lyophylized bacteria were qualitatively like the changes observed in the detailed studies with the purified enzyme. Apparent radiation sensitivities of ATCase in lyophilized bacteria were observed to vary with the technique used to disrupt the resuspended bacteria

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of monoamine oxidase in the hypothalamus of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Stanikova, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated changes in monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the hypothalamus of ewes in the anoestrous period exposed to a whole body Co-60 irradiation with a total dose of 6.7 Gy for the period of 7 days. The activity of MAO was determined by means of a radiochemical method using C-14 tryptamine as a substrate. Whole body exposure to gamma radiation of total dose of 6.7 Gy increased significantly (P < 0.001) the activity of MAO in the caudal, medial and rostral hypothalamus of the investigated ewes. It may by assumed that an increased degradation of catecholamines caused by MAO is one of the mechanisms responsible for pronounced changes in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus of ewes after irradiation. (authors)

  8. Effect of Gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of selenomorphiline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashand, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of selenomorphiline hydrochloride on dell growth of two steains of bacteria bacillus subtilis as a gram positive and esherichia coli as a gram negative strain and asperagillus flavus as a fungal strain were investigated in batch broth culture supplemented with different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 mg/ml) of irradiated se (1,2,4 KGY) and its control (non irradiated). The data showed that the antibacterial activity of selenomorphiline hydrochloride is concentration and time depenent. The doses 2 doses 2 and 3 KGY of Gamma-radiation were actually the most effective doses activating selenomorphiline hydrochloride as antibiotic

  9. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  10. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Rosemary Essential Oil Treated By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Mohamed, H.G.; Abdel-Khalek, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the irradiated rosemary essential oil at doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were studied. Rosemary essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were camphor (20.85%), caryophyllene (18.37%), 1, 8-cineole (14.49%), δ-Cadinene (9.59%) and α-Pinene (8.47%). The antibacterial of the rosemary essential oil as well as the minimum inhibitory dosage (MID) values were recorded. The irradiated rosemary essential oil was generally more effective against bacteria than non-irradiated essential oil. The gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus megaterium were more sensitive to non-irradiated and irradiated rosemary essential oil than the gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Pseudomonas hydrophila. The MID values of tested bacteria to rosemary were in the range of 4-16 μl.ml -1 . The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated with two methods, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) was employed as positive control. The natural essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities and it displayed the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Then, 0.1% of irradiated rosemary essential oil was added to sunflower oil as natural antioxidant comparing to 0.02% TBHQ as artificial antioxidant. The results showed that irradiation treatment increased the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil

  11. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  12. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated grape (Psidium guajava L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective this study was to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds at dose levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5). Immediately after irradiation, the antioxidant activity was studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the constituents (%) of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted guava seeds powder. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a γ-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, was determined in the extracts of non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. Meanwhile, noodles (homemade strips macaroni) were prepared from blends of 72% wheat flour containing 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% levels of non-irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. The results showed that samples of extracts from non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds had contained a considerable total polyphenolic compounds and marked scavenging activity on DPHH radical. On the other hand , the gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) separation technique led to identification of 26 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Also, the data revealed that guava seeds powder samples under investigation passes the most important essential amino acids and for human health such as trace elements iron, zinc and manganese. Noodles prepared from 2.5% level of guava seeds powder-wheat flour blend had high acceptable quality. Thus, guava seeds, a waste from guava industry can be utilized improved nutritional properties of noodles or used its extracts as natural antioxidant in food industry field

  13. Studies on Possible Activation of Microbial Laccase Production Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElKenawy, N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme production is an essential discipline in biotechnology. Laccase enzyme is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of various aromatic compounds, with the simultaneous reduction of oxygen into water. Although the enzyme is present in plants, insects and bacteria, the most important source is fungi and particularly the Basidiomycetes. In fungi, the enzyme plays a role in the removal of potentially toxic phenols arising during fungal morphogenesis, sporulation, phytopathogensis and virulence. In this work, the production of fungal laccase was optimized from a local isolate of Pleurotus ostreatus using solid state fermentation. Factorial design was used to study the effect of several nutrients and inducer on enzyme activity. Purification, characterization of the enzyme, the effect of temperature and ph were studied. The effect of gamma radiation on fungal growth and enzyme production was investigated. The optimization of the production conditions yielded an enzyme with activity over 32,054 IU/gram of fermented substrate. Factorial design was capable of establishing the conditions that multiplied the activity of the enzyme several folds and consequently, reducing the cost of production. The enzyme was capable of decolorizing several dyes with over 80 % reduction in color in case of methyl orange and trypan blue. The decolorisation of dyes is a simple method to assess the aromatic degrading capability of laccase. The enzyme was also used in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles, proving that laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus has a strong potential in several industrial applications, which opens a door towards using of fungal laccase in further biotechnological processes.

  14. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kee Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips

  15. use of gamma irradiation for enhancing antibacterial activity of chitosan against pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.M.A.; Swailam, H.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    the effect of chitosan on growth of food poisoning bacteria including gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) and gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated at ph 6.0 and 7.0 also, the effect of irradiation on the antibacterial activity of chitosan was studied . it was found that chitosan was more effective on the growth of gram-negative bacteria at ph 6 than ph 7 . addition of chitosan affected the growth of the tested pathogens in varying degrees compared to the control. as the concentration of chitosan increased, its effectiveness against these pathogens also increased. the growth for gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial isolates was completely inhibited at 0.6% chitosan after 72 hours of incubation. inactivation of these pathogens needs only 24 hour with 1.0% of chitosan. irradiation of chitosan at 50 kGy slightly increased the antimicrobial activity whereas at 100 kGy increased the antimicrobial activity and at 150 kGy the growth of these pathogens was completely inhibited . irradiation of chitosan at 50 kGy increased the flow index, whereas consistency index markedly decreased by increasing dose. the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of unirradiated chitosan ranged from 0.35% to 0.50%, whereas the MIC of irradiated chitosan ranged from 0.1% to 0.45% depending on the bacteria and the irradiation dose used. these results demonstrate that irradiated chitosan was more effective to decontaminate pathogenic bacteria and can be easily used in different foods for enhancing health quality and ensuring safety

  16. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Lactarius deliciosus L. wild edible mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    TThe short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. Herein, the effects of gamma irradiation on Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S. F....

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxic activity of the flesh of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin K Winarno; Mazda; Hindra Rahmawati; Hendig Winarno

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiation had been used by herbs medicine industries for preservation of medicinal plants, but the effect of irradiation on their bioactivities has not been observed. The purpose of this research was to obtain the optimum radiation dose for the preservation of mahkota dewa flesh fruits without damaging their cytotoxic activities. To evaluate the effect of irradiation, dried samples of flesh fruit of mahkota dewa were irradiated at various doses of 0; 5; 7.5; 10; 15 and 20 kGy. Microbial contamination was tested using Indonesian National Standard method, which indicated that all microbes were killed at the dose of 5 kGy. Each sample was macerated with ethanol, and the extracts obtained were then fractionated with column chromatography, from which 8 fractions were obtained. Cytotoxicity test of the fractions against leukemia L1210 cells, showed that the Fr.3 was the most cytotoxic. To determine optimal irradiation dose to inhibit and to kill bacteria and yeast/mold in the mahkota dewa flesh fruit samples without decreasing cytotoxic activity, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the Fr.3 were done. The results showed that the doses of ≥ 5 kGy inhibited the growth and killed all the bacteria, yeast and mold without decreasing significantly the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract against leukemia L1210 cell. The significant decrease of cytotoxic against leukemia L1210 of ethanol extract were occurred after ≥ 10 kGy irradiation of the samples. At the dose of 10 kGy, the cytotoxicity decreased even though it was not exceeded the limit of the fraction was declared inactive. Analysis of thin layer chromatogram profiles showed that the Fr.3 contained at least 10 components. Irradiation until the dose of 20 kGy decreased the major peak intensity. with the increasing of irradiation doses. It was concluded that the dose of 5 kGy to 10 kGy were the optimum dose for the preservation of flesh fruit of

  19. Dose mapping role in gamma irradiation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali; John Konsoh Sangau; Mazni Abd Latif

    2002-01-01

    In this studies, the role of dosimetry activity in gamma irradiator was discussed. Dose distribution in the irradiator, which is a main needs in irradiator or chamber commissioning. This distribution data were used to confirm the dosimetry parameters i.e. exposure time, maximum and minimum dose map/points, and dose distribution - in which were used as guidelines for optimum product irradiation. (Author)

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Clove ( Syzigium aromaticum L .) Essential Oil and Gamma Irradiation against Some Food-Borne Pathogens in Minced Chicken Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibriel, A.Y.; ALI, H.G.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of clove essential oil ( Syzigium aromaticum L.) against five strains of pathogenic bacteria namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was investigated in vitro. The essential oil of clove exhibited antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. Comparatively, 25, 50 and 100 ml/l concentrations of clove essential oil were of less inhibitory effect than 200, 300 and 500 ml/l concentrations. However, S. aureus showed less sensitivity towards clove essential oil inhibition; however Salmonella typhimurium was strongly inhibited by clove essential oil. Then, the effect of clove essential oil at two concentrations (3 and 5% v/w) and combined treatments between gamma irradiation at doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kGy and clove essential oil at concentrations as formerly on inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus inoculated into chicken minced meat was investigated. Addition of clove essential oil to samples of chicken minced meat inoculated with three pathogens reduced the counts of these pathogens, proportionally with increasing concentration. The irradiated samples at doses of 3, 4, 5 and 6 kGy and that irradiated at doses 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kGy of chicken minced and containing 3 and 5% completely inactivation of inoculated pathogens and not detected during cold storage at 4±1°C for 7 days. Accordingly, clove essential oil can be used as natural antimicrobial additive or in combination treatments with gamma irradiation for incorporation in various food products. Also, there is a possibility of using low doses gamma irradiation and low concentrations clove essential oil for treatment of meat products in order to this to reduce the economic cost of products and improving hygienic quality and extend its shelf-life. Therefore clove essential oil could be used as preservative ingredients in

  1. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  2. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them

  3. The Development of Gamma Irradiator Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Azraf Azman; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary software development for the Gamma irradiator control system using commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software. The radiation dose analysis is the study of the relationship between the initial loading source activity (Curie) and concurrent activity in order to perform the irradiation process. The concurrent source activity calculation model is presented. The Human machine interface (HMI) has been developed by using Indusoft Web Studio to solve the mathematical calculation, task and process overview. (author)

  4. Comparing the flight activities of workers from two stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera) raised in gamma-irradiated combs using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma irradiation has been shown to inactivate pathogens (virus, American foulbrood and Nosema) that are harmful to honey bees. Preliminary data suggest that queens raised in mating nucleus colonies having gamma-irradiated combs outperformed queens from nucleus colonies not having irradiated combs. ...

  5. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi Faezeh; Dini Salome; Dadkhah Abolfazl; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  6. The influence of gamma irradiation in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paluchova, K.; Benova, K.; Falis, M.; Sesztakova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a single whole - body gamma - irradiation of broiler chickens with a dose of 15.0 Gy on the activities of alaninaminotransferase (ALT) and aspartataminotransferase (AST) in the serum was investigated 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post irradiation. The numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes and concentrations of haemoglobin in peripheral blood was investigated 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 14 days post irradiation. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  8. Portable gamma-irradiator - a modified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandev, I.N.; Christova, M.G.; Stefanov, S.D.; Gentchev, N.V.; Bakardjiev, S.T.; Christov, C.D.; Genov, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A new modification of a portable gamma-irradiator has been designed with a relatively large irradiation volume, good homogeneity of the gamma field, small overall dimension, light biological shielding, and simple mechanics. It is possible to irradiate materials in two cylindrical volumes (3 l and 6 l) with different dose rates. 137 Cs is used as a radiation source. Depending on application, the irradiator can be charged with various total activities up to 6.66 x 10 14 Bq (18 kCi). The dose rate can be also charged up to the maximum by different positions of the source element. The gamma-irradiator can be used for scientific studies and for industrial purposes. (author)

  9. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Krambrock, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  10. Change in the enzymatic dual function of the peroxiredoxin protein by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byung Chull; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Jae Taek; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Sang Yeol; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    PP1084 protein was exposed to gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 500 kGy. Native PAGE showed minor structural changes in PP1084 at 5 kGy, and major structural changes at >15 kGy. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed the formation of a new shoulder peak when the protein was irradiated with 15 and 30 kGy, and a double peak appeared at 100 kGy. The results of PAGE and SEC imply that PP1084 protein is degraded by gamma irradiation, with simultaneous oligomerization. PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation, and then, decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing gamma irradiation. However, the peroxidase activity significantly decreased following exposure to all intensities of gamma irradiation. The improvement of chaperone activity using gamma irradiation might be promoted by the oligomeric structures containing covalently cross-linked amino acids. Consequently, PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds compared to the non-irradiated protein. - Highlights: ► The structure of PP1084 protein was drastically changed above 15 kGy gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds.

  11. Protective Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation against Oxidative Damage in Rats Administrated with Ferric- Nitrilotriacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansonr, S.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial adaptive response of low dose gamma-irradiation. Low dose gamma-irradiation (LDR) might be effective for the prevention of various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. This study was designed to investigate the ability of low dose gamma-irradiation to restrain Fe-NT A induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley male albino rats were subjected to low dose gamma-irradiation (50 cGy). Animals were challenged with Fe-NT A (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Results showed that Fe-NTA enhances lipid peroxidation (LPx) accompanied with reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and phase-U metabolizing enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Fe-NTA also enhances the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Exposure to low dose gamma- irradiation (3 h after Fe-NTA administration) resulted in a significant decrease in LPx, BUN, serum creatinine contents as well as ALT, AST and GGT enzyme activities. GSH content; GST and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. Thus, our data suggest that exposure to LDR might be a useful antioxidant mediator to suppress the Fe-NTA induced-oxidative damage in rats

  12. Protective Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation against Oxidative Damage in Rats Administrated with Ferric- Nitrilotriacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansonr, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial adaptive response of low dose gamma-irradiation. Low dose gamma-irradiation (LDR) might be effective for the prevention of various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. This study was designed to investigate the ability of low dose gamma-irradiation to restrain Fe-NT A induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley male albino rats were subjected to low dose gamma-irradiation (50 cGy). Animals were challenged with Fe-NT A (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Results showed that Fe-NTA enhances lipid peroxidation (LPx) accompanied with reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and phase-U metabolizing enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Fe-NTA also enhances the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Exposure to low dose gamma- irradiation (3 h after Fe-NTA administration) resulted in a significant decrease in LPx, BUN, serum creatinine contents as well as ALT, AST and GGT enzyme activities. GSH content; GST and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. Thus, our data suggest that exposure to LDR might be a useful antioxidant mediator to suppress the Fe-NTA induced-oxidative damage in rats

  13. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  14. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  16. Study of formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vikas; Kaur, Jagjeet; Parganiha, Yogita; Suryanarayana, N S; Murthy, K V R

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the thermoluminescence properties of Eu(3+) doped different host matrix phosphors (SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9). The phosphor is prepared by high temperature solid state reaction method. The method is suitable for large scale production and fixed concentration of boric acid using as a flux. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and the crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. The prepared phosphor characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), thermoluminescence (TL) and Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) techniques. The prepared phosphors for different concentration of Eu(3+) ions were examined by TL glow curve for UV, beta and gamma irradiation. The UV 254nm source used for UV irradiation, Sr(90) source was used for beta irradiation and Co(60) source used for gamma irradiation. SrY2O4:Eu(3+)and Y4Al2O9:Eu(3+) phosphors which shows both higher temperature peaks and lower temperature peaks for UV, beta and gamma irradiation. Here UV irradiated sample shows the formation of shallow trap (surface trapping) and the gamma irradiated sample shows the formation of deep trapping. The estimation of trap formation was evaluated by knowledge of trapping parameters. The trapping parameters such as activation energy, order of kinetics and frequency factor were calculated by peak shape method. Here most of the peak shows second order of kinetics. The effect of gamma, beta and UV exposure on TL studies was also examined and it shows linear response with dose which indicate that the samples may be useful for TL dosimetry. Formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors is discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.

    1969-01-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [fr

  18. Contribution to the study of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation effects on the unitary activities of the dorsal hippocampus in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, M.-H.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous activity of the dorsal hippocampus pyramidal cells were studied in rabbits. First of all the unitary activity of the CA 1 and CA 4 pyramidal cells was recorded extracellularly in the reference animal. The results were analyzed by a statistical method. By classifying the various cell functioning modes observed, and measuring the frequency with which they appear as a function of the state of vigilance, an attempt was made to characterize precisely the spontaneous activity of the hippocampal neurons. Recording were then made under identical experimental conditions on animals totally irradiated to mean absorbed doses of 250 and 450 rads (delivered at a constant rate of 14 rads/mn). The electroencephalographic activity of the hippocampus shows many anomalies (slow waves, wave-points, theta rythm deformation) as a function of which several pathological states were distinguished and used to classify the data, then processed by the methods already used for the reference data. The results obtained prove that the statistical characteristics of the unitary activity are changed by irradiation [fr

  19. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  20. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A.B.; Chitarra, M.I.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO 2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO 2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [pt

  1. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  2. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  3. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Cavalié, I.; Pereira, S.; Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  4. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  5. Gamma-irradiation sterilization of lipases for cheese making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskij, M S; Borovkova, Yu A; Odegov, N I [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Maslodel' noj i Syrodel' noj Promyshlennosti, Uglich (USSR)

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of sterilizing the enzyme compounds of lipases from Oospora fragrans strains by gamma irradiation was studied. The enzyme compounds were exposed to gamma irradiation at the doses from 0.1 to 0.8 Mrad with the discreteness of 0.1 Mrad and at the dose of 2.0 Mrad. After the radiation treatment the lipases were investigated for bacterial invasion by the cultivation method and for the lipolytic activity by the titrometrical method. It is shown that the sterilization effect is achieved without losses of lipase activity and the radiation dose necessary for sterilization depends on initial invasion levels in the enzyme compounds.

  6. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  7. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-01

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  8. Activity of adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes of pulmonary tissue remote times following nonlethal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slozhenkina, L.V.; Ruda, V.P.; Ushakova, T.E.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Basal and stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase (cyclizing ATP-pyrophosphate lyase, E.C. 4.6.1.1., AC) in plasma membranes of pumonary tissye was being studied during a year after fractionated irradiation of rats (2 Gyx3). Basal and hormone-stimulated activity of AC was shown to vary significantly from normal 6 and 12 months after irradiation. The exposed membranes responded differently to AC activation by isoproterenol and F -

  9. Cellular localization of peptide hydrolases in chicken embryo tissues and influence of gamma irradiation on their activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristov, D; Marinopolski, G

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the influence of chicken embryo irradiation at 600 R and 1000 R gamma rays on the activity of tissue peptide hydrolases in mitochondrial-lysosomal, microsomal and supernatant (cell hyaloplasm) cell fractions. The investigation was performed 50 to 168 hours post irradiation. The wole tissue (of the whole embryo) was examined following irradiation of 4-day-old embryos whose liver, muscle and brain tissues were post irradiation examined on day 12 and 16 of incubation. Prior to treatment, the tissues were threfold rinsed with sucrose solution to eliminate proeinase inhibitors. Lysosome membranes were destroyed by adding 0.5 % desoxycholate. It was found that: Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal cell fractions of tissues of whole 6-day chicken embryos is 4-5 times as high as that of cell hyaloplasm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions of liver tissues decreases on day 18 and 19 post incubation, while the same fraction of muscle and brain tissues shows high activity. Peptide hydrolase activity of microsomal fraction and of cell hyaloplasm rises during embryonal development and exceeds the activity of liver tissue mitochondrial fraction. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of tissue of whole 6-day-old embryos 50 hours post irradiation is higher than the activity of non-irradiated embryos. Later the activity of this fraction diminishes and on the 168 hr post irradiation it drops below the normal. Microsomal fraction and cell hyaloplasm activity likewise show deviation from the norm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of liver, muscle and brain tissue of 14 and 18-day-old embryos is higher than the control 50 hours post irradiation and then declines. The activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of embryo brain tissue changes most strikingly on irradiation, while other brain cell fractions change less compared with liver and muscle fractions.

  10. Cellular localization of peptide hydrolases in chicken embryo tissues and influence of gamma irradiation on their activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, D.; Marinopolski, G.

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the influence of chicken embryo irradiation at 600 R and 1000 R gamma rays on the activity of tissue peptide hydrolases in mitochondrial-lysosomal, microsomal and supernatant (cell hyaloplasm) cell fractions. The investigation was performed 50 to 168 hours post irradiation. The wole tissue (of the whole embryo) was examined following irradiation of 4-day-old embryos whose liver, muscle and brain tissues were post irradiation examined on day 12 and 16 of incubation. Prior to treatment, the tissues were threfold rinsed with sucrose solution to eliminate proeinase inhibitors. Lysosome membranes were destroyed by adding 0.5 % desoxycholate. It was found that: Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal cell fractions of tissues of whole 6-day chicken embryos is 4-5 times as high as that of cell hyaloplasm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions of liver tissues decreases on day 18 and 19 post incubation, while the same fraction of muscle and brain tissues shows high activity. Peptide hydrolase activity of microsomal fraction and of cell hyaloplasm rises during embryonal development and exceeds the activity of liver tissue mitochondrial fraction. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of tissue of whole 6-day-old embryos 50 hours post irradiation is higher than the activity of non-irradiated embryos. Later the activity of this fraction diminishes and on the 168 hr post irradiation it drops below the normal. Microsomal fraction and cell hyaloplasm activity likewise show deviation from the norm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of liver, muscle and brain tissue of 14 and 18-day-old embryos is higher than the control 50 hours post irradiation and then declines. The activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of embryo brain tissue changes most strikingly on irradiation, while other brain cell fractions change less compared with liver and muscle fractions

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on olive leaves and application on meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a high technology in the treatment of food product, for this reason we have been interested to study the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial charge (Bioburden), the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activities on the olive leaves. The irradiated olive leaves are added as an antimicrobial and antioxidant compound on minced meat for preservation.

  12. The radioprotective role of Gamma-Tocopherol on cholinergic and electrical activities in the brain of Gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M, A.M.; Saada, H.N.

    1997-01-01

    Data of the present study revealed that whole body gamma exposure of adult male albino rats at 8 Gy causes a significant increase in the acetylcholine (ACh)content of the two cerebral hemispheres concomittant with a marked inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme 1,3,7,and 10 days after irradiation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) activity of frontal cortical area showed a significant increase in the faster frequencies (Bita-rhythm) and a decrease in the slower rhythm (delta - frequencies). Pretreatment of rats with α-tocopherol, 2 hr, prior irradiation provides the rats with a partial protection from the radiation induced changes in the acetent and cholinesterase activity of cerebral hemispheres. Injection of α-tocopherol has also provided the rats with some protection against the changes recorded for EEG activity of the cortical frontal area

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  14. Effect of prolonged gamma irradiation (6.7 Gy) on monoamine oxidase activity in ewe hypothalamus in anestral period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes were studied of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the hypothalamus and hypophysis of ewes in the anestral period following whole-body 60 Co irradiation for 7 days with a dose of 6.7 Gy. The gamma radiation exposure rate was 0.039 Gy/h. The activity of MAO was determined using the radiochemical method. 14 C-tryptamine was used as the substrate. The highest activity was determined in the rostral hypothalamus (1100 pmol.mg -1 .min -1 ). MAO activity was at its lowest in the caudal region of the hypothalamus (550 pmol). The results show that whole-body exposure to gamma radiation with a total dose of 6.7 Gy makes a statistically significant increase (P<0.001) in MAO activity in the caudal hypothalamus of ewes while remaining at the level of the control group or increasing insignificantly in the rostral and medial hypothalamus. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was recorded in the hypophysis. It may be assumed that the increased degradation of catecholamines caused by MAO is one of the mechanisms responsible for the decreased concentration of catecholamines in the hypothalamus of ewes after irradiation. (author). 1 fig., 22 refs

  15. The changes in drug binding activity of GABA receptor and animal neural-behavior after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Zhao Naikun; Xue Hong; Wang Zihui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation on gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor (GABA-R) as well as behavioral changes after brain 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with gamma rays (20 Gy; 10 Gy and 5 Gy) . The drug binding activity of GABA receptor in brain receptor was measured by fluorescence anisotropy (FA) and equilibrium dissociation constants. The behavioral changes were observed by the locomotor activity test, elevated plus-maze test and hole-board test at 1, 10, 24 and 48 hr after irradiation. Results: 1. The drug binding activity of the GABA receptor was decreased and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ) was significantly increased compared with the negative control group 2 hr after irradiation, and a spike value appeared at 24 hr. It showed that the irradiation might damage or decrease the binding activity and the bio-activity of GABA receptor. 2. The animal experiment confirmed that the irradiated animal model showed neural-behavioral changes of anxiety or depression. 3. The decreased binding activity of GABA receptor and changes in behavior of irradiated animal were dependent on radiation intensity. 4. The changes of behavior was similar to the blocked GABA receptor group. It suggests the relationship of radiation and GABA receptor. Conclusion: These results suggest that GABA receptor may be involved in radiation injury. The functional changes of GABA receptor may be an induction factor of behavioral disorder. The article also discussed the effect of anxiety and results obtained from the point of view of GABA receptor system involvement in the changes observed after irradiation. (authors)

  16. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  17. Gamma irradiation of mushrooms, preliminary studies: effect on O-diphenyl oxidase activity and amino acid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Gebicka, L.

    1992-01-01

    Mushrooms are a valuable food raw materials because of their nutritional and taste values. Post-harvest ripening, chemical composition (94% water) and possible microbial contamination decrease not only organoleptic and nutritional value, but also the shelf-life. As an objective method of evaluation of irradiated mushrooms we adopted activity determination of o-diphenyl oxidase (o-DPO) which is responsible for discoloration of the edible mushrooms and altered qualitative and quantitative content of amino acids. It was observed that doses up to 2 kGy did not cause any increase in the activity of o-DPO; irradiation also did not affect the taste. Mushrooms irradiated with doses up to 4 kGy were of good quality after 5 days of storage at 4 C, while the control samples (unirradiated) after the same time were considerably changed, probably due too post-harvest ripening. Immediately after exposure the activity of o-DPO increased in proportion to the dose used. During subsequent storage, however, no increase in o-DPO activity was observed. Irradiation used in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 kGy did not affect the nutritional value of the raw material. The results are an additional confirmation that radiation can be used for efficient preservation of mushrooms. (author). 14 refs, 6 tabs

  18. The improvement of fermentation activity of yeast and mould by gamma irradiation on irradiated sago and onggok substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani; Roselawati, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of increasing the product of fermentation and enzyme activity produced by microorganism, an experiment has been carried out using irradiated yeast and mould for fermenting irradiated sago (Metroxylon sago) and tapioca waste (onggok). Sago and onggok starches were irradiated with gamma-rays with a dose of 25 kGy. Onggok starch was irradiated on dried and wet conditions. Local isolated yeast and mould (R. oryza e) were irradiated in suspension with doses of 0.4 and 4 kGy. The measurement of enzymes activities such as amylase, AMG, cellulase and protease, and the fermentation products i.e. glucose and reductase d glucose were carried out for analyzing the influence of radiation on the fermentation process. The fermentation using yeast and onggok substrate produced glucose 28 % higher than sago. On the contrary, the fermentation of sago increased the production of reductase glucose by 7.3% higher than that of onggok. At the end of experiment, on the 14th. however, the activity of cellulase enzyme produced by irradiated mould in the fermentation with dried and wet onggok increase 13 to 15 times higher than the activity enzyme produced by the control. In a similar way fermentation of irradiated dry onggok produced amylase 57.9% higher than that on irradiated wet onggok. (author), 16 refs., 2 figs

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  20. A new method for measuring scavenging activity of antioxidants to the hydroxyl radical formed by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroe; Ohashi, Yasunori

    2000-01-01

    A new method using ESR spin trapping was proposed for measuring scavenging activity of antioxidants to the hydroxyl (OH) radical. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) were used as an antioxidant and a spin trapping agent, respectively. Conventional method using a Fenton reaction had some defects on the estimation of the activity, because antioxidant disturbed the generating system of OH radical besides it scavenged the spin adduct (DMPO-OH). This method used intense γ-irradiation as OH radical generating system, and the intensity decrease of DMPO-OH after the end of the irradiation was followed to obtain the rate constant of the scavenging of DMPO-OH with EGCg and to estimate the quantity of DMPO-OH formed during γ-irradiation. By using these values, the reaction rate constant between OH radical and EGCg was calculated as a ratio to that of DMPO. It was shown that this method is useful to compare precisely the OH radical scavenging activity of various antioxidants. (author)

  1. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Back, Myung Hwa; Lee, Hae Youn; Lee, Young Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2{approx}50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group.

  3. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4±2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4{+-}2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  6. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch

  7. Archives decontamination by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratu, E.; Moise, I.V.; Cutrubinis, M.; Negut, D.C.; Virgolici, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of archives with gamma irradiation is an efficient and environmental friendly alternative for biological decontamination of large volume of archives. It substitutes the use of chemicals for conservation and contributes to safer workplaces. This work is targeting documents from recent archives where the value of information is not obsolete and may become an important historical and cultural testimony. For a successful treatment, an optimal absorbed dose has to be established. An excessive dose may damage papers and an insufficient one will not reduce bioburden to the desired level. An interdisciplinary team was performing various physical and chemical tests in order to evaluate deterioration of paper at high doses. In the case of natural disaster, it is not excluded the '' emergency '' treatment for documents in immediate danger of total destruction. (authors)

  8. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  9. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  10. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  11. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  12. Application of gamma irradiation on eggs, active and quiescence stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osouli, Sh.; Ziaie, F.; Haddad Irani Nejad, K.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) is amongst the most serious pests of cut flowers and ornamentals. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on different biological stages (including quiescent stages) of this pest have been studied. Irradiation at the doses of 250, 250, 200, 250, 200, 350 and 300 Gy causes sterility of females who were able to reach to adult stage from eggs, larva, protochrysalis, protonymph, deutochrysalis, deutonymph and teliochrysalis stages, respectively. The irradiation caused a decrease in percentage of mites entering the adult stage, developed the adult mite‘s longevity, number of laid eggs per adult female emerged from irradiated immature stages, and finally a retardation of embryonic and post-embryonic development. The sex ratio of the adult mites resulted from irradiated immature stages was biased towards females through increase of dose. The adult mites developed from irradiated two-day old eggs, three-day old eggs, larva, protochrysalis and deutochrysalis at 100, 350, 300, 350 and 350 Gy, respectively, were 100% females. In general the females resulted from irradiated quiescent stages have shown a high sensitivity to characteristics like eggs hatchability percentage and the emerged adult's sex ratio. On the other hand with regard to percentage of immature mites developed to adult stages, longevity of adult males and females, number of eggs laid by females and the time needed to complete their development, teliochrysalis has been the most tolerant stage. Also a 300 Gy dose could cause sterility in females irradiated at deutonymph stage and mated with adult males irradiated before mating and prevent their eggs to be hatched. In conclusion the most tolerance stages of this mite for most of characteristics was generally the most developed ones and a dose of around 300 Gy could be a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for Tetranychus urticae Koch. - Highlights: • The effects of γ-radiation on embryonic stages of

  13. Termite feeding preference to four wood species after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, N.; Yoshimura, T.; Tsunoda, K.; Imamura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at 100 kGy and at lower levels on termite resistance was examined in the laboratory by no-choice and choice feeding termite tests (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) using four wood species: sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, and heartwoods of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carriere, and Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. The wood consumption rates in C. japonica and P. menziesii specimens were likely to increase with increases in gamma-irradiation levels, whereas little effect of gamma irradiation was seen in L. kaempferi and C. obtusa. Similar results were obtained in the two-choice test. The current results indicated that in the two-choice test with C. formosanus, 100-kGy-irradiated C. japonica and P. menziesii, which are not rich in antitermite substances, were eaten more than other wood samples with or without gamma irradiation. However, only C. japonica showed significant difference in termite feeding activity. The mass loss in 100-kGy-irradiated C. japonica was significantly higher in the multichoice test

  14. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Sima; Najafi, Farhood; Majdabadi, Abbas; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Haghbin Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Karimi, Batool

    2014-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC), thermal behavior (DSC), wettability (contact angle), cell viability (MTT assay), and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial. PMID:25574485

  15. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC, thermal behavior (DSC, wettability (contact angle, cell viability (MTT assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial.

  16. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  17. Gamma irradiation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1975-01-01

    Technological and economic feasibility of gamma irradiation of onions and garlic on an industrial scale are studied. Statistical data on production, consumption, exportation and losses during storage are analyzed. Traditional methods of food preservation are reviewed and gamma irradiation techniques are presented as an alternative to sprout inhibition. Requirements for the irradiation of onions and garlic on a commercial scale including a cost benefit analysis are discussed. Some conclusions are formulated on licensing and prospects

  18. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60 cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants - Highlights: • Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was gamma-irradiated for sterilization. • Irradiated DBM had higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production. • It was reasoned the more released bone morphogenetic proteins by irradiation. • This result supports the application of radiation sterilization for bone implants

  19. Conceptual design of gamma irradiator (ISG-500) for preservation of farming product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Budihardjo; Dian F Atmoko; Syamsurijjal Ramja; Sutomo; A Suntoro; Pudjijanto MS; Nada Mamada

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual design of gamma irradiator ISG-500 for a preservation of farming product has been done. The design of gamma irradiator are multi purpose with the activity of radiation source used at 2x250 kCi cobalt-60. This gamma irradiator will be built by using local materials, like as for the building structure construction, the mechanical and electrical systems and for the instrumentation and control systems. The sources of radiation that will be used is Co60 pencil types (C 188 - Nordion), concrete structured building according to BAPETEN rule and the numbers of carriers that will be used are 15 carriers. (author)

  20. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  1. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidate, M. Jr.; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Sofuni, Toshio; Iwahara, Shigeo; Sibuya, Tohru.

    1981-01-01

    The alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated potatoes were examined for their mutagenic activity in bacterial and mammalian cell systems. Negative results were obtained from all following test systems: Mutation assays with Salmonella typhimurium His - strains such as TA 100, TA 98, TA 1535, TA 1537, and streptomycin-dependent mutant (SM sup(d)) strain, TA 100 - 10, inductests with Escherichia coli strains, K 12 GY 5027 and K 12 C600, chromosomal aberration tests with Chinese hamster cells in culture, as well as micronucleus tests in mice. In addition, no difference in the mutagenic activities was found between extracts prepared from the irradiated and the unirradiated potatoes, suggesting that no mutagenic substance was produced in potatoes following gamma-irradiation. (author)

  2. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  3. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  4. Wholesomeness studies on gamma-irradiated smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked mackerel (Rastrelliger sp.) was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with dose of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 KGy, and tested for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and micronucleus test. The DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was found to be mutagenic, without metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA 100 and TA 104, both sensitive to base-pair substitution mutations. Strains TA 98 and TA 97 which are sensitive to frameshift mutations showed no mutagenic activity towards the same DMSO extract. The observed response towards the Salmonella strains was not affected by irradiation in the range of radiation doses studied. The presence of protamutagens in the DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was not detected using the host-mediated assay. In another in-vivo test however, the same DMSO extract induced the formation of micronuclei in the bonemarrow cells of mice. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 8.0 KGy did not affect the observed mutagenicity of wood-smoked fish. (author)

  5. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madivalappa, Shivaraj; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride thin films were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with spin rate of 3000 rpm for 30 sec on ITO glass substrates and were annealed at 170 C. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (10, 30, 40 and 50 kGy). XRD and FTIR spectra have been obtained to identify the presence of α / β phases. Mean crystallite size was calculated by Scherer’s equation. Different vibrational bands were identified and percentage of β phase was determined by FTIR analysis. Optical properties like band gap, refractive index, optical activation energy have been determined. Surface morphology and compositions of pristine and gamma irradiated PVDF thin films were confirmed respectively, by SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The comparison of the structural and optical optical properties of pristine PVDF polymer film has been made with those of the Gamma irradiated films.

  6. Change of microflora of two starch samples by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretton, R.; Fretton, J.; Delattre, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Starch is the basic component of a larger number of manufactured foods. The disinfection of such a powder by 60 Co is studied here. Gamma irradiation of two starch samples with different degrees of contamination allows the assumption that, in most cases, good radio-pasteurization can be achieved with 300 krad. The radio-pasteurization doses (varying from 300 to 600 krad) are a function of the initial contamination. Irradiation effects are spectacular with moulds. Activation of spores of some Clostridium species leads us to recommend an irradiation level higher than 200 krad. The most resistant organisms to gamma irradiation are the aerobic and anaerobic sporulated bacteria. The thermophilic forms are the most important. Spores of Bacillus, chiefly Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus brevis, are the most frequent bacteria. Storage of irradiated starch at room temperature has little effect upon the number of revivable survivors. (orig.) [de

  7. The Analysis Of Spent Fuel Utilization For A Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MS, Pudjijanto; Setiyanto

    2002-01-01

    The gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed by locating the spent fuels the cylindrical periphery. The analysis was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator as a fruits and vegetables irradiator. The spent fuels activities were calculated using Origen2 code, while the dose rate at the irradiation positions was determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of irradiators with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for fruits and vegetables preservation. It can be concluded that one can use the RSG-GAS spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications

  8. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  9. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and plant oils on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, A.I.A.

    2012-01-01

    1- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to plant oil and gamma- irradiation. 2- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to powder of some plants and gamma irradiation.-selection of the suitable concentration of plant oils. - effect on male fertility. -effect on female fecundity. -effect on adult survival. 3- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sterile dose. 4- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sub sterile dose. 5- The effects of gamma- irradiation and plant oil on the pest when the potato tubers store for different periods. 6- Some biochemical studies. o Determine the adult total protein content of treated pupae. Determine the effect of plant oils and gamma- irradiation on the activity of some enzymes as proteinase, ATPase, keitenase cholinesterase.

  10. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  11. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  12. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, M.-H.; Touchard, Francoise; Court, Louis

    1981-01-01

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised Rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures [fr

  13. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  14. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Chun, Byeong-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  15. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effect and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...

  16. Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation ...

  17. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopictechniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of their size ...

  18. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Polyakov, A.I.; Petukhov, Yu.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Zashkvara, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  19. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabikin, Yu A; Polyakov, A I; Petukhov, Yu V; Bitenbaev, M I; Zashkvara, O V [Physical-Technical Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2000-04-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  20. Metabolic activity is necessary for activation of T suppressor cells by B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, K.L.; Stashak, P.W.; Baker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ag-primed B cells must express cell-surface IgM, but not IgD or Ia Ag, and must remain metabolically active, in order to activate suppressor T cells (Ts) specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. Ag-primed B cells that were gamma-irradiated with 1000r, or less, retained the ability to activate Ts; however, Ag-primed B cells exposed to UV light were not able to do so. gamma-Irradiated and UV-treated Ag-primed B cells both expressed comparable levels of cell-surface IgM, and both localized to the spleen after in vivo transfer; neither could proliferate in vitro in response to mitogens. By contrast, gamma-irradiated primed B cells were still able to synthesize proteins, whereas UV-treated primed B cells could not. These findings suggest that in order for Ag-primed B cells to activate Ts, they must (a) express cell-associated IgM (sIgM) antibody bearing the idiotypic determinants of antibody specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide, and (b) be able to synthesize protein for either the continued expression of sIgM after cell transfer, or for the elaboration of another protein molecule that is also required for the activation of Ts; this molecule does not appear to be Ia Ag

  1. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  2. P53 activation, a key event of the cellular response to gamma irradiation; L'activation de la proteine p53, un evenement determinant de la reponse cellulaire aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drane, P.; Alvarez, S.; Meiller, A.; May, E. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, Lab. de Cancerogenese Moleculaire, CNRS, UMR 217, 92 (France)

    2002-03-01

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 encodes a protein whose major function is to protect organisms from proliferation of potentially tumorigenic cells. In normal conditions (unstressed cells), the p53 protein is inert and maintained at low level through its association with the Mdm2 oncogene, causing its translocation from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and its degradation through ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In response to damaged DNA or to a variety of stresses, p53 accumulates in the nucleus and is activated as a transcriptional trans-activator. Posttranslational modifications of p53 including multi-site phosphorylation and acetylation are the major mechanism of p53 regulation. After exposure to ionising radiation, p53 activation implicates ATM, ATR, Chk2 and Chk1 kinases that phosphorylate the N-terminal domain on Ser15 (ATM and/or ATR), and Ser20 (Chk2 and/or Chk1), causing the dissociation of the p53/Mdm2 complex and thereby the stabilisation of p53. The process initiated by {gamma}-irradiation exposure involves also increased interaction of the p53 N-terminal domain with CBP/p300 and P/CAF leading to acetylation of the distant C-terminal domain at Lys 320, 373 and 382. In addition, the ATM-mediated dephosphorylation of Ser376 creates a fixation site for 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, phosphorylation, acetylation and association with co factors induce the stimulation of p53 transcriptional activity resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved, notably, in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This stress-induced p53 pathways lead to one of two outcomes: growth arrest or apoptosis and consequently protects the organism from the genotoxic effects of ionising radiation. (author)

  3. Physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Kim, J.O.; Yook, H.S.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Some physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kCy) were investigated. Proximate components, fatty acid compositions and minerals of the soybeans irradiated at 2.5 - 20 kGy shrived no difference from the nonirradiated control. Irradiation doses above 10 kGy and long term storage caused decrease in extractable phenols and phytate content, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content. The total amino acids content of the soybeans irradiated up to 10 kGy was not changed as compared with the nonirradiated control. Sulfur-containing amino acids, however, were changed by 10 and 20 kGy irradiaton. Gamma irradiation and long term storage caused minor changes in the color attributes of soybeans. Hunter's 'L' (lightness) and 'b' (yellowness) values were decreased whereas 'a' (redness) value was increased with increasing dose levels and the elapse of the storage period

  4. UTN's gamma irradiation facility: design and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Noor Mohamad Yunus

    1986-01-01

    UTN is building a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility which compromises of research and pilot scale irradiation cells in The Fifth Malaysia Plan. The paper high-lights the basic futures of the facility in terms of its design and selection including layout sketches. Plant performances and limitations are discussed. Plants safety is briefly highlighted in block diagrams. Lastly, a typical specification brief is tabled in appendix for reference purposes. (author)

  5. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  6. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  7. Dynamics of the changes in the number and phagocytic activity of leucocytes from whole-body gamma-irradiated guinea pigs with respect to R and S forms of Pseudomonas pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, Kh.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Guinea pigs of both sexes received whole-body gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy, 4 x 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; 92.5 rad/min). Two bacterial strains were used: Ps. pseudomallei R 1 5 and S 7 . The measurments were carried out on days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 after treatment. The changes observed were directly dependent on the dose applied: for sublethally (2 Gy) irradiated animals - an abrupt decrease of leukocytes and strongly expressed leukopenia lasting throughout the whole investigation; for fractiionally irradiated (4 x 0.5 Gy) -the number of leukocytes P<0.001 and leukopenia being observed to day 7 after irradiation; for 0.5 Gy irradiated -the leucocytes number equal to that of the controls on day 15 and significantly higher on day 30; less strongly expressed leukopenia. The alterations in phagocytic activity in relation to R and S forms of Ps. pseudomallei were similar: leukocytes from 2 Gy irradiated guinea pigs showed on day 1 a markedly raised phagocytic activity and phagocytized the R and S forms to a similar degree, while at later intervals of the study the phagocytic activity decreased and they began to phagocytize the R forms more actively. Leukocytes from 0.5 Gy treated animals phagocytized the R forms more actively than the S forms throughout the whole investigation

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  9. The Portuguese gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.M.; Almeida, J.C.; Botelho, M.L.; Cavaco, M.C.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Andrade, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A Gamma Radiation Facility was built up in the National Laboratory of Industrial Technology and Engineering (LNETI), Lisbon, Portugal. This plant (UTR GAMA-Pi) is a Cobalt-60 dry storage continuous facility with a nominal capacity of 1.5 x 10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 1.1 x 10 16 Bq and the throughput capacity 10 3 ton/year for product with a bulk density of 0.2 g/cm 3 treated with a minimum absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Complementary control devices were installed: ventilation system, closed water refrigeration circuit, internal TV system, detection and extinction fire system and emergency power group. It must be emphasized that the best attention was given to the conception and efficiency of the interlock safety systems. This facility will be utilized mainly for radiosterilization of medical articles and decontamination of wine cork stoppers. (author)

  10. Obtaining mutants of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339, producers of glucose isomerase, following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhedzheva, G.; Stoeva, N.; Stojchev, M.

    1990-01-01

    A water suspension of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores of a density of 8.7.10 6 spores/cm 3 is gamma irradiated ( 60 Co, RHM-γ-20, 30.3 Gy/min). The survival of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores was determined depending on radiation doses, exposure times and incubation temperature. Five major morphological types of colonies were isolated, characterized by different levels of glucose isomerase activity. Maximum specific glucose isomerase activity (GIU/g) was attained after the third gamma irradiation step using a dose of 3000 Gy. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 7 refs

  11. Certain biochemical specificities of alveolar macrophages from gamma-irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, H.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the metabolism of alveolar macrophages (aMas) from 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy gamma-irradiated guinea pigs have been studied. In view of predominantly aerobic metabolism of the aMas the investigations include oxygen uptake in the presence of substrate glucose as well as the activity of cytochrome oxidase and acid phosphatase. The results show that in the macrophages obtained from 2 Gy exposed guinea pigs there is simultaneous intensification of the oxygen uptake in the presence of glucose and of cytochrome oxidase activity by the 3rd day after irradiation. In the macrophages from the 0.5 Gy exposed guinea pigs there is also parallelism in the intensification of the respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity but on the 7th day of the investigation. In both doses applied the activity of the acid phosphatase of macrophages sharply increases to reach the maximum values between the 3rd and 7th days after irradiation. This discrepancy between the intracellular bactericidal effect and the respiration activity and the acid phosphatase of the aMas give grounds to support the view of Pavillard and Rowlei that the total metabolism of the aMas is not a limiting factor in relation to their intracellular killing effect on the absorbed bacteria. 3 figs., 6 refs

  12. Lupine Alleviate Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin Diabetic gamma- Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was to examine the regulatory effect of lupine on the diabetic profile developed in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. The effectiveness of lupine against diabetes in gamma irradiated rats was purposed in the present study. Rats were received lupine seeds powder suspension (1 g/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days) before whole body exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation and /or STZ (55 mg/kg body weight, single dose) injection. The results pointed out that radiation exposure sustained the diabetic profile in rats received STZ comparing with STZ diabetic not irradiated rats. The prolonged administration of lupine suspension before STZ induction of diabetic and/or irradiated rats reduced the changes in the level of blood glucose, insulin concentration, liver glycogen, and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase associated with significant amelioration in blood antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G-6-PD activities and reduced glutathione concentration GSH). Also, the level of blood lipid peroxides (TBARS) were reduced greatly when compared with its matched value in diabetic and /or gamma irradiated rats. It could be postulated that lupine powder suspension might be attenuate the diabetic profile development throughout reducing oxidative damages and modulating the antioxidant status. In addition, lupine could be considered as one of a remarkable radio protective agent owing to its antioxidants property

  13. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation and its convergent treatment for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea of cut roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eun-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Park, Hae-Jun; Jeong, Rae-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Postharvest diseases cause considerable losses to harvested crops. Among them, gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is a major problem of exporting to cut rose flowers into Korea. Irradiation treatment is an alternative to phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical approach to the control of postharvest diseases. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against B. cinerea on cut rose varieties, 'Shooting Star' and 'Babe'. The irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%, D10, was 0.99 kGy. Gamma irradiation showed complete inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea, especially 4.0 kGy in vitro. Antifungal activity of gamma irradiation on rose B. cinerea is a dose-dependent manner. A significant phytotoxicity such as bent neck in cut rose quality was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.4 kGy (ptechnology for horticulture products for exportation.

  15. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  16. Quality of gamma irradiated California Valencia oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, N.Y.; Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.30-1.0 kGy (30-100 krad) on sensory qualities, certain biochemical components, and short-term storage life of Valencia oranges were examined. Irradiation at 0.75 kGy maintained food quality during 7°C storage for 7 weeks, while 0.50 kGy irradiation retained food quality at 21 °C. Irradiation at 0.26-0.30 kGy accomplished fruit fly disinfection while preserving market qualities of the oranges

  17. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Khan, M.; Mahmood, F.; Sattar, A.

    1995-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation (8 kGy) on decontamination of pre packed (in polyethylene) and unpacked spices such as black pepper and chilli, was studied over a storage period of 12 months. Radiation dose of 8.0 kGyu completely decontaminated by the spices. Fungal packaged samples. Water content increased from a range values of 7.6-8.5% to 11.4 to 15.2% the increase was higher in red chilli than black pepper. Colour values significantly changed during storage, however the influence of radiation was not consistent. (author)

  18. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  19. Gamma irradiation induced variabilities in Canavalia virosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Dry seeds of Canavalia virosa were treated with seven different doses viz., 4,8,12,16,24,32 and 36 Krad of gamma irradiation. Percent germination increased in 4 and 8 Krad treatment, while, a gradual decrease was observed from 12 to 32 Krad treatments. Seedling measurements taken at the end of 15 days showed increase in 4 and 8 Krad over control, while 12 to 32 Krad treatments showed gradual decrease, plants treated with 4 Krad showed maximum survival percentage at maturity, while a gradual decrease was observed in 12 to 32 Krad treated plants. The treatment of 36 Krad was lethal. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Investigations on fiberoptic behaviour during gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siehs, J.

    1980-12-01

    Investigations on the behaviour of bulk glasses and fiber optics under gamma irradiation and two types of annealing processes (thermal and optical) have been investigated. The samples were irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA Mark II Reactor, Vienna. The irradiation induced losses of transmission were measured in a dual beam spectrophotometer. The transmission was measured one hour after reactor shut-down. Thermal annealing was done at 300, 400 and 500 0 C. Photo bleaching was investigated with a quartz-lamp, an arc-lamp and an UV-laser light. (author)

  1. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  2. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  3. Gemstone enhancing dedicated gamma irradiator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omi, Nelson Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to it's poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator raised in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations were performed. With the definitive irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. (author)

  4. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  5. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D 10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  7. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  8. Practical design of gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Sen-ichi

    1976-01-01

    In this report, it is intended to describe mainly the multi-purpose irradiation facilities which carry out the consigned irradiation for the sterilization of medical apparatuses, which is most of the demand of gamma irradiation in Japan. Gamma irradiation criterion is summed up to that ''Apply the specified dose properly and uniformly to product cases and be economic.'' Though the establishment of the design standard for irradiation facilities is not easy and is not solve simply, the factors to be considered in the design are as follows: (1) mechanism safety, (2) multipurpose irradiation structure, (3) irradiation criteria and practice, (4) efficiency of radiation source utilization and related problems, and (5) economical merit. Irradiation facilities are generally itemized as follows: irradiation equipments, radiation source-storing facility, package carrier, radiation source-driving equipments, facilities for safety and operational management and others. Examples and their characteristics are reported for the facilities of Japan Radio-isotope Irradiation Cooperative Association and Radie Industries Ltd. Expenses for construction, processing and radiation sources are shown on the basis of a few references, and the cost trially calculated under a certain presumptive condition is given. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Improving smoked herring quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.; Abd El-Wahab, S.A.; Hendy, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoked herring which is a highly purchasable product in Egypt, was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (1.5,3.0 and 5.0 kGy) and stored at environmental temperature (12± 2 deg C) until spoilage of the control. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed throughout storage to monitor the quality attributes. It is worthy to mention that irradiation reduced the population of bacteria and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose used (5.0 kGy). At the same time 1.5 kGy completely eliminated staphylococcus aureus (coagulase + ve) and coliforms. By chemical analysis, there was significant decrease in average moisture content by different gamma irradiation doses and storage. Although the average thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased slightly by γ-irradiation, this increase was highly significant by storage . At the same time there was a significant (p< 0.05)decrease in the average trimethylamine (TMA) value of all irradiated samples compared with unirradiated control, this value increased significantly by storage. interestingly, the average histamine value decreased significantly in all irradiated samples. The sensory analysis revealed a highly significant difference in the average acceptability scores between different irradiation doses used and also by storage. Therefore it could be concluded that the quality of smoked herring during storage at environmental temperature (12 ± 2 deg C) could be improved by using 5.0 kGy γ -irradiation

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for storage potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, M.; Almasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Since deficiency of controlled store in Iran and environmental problems of chemical material the use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. In this study potatoes of Agria Variety were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 KGY and stored along with the unirradiated controls at 12±3°C for a period of more than 6 month from October to April .After 4 month of storage the sprouting ranged from 5 to 12% in irradiated potatoes and 45 to 74% in unirradiated samples and after 6 month the unirradiated potatoes were discarded because of heavy sprouting and rotting. The rot attack was approximately double in unirradiated samples. It was found that losses through dehydration were 10.3 to 15.1 % in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C content, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The results suggested the efficacy of Gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the storing quality of potato during lean periods from October to April. (author)

  11. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35 S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C 57 Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35 S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  12. Prophylactic Role of Spermine in Rats Intoxicated With Lead and/or Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habieb, M.E.; Mohamed, M.A.; Hawas, A.M.; Abu-Khudir, R.; Mohamed, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of spermine, a natural polyamine against toxicity of lead and /or gamma irradiation in male rats. Eight groups of rats were used in this study (control, irradiated group (6 GY), lead (40 mg/kg bw), spermine (10 mg/kg bw), lead plus irradiation, irradiation plus spermine, lead plus spermine, irradiation plus lead co-treated with spermine) for consecutive 14 days. Blood samples were used for complete blood count (CBC) and glucose 6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Moreover, malondialdhyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), metallothionein (MT) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were investigated in liver, kidney and brain. G6PD activity significantly decreased post exposure to lead and /or gamma irradiation. Hepatic, renal and brain MDA, GSH, MT and CAT were significantly increased in lead intoxicated group, while GSH, MT and CAT activity were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated group. Spermine administration alleviated changes in CBC, G6PD, MDA, MT and CAT to normal control levels, but with significant increase in G6PD activity and platelets count. In conclusion, spermine acts as an antioxidant and plays a prophylactic role against intoxication with lead and/or gamma irradiation exposure.

  13. Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinderlerer, J.L.; Kellard, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the sterilisation of coconut by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, followed by storage in water at 25 0 C for 8 weeks. Bacillus subtilis developed after storage in water. The volatile compounds formed as a result of bacterial activity were extracted and identified. (U.K.)

  14. Radioprotective effects of chlorogenic acid against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr; Amirhossein Ahmadi; Shahram Akhlaghpoor; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radioprotective effects of the naturally occurring compound chlorogenic acid has been investigated against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice. Chlorogenic acid administrated at single doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 1 and 24 h prior to lethal dose of gamma irradiation (8.5 Gy). At 30 days after treatment, the percentage of animal survival in each group was: control, 20%; 100 mg/kg, 20% and 15%; 200 mg/kg, 45% and 15%; 400 mg/kg, 25% and 35% for 1 h and 24 h treatment prior gamma irradiation, respectively. Percentage of survival increased in animal treated with this agent at 200 mg/kg at 1 h statistically compared with irradiated alone group. Other doses of chlorogenic acid have not showed any enhanced survival at 1 and 24 h before irradiation. Chlorogenic acid exhibited concentration-dependent activity on 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical to show strong antioxidant activity. It appeared that chlorogenic acid with antioxidant activity reduced mortality induced by gamma irradiation.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dae-Woon; Choi, Jong-il; Chung, Yong-Jae; Kang, Dai-Ill; Hoon Kim, Gwang; Son, Kwang-Tae; Park, Hae-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiation can destroy fungi and insects involved in the bio-deterioration of organic cultural heritages. However, this irradiation procedure can alter optical and structural properties of historical pigments used in wooden cultural heritage paintings. The crystal structure and color centers of these paintings must be maintained after application of the irradiation procedure. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork (Dancheong) for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages. The main pigments in Korean traditional wooden cultural heritages, Sukganju (Hematite; Fe 2 O 3 ), Jangdan (Minium; Pb 3 O 4 ), Whangyun (Crocoite; PbCrO 4 ), and Jidang (Rutile; TiO 2 ), were irradiated by gamma radiation at doses of 1, 5, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, changes in Commision Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured using the color difference meter, and their structural changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The slightly change in less than 1 dE* unit by gamma irradiation was observed, and structural changes in the Dancheong were stable after exposure to 20 kGy gamma irradiation. In addition, gamma irradiation could be applied to painted wooden cultural properties from the Korean Temple. Based on the color values, gamma irradiation of 20 kGy did not affect the Dancheong and stability was maintained for five months. In addition, the fungicidal and insecticidal effect by less than 5 kGy gamma irradiation was conformed. Therefore, the optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained after gamma irradiation, which suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages painted with Dancheong. - Highlights: • Effects of gamma irradiation on the Dancheong were evaluated. • We confirmed that optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained. • Irradiation can contribute the

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the plasma membrane of suspension-cultured apple cells. Rapid irreversible inhibition of H+-ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.-Z.; Montillet, J.-L.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation, used in post-harvest treatment of fruit and vegetables. were investigated on cultured apple cells (Pyrus malus L. cv. Royal Red) on a short-term period. Irradiation (2 kGy) induced an increase of passive ion effluxes from cells and a decrease of cell capacity to regulate external pH. These alterations are likely due to effects on plasma membrane structure and function and were further investigated by studying the effects of irradiation on plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity. Plasma membrane-enriched vesicles were prepared and the H + -ATPase activity was characterized. Irradiation of the vesicles induced a dose dependent inhibition of H + -ATPase activity. The loss of enzyme activity was immediate, even at low doses (0.5 kGy), and was not reversed by the addition of 2mM dithiothreitol. This inhibition may be the result of an irreversible oxidation of enzyme sulfhydryl moieties and/or the result of changes induced within the lipid bilayer affecting the membrane-enzyme interactions. Further analysis of the H + -ATPase activity was carried out on vesicles obtained from irradiated cells confirming the previous results. In vivo recovery of activity was not observed within 5 h following the treatment, thus explaining the decrease of cell capacity to regulate external pH. This rapid irreversible inhibition of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase must be considered as one of the most important primary biochemical events occurring in irradiated plant material. (author)

  17. Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Murat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H2O2 and in 1.20 mM H2O2 solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O3 h-1 in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.

  18. Simulating 60 Co gamma irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Cadgamma, a software dedicated to simulate 60 Co gamma irradiation systems, can lead to an optimized process and simulating, in a few hours, many configurations setups for the irradiation elements. The software can also simulate changes in the path of the product and the influence of any steady body like the support of the product support and source shoulders. These simulations minimize the number of dose mapping tests in industrial applications and allow the study of unusual setups. Cadgamma was developed at IPEN to simulate it is multipurpose 60 Co irradiation system, under construction and planned to be operating by the second half of 2001. The software was used on project stage and will help to optimize the irradiation process for each product to be treated. (author)

  19. TRIGA out of core gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Pregl, G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility to irradiate extended objects in a gamma field inside the shielding water tank and above the core of operating TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been investigated. The irradiation cask is shielded with Cd cover to filter out thermal neutrons. The dose rate of the gamma field strongly depends on the distance of the irradiation position above the core. At 25 cm above the core, the gamma dose rate is 2.2 Gy/s and epithermal neutron flux is ∼ 8.10 6 ncm -2 s -1 ∼ 3 as measured by TLD (CaF 2 : Mn) dosimeters and Au foils respectively. Tentative applications of the gamma irradiation facility are in the studies of radiation induced accelerated aging and within the Nuclear Power Plant Equipment Qualification Program (EQP). A complete characterization of the neutron spectrum and optimization of the 7 radiation field within the cask has still to be performed. (author)

  20. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.M.; Padwal Desai, S.R.; Sharma, A.; Gholap, A.S.; Behere, A.G.; Parte, M.N.; Jadhav, S.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination by gamma irradiation of minor spices such as coriander, fennel, cumin, aniseed, cardamom (large) and ajowan was studied. The bacterial load on these spices ranged from 10 2 - 10 5 cfu/g, while the fungal load ranged from 10-10 3 cfu/g. No microorganisms were detected in samples exposed to radiation and stored up to 12 mo. Though pathogens, such as coliforms, B. cereus and Staphylococci were detected in some samples of spices, their presence was not detected in spices exposed to radiation. A comparison of gas liquid chromatographic profiles indicated no significant change in the quality of volatile oils of these spices. Intra country transportation studies, in collaboration with two national laboratories and a multinational corporation, confirmed our earlier observations regarding retention of quality in several spices following irradiation, transport and storage. Similar results were evident from intercountry collaborative studies with Japan. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  2. Microbial determination of Cumin by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, F.; Abhari, M.; Fathollahi, H.; Arbabi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cumin is one of the valuable export items of Iran, and like most of the agricultural products it is contaminated by microorganisms. Due to importance of this product, the gamma irradiation method, which has applications in microbial decontamination, has been used for the improving its quality and increasing the shelf life-time. For this purpose pak ages of 10 gr of cumin were irradiated by 2,4,6 and 8 KGy from 60 Co source. With each dose, four samples were irradiated and results were compared with controlled not irradiated samples. According to the standard limitation of bacteria and molds the total optimum doses are 7.5 and 5 KGy respectively

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on wheat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, B.; Koksel, H.; Ozkaya, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation at the doses of 2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0 and 12.5 kGy on two bread wheat samples (Bezostaya and Gerek) with distinct physical and technological properties was investigated in this study.Irradiation at the levels used had no significant effect on the flour yields of both varieties.No apparent changes were observed in ash,protein and wet gluten contents of the irradiated samples and control.However,as the radiation level was increased the falling number and sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease.Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased significantly with irradiation.Farinograph absorption increased with increasing radiation exposure.However, dough development time,stability and valorimeter values decreased as radiation levels increased.Maximum resistance to extension(Rm), resistance at constant deformation (R 5) and area(A) values of extensograms decreased in both varieties as radiation levels increased

  4. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachin, I.; Pavlov, A.; Stefanova, M.; Danev, D.

    1994-01-01

    Decontamination of spices (onion powder, cardamom, red pepper powder, etc.) used for special types of Bulgarian sausages was investigated. Gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) at doses of 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy was applied. It was found that the total count of microorganisms in spices was between 1.85.10 5 and 3.8.10 7 . The largest was the amount of the coliforms and the staphylococci in the onion powder. The cardamom and onion powder were free of coliforms with dose of 4 kGy. The staphylococci were eliminated with doses of 6 kGy. The number of proteolytic microorganisms was decreased but they were isolated from spices irradiated even with 10 kGy. (author)

  5. The protective effect of Sambucus ebulus against lung toxicity induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and lung protective activities of Sambucus ebulus (SE against toxicity induced by gamma irradiation. Hydroalcoholic extract of SE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied for its lung protective activity. Phenol and flavonoid contents of SE were determined. Male C57 mice were divided into ten groups with five mice per group. Only the first and second groups (as negative control received intraperitoneally normal saline fluid. Groups 3 to 5 received only SE extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally; three groups were repeatedly injected for 15 days as chronic group. Groups 6 to 8 received a single-dose of gamma irradiation just 2 hours before irradiation as acute group. The ninth and tenth groups (as positive control received only gamma rays. Animal was exposed whole-body to 6 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, tissue sections of lung parenchyma were examined by light microscope for any histopathologic changes. SE at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg improved markedly histopathological changes induced by gamma irradiation in lung. Lung protective effect of SE could be due to attention of lipid peroxidation. Our study demonstrated that SE as a natural product has a protective effect against lung toxicity induced by   gamma irradiation in animal.

  6. Influence of storage period of gamma-irradiated seeds on the catalase activity and the sinthesis of alpha-amilase in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkov, D.; Antonov, M.; Spasov, S.

    1983-10-01

    It was established that irradiation of the maize hybrid Knezha 2L-611 seeds with the dose 5 Gy showed the most constant and the best expressed stimulation effect. The activity of catalase and synthesis of alpha-amylase showed that the most convenient time for sowing of seeds irradiated with 5 Gy was 2 days after the treatment

  7. Differential effect of gamma-irradiated and heat-treated lymphocytes on T cell activation, and interleukin-2 and interleukin-3 release in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loertscher, R.; Abbud-Filho, M.; Leichtman, A.B.; Ythier, A.A.; Williams, J.M.; Carpenter, C.B.; Strom, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-inactivated (45 degrees C/1 hr) lymphocytes selectively activate suppressor T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while no significant proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation can be detected. It is not well understood why hyperthermic treatment abolishes the stimulatory capacity of lymphocytes since HLA-DR molecules remain detectable immediately following heat exposure. In order to further characterize the requirements for Ts activation we studied the effects of hyperthermic treatment on cellular protein and DNA synthesis and cell surface protein expression in proliferating T and B cells; interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-3 release following allogeneic stimulation with heat treated cells (HMLR); and IL-2 receptor expression as an indicator of T cell activation in the HMLR. Hyperthermic treatment reduced cellular protein synthesis as estimated by 14 C-leucine uptake to about 15%, and DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine incorporation) to about 5% of untreated control cells. In contrast to y-irradiated cells, viability of heated cells rapidly declined within the first 24 hr. Hyperthermic treatment doubled binding of mouse immunoglobulin paralleled by an increased expression of IL-2 and transferrin receptors, while expression of HLA-DR and 4F2 proteins appeared unchanged. Stimulation with heated cells triggered the release of IL-1- and an IL-3-like bioactivity but did not induce IL-2 synthesis and/or release, thus explaining the lack of proliferation in the HMLR. Addition of exogenous IL-2 but not IL-1 restored HMLR proliferation. A comparison of allostimulation with y-irradiated and heat-treated cells revealed that significantly fewer T cells were induced to express IL-2 receptors at day 3 (14% vs. 8%, P less than 0.001) and at day 6 (42% vs. 21%, P less than 0.05) with heat-inactivated stimulators

  8. The neuro secretory activity in the permanent nymphs of schistocerca gregarea (Forskal) as a result of gamma irradiation of the third nymphal instar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgammal, A.M.; Abdelsalam, K.A.; Mourad, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the neuro secretory activity in the permanent nymphs of schistocerca gregaria by treating them in the third nymphal instar. Treatment with 30 gray induced complete mortality for all treated nymphs. However, irradiation with a dose of 20 gray produced fourth instar nymphs which entered a state of suspended development for about 14 days. Exposure to a dose of 10 gray induced three types of response associated with the endocrine activities. Some of the treated nymphs developed to the fifth instar with soft and thin cuticle without tanning or darkening, these nymphs did not survive more than a few hours after ecdysis. Others became fifth instar with anomalous wings and normal cuticle, these survived about 18 days as permanent fifth instar nymphs before dying. The rest molted to permanent fourth instar that survived more than one month and eventually died. Corporal allata (CA) volume in the permanent nymphs were estimated by planimeter method, revealing a pronounced reduction in their size in comparison with the untreated control. This reflects a sharp inhibition in their synthetic activity of juvenile hormone (J H). It is assumed that the permanent nymphs were produced as a result of direct effect on the cerebral neuro secretory cells of the brain, the source of stimulation for J H an decdysone production. In the main time, gamma rays prevented the production of the tanning and darkening factor (Bursicon hormone) in these cells.1 fig.,3 tab

  9. Improvement of physical properties of soyabeans by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Kwon, J.-H.; Mori, Tomohiko

    1993-01-01

    Physical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans were evaluated at different temperatures by determining water absorption pattern and cooking characteristics of the sample. Irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy caused the reduction of soaking time in soybeans by 2-5 hours and the increase of hydration capacity by 10-20%, respectively, compared to the non-irradiated control at 20 o C. The activation energy for water absorption was lower in irradiated soybeans than in the non-irradiated control. Irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy caused the reduction of cooking time in soybeans by 30-60% compared to the non-irradiated control and the cooking rate constant of irradiated samples was higher about 2 times than that of the non-irradiated control. The irradiation efficacy on physical quality improvement was also recognized in the stored soybeans for one year at room temperature. (author)

  10. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie paroxystique contrastant parfois avec une diminution

  11. Influence of a Modified Plant Extract on Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and Concentration of Pigments in Gamma-Irradiated Plants of Maize and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizov Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a medicinal plant extract, immobilised by ligands, on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigment concentration of wheat and maize was studied. The object of study was seed of drought-resistant firm durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and maize (Zea mays L.. Seeds were subjected to general uniform γ-radiation from a 60Co source on a Rkhund installation at average dose power of MD = 0.306 Gy/sec. Before radiation seeds were treated in modified extract from medicinal plants. The treatment of seeds with 0.1 and 0.01% solution of modified extract from Hypericum, Dandelion, and Calendula caused significant reduction in processes initiated by radiation and in formation of free radicals. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded that the used modified plant extract collection had a protective effect, reducing the amount of free radicals produced by γ-irradiation.

  12. Study on gamma-irradiation degradation of chitosan swollen in H2O2 solution and its antimicrobial activity for E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Xuan Du; Bui Phuoc Phuc; Tran Thi Thuy; Le Anh Quoc; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of chitosan in swollen state with hydrogen peroxide solution (5% w/v) by γ-irradiation was investigated. Molecular weight (M w ) of irradiated chitosan was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were analyzed to study the structure changes of degraded chitosan. The results showed that the chitosan of low M w (30-45 kDa) was efficiently prepared by γ-irradiation of chitosan swollen in hydrogen peroxide solution at low dose less than 20 kGy. The main structure as well as the degree of deacetylation of the degraded chitosan was almost no significant change. Furthermore, the radiation degradation yield (G s ) was remarkably enhanced by the presence of H 2 O 2 . The obtained low M w chitosan revealed high antimicrobial activity for E. coli that can be used for food preservation and other purposes as well. (author)

  13. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative HPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  15. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om P; Popov, Anatoliy V; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-09-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton (1)H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO(-) and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO(-) and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Chloride anions (Cl(-)) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by (1)H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO(-) or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO(-) generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2¯)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in physiological solutions. SDG treatment scavenged

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dae-Woon; Choi, Jong-il; Chung, Yong-Jae; Kang, Dai-Ill; Hoon Kim, Gwang; Son, Kwang-Tae; Park, Hae-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-10-01

    Gamma irradiation can destroy fungi and insects involved in the bio-deterioration of organic cultural heritages. However, this irradiation procedure can alter optical and structural properties of historical pigments used in wooden cultural heritage paintings. The crystal structure and color centers of these paintings must be maintained after application of the irradiation procedure. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork (Dancheong) for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages. The main pigments in Korean traditional wooden cultural heritages, Sukganju (Hematite; Fe2O3), Jangdan (Minium; Pb3O4), Whangyun (Crocoite; PbCrO4), and Jidang (Rutile; TiO2), were irradiated by gamma radiation at doses of 1, 5, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, changes in Commision Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured using the color difference meter, and their structural changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The slightly change in less than 1 dE* unit by gamma irradiation was observed, and structural changes in the Dancheong were stable after exposure to 20 kGy gamma irradiation. In addition, gamma irradiation could be applied to painted wooden cultural properties from the Korean Temple. Based on the color values, gamma irradiation of 20 kGy did not affect the Dancheong and stability was maintained for five months. In addition, the fungicidal and insecticidal effect by less than 5 kGy gamma irradiation was conformed. Therefore, the optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained after gamma irradiation, which suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages painted with Dancheong.

  17. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by gamma-irradiated hemoproteins. Pt. 2. Reduction of nitrite by immobilized gamma-irradiated hemoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake; Sato, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Kaneko, Junko; Goto, Mituhiro; Nishio, Toshiyuki; Ito, Teiichiro; Kume, Tamikazu.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium and potassium nitrites are used for coloration and pasteurization of meat products as food additives. Recently, removal of nitrite in water has been one of the research area in environmental science because of the necessity of reducing water pollution. The horse cardiac cytochrome c in 0.1mM aqueous solution was denatured by gamma-irradiation at a dose of 10kGy in the presence of air, and was immobilized by lattice entrapment method in the polyacrylamide gel. The immobilized irradiated cytochrome c was reacted with nitrite in the presence of reducing agent (sodium hydrosulfite) and electron carrier (methyl viologen) at 30degC. The remaining nitrite was determined by diazo-reaction. Immobilized irradiated cytochrome c could be used as a substituent of nitrite reductase, and especially high nitrite reducing activity under nitrogen atmosphere in acidic range, and entrapment in 15% gel made possible to reuse denatured cytochrome c several times. (J.P.N.)

  18. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  19. Hopping conduction in gamma-irradiated InSe and InSe:Sn single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUSTAFAEVA, S.N.; ISMAILOV, A.A.; ASADOV, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    the electric properties of InSe single crystals. The operation by the electric parameters of the studied InSe and InSe : Sn single crystals due to gamma-irradiation gives perspective for the use of these objects as active materials for creating of various transducers and gamma detectors

  20. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere R; Seena, Sahadevan

    2008-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on Mucuna pruriens seeds at various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) on the proximate composition, mineral constituents, amino acids, fatty acids and functional properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation resulted in a significant increase of crude protein at all doses, while the crude lipid, crude fibre and ash showed a dose-dependent decrease. Raw Mucuna seeds were rich in minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium). Sodium, copper and manganese were significantly decreased on irradiation at all the doses, while magnesium and iron showed a significant decrease only above 10 kGy. The essential amino acids of raw and gamma-irradiated Mucuna seeds were comparable with the FAO/WHO recommended pattern. A significant increase of in vitro protein digestibility was seen in seeds irradiated at 30 kGy. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids in Mucuna seeds decreased significantly after irradiation. However, linoleic acid was not present in raw seeds but detected after irradiation and it was elevated to high level at 30 kGy. Behenic acid, a major anti-nutritional factor, was reduced significantly on irradiation, indicating the positive effect of gamma irradiation on Mucuna seeds. Significant enhancement in the water absorption and oil absorption capacities, protein solubility, emulsion activity and improvement in the gelation capacity was recorded after irradiation. Results of the present investigation reveal that application of gamma irradiation does not affect the overall nutritional composition and can be used as an effective method of preservation of Mucuna seed and their products.

  1. Assessment of indices of LP-AOS-system in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation and administration of veshenka extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milevich, T.I.; Malash, A.L.; Gerasimenia, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Putyrskij, Y.L.

    2012-01-01

    The administration of veshenka extracts promotes quite high level of antioxidant activity, protects the fermentative link of antioxidant protection and prevent activation of lipid peroxidation process in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation. (authors)

  2. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on antioxidant properties of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, C.; Kuna, Aparna; Sagar, S.B.; Padmavati, T.V.N.; Supraja, T.; Prabhakar, N.

    2015-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0.25 to 1.0kGy) on antioxidant properties of ber fruit was studied. Antioxidant properties of ber fruits were determined by scavenging DPPH radical activity, reducing power assay, super oxide anion radical activity, TBARS, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. Gamma irradiation treatment up to 1.0 kGy elevated the scavenging DPPH radical activity (9 %), super oxide anion radical activity (26 %) and total flavonoid content (208 %) compared to fresh ber fruit. On the other hand it brought down the reducing power activity (65 %) and total phenolic content (18 %) as compared to raw fruit. The TBARS activity statistically increased upon irradiation of ber fruit. It indicated that total antioxidant activity decreased as TBARS value increased. Therefore 0.25 to 0.5kGy is better dose to retain the natural antioxidant in fruit. (author)

  4. Gamma irradiation facility: Evaluation of operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A.; Ali, M.S.; Shonowo, O.A.; Akueche, E.C.; Sadare, O.O.; Mustapha, T.K.; Yusuf, U.; Inyanda, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC), Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHETSCO), Abuja, Nigeria is designed as a semi-commercial plant with facilities for research and development (R and D). The design takes into account the different needs of the various research applications which require a wide dose range, a variety of techniques, different product sizes, shapes, mass, volume, densities and types. Programmable doses are used for food irradiation (0.04 - 10 kGy), biological seed mutation breeding and sterile insect technique (STI) (0.01- 5 kGy) sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and packages (up to 25 kGy) and cross-linking of polymers (up to 100 kGy). The six different modes of operations (sample elevator, stationary, swiveling, 2-path inner lane and 2-path outer lane and 4-path line) were evaluated. The dose range, mass range and range of irradiation time practicable were established and advantages for radiation processing of food and industrial products were enumerated for the six modes of operations for the first time

  5. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, Rahayu

    1985-01-01

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  6. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  7. Gamma irradiation of radioprotectant drugs. 1. Levamisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, C R; Elhardt, C E; May, L [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1980-09-01

    Levamisole ((S)-(-)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl-imidazo-(2, 1-b) thiazole), an immunomodulating drug and veterinary antihelminthic, is converted by tissues to a sulfhydryl derivative. The drug and its metabolite have mediating effects on lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations. Because levamisole, as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, is a radioprotectant drug, it was of interest to study the response of the drug itself to ionizing radiation. Experiments were directed toward an examination of the effects of gamma radiation on aqueous solutions of levamisole. Chromatographic analysis (TLC) revealed two distinct groups of radiation products. Further separation and analysis of these groups by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) demonstrated that each group of radiation products consists of several components, indicating that the gamma irradiation of non-deaerated solutions of levamisole gives rise to varying amounts of a multiproduct mixture, no constituent of which corresponds to the natural metabolite. Dose effect curves for the levamisole irradiation indicate that the drug is markedly resistant to molecular alteration under the experimental radiation conditions.

  8. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  9. Comparative analyses reveal different consequences of two oxidative stress inducers, gamma irradiation and potassium tellurite, in the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha, Anaganti; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic and mass spectrometric analyses revealed differential responses of D. radiodurans to two oxidative stressors. While both elicited oxidative stress alleviation response, major divergence was observed at the level of DNA repair, metabolic pathways and protein homeostasis. Response to gamma irradiation was focused on DNA repair and ROS scavenging but supported metabolism as well as protein homeostasis. Tellurite, induced oxidative stress alleviation but decreased reducing affected and adversely affected metabolism and protein homeostasis

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation and its convergent treatment for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea of cut roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Eun-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Park, Hae-Jun; Jeong, Rae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Postharvest diseases cause considerable losses to harvested crops. Among them, gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is a major problem of exporting to cut rose flowers into Korea. Irradiation treatment is an alternative to phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical approach to the control of postharvest diseases. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against B. cinerea on cut rose varieties, ‘Shooting Star’ and ‘Babe’. The irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%, D 10 , was 0.99 kGy. Gamma irradiation showed complete inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea, especially 4.0 kGy in vitro. Antifungal activity of gamma irradiation on rose B. cinerea is a dose-dependent manner. A significant phytotoxicity such as bent neck in cut rose quality was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.4 kGy (p<0.05) in both varieties. Although there is no significant difference in both varieties for fresh weight, in the case of flower rate, ‘Babe’ shows more sensitivity than ‘Shooting Star’. In vivo assays demonstrated that established doses in in vitro, over 4 kGy, could completely inactive fungal pathogens, but such high doses can cause severe flowers damage. Thus, to eliminate negative impact on their quality, gamma irradiation was evaluated at lower doses in combination with an eco-friendly chemical, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) to examine the inhibition of B. cinerea. Intriguingly, only the combined treatment with 0.2 kGy of gamma irradiation and 70 ppm of NaDCC exhibited significant synergistic antifungal activity against blue mold decay in both varieties. Together, these results suggest that a synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and NaDCC can be efficiently used to control the postharvest diseases in cut rose flowers, and will provide a promising technology for horticulture products for exportation. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation and Na

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 5-15 kGy on the quality properties of durum wheat semolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Semolina purified from four durum wheat varieties were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy, i.e., dose levels expected to improve the colour of pasta products, suitable for reduction of microbial contamination, and high doses required for insect disinfestation. The irradiation resulted in significant losses in carotenoid content and oxidative enzyme activities. Gamma irradiation slightly affected the mixing properties, greatly reduced the gluten strength and adversely affected firmness of cooked pasta. Consequently, preservative gamma irradiation of durum wheat semolina should be limited to a maximum dose of 5 kGy. (author) 39 refs.; 3 tabs

  12. Pretreatment with low-dose gamma irradiation enhances tolerance to the stress of cadmium and lead in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hangbo; Jin, Qingsheng; Jiao, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with negative impact on plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heavy metal stress mitigated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the dry seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to a Cobalt-60 gamma source at doses ranging from 25 to 150Gy before being subjected to 75µM CdCl2 or 500µM Pb(NO3)2. Then, the growth parameters, and physiological and molecular changes were determined in response to gamma irradiation. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation gave maximal beneficial effects on the germination index and root length in response to cadmium/lead stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy gamma rays under stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The antioxidant enzyme activities and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, a transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of heavy metal detoxification were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under cadmium/lead stress. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation alleviates heavy metal stress, probably by modulating the physiological responses and gene expression levels related to heavy metal resistance in Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Degradation of epoxy coatings under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouani, F.; Zahra, Y.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy networks based on Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and cured with Jeffamine® (POPA) or polyamidoamine (PAA) were gamma irradiated at 25 °C in air. Dose rates of 50, 200 or 2000 Gy h −1 for doses up 100 kGy were used. Structural changes were monitored by IR spectrophotometry, DSC and sol–gel analysis. Both networks display some common features: for I≥200 Gy h −1 , reaction products grow proportionally to time and the rate is a decreasing function of dose rate. The simplest explanation is that peroxy radicals are the main precursors of these products (in the dose rate domain under study), through a unimolecular rearrangement of which an hypothetical mechanism is proposed. DGEBA–POPA are more reactive then DGEBA–PAA networks (according to IR criteria), that can be attributed to the high reactivity of tertiary CH bands in polyoxypropylene segments. The oxidation of these sites leads to methyl ketones. A simple kinetic model in which methyl ketones result from rearrangements of tertiary peroxyls and from tertiary alkoxyls was proposed. It leads to an expression of the radiochemical yield of methyl ketones (G(MK)) of the form G(MK)=a+bI −1/2 where a and b are parameters depending of elementary rate constants. Experimental G(MK) values are reasonably well fitted by this equation. In DGEBA–PAA networks, a wide variety of oxidation products, among which amides predominate, can be observed. In these networks, chain scissions predominate over crosslinking, whereas a slight predominance of crosslinking was observed, at least for the lowest dose rate, in DGEBA–POPA. - Highlights: ► The effects of irradiation at three distinct dose rates have been studied on two epoxy networks. ► DGEBA–polyamidoamine networks appear more stable than DGEBA–polyoxypropylene diamine ones. ► A simple kinetic model involving methyl ketones is proposed.

  14. Microbiological and biochemical response of certain proteolytic bacterial isolates to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.M.N.E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Amniotic membrane allo - and xeno grafts prepared from human foetal placenta, and their potential replacement of skin autotransplant, would significantly contribute to the success of clinical treatment of skin burns. Allo-and xenografts of human amniotic membrane should be ensured for their sterility, bio-mechanics and tissue antigenicity. The present study has been focused on sterilization and sterility assurance of the membrane grafts. Physico-chemical properties and antigenicity of the grafts await investigation. In the present study the isolation and identification of the bacteria contaminating the amniotic membrane allo-and xenografts prepared from human foetal placenta and the effect of gamma irradiation on it has been investigated. The proteolytic activity of these bacteria and the role of gamma irradiation in the control of bacterial activity were similarly investigated

  15. Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Zhao, Weichao; Feng, Yongfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yongdong

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of gamma irradiation on zebrafish embryos. Different doses of gamma rays (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy) were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at three developmental stages (stage 1, 6 h post-fertilization (hpf); stage 2, 12 hpf; stage three, 24 hpf), respectively. The survival, malformation and hatching rates of the zebrafish embryos were measured at the morphological endpoint of 96 hpf. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Morphology analysis showed that gamma irradiation inhibited hatching and induced developmental toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, after irradiation the malformation rate changed not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a developmental stage-dependent manner, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 1 were more sensitive to gamma rays than those at other stages. Biochemical analysis showed that gamma irradiation modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. A linear relationship was found between GPx activity and irradiation dose in 0.1-1 Gy group, and GPx was a suitable biomarker for gamma irradiation in the dose range from 0.1 to 1 Gy. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, GR and GPx of the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 were found to be much higher than those at other stages, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 had a greater ability to protect against gamma rays than those at other stages, and thus the activities of antioxidant enzymes changed in a developmental stage-dependent manner.

  16. Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Miao; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Zhao, Weichao; Feng, Yongfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yongdong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of gamma irradiation on zebrafish embryos. Different doses of gamma rays (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy) were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at three developmental stages (stage 1, 6 h post-fertilization (hpf); stage 2, 12 hpf; stage three, 24 hpf), respectively. The survival, malformation and hatching rates of the zebrafish embryos were measured at the morphological endpoint of 96 hpf. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Morphology analysis showed that gamma irradiation inhibited hatching and induced developmental toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, after irradiation the malformation rate changed not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a developmental stage-dependent manner, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 1 were more sensitive to gamma rays than those at other stages. Biochemical analysis showed that gamma irradiation modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. A linear relationship was found between GPx activity and irradiation dose in 0.1-1 Gy group, and GPx was a suitable biomarker for gamma irradiation in the dose range from 0.1 to 1 Gy. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, GR and GPx of the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 were found to be much higher than those at other stages, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 had a greater ability to protect against gamma rays than those at other stages, and thus the activities of antioxidant enzymes changed in a developmental stage-dependent manner. (orig.)

  17. Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Miao; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Zhao, Weichao; Feng, Yongfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yongdong [University of South China, Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China)

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of gamma irradiation on zebrafish embryos. Different doses of gamma rays (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy) were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at three developmental stages (stage 1, 6 h post-fertilization (hpf); stage 2, 12 hpf; stage three, 24 hpf), respectively. The survival, malformation and hatching rates of the zebrafish embryos were measured at the morphological endpoint of 96 hpf. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Morphology analysis showed that gamma irradiation inhibited hatching and induced developmental toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, after irradiation the malformation rate changed not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a developmental stage-dependent manner, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 1 were more sensitive to gamma rays than those at other stages. Biochemical analysis showed that gamma irradiation modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. A linear relationship was found between GPx activity and irradiation dose in 0.1-1 Gy group, and GPx was a suitable biomarker for gamma irradiation in the dose range from 0.1 to 1 Gy. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, GR and GPx of the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 were found to be much higher than those at other stages, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 had a greater ability to protect against gamma rays than those at other stages, and thus the activities of antioxidant enzymes changed in a developmental stage-dependent manner. (orig.)

  18. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author)

  19. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of strawberry (Fragaria sp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-02-01

    Despite the increased production of strawberry in Syria, the storability and marketability of fruits were not well studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Senga sengana strawberry produced in Syria and the effect of gamma irradiation on fungal sp. i.e. Botrytis; Penicillium; Rhizopus. The fruits were treated with 1 , 2 and 3 KGy of gamma rays. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 2 to 4 centigrade and 80 to 90 % relative humidity (RH). In order to investigate their marketability, the fruits where held at room temperature (25 to 30 centigrade). Weight loss, microbial decay, and total loss, juice production, pH, total soluble solids of the juice and organoleptic qualities were evaluated throughout the different storage and marketing periods. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased the microbial decay and increased the storability and marketability of fruits by 50 and 100% after using 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. D10 were 1.8 and 2.4 for Botrytis and Rhizopus respectively. One day after irradiation total soluble solids and its pH values were increased. Fourteen days later, irradiated fruits produced more juice with higher pH, but total soluble solids were less. Gamma irradiation did not have an effect on aroma and colour of fruits, whereas, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation had an adverse negative effect on taste. (author)

  3. Gamma irradiation for sewage treatment at US army facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.J.; Hollis, H.D.; Musselman, H.D.; Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has been sponsoring research for many years on the use of gamma irradiation for disinfection and sterilization of sewage plant effluents. Initial research was directed to laboratory experiments using sterile solutions to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on E. coli, M-pyogenes and M-smegmatis organisms, and on the chemical constituents of sewage such as phenols, surfactants and pesticides. The results of the initial research warranted further study using municipal sewage secondary effluent as test samples. Current research is directed towards investigating the effects of radiation on the constituents of sewage sludge and on the cyst stage of the amoebic protozoa. Consideration has been given by the Corps to the management of waste-waters by disposal on land. Legal and medical reasons dictate that the plant effluents be sterilized before being used as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Gamma radiation from isotopic sources appears to be the best source of sterilizing energy for Army waste-water disposal. The Corps of Engineers is considering the construction of an experimental gamma irradiation pilot facility to validate laboratory experimental work and to establish design criteria for operating plants. The data obtained will provide a basis for performing detailed cost effectiveness studies on gamma irradiation as a method to treat secondary plant effluent. In addition, optimization work will be conducted to determine where in the sewage treatment cycle the use of gamma irradiation will produce the best results in meeting current and anticipated standards. (author)

  4. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of Aedes aegypti against microfilariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, B.M.; Huff, B.M.; Li, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of Aedes aegypti black eye Liverpool strain against inoculated Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (PI). Mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137Cs source (Shepard Mark I irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. These mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemergence. The immune response was significantly reduced in irradiated mosquitoes as compared with controls at all days PI. Although the response was significantly inhibited compared with controls, irradiated mosquitoes were still capable of eliciting a response against 69% of recovered mff at 6 days PI. External gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the proliferation of hemocytes associated with the melanotic encapsulation response of A. aegypti. The number of circulating hemocytes increased in irradiated mosquitoes in response to inoculated mff in a manner similar to nonirradiated, inoculated controls. Hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity, however, was significantly reduced in gamma-irradiated mosquitoes at 12 hr PI as compared with controls. The reduced immunological capacity of irradiated mosquitoes might be related to an interference with gene activity required for the synthesis or activation of enzymes that are directly or indirectly involved in the biochemical processes associated with the production of melanotic substances that sequester mff

  6. Depression of DNA synthesis rate following hyperthermia, gamma irradiation, cyclotron neutrons and mixed modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Porschen, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Dietzel, F.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation of the thymidine analogue I-UdR is proportional to the activity of DNA synthesis. The maximum depression of 125-I-UdR incorporation occurs approximately 4 hours after all kinds of treatment. The increase which follow reflects cell processes like reoxygeneration, recovery, recycling and recruitment (although a direct relation is not yet demonstrable). The degree of depression 4 hours after treatment and the time required needs to reach control level is dependent on dose and radiation quaility but no such dependence could be clearly seen for the times of hyperthermia treatment we used. Neutron irradiation and the combination gamma irradiation + hyperthermia show a higher depression and a slower return to normal than gamma irradiation at the same dose. (orig.) [de

  7. The Analysis of RSG-GAS Spent Fuel Elements Utilization as a Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjijanto MS; Setiyanto

    2004-01-01

    A gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed using spent fuels placed in the cylindrical periphery. The analysis especially was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator for foods and non-foods which need not too high dose rates. While the spent fuels activities were calculated by ORIGEN2 code, the dose rates at the irradiation positions were determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of the irradiator with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for irradiation needs the dose rate about 2 kGy/hr. Regarding this work, it can be concluded that one can use the unutilized spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications. (author)

  8. Alteration In Physiological And Biochemical Aspects Of GAMMA Irradiated Cotton Leaf Worm Separated Littorals (Boise.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SHALL, S.S.A.; HAZAA, M.A.M.; ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was conducted on F 1 progeny of Spodoptera littoralis to determine the harmful effects of gamma irradiation on some biochemical variables in its larvae and adult tissues. Also, alterations in the antioxidant status, lipid peroxide levels and lipid profile were studied.The results obtained revealed that the doses of gamma irradiation (100 and 200 Gy), the insect stages (larvae, adults) and the sex effects on both sexes significantly decreased the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GSH, GPx, SOD).On the other hand, these factors elevated the levels of lipid peroxides and lipid profile (MDA, Chol, NEFA and Phospholipids). The interaction between the gamma dose, sex and insect stages gave the same previous trend for either antioxidant enzymes or lipid profile. The relationship between the alteration of biochemical variables that induced in irradiated insects and the activity of insects were discussed.

  9. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  10. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  11. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  12. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  13. Radioprotective effects of hawthorn fruit extract against gamma irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinimehr, S.J.; Azadbakht, M.; Mousavi, S.M.; Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Akhlaghpoor, S.

    2007-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of hawthorn (Crataegus microphylla) fruit extract against genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation has been investigated in mouse bone marrow cells. A single intraperitoneal (ip) administration of hawthorn extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg 1 h prior to gamma irradiation (2 Gy) reduced the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs). All four doses of hawthorn extract significantly reduced the frequencies of MnPCEs and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte+normochromatic erythrocyte) in mice bone marrow compared with the non drug-treated irradiated control (p<0.02-0.00001). The maximum reduction in MnPCEs was observed in mice treated with extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Administration of amifostine at dose 100 mg/kg and hawthorn at dose 200 mg/kg reduced the frequency of MnPCE almost 4.8 and 5.7 fold; respectively, after being exposed to 2 Gy of gamma rays, compare with the irradiated control group. Crataegus extract exhibited concentration-dependent activity on 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical showing that Crataegus contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined that it contained chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and hyperoside. It appeared that hawthorn extract with antioxidant activity reduced the genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells. (author)

  14. The improvement of corn starch isolation process by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to non-glutinous and glutinous corns for improving starch isolation process. No significant changes in proximate composition of corn grains were observed by gamma irradiation. Irradiation at 1 and 5 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of non-glutinous and glutinous corns, respectively. The moisture-uptake rate constants were increased in proportional to the steeping temperature and applied irradiation dose level. The irradiation efficacy on water absorption properties was also recognized in the corns stored for six months at room temperature. The combined use of gamma irradiation with sulfur dioxide solution was very effective for reducing steeping time. The starch yield gradually increased as irradiation dose levels increased. At 2 kGy, the sarch yield of non-glutinous and glutinous corns increased by 38% and 27%, respectively. No significant difference in Hunter's color value was observed between the starches isolated from nonirradiated and irradiated corn grains

  15. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A; Jimenez D, H; Urena N, F; Galindo, S; Bosch, P

    1992-03-15

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of {gamma}-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  16. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  17. Acute effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Rogers, J.E.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa has been studied in a primate model by evaluating endoscopically the rate of healing of gastric biopsies. Six male rhesus monkeys were subjected to fiberoptic gastroscopies performed under general anesthesia before and after total body exposure to Cobalt-60 (800 rads). Gastric biopsies were taken 3 hours and 2, 7, and 9 days after irradiation and examined using light microscopy. Gastric biopsies were found to heal in 3 days before irradiation; in contrast, they were still present 7 and 9 days after the biopsies in irradiated animals. Microscopic examination of the biopsies taken outside of the ulcer craters did not demonstrate any significant changes of the gastric surface epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that a gastric ulcer develops at the site of each endoscopic biopsy in irradiated monkeys whereas complete healing is observed in non-irradiated animals. The cause of this observation is unclear but it could be due to radiation induced suppression of the mitotic activity and of the cell renewal of gastric surface epithelial cells

  18. Human cytomegalovirus replicates in gamma-irradiated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the unique interdependence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the physiological state of the host cell, we evaluated the ability of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), exposed to gamma radiation, to support HCMV growth. Irradiation of HFF with 2,500 rADS prevented cellular proliferation and suppressed cellular DNA, but not RNA or protein synthesis. Treatment of HFF cells with 2,500 rADS 6 or 48 hours prior to infection did not alter the time course or virus yield during HCMV replication. Virus plaquing efficiency in irradiated cells was comparable to that of nonirradiated cells. As judged by thymidine incorporation and BUdR inhibition of virus replication, HCMV infection induced both thymidine kinase activity and host cell DNA synthesis in irradiated cells. In addition, virus could be recovered from HFF exposed to radiation 0-2 days after infection with HCMV. These studies indicate that the damage to cells by gamma irradiation does not alter the capacity of host cells to support HCMV replication

  19. DECOMMISSIONING THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY BUILDING 830 GAMMA IRRADIATION FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN, B.S.; SULLIVAN, P.T.

    2001-08-13

    The Building 830 Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned because its design was not in compliance with current hazardous tank standards and its cobalt-60 sources were approaching the end of their useful life. The facility contained 354 stainless steel encapsulated cobalt-60 sources in a pool, which provided shielding. Total cobalt-60 inventory amounted to 24,000 Curies when the sources were shipped for disposal. The decommissioning project included packaging, transport, and disposal of the sources and dismantling and disposing of all other equipment associated with the facility. Worker exposure was a major concern in planning for the packaging and disposal of the sources. These activities were planned carefully according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles. As a result, the actual occupational exposures experienced during the work were within the planned levels. Disposal of the pool water required addressing environmental concerns, since the planned method was to discharge the slightly contaminated water to the BNL sewage treatment plant. After the BNL evaluation procedure for discharge to the sewage treatment plant was revised and reviewed by regulators and BNL's Community Advisory Council, the pool water was discharged to the Building 830 sanitary system. Because the sources were sealed and the pool water contamination levels were low, most of the remaining equipment was not contaminated; therefore disposal was straightforward, as scrap metal and construction debris.

  20. Gamma irradiation of quartz from Pannier basin, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cteiti@ipen.br, E-mail: prela@ipen.br; Guttler, Rainer A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2007-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation to induce or enhance color centers in gemstones is a widespread technique and applied worldwide on a industrial scale since at least 1970. The presence of defects and defect structures in quartz from a border region of southern Brazil and Uruguay are the reason for the creation of a new color variety of quartz called 'Prasiolite' in the gem trade. This quartz has a pleasant green color produced by gamma irradiation. The procedures of irradiation at IPEN show that the activation of these color producing defects can be monitored by detailed chemical and spectroscopic analysis. For the first time UV-VIS-NIR spectra of this new color variety of quartz are shown. They revealed special features of these quartz crystals coming from basaltic terranes of the Parana Basin. Contrary to most specimen of quartz from other parts of Brazil, they have such a high water and OH content that they resemble more chalcedony or opal, but not highly crystalline quartz specimens. The cause of the color are broken bonds of Si-OH defining the so-called dangling bonds. (author)

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of {gamma}-irradiated caraway essential oils in experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, F. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allameh, A. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: allameha@modares.ac.ir; Khalafi, H. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafihelan, J. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Irradiation is an important method of processing herbal drugs, while our understanding of the effects of {gamma}-irradiation on pharmacological properties of seed products such as caraway essential oils is however still very limited. In this study, caraway seeds were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 10 and 25 kGy. After extracting the essential oils, the effects of fresh and {gamma}-irradiated caraway oils (100 mg/kg b.w) on preventing septic-related oxidative liver injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model were investigated by measuring oxidative stress parameters in the liver. CLP operation caused a marked increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity which was readily reversed in rats treated with fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Likewise, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in the liver was compensated in rats treated with the fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Moreover, liver GSH which was initially depleted due to CLP was recovered by essential oil treatments. The protective role of oils was further confirmed by showing that liver function tests (ALT/AST) as well as histopathological changes following CLP operation were recovered in rats treated with oils from either fresh or irradiated caraway seeds. These data may suggest that {gamma}-irradiation to caraway seeds at 10 and 25 kGy has no influence on the antioxidative properties of caraway essential oils.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on physical-chemical properties and dewatering characteristics of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Separation of solids from liquids is a paramount operation in the processes applied in treating sewage and waste waters. Therfore, studies were undertaken to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on the physical-chemical properties of sludges and the de-watering characteristics of anaerobically digested sludge and aerobically activated sludge. A dose of 300 krad reduced the specific resistance of anaerobically digested sludges from 33 x 10 sec 2 /g to approximately 10 x 10 9 sec 2 /g. This conditioning effect was little influenced by the presence of oxygen or nitrogen. Pasteurization increased the specific resistance to filtration up to 48 x 10 9 sec 2 /g. Dewatering characteristics of raw sludge were not affected by irradiation in the presence of oxygen but a slight conditioning effect was noticed when the sludge was irradiated under deaerated conditions. Experimental evidence indicated that gamma irradiation detached organic substances from the sludge flocks resulting in a decrease of the specific resistance and an increase in the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in the filtrates. Elutriation reduced but did not eliminate the conditioning effect of gamma irradiation. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of gamma irradiated SiR-EPDM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepalaxmi, R., E-mail: deepalaxmivaithi@gmail.com; Rajini, V.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effects of gamma irradiation on SiR-EPDM blend are examined. • Cross-linking reaction is dominant in blends C, D and E, due to higher EPDM content. • The tensile strength and hardness of blend E is improved by gamma irradiation. • The blend C and EPDM rich blends (D, E) are found to have superior performance. • Among C, D and E, suitable blend can be selected for a particular NPP application. - Abstract: Cable insulation materials (CIM) should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in nuclear power plants (NPP). The CIM will be exposed to gamma irradiation at the installed locations. In order to forecast long-term performance of CIM, the short time accelerated testing was carried out. Due to its good mechanical strength, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is widely used as CIM. Silicone rubber (SiR) is used in high temperature environments, due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of these two polymers may result in the improvement in their specific properties. This paper analyses the effects of gamma irradiation on the five different compositions (90-10; 70-30; 50-50; 30-70; 10-90) of SiR-EPDM blends. The blends were exposed to four different doses (25 Mrad, 100 Mrad, 200 Mrad and 250 Mrad) of gamma irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like volume resistivity (VRY), surface resistivity (SRY), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), hardness (H) of the virgin and gamma irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simultaneous occurrence of cross-linking and chain scission is found to be the mechanism for ageing in SiR-EPDM blends. The electrical parameters such as volume resistivity and surface resistivity of all the blends are found to improve for all doses of gamma irradiation. To validate the influence of cross-linking reaction of the Si

  4. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-06-15

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and {gamma}-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas {gamma}-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  5. Nanodefect formation in LiF crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Ibragimova, Eh.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Muminov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    One studied the spectra of absorption and of photoluminescence, microhardness and performed X-ray structure analysis of gamma-irradiated LiF crystals in a shutdown reactor and in 60 Co source when gamma-radiation dose rate was equal to 7.65 Gy/s. In addition to formation of point and combined radiation defects one detected the presence of the gamma-irradiation induced 28 nm size nanoparticles of LiOH phase in Li sublattice. Formation of defects is shown to occur more efficiently in a shutdown reactor in contrast to 60 Co source [ru

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Gamma-Irradiated Corn Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Lim, S.T.; Kim, S.Y.; Han, S.M.; Kim, H.M.; Kang, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    Structural modification of corn starch by gamma irradiation was evaluated for under dry conditions at varied intensities from 0 to 40 kGy. Under scanning electron microscopy, the granule shape of corn starch was not significantly affected by the irradiation up to 40 kGy. In addition, X-ray diffraction and melting patterns of the irradiated starches were similar to those of the native starch, indicating that crystalline regions in the starch granules were not changed by irradiation. However, the pattern of gel permeation column chromatography showed a significant increase in partial hydrolysis of gamma irradiated starch samples

  7. Degradation of corn starch under the influence of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Saadany, R.M.A.; El Saadany, F.M.; Foda, Y.H.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of corn (maize) starch with different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 1 x 10 5 rad to 1 x 10 6 rad resulted in the increase of starch acidity and reducing power. Molecular degradation was observed as a result of marked decrease in starch viscosity and intinsic viscosity as well as swelling capacity. The gelatinization time and temperature of the irradiated starch became shorter than in the control sample. Internal changes in the irradiated starch occured as a result of lowering the number of glucose unit per segment in the irradiated starch molecules. All changes were proportional to the doses of gamma irradiation used. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods

  10. Degradation of corn starch under the influence of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Saadany, R M.A.; El Saadany, F M; Foda, Y H

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of corn (maize) starch with different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 1 x 10/sup 5/ rad to 1 x 10/sup 6/ rad resulted in the increase of starch acidity and reducing power. Molecular degradation was observed as a result of marked decrease in starch viscosity and intinsic viscosity as well as swelling capacity. The gelatinization time and temperature of the irradiated starch became shorter than in the control sample. Internal changes in the irradiated starch occured as a result of lowering the number of glucose unit per segment in the irradiated starch molecules. All changes were proportional to the doses of gamma irradiation used.

  11. Grafting of acrylamide onto synthetic co polyamide by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoud, M R; Qamhieyh, E A [Chemistry Dept., College of Ibn Al-Haitham Baghdad university-Adhamiyah-Baghdad- (Iraq)

    1995-10-01

    Grafted copolymer was prepared by using gamma irradiation to graft acrylamide onto polymeric molecule prepared by interfacial condensation between two diamine molecules like 1,2 diamino propane and 1,6 diamino-hexane in aqueous layer with sebacoyl chloride in organic layer. The resulted co polyamide was grafted with acrylamide using gamma irradiation. The optimum conditions of grafting reaction were found, also various factors such as the effect of solvents, redox systems and the role water on the radiochemical grafting were studied. Many techniques were used in the characterization of the copolymer before and after grafting. 8 figs.,.

  12. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Wo; Kim, Suc Won; Yang, Jae Seong; Yoo, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1991-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw

    2005-07-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products.

  14. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk {beta}-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  15. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  16. EPR investigation of some gamma-irradiated medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, Katerina; Yordanov, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The results of EPR studies on three medical tablets – Galanthamine, Cytisine and Tribulus terrestris before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets are EPR silent, whereas Tribulus terrestris show a broad singlet line with g factor 2.2084±0.002. The same spectrum is recorded after irradiation. After gamma-sterilization, however, Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets exhibit a typical EPR spectrum due to gamma induced free radicals in lactose used as an excipient. These stable free radicals can be used for identification of radiation processing for a long time after it. Key words: medical tablets, gamma-irradiation, EPR

  17. Brain anomalies induced by gamma irradiation in prenatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation has been utilized in order to produce cortical and callosal abnormalities. We have also checked for the presence of the aberrant longitudinal bundle in the brains of mice born acallosal due to prenatal irradiation is also checked. Pregnant mice were exposed to gamma irradiation from a 6 0 Co source at 16, 17 and 19 days of gestational age (E 16, E 17 and E 19) with total doses of 2 Gy and 3 Gy. At 60 days postnatal the offspring of irradiated animals were intra cardiac perfused, the brains were removed from the cranio and cut into coronal or para sagittal sections. (author)

  18. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a 60 Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on voltage-dependant NA+ and K+ currents in N1E-115 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diserbo, M.; Barbier, M.; Quignard, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of 15 Gy gamma irradiation on voltage-dependent Na + and K + currents in differentiated N1E-115 cells are studied by using whole cell recording. Only, we observed an activation of Na + currents at a lower threshold. (authors)

  20. A Review on Microbial Mutagenesis through Gamma Irradiation for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, P.C.K.; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is widely used in sterilization and mutagenesis, especially for plant breeding and crop protection. Microbial mutagenesis through gamma irradiation is mainly applied in fermentation industry. In agriculture, gamma irradiation is mostly applied in crop improvement. Microbial mutagenesis is mainly applied against fungus and spore-forming bacteria, which are resistant to gamma irradiation. Response of microbes to gamma irradiation varies and depends on various factors. Review of previous works on gamma irradiation for microbial mutagenesis in agriculture may provide some information for the use of this method. The general view on gamma irradiation, its application, and mutagenesis are discussed in this paper. Further investigation on microbial mutagenesis should consider molecular changes, information on which is lacking in previous works. Moreover, studies on microbial mutagenesis are still lacking in Malaysia despite having several gamma irradiation facilities. Therefore, further studies on microbial mutagenesis should be conducted. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  2. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R.; Agis E, K. A.

    2012-10-01

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  3. The secondary biogenic radiation of gamma-irradiated human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.; Budagovskij, A.V.; Gudi, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The sample of blood freshly taken from healthy men were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. It was shown that after the treatment the blood gained the capacity to emit secondary biogenic radiation. Emission lasted for some hours, passed through quartz-glass curette and was revealed by stimulating influence on biological detector (sprouting seeds)

  4. Gamma irradiation on fermentation mashes consisting mainly of cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H; Shibabe, S; Ito, H

    1969-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was successfully used to pasteurize molasses. There was a 10% survival of Bacillus subtilis after irradiation with 0.3 Mrad compared to a survival of 70% after heating for 30 minutes at 80/sup 0/C. When irradiated mash was used to produce alcohol, fermentation rate and ethanol yield were higher than for heat-pasteurized mash.

  5. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at room ...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Technology

    2001-12-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2002-01-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  8. Manual on panoramic gamma irradiators (categories 2 and 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of production of ionizing radiation and to the methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this document considers the procedures that should be employed when using panoramic gamma irradiators. Applications for such irradiators are described and radiation protection procedures discussed

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the photoluminescence of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elistratova, M. A., E-mail: Marina.Elistratova@mail.ioffe.ru; Romanov, N. M. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Goryachev, D. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Zakharova, I. B. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Sreseli, O. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the luminescence properties of porous silicon produced by the electrochemical technique is studied. Changes in the photoluminescence intensity between irradiation doses and over a period of several days after the last irradiation are recorded. The quenching of photoluminescence at low irradiation doses and recovery after further irradiation are registered. It is found that porous silicon is strongly oxidized after gamma irradiation and the oxidation process continues for several days after irradiation. It is conceived that the change in the photoluminescence spectra and intensity of porous silicon after gamma irradiation is caused by a change in the passivation type of the porous surface: instead of hydrogen passivation, more stable oxygen passivation is observed. To stabilize the photoluminescence spectra of porous silicon, the use of fullerenes is proposed. No considerable changes in the photoluminescence spectra during irradiation and up to 18 days after irradiation are detected in a porous silicon sample with a thermally deposited fullerene layer. It is shown that porous silicon samples with a deposited C{sub 60} layer are stable to gamma irradiation and oxidation.

  10. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  11. Keeping the quality of cows' butter by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Badr, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows' butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the Other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows' butter and increased its shelf life at 4 +/- 1degreeC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties [es

  12. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  13. Radioprotection of whole-body gamma irradiation induced alterations in lipid metabolism of liver and plasma by AET (S-2, aminoethyl isothiuronium Br. H. Br.) and serotonin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of AET, serotonin and their mixture has been studied on liver and plasma lipid metabolism 24 hrs and 48 hrs after irradiation in fasted male rats. AET and serotonin both gave significant radioprotection to certain liver and plasma lipid components, but the mixture of the two afforded a better protection. The non-radioprotection of plasma NEFA, phospholipids and phosphatidyl choline levels by serotonin observed in irradiated rats was because serotonin itself raised the levels of these lipids in control rats. Serotonin alone or in mixture effectively protected the radiation-induced increased incorporation of NaH 2 32 PO 4 into liver phospholipids. Mixture of AET and serotonin failed to protect the increased incorporation of aceae-1-14-C into liver total fatty acids and cholesterol, but it prevented this increased incorporation into liver triglycerides and phospholipids. (orig.) [de

  14. Vanderbilt University Gamma Irradiation of Nano-modified Concrete (2017 Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deichert, Geoffrey G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Selby, Aaron P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reches, Yonathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This document outlines the irradiation of concrete specimens in the Gamma Irradiation Facility in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Two gamma irradiation runs were performed in July of 2017 on 18 reference mortar bar specimens, 26 reference cement paste bar specimens, and 28 reference cement paste tab specimens to determine the dose and temperature response of the specimens in the gamma irradiation environment. Specimens from the first two gamma irradiations were surveyed and released to Vanderbilt University. The temperature and dose information obtained informs the test parameters of the final two gamma irradiations of nano-modified concrete planned for FY 2018.

  15. Cytotoxic potential and chromatogram profile of sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia Pendans Merr. & Perry) after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin Winarno; Susanto; Hendig Winarno; Siva Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia pendans Merr. & Perry) has cytotoxic activity. Preservation efforts of sarang semut tuber was performed with gamma irradiation. The research purposed to study the effect of gamma on cytotoxic activity against leukemia L1210 cell lines and chromatogram profiles of sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia pendans Merr. & Perry). The dried sarang semut tuber were gamma irradiated with a variety of doses of 5; 7.5; 10; and 15 kGy. The experiments were performed with two replicates for each dose. Then samples were macerated with solvent by gradient polarity with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. Extracts were tested against the leukemia L1210 cell lines. From the results obtained showed that the ethanol extract was the most active against leukemia L1210 cell lines (IC50 9.88 μg/ml) compared with n-heksan (IC50 23.44 μg/ml) and ethyl acetate extract (IC50 17.32 μg/ml). Ethanol extracts were fractionated by column chromatography, the result were obtained 7 fractions. Based on the cytotoxic activity test for each fraction, the fraction 1 had the highest activity (IC50 ≤ 3.23 μg/ml). The identifications of ethanol extract and fraction 1 by CLT-densitometry showed that the spots area increased and decreased after gamma irradiation. The chromatogram profile of fraction 1 showed that the major peak area decreased after irradiation. The maximum irradiation dose without damaging the cytotoxic activity of sarang semut tuber againts leukemia L1210 cell lines was 5 kGy. (author)

  16. Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Saada, H.N.; Abdelsamie, M.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

  17. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  18. Stability Studies of Certain Chemotherapeutic Agents Following Gamma Irradiation and Silver Nanoparticles Conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayyad, Gh.E.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical stability of drug is of great importance since it becomes less effective as it undergoes degradation in case of applied of gamma irradiation process. The application of gamma irradiation for different chemotherapeutic agents Such as (ofloxacin, sodium ampicillin, sodium cefotaxime, gentamycin and amoxicillin) and studying the effect of applied doses on chemical structure and biological activity of the irradiated antibiotics compared to unirradiated ones was studied by ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Visible), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements (FTIR spectra) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in addition to microbiological assay were run before and after irradiation to probe any change after irradiation. The results showed that all of the irradiated compounds remain stable and radio resistant; retaining their structure and activity unchanged up to 25 KGy. The radiation-induced AgNPs synthesis is a simple, clean which involves radiolysis of aqueous solution that provides an efficient method to reduce metal ions. Also, in this study, Bacillus megaterium was found to be an effective biological tool for the extracellular biosynthesis of stable AgNPs which are highly stable and this method has advantages over other methods as the organism used here is safe. This study would therefore lead to an easy procedure for producing silver nanoparticles with the added advantage of bio safety. The Synthesized AgNPs exhibit remarkable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram negative bacterial strains regardless of their drug-resistant mechanisms. The bactericidal activity have proved that AgNPs kill bacteria at such low concentrations (units of ppm), which Stability Studies of Certain Chemotherapeutic Agents Following Gamma Irradiation and Silver Nanoparticles Conjugation. do not reveal acute toxic effects on human cell, in addition to overcoming resistance, and lowering cost when compared to conventional

  19. Using gamma irradiation to improve sterile turf and forage bermudagrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Georgia Univ., Tifton

    1976-01-01

    The widely-used Tif-series of turf bermudagrasses - Tifgreen, Tifway, and Tifdwarf - are vegetatively propagated sterile triploids that cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Dormant stolons, washed free of soil and cut into one-or two-node sections were treated with varying dosages of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) and gamma irradiation ranging from 7 to 12 kR. EMS failed to produce noticeable variants but gamma irradiation from a Cobalt 60 source created 158 mutants. These mutants differed in many characters such as leaf size, hairiness, stem diameter, internode length, basic plant color, herbicide tolerance, spreading rate, and nematode resistance. Attempts to improve the winterhardiness of tetraploid sterile Coastcross-1 forage bermudagrass by exposing over 1,400,000 sprigs (vegetative stems) to 7 kR of gamma rays gave chlorophyll deficient mutants but progress in increasing winterhardiness has not been established. (author)

  20. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  1. Computational model of gamma irradiation room at ININ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi; Patlan-Cardoso, Fernando; Ibáñez-Orozco, Oscar; Vergara Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model of the gamma irradiation room at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ is its acronym in Spanish) in Mexico to improve the use of physics in dosimetry for human protection. We deal with air-filled ionization chambers and scientific computing made in house and framed in both the GEANT4 scheme and our analytical approach to characterize the irradiation room. This room is the only secondary dosimetry facility in Mexico. Our aim is to optimize its experimental designs, facilities, and industrial applications of physical radiation. The computational results provided by our model are supported by all the known experimental data regarding the performance of the ININ gamma irradiation room and allow us to predict the values of the main variables related to this fully enclosed space to within an acceptable margin of error.

  2. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  3. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  4. Gamma-irradiation of wet corn. Microbiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Jeanne; Cahagnier, B.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of a survey of several years work on microbiological decontamination and control of wet corn by gamma-irradiation the following factors are studied: inhibiting and selective effect of gamma-irradiation (100 to 500krads) on the microflora of grains; evolution of residual microflora of irradiated wet grains (moisture content about 35%), during storage experiments under ventilated or airtight conditions. Two important points emerge from those studies. The microflora which develops on irradiated sample is much less varied than that of the control sample. The microbial population of an irradiated sample rises up in a few days on a level with the initial one of the control, then goes on increasing while remaining, as a rule, slightly inferior to that of the control placed under the same conditions. This greatly lowers the practical interest of irradiation, which can only be used together with another treatment able to inhibit the quick growth of the residual microflora [fr

  5. Effects of gamma-irradiation on meat proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.S.; Kim, M.R.; Kim, J.O.; Lim, S.I.; Byun, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The proteins extracted from beef, pork and chicken meats were irradiated with up to 100 kGy at room temperature. The extracted proteins were evaluated on their in vitro digestibility by incubating successively with pepsin and pancreatin conjugate. Amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE pattern were also analyzedin for these proteins. Gamma irradiation within the applied dose range (up to 100 kGy) produced negligible in in vitro digestibility and amino acid composition. Analysis of gamma-irradiated proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed radiolysis of ovalbumin to proteins or peptides with lower molecular weight. On the other hand, the proteins directly extracted from irradiated meats containing moisture were also evaluated for their in vitro digestibility, amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE pattern. However, the results obtained from this experiment were similar to those of irradiated proteins after extraction from the meats

  6. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S K; Srinivasan, M N; Chuttani, K; Bhatnagar, A; Ghose, A

    1985-06-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinine excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained up to the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels up to the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio up to the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body ..gamma..-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author).

  7. Biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is of important to study the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature. This study would be of significant in the case of non- refrigerated transport, practices within the country and transhipment to distant countries. studies have therefore extended to assess the shelf-life of irradiated banana stored under-room temperature. Extension of shelf -life have been achieved by many methods, the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for developing nations. the aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on G ros Michel m ature green banana fruits and also to determine the optimum dose level and the optimum storage conditions which resulted in, keeping the organoleptic qualities as it is and maximum extension in shelf-life

  8. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  9. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.; Bosch, P.

    1992-03-01

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of γ-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  10. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.; Hong, Mei-Chu; Chang, T.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage

  11. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw; Hong, Mei-Chu [TaiChung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-S. [Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage.

  12. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  13. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T.

    2011-01-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  14. Enhancement of refrigerated storage of Elasmobranchs by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadi, S.V.; Lewis, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    Elasmobranch fish varieties including shark, ray and skate fish, are very susceptible to microbial spoilage because of high levels of urea in their muscle, giving rise to rapid formation of copious quantities of ammonia. Steaming of fish filleta prior to processing has been found to reduce the urea content thereby leading to better odour and flavour retention of the product. However, steaming of Elasmobranch fish fillets results in only a marginal increase in refrigerated storage. Gamma irradiation doses in the range 100-500 krad did not appreciably extend the refrigerated storage Elasmobranchs. However, steaming for five minutes followed by gamma irradiation exposure (100-250 krad) was found to give a 4-5 fold enhancement in the refrigerated storage life of these fish. Representative samples of fish given different treatments were examined at regular intervals during storage at 0-2 degC for sensory evaluation, total bacterial count and chemical freshness indices. (author)

  15. Albumin grafting on polymer surfaces by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, K.R.; Park, K.; DeMeo, D.

    1993-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterial surfaces were modified by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. Albumin molecules were functionalized by introduction of double bonds. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to polypropylene fibers, polycarbonate, and poly(vinyl chloride) by gamma-irradiation. ESCA and ATR/FTIR analysis of the control and grafted surfaces was conducted. Albumin grafting efficiency was found to be dependent on the gamma-irradiation time and the concentration of albumin as indicated by platelet adhesion studies. The grafted albumin molecules were not displaced when exposed to blood for prolonged time period. Finally, PLEXUS oxygenators grafted with albumin using this approach showed a significant reduction in platelet adhesion when compared to control

  16. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu; Hogetsu, Daisuke; Okuyama, Norio; Manabe, Takashi; Sasagawa, Tatsuru.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes of the ''Danshaku'' variety and their chemical aspects were studied. The final concentrate of alcohol extracts from potatoes showed pH values of 3 -- 4. The o-quinones or ''radiotoxins'' reported by Kuzin, et al. were not detected in the alcohol extracts from potatoes of this variety by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, paper chromatography and the model enzymatic experiment. (author)

  17. Extending the storage life of garlic by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.; Quaranta, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.03kGy) on garlic bulbs from local cultivars was studied. The treatment proved to be effective in reducing weight loss and spoilage percentage of the bulbs. After 10 months of storage the weight loss was found to be reduced by 37% in irradiated garlic. Irradiation reduced sprouting of the fresh bulbs but did not affect the rotting process. (author)

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol [The irradiation research for agriculture program, Office of Atoms for Peace, BK (Thailand); Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo [Faculty of Pharmacy, Chulalongkorn University, BK (Thailand)

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on some plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aafifi, El-Sayed A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using different sage doses of γ -rays (up to 1000 K. rad) for destroying or minimizing trypsin inhibitors for soybean seeds and detect their effect on the main constituents of seeds. Attention was focussed on changes occured in physiochemical properties, fatty acids composition and unsaponifiable matter components of soybean oil due to both gamma irradiation and storage treatments. In addition, the changes in the main constituents of soybean meals were also studied

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on nano polymer poly aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yan Yhee

    2012-01-01

    Poly aniline (PANI) is a conductor polymer that investigated by a lot of researchers which display unique electric characteristic and widely applications. The objective in this research is to see the effect of gamma irradiation on PANI by using microemulsion method. Cation surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, (CTAB) use in microemulsion method for dissolve aniline with distilled water. Mixture of aniline, ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidizing agent and hydrochloric acid (HCL) into aqueous CTAB and magnetic bar stirrer applied at temperature of 3 degree Celsius for 3 hours to form PANI. The washing is done by using distilled water and ethanol to purify PANI. After washing the PANI are categories in two group, PANI aqueous solution and PANI powder. PANI aqueous solution irradiated with gamma irradiation from 0 kGy to 100 kGy doses in 10 kGy intervals while PANI powder are dried in oven before irradiated with gamma irradiation with same doses as PANI aqueous solution. These aqueous solution products are characterized by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) which shows the electron transition π - π * and Microscope Electron Transmission (TEM) for morforlogy of PANI nanoparticles while PANI powder are characterized using Spectroscopy Fourier Transformation Intra-Red (FTIR) for the functional group, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the crystalline peak and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) for morphology PANI nanoparticles. The effect of gamma irradiation nanoparticles are PANI aqueous solution produce aggregation and changing of PANI nanoparticles sizes while PANI powder produce fractures and distortion on PANI nanoparticles. (author)

  2. Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohani Othman; Rajinder Singh; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2002-01-01

    Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

  3. Preparation of pinewood/polymer/composites using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajji, Zaki [Polymer Technology Division, Department of Radiation Technology, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: atomic@aec.org.sy

    2006-09-15

    Wood/polymer composites (WPC) have been prepared from pinewood with different compounds using gamma irradiation: butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and unsaturated polyester styrene resin. The polymer loading was determined with respect to the compound concentration and the irradiation dose. The polymer loading increases generally with increase in the monomer or polymer concentration. Tensile and compression strength have been improved in the four cases, but no improvement was observed using unsaturated polyester styrene resin or acrylamide.

  4. Growth studies on Lens culinaris after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bokhari, F.S.; Shahnaz, F.

    1996-01-01

    A study on growth parameters was carried out on two varieties of Lens culinaris after gamma irradiation. Experiment was conducted at Botanical Garden, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan in 1993. The germination percentage, survival percentage, height, branch number, pods per plant and 100-seed weight decreased with the increasing dose of radiation. Comparing the two varieties, variety-86642 appeared more sensitive to radiation than variety-87528

  5. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in gamma irradiated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawpute, Asha A.; Raut, A.V.; Babrekar, M.K.; Kale, C.M.; Jadhav, K.M.; Shinde, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto- combustion method, in which L-ascorbic acid was used as a fuel. The effect of gamma irradiation on the electrical resistivity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been studied. The ferrite powder annealed at 550℃ was irradiated by gamma source 137 Cs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and DC resistivity. (author)

  6. Slow elimination of DNA damaged bases in the liver of old gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaziev, A I; Malakhova, L V; Fomenko, L A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1981-01-01

    Elimination of the DNA damaged bases in the liver of old and young mice after their gamma-irradiation is studied. It is established that the incision rate of DNA gamma-damaged bases in the liver of old mice is lower than in the liver of the young ones. It is supposed to be connected with the decrease of the activity of DNA reparation ferments or with the presence of limitations in chromatin for the access of these ferments to the damaged parts of DNA in the cells of old animals.

  7. Stability of cefuroxime following gamma-irradiation in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, Henryk; Koprowski, Marek; Zegota, Alicja (Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Chemii Radiacyjnej)

    1994-04-01

    The effect of [gamma]-irradiation on cefuroxime, a member of the second generation of cephalosporins, has been assessed by different spectroscopic, HPLC, chemical and microbiological analytical methods. According to the results obtained, the chemical changes in irradiated cefuroxime have relatively low yield. The microbiological assay carried out using Bacillus subtilis test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefuroxime did not decrease even for radiation doses as high as 85 kGy. The remarkable radiation stability of cefuroxime irradiated in the solid state supports its suitability for radiation sterilization. (author).

  8. Physiological characteristics of cucumber seed production plants by presowing laser and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholakov, D.; Petkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds from G-3 maternal line of hybrid cucumber cultivar Pobeda F 1 were treated with helium-neon 632.8 nm laser-exit power 20 mW and gamma-rays ( 60 Co) in a field experiment under conditions suitable for hybrid seed production. The irradiation was carried out a week before sowing and the following variants were investigated: 1. sevenfold laser irradiation; 2. 10 Gy gamma irradiation; 3. combined laser + gamma rays irradiation. Seeds from the parent line were not irradiated. A positive effect of irradiation on the photosynthetic intensity, content of plastid pigments in leaves and activity of catalase and peroxidase has been observed. (author)

  9. Regulation for the radiological safety in the design and operation of industrial Gamma irradiators in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Large gamma irradiators present a high potential irradiation hazard since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of P Bq and a very high dose rate are produced during irradiation. Nevertheless, individuals may accidentally receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds, due to failure of radiation control and safety systems. The competent authority (NCNSRC) is concerned with the impact of all radiation activities on workers as well as public health and safety. Radiation control of such large irradiation facilities can be achieved by means of strict regulatory procedures during construction, licensing, operation, inspection, maintenance and decommissioning

  10. Gamma irradiation of melt processed biomedical PDLLA/HAP nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, Susan; Kheirkhah, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Poly(D-L lactide) PDLLA/hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites at various compositions were prepared by melt-compounding process and then subjected to gamma irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. The morphology of the nanocomposites, characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), displayed HAP nanoparticles at various sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm distributed almost evenly within the polymer matrix. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the irradiated nanocomposites showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity along with a melting peak split. The double melting peak suggested formation of different crystalline structures in the radiation exposed nanocomposites. Also the cold crystallization peak shifted to lower temperatures and became much sharper upon irradiation, indicating higher crystallization rate. The irradiated nanocomposites showed lower tensile strength and elongation at break, suggesting occurrence of some chain scission reactions in the PLA. - Highlights: • Biomedical polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites prepared by melt-compounding were gamma irradiated. • Transmission electron microscopy showed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles evenly distributed within polylactic acid ranging from 10 to 100 nm. • A halo appeared around hydroxyapatite particles showing interfacial interactions between polylactic acid and the particles. • Double melting peak appeared for polylactic acid in DSC thermograms upon gamma irradiation of the nanocomposites

  11. Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Development of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume produces apomictic seeds lead to low genetic variation. In order to induce genetic variation, germinated seeds were exposed to Gamma irradiation (Co-60 at doses of 10 to 100 Gy. Seed irradiation was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Irradiation Technology -National Nuclear Energy Agency (CAIRT, Indonesia. Morphology and yield of M1 generation were observed. Results showed that irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy close to LD50 with survival rate 56%. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy delayed seeds germination.  Germination rates gradually increased and reached maximum at 4 weeks after planting (WAP for control plants, and 14 WAP of irradiated plants. At 16 WAP, germination rate of 10 Gy irradiated plants was 56% and 84% for those of control plants. Irradiation induced chimera as indicated by short petiole, variegated and abnornal shape of leaflets. Some irradiated plants entered dormancy at 8-10 weeks later than control ones. Prolong vegetative periode lead the plants to produce heavier corms. This study revealed the possibility to induce variation of A. muelleri by using gamma irradition. Keywords: Amorphophallus muelleri, gamma irradiation (Co-60, morphological variation, mutation breeding

  12. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M., E-mail: tmnenof@sandia.gov [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ferriera, Summer R. [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Huang, Jianyu [Center for Integrated Nanotechnology, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1315, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hanson, Donald J. [Department of Hot Cells and Gamma Facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1143, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products.

  13. Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

  14. Evaluation of artemisia mutant lines conducted from gamma irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih; EG Lestari; M Syukur

    2010-01-01

    Cases of Malaria diseases attack in Indonesia has been increasing. Plasmodium falciparum the cause of malaria disease is now resistant to the usual medicine. One of malaria medicine which recommended by WHO is artemisinine compound extracted from Artemisia annua L plant. Low artemisinine content is one problem of Artemisia development in Indonesia. Increasing genetic variation using gamma irradiation is one alternative method to improve artemisinin content. In 2007, induce mutation had been done to artemisia seeds using gamma irradiation at dosage of 10-100 Gy. The good rooting planlet was regenerated and acclimatized in the green house, and then the seedling (M0 generation) was planted in the field at 1545 m asl. Plants derived from seeds without gamma irradiation treatment and cultured in vitro (in vitro control) were used as control. The result showed there were some morphological variations between the mutant lines (plant height, shape of the leaves and time of flowering). Ten mutant lines were selected based on biomass yield and analyzed for the artemisinine content.The result showed that artemisinine content of the mutant lines ranged from 0.44 - 1.41%, and it was significantly higher than that of in vitro control (0.43%). (author)

  15. Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; El-Nashaby, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples

  16. improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, E.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aimed to use gamma irradiation doses as compared to chemical preservative sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp) for increasing the shelf-life and improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses during cold and frozen storage. one hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. the examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2,4,6 and 8 kGy doses and soaking in 3% stpp and the effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties during cold (4±1 o C) and frozen storage (-18 o C) of samples under investigation were evaluated .the results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation and soaking in STPP treatments. furthermore, treatments had no deleterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. irradiation of samples at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged its shelf- life for 12,15,21,24 and 9 days at 4±1 o C, respectively against only 6 days for control samples

  17. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Ferriera, Summer R.; Huang, Jianyu; Hanson, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products

  18. Prokaryote metabolism activity

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Lori

    2017-01-01

    I wrote this activity to emphasize that prokaryotic organisms can carry out 6 different types of metabolisms (as presented in Freeman’s Biological Science textbook) and this contrasts to eukaryotes, which can only use 2 metabolism pathways (photoautotroph and heterotroph).    For in class materials I remove the  red box (upper right corner) and print slides 3-10, place them back-to-back and laminate them.  The students get a key (slide 2) and a two-sided organism sheet...

  19. Gamma- irradiation to increase crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomai, Matongo

    2000-01-01

    Brief background information on past research activities on the use of Co-60 Gamma Irraditor in production of medical products such as sterilised biological tissue grafts and surgical Gloves and in food preservation.The general results of the application of Radiation Mutation Breeding is discussed from the current research activities involving Beans,Pumpkins,Cotton Seeds,Finger Millet,Wheat,Groundnuts and Rice.The focus is to demonstrate the great potential of the technique in increasing food security

  20. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  1. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  2. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAGO PALM (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Riyadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gamma irradiation on plant materials may increase the genetic variation of the offspring with useful traits. The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irradiation dosage of gamma ray on growth and development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu calli. Friable calli of sago palm derived from suspension culture were used as a material source. The primary calli were initiated from apical meristematic tissues of sago palm suckers of Alitir variety from Merauke, Papua. The treatments used were dosage of gamma ray irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. The treated calli were then subcultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS solid medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.1% activated charcoal and added with 1 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin. The results showed that at all irradiation dosages, calli biomass increased significantly. The highest proliferation of calli biomass of 5.33 folds from the initial culture after 4 weeks was achieved at gamma irradiation of 25 Gy, whereas the lowest proliferation of calli biomass of 3.4 folds was achieved at control. The best development of embryogenic calli was obtained at 10 Gy that produced 100% somatic embryos, whereas the lowest somatic embryo formation at 0% was obtained at 0 and 25 Gy after one subculture. High response of somatic embryo induction to gamma irradiation at 10 Gy may increase production of somatic embryos. These results can be used in in vitro breeding of sago palm via mutagenesis to create new elite varieties.

  3. assessment Of the effect Of low Level Laser Therapy on Parotid glands of gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction has a major deleterious effect on oral health. Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiation induced oxidative stress in rats’ salivary glands. Material and Methods: Sixty four male Albino rats were divided into two groups. One group where the left parotid gland was exposed to 3 sessions of LLL, then rats were subjected to 3 sessions of whole body gamma-radiation. In the other group, rats were subjected to 3 sessions of gamma-radiation; each was followed by a session of LLL to the left parotid gland. The right gland of both groups was used as irradiated control. Parotid glands were collected 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after the end of treatment and were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The parotid gland of both laser groups showed less intra cytoplasmic vacuolisation, slight alteration of acinar architecture and almost even size nuclei as compared to the irradiated gland. LLL either before or parallel to gamma-irradiation was effective in increasing cell proliferation on the third and seventh day, respectively as compared to the gamma irradiated group (P<0.05). Statistically, results revealed significant decrease in optical density of caspase 3 activity in the lased groups on the first week as compared to the control. Conclusion: LLLT attenuates the harmful effect of gamma irradiation on the parotid glands of the rats. Also, it improves gland regeneration through modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inflammation

  4. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  5. Introduction of gamma irradiation Center in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakiba, H.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1985-01-01

    Industrial sterilization, and especially radiation sterilization, of single use, disposable medical supplies are contributing significantly to health standards in each country. Today there are in excess of 135 plants around the world using gamma radiation by more than 90 million curies of cobalt-60 to sterilize single use medical products. This process in far superior to other methods of sterilization, some of the advantages of this process include its basic simplicity compared with thermal or chemical methods. In the former process only a single variable of time is controlled while for the latter processes five or six parameters such as time, temperature, pressure, humidity, concentration, type of cover etc. need to be monitored. Compared with the chemical method, irradiation technique is also free from the environmental hazards associated with the exhausting of the, often carcinogenic sterilizing agent. United Nation Development Programs (UNDP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have, through financial and technical support, promoted the introduction of radiation sterilization in several developing countries. This centre is also being established in Iran through UNDP financial and IAEA technical assistance. Although the main task of this centre is to radiosterilize the disposable medical products, but the scope of activities also encompass investigation of processing techniques of various products as well as research and development in the related fields. (Author)

  6. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications. (author)

  7. Gamma irradiation effects on the thermal, optical and structural properties of Cr-39 nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouh, S.A.; Said, A.F.; Atta, M.R.; EL-Mellegy, W.M.; EL-Meniawi, S.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal, optical and structural properties of CR-39 diglycol carbonate solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) has been carried out. Samples from CR-39 polymer were irradiated with gamma doses at levels between 20 and 300 KGy. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermo-gravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to obtain the activation energy of decomposition and the transition temperatures for the non-irradiated and irradiated CR-39 samples. In addition, optical and structural property studies were performed on non-irradiated and irradiated CR-39 samples using refractive index and X-ray diffraction measurements. The variation of onset temperature of decomposition (To) thermal activation energy of decomposition (Ea) melting temperature (Tm) refractive index (n) and the mass fraction of the amorphous phase with the gamma dose were studied. It was found that many changes in the thermal, optical and structural properties of the CR-39 polymer could be produced by gamma irradiation via the degradation and cross linking mechanisms. Also, the gamma dose gave an advantage for increasing the correlation between the thermal stability of CR-39 polymer and the bond formation created by the ionizing effect of gamma radiation

  8. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications.

  9. Influence of gamma-irradiation upon the chemical and biological properties of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salemink, P J.M.; Kolkman-Roodbeen, J C; Gribnau, T C.J.; Janssen, P S.L.; Veen, A.J. van der

    1987-06-19

    Partially purified insulin preparations of bovine and porcine origin, were subjected to gamma-irradiation with doses ranging from 1.0 up to 25 kGy at 0/sup 0/C or ambient temperature. The susceptibility of insulin to the irradiation was determined by chromatography, electrophoresis and assay of the biological activity. The sterilizing effect of the gamma-irradiation was investigated for Bacillus pumilus as well as for artificial mixtures of lactose and several bacilli. It is concluded that the sterilizing dose for the investigated insulins was greater than or equal to 2.2 kGy. At doses up to 25 kGy at 0/sup 0/C no specific radiolytic products were detectable, whereas the biological activity was fully retained. The content of dimers and the content of related peptides appeared to increase gradually with the irradiation dose absorbed. No effects of long-term storage could be demonstrated on biological and chemical properties of insulin after 2.2, 4.5 and 7.5 kGy. 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs.

  10. Study of the Possible Effects of Combined Therapy of Vitamin E with Certain Anti osteoporotic Agents on Changes Induced in Gamma-Irradiated Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heba Mohamed Atef Mostafa Gheita

    2015-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation (total dose 15 Gy / week for 5 weeks) induced bone injury in rats manifested as histopathological alterations confirmed by certain biochemical changes including urinary calcium, phosphorous and hydroxyproline, serum osteocalcin, oxidative stress bio markers, as well as pain perception. Vitamin E was effective by virtue of its antioxidant activity. Although, olive oil was studied as a vehicle for vitamin E, it could ameliorate the bone injury produced by gamma irradiation. Calcitonin and clodronate each alone was effective in retarding the bone injury induced by gamma-irradiation. Combination of calcitonin or clodronate with vitamin E showed better results than each of them alone. Serum osteocalcin of the irradiated rats was unaffected by vitamin E, olive oil, calcitonin or clodronate while combination of vitamin E with either calcitonin or clodronate was showed significant effects.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on durum wheats and spaghetti quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köksel, H.; Celik, S.; Tuncer, T.

    1996-01-01

    The efficient control of insects in cereal grains has long been the main objective of processors who are always looking for safer and more economical methods. Gamma irradiation is a physical technique of food preservation that seems to have a potential to protect grains from insect infestation and microbial contamination during storage. It has been reported that gamma irradiation doses in the range of 0.2-1.0 kGy are effective in controlling insect infestation in cereals (IAEA 1991). Increasing the dose to 5 kGy totally kills the spores of many fungi surviving the lower doses (Murray 1990). Besides its protective role from insects and microorganisms, gamma irradiation also has important effects on various quality criteria of cereal grains. Experiments have been performed to study the effects of gamma irradiation on various aspects of wheat quality such as milling characteristics, dough properties, and baking quality (Lai et al 1959, Lee 1959, Fifield et al 1967, Rao et al 1975, Paredes-Lopez and Covarrubias-Alvarez 1984, MacArthur and D'Appolonia 1983, Ng et al 1989). It was reported that amylograph peak viscosity and falling number values of the flour decreased significantly as radiation levels increased (MacArthur and D'Appolonia 1983, Ng et al 1989). Rao et al (1975) showed that as radiation dose increased, amylograph peak height and dough stability decreased. At 10 kGy, loaf volume and crumb grain were impaired. Paredes-Lopez and Covarrubias-Alvarez (1984) found that the overall bread quality of wheat was greatly reduced at medium doses of radiation (1-10 kGy). At doses >5 kGy, irrespective of the baking formula used, loaf volume and baking quality deteriorated (Lai et al 1959). Irradiation of grain has also caused problems in noodle quality. Japanese noodles (udon) show increased cooking losses and inferior scores in sensory analysis when the bread wheats have been irradiated in the range of 0.2-1.0 kGy (Shibata et al 1974, Urbain 1986). However, no detailed

  12. Genetic Changes in Stevia rebaudiana after Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro propagated plantlets of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni J.were irradiated with doses 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy. Irradiated plantlets exhibited changes in electrophoretic profile of proteins, there were some new bands induced with molecular weight of 100, 45, 32, and 30 kDa. In some treatments and some other bands disappeared such as the 205 and 100 kDa bands form plantlets treated with 10 Gy. Isoenzyme were also examined, esterase isozyme, isopolyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalse, acid phosphatase and peroxidase isozyme also altered by treatments. RAPD analysis was performed to determine the effect of gamma-irradiation on DNA changes. Polymorphisms between regenerates from non-irradiated and irradiated plantlets were found. The scope of variation spectrum by gamma-irradiation was larger than that by tissue culture. All the primers used produced polymorphic bands. Six primers generated 129.0 RAPD markers, among which 49.0 (37.98%) were polymorphic, with a mean of 8.17 pol morphisms per primer. The results showed that gamma-irradiation induced changes in plantlets that can be detected by molecular and biochemical markers. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Stevia is a member of the Compositae family and native to the valley of the Rio Monday in the highlands of Paraguay, where it has been used by aboriginal people as a sweetener for centuries. It is one of 154 members of the genus Stevia and one of only two that produce sweet steviol glycosides. Stevioside has a sweetening potency of 200-300 times that of sucrose and it is stable to heat (Soejarto et a/., 1982 and 1983 and Lewis, 1992). The leaves were used either to sweeten mate or as a general sweetening agent. Currently Stevia production is centred in China and there is a major market in Japan (Kinghorn and Soejarto 1985)

  13. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of gamma irradiated roasted Veal Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftfy, S.A.; Abdel-Daiem, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aims 10 study the possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 1,3 and 5 KGy for microbial decontamination of roasted veal meat (kebab). The samples were purchased from local market and examined for the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, presence of Salmonella spp and the counts of total bacterial, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. The results illustrated that all samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, while Salmonella spp was detected in only 3 samples. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 0,1,3 and 5 kGy, then stored at cold storage (4±1 degree C). The effects of these treatments on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics were studied post treatment and during cold storage. Irradiation at 1 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, molds and yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus as well as eliminating Salmonella spp. On the other hand, irradiation at 3 and 5 kGy doses completely eliminated the present Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, B, cereus and Salmonella spp. Irradiation of samples increased their amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but it did not affect the sensory characteristics of samples and it had no effects on their total volatile nitrogen (TVN) contents, while storage increased the TBARS and TVN for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Gamma irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory characteristics for appearance, odor and taste of all kebab samples and extended their time of sensory preference. However, doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria and extended of the refrigerated shelf-life of samples to 11, 23 and 29 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated controls

  14. The relationship between carbohydrate content and gamma irradiation during rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in chrysanthemum cuttings. Total water-soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch contents were measured in leaves and stems. Differences in the accumulation of carbohydrate associated with inhibition or stimulation in response to gamma irradiation. Sucrose levels increased significantly in leaves and stems until the 15th day, reaching maximum values on that day. Glucose contents declined rapidly until the 10th day and increased later, reaching maximum values on the 15th day. Fructose levels gradually increased, reaching maximum values at the 10th day, and then decreased again. Differences in the components of soluble carbohydrates were evident between rooting durations and doses. Soluble sugars were in the highest contents in the 20 Gy irradiated group. However, irradiation dose higher than 20 Gy resulted in an inhibitory effect

  15. Androgenic function of the adrenal cortex in external gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkov, N.; Jordanov, J.

    1987-01-01

    Urinary 17-ketosteroid (17-KS) excretion served to evaluate the androgenic function of the adrenal cortex and the gonads of male albino Wistar rats, following single external gamma-irradiation ( 137 Cs) with dose 4 Gy. A three-phase undulant dynamics in 17-KS excretion was established after irradiation at a high level of significance (p<0,001): a fall down to 19% during the first two days; a rise on day 15 up to 185% and a second fall down to 70% on day 25. On day 30 urinary 17-KS excretion returned to normal. The reduced 17-KS excretion during the first two days may be due to blocking of androgenic hormone secretion and excretion, to inhibited excretory renal function and to changes in the liver metabolic function

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on mortality of tribolium castaneum (HERBST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita Muhamad Awang.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum to gamma irradiation. The larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than the adults. A dose of 0.05 kGy killed all the larvae but higher dose of 0.15 kGy was required to kill all the adults. Therefore, a dose of 0.15 kGy was found to be the effective dose to kill both the larvae and the adults of T. castaneum. (author)

  17. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  18. Polymer nanocomposite of laponite RD prepared by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria J.A.; Silva, Estefania O.; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: mariajhho@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amato, Valdir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Divisao de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2012-07-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing 0-5 wt % of the synthetic laponite RD clay were prepared by gamma irradiation process. The morphology of the nanocomposite hydrogel was observed by characterizations techniques using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structural properties crosslinking was determined by measuring the crosslink gel content extraction on mesh 500 sizes and swelling kinetics at 22 °C. The results showed that crosslinks have inverse dependence on the clay level in the nanocomposite hydrogels, while swelling shows direct dependence. (author)

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on fungi in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on fungi infecting rice stored in various packaging materials. The agar plate test method was used. It was observed that the percentage of fungi did not appear to decrease with the increase of irradiation up to 2 kGy and also no indication of any significant reduction in percentage of fungi isolated with increasing time of storage at all levels of radiation treatment. The majority of the fungi isolated were Aspergillus and Penicillium species. (A.J.)

  20. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano; Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    The present paper presents the CO 2 production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO 2 production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on bacteria in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sijam.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on bacteria was studied for reducing the total microbial numbers that contaminating raw product under storage. Different storage packages of rice samples were irradiated at various levels of dosage. The results of bacterial isolation, total bacterial count and the isolation of bacterial food pathogenus were discussed. It was observed that the presence of bacteria colonies was suppressed by the presence of yeast and moulds eventhough the number of them decreased as the irradiation dosage levels were increased. (A.J.)

  2. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Tohru; Murora, Tetsuro; Iwahara, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Koroku; Minegishi, Atsuko.

    1982-01-01

    Alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated and unirradiated potatoes were tested for the ability to induce dominant lethals in BDF 1 mice. Male mice were given 0.5 ml of extract twice a day, p.o., for 7 days and then mated with untreated female mice. Female mice were sacrificed on about the 13th day of pregnancy. No significant difference was observed in the number of living inplants between the group treated with extract prepared from unirradiated potatoes and that treated with the extract from 150 Gy (15 krad) irradiated potatoes. (author)

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on raw materials and perfumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, M.; Pelpel, A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to enlight the strange problem of apparent perfume stability observed in manufactured talc powders sterilized by gamma rays, investigations were made on samples of odorant substances (raw materials, essential oils, or elaborated mixtures). As a rule, no immediate adulteration of olfactive caracteristics resulted at once from gamma irradiation. In several cases, a stabilizing effect appeared immediately and remained effective after long storage in various conditions (of temperature, or light, or oxygen exposure). This unexpected effect seems to be in accordance with previous experiments on gamma or electron irradiations of mixtures of organic molecules, reported in litterature: a mutual inhibition was observed to take place [fr

  4. Tolerance, quality and storability of gamma-irradiated Egyptian rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, F.A.; El-Wakeil, F.A.; El-Dash, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on some organoleptic and physico-chemical properties and the storability of Egyptian rice was investigated. Radiation up to 50krad was chosen as an adequate dose causing non-significant changes in eating and cooking qualities. The effect of irradiation on degradation of starch and protein molecules is demonstrated on the basis of studies on the viscosity and solubility of rice paste. Irradiation at relatively low dose levels up to 50krad did not affect the chemical and nutritional qualities of rice regarding amino acids and B vitamins. It was also found that irradiation maintains better storability of rice under ambient temperature. (author)

  5. Microbial decontamination of dried date by Gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, F.; Motamedi, F.; Abhari, M.

    2000-01-01

    Dried date is one of the export item from Iran. It can be contaminated during the processing and storage using nuclear techniques such as irradiation of food can increase the shelf life of agricultural products and improve their quality. This technique can be used for food decontamination of dried fruits according the standard authorized limitation. In this research different doses of Gamma Irradiation were used for microbial decontamination.he rest indicates that the optimum dose to reduce microbial contamination and increase shelf life is 5 kGy

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Chao, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn; Chao, Y

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes.

  8. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on some nutritional factors of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Khan Ayob; Osman Hassan.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and types of packaging material used (namely: gunny sack, heavy duty polyethylene, woven laminated bags) on moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar of rice was observed. Moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar were determined by drying method, brookfield viscometer and Nelson method, respectively. The results showed that moisture and reducing sugar content were not significantly affected by types of material and irradiation doses. On the other hand gel viscosity was greatly influenced by irradiation doses and storage time. (A.J.)

  10. Antioxidative potential of parsley on gamma irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Ashry, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    Phenolic compounds synthesized by plants display significant free radical scavenging capability. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of parsley on the liver tissue and glycogen as well as serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Alkaline. phosphatases, lactic dehydrogenase, glucose and insulin in rats exposed to 9 Gy fractionated gamma irradiation. Parsley oil was orally administered (100 mg/kg body wt) for 7 days before irradiation and throughout the experimental period. The results revealed noticeable limitation of radiation-induced damage in most tested parameters

  11. Dose rate modelled for the outdoors of a gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J

    2012-01-01

    A model for the absorbed dose rate calculation on the surroundings of a gamma irradiation plant is developed. In such plants, a part of the radiation emitted upwards reach's the outdoors. The Compton scatterings on the wall of the exhausting pipes through de plant roof and on the outdoors air are modelled. The absorbed dose rate generated by the scattered radiation as far as 200 m is calculated. The results of the models, to be used for the irradiation plant design and for the environmental studies, are showed on graphics (author)

  12. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants and ultraviolet stabilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Makiko; Miura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on 18 kinds of antioxidants and 10 kinds of ultraviolet stabilizers, intact or in a polyethylene sheet, were studied. After irradiating at a 30kGy dose, the content of additives themselves did not change and new degradation products were not found. While most antioxidants in polyethylene had a decreased content after irradiation, most ultraviolet stabilizers did not change. During the migration tests with aqueous food simulants, additives were not released from either irradiated or unirradiated sheets. For the migration tests with n-heptane, however, all additives were released from the unirradiated sheet, while most of the antioxidants were not released or released only slightly. (author)

  14. Dose mapping of the multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G; Lanuza, L G; Villamater, D T [Irradiation Services, Nuclear Services and Training Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1989-12-01

    In radiation processing, reliable dosimetry constitutes a very important part of process control and quality assurance. Radiation dosimetry is the only acceptable method to guarantee that the irradiated product has undergone the correct radiation treatment. In preparation therefore, for the routine operation of the newly installed multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), dose mapping distribution studies were undertaken. Results of dose distribution in air as well as in dummy product are presented. The effects of product bulk density, product geometry and product to source distance on minimum absorbed dose and uniformity ratio have been determined. (Author).

  15. Dose mapping of the multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Villamater, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In radiation processing, reliable dosimetry constitutes a very important part of process control and quality assurance. Radiation dosimetry is the only acceptable method to guarantee that the irradiated product has undergone the correct radiation treatment. In preparation therefore, for the routine operation of the newly installed multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), dose mapping distribution studies were undertaken. Results of dose distribution in air as well as in dummy product are presented. The effects of product bulk density, product geometry and product to source distance on minimum absorbed dose and uniformity ratio have been determined. (Author)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on sugars from Iraqi dates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.

  17. Polymer nanocomposite of laponite RD prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria J.A.; Silva, Estefania O.; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Amato, Valdir S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing 0-5 wt % of the synthetic laponite RD clay were prepared by gamma irradiation process. The morphology of the nanocomposite hydrogel was observed by characterizations techniques using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structural properties crosslinking was determined by measuring the crosslink gel content extraction on mesh 500 sizes and swelling kinetics at 22 °C. The results showed that crosslinks have inverse dependence on the clay level in the nanocomposite hydrogels, while swelling shows direct dependence. (author)

  18. Studies on apple preservation by 60 -gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu

    1992-01-01

    Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy

  19. Thermal desensitization of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V.; Rogalev, B.; Afonin, G. (Institute of Geochemistry, Irkutsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-01-01

    The thermoluminescence sensitivity variation of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti after annealing at temperatures of 300-500[sup o]C has been studied. This variation is shown to be due to concurrent processes of sensitization and damage. Annealing of irradiated crystals leads to the restoration of the initial sensitivity. The damage decay time is approximately an order of magnitude greater than the decay time of the sensitization. The experimental data are interpreted quantitatively within the scope of included gamma track overlapping. (author).

  20. Dosimetry in air in the product 1 gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Echavarria, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of the dosimetry in air in the product-1 gamma irradiator of the Research Institute of the Food Industry. The dose was measured with the Fricke system. This dosemeter was used for the determination of the dose distribution in the irradiator container. It was obtained the minimum, maximum and overall average value of the dose. The calibration functions of the plant well time, evaluated using linear regression analysis, present very good adjustment for these parameters when it was chosen four different settings for the well time. The dose uniformity ratio is 1.3. 11 refs

  1. Radiation safety for operators of gamma irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the UK Panel for Gamma and Electron Irradiation with advice from the HSE (Technology Division and Factory and Agricultural Inspectorate) to assist operators of Gamma irradiation plants to comply with the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations (IRR 1985), and other relevant regulations (see below). The process is currently used for the sterilisation of medical devices and in the treatment of plastics materials etc. The Government has proposed that the process should also be permitted for the treatment of foodstuffs, and these notes will also be relevant to any irradiation plants which may be used in the UK for this purpose. (author)

  2. Treatment of whole blood with riboflavin plus ultraviolet light, an alternative to gamma irradiation in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Loren D; Nevola, Martha; Tavares, Jennifer; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Ray P; Marschner, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Regulatory, technical, and clinical challenges associated with the use of gamma irradiators are driving efforts to develop alternatives. Pathogen reduction methods were initially developed to reduce the risk of microbial transmission by blood components. Through modifications of nucleic acids, these technologies interfere with the replication of both pathogens and white blood cells (WBCs). To date, systems for pathogen and WBC inactivation of products containing red blood cells are less well established than those for platelets and plasma. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs present in whole blood after exposure to riboflavin plus ultraviolet light (Rb-UV) was examined and compared to responses of WBCs obtained from untreated or gamma-irradiated blood by measuring proliferation, cytokine production, activation, and antigen presentation and xenogeneic (X-)GVHD responses in an in vivo mouse model. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment of whole blood with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing WBC proliferation, but was more effective in preventing antigen presentation, cytokine production, and T-cell activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing X-GVHD, a mouse model for TA-GVHD. The ability to effectively inactivate WBCs in fresh whole blood using Rb-UV, prior to separation into components, provides the transfusion medicine community with a potential alternative to gamma irradiation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality in the Processing of Low Salted and Fermented Shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Myung-Gon; Lee Cherl-Ho

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation technology was applied to develop low salted and fermented shrimp that has better sensory quality and a longer shelf-life without any food additives. Different levels of salt (10, 15, and 20%, w/w) were added to the salted and fermented shrimp and the samples were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy with a gamma source (Co-60). Proximate composition, salinity, water activity (a), pH, total bacterial count, and general acceptance were analyzed during fermentation at 15 degrees after irradiation. The proximate analysis, salinity, and a were not affected by gamma irradiation during fermentation. However, pH and total bacteria, as well as sensory evaluation, were changed variously with processing conditions such as sodium chloride concentration and irradiation dose. The combinations of 15% salt concentration with 10 kGy irradiation dose and 20% with 5 kGy or above were effective for shelf-life enhancement of the salted and fermented shrimp by adequate suppression of microorganisms during fermentation at 15 degrees. The results showed that the sensory quality of the sample was maintained up to 10 weeks after fermentation. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation was effective in processing low salted and fermented shrimp and extending their shelf-life without adding any food additives

  4. Radiation studies on resistive bulk-micromegas chambers at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Camerlingo, Maria Teresa; Farina, Edoardo; Iengo, Paolo; Longo, Luigi; Samarati, Jerome; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Wotschack, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    With the growing diffusion of resistive Micromegas detectors in HEP experiments the study of long-term aging behaviour is becoming more and more relevant. Two resistive bulk-Micromegas detectors were installed in May 2015 at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility and exposed to an intense gamma irradiation with the aim to study the detector behavior under high irradiation and the long-term aging. The detectors have an active area of 10 × 10 cm 2 , readout strip pitch of 400 μ m , amplification gap of 128 μ m and drift gap of 5 mm. The desired accumulated charge of more than 0.2 C/cm 2 has been reached for both chambers, equivalent to 10 years of HL-LHC operation. The efficiency, amplification, and resolution of the Micromegas after this long-term irradiation period is compared with the performance of a non irradiated detector. In addition, the latest results of the measured particle rate as a function of the amplification voltage is presented and compared with those obtained in 2015.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles on microbiological characteristics of saffron, using hurdle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Sales, E; Motamedi Sedeh, F; Rajabifar, S

    2012-03-01

    Saffron, a plant from the Iridaceae family, is the world's most expensive spice. Gamma irradiation and silver nano particles whose uses are gradually increasing worldwide, have positive effects on preventing decay by sterilizing the microorganisms and by improving the safety without compromising the nutritional properties and sensory quality of the foods. In the present study combination effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles packaging on the microbial contamination of saffron were considered during storage. A combination of hurdles can ensure stability and microbial safety of foods. For this purpose, saffron samples were packaged by Poly Ethylene films that posses up to 300 ppm nano silver particles as antimicrobial agents and then irradiated in cobalt-60 irradiator (gamma cell PX30, dose rate 0.55 Gry/Sec) to 0, 1, 2,3 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities against Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria, Entrobacteriace, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium Perfringines were higher in the irradiated samples, demonstrating the inhibition zone for their growth. Irradiation of the saffron samples packaged by Poly Ethylene films with nano silver particles showed the best results for decreasing microbial contamination at 2 kGy and for Poly Ethylene films without silver nano particles; it was 4 kGy.

  6. Unscheduled DNA synthesis and elimination of DNA damage in liver cells of. gamma. -irradiated senescent mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaziev, A.I.; Malakhova, L.V. (AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki)

    1982-10-01

    The level of 'spontaneous' and ..gamma..-radiation-induced DNA synthesis which is not inhibited with hydroxyurea (unscheduled synthesis) is considerably lower in hepatocytes of 18-22-month-old mice than that of 1.5-2-month-old mice. The dose-dependent increase (10-300 Gy) of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in hepatocytes of senescent mice is higher than in young animals. The elimination of damage in DNA of ..gamma..-irradiated hepatocytes (100 Gy) was examined by using an enzyme system (M. luteus extract and DNA-polymerase I of E. coli). It was found that the rate of elimination of the DNA damage in hepatocytes of 20-month-old mice is lower than that of 2-month-old mice although the activities of DNA-polymerase ..beta.. and apurinic endonuclease remain equal in the liver of both senescent and young mice. However, the nucleoids from ..gamma..-irradiated liver nuclei of 2-month-old mice are relaxed to a greater extent (as judged by the criterion of ethidium-binding capacity) than those of 20-month-old mice. The results suggest that there are limitations in the functioning of repair enzymes and in their access to damaged DNA sites in the chromatin of senescent mouse liver cells.

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author)

  10. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohdy, Maged H. [Department of Radiation Chemistry, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: mhzohdy@yahoo.com

    2005-06-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes.

  11. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, Maged H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes

  12. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash –SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► The optimum absorbed dose obtained for surface modification of cotton (RC) is 8 kGy. ► Irradiation has enhanced antioxidant, anti bacterial and hemolytic activities. ► Optimum dyeing conditions are 60 min dyeing time and 8 g/L salt concentration. ► At optimum conditions, color strength and fastness properties are enhanced.

  13. The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lina, M.R.; Susiana

    1986-01-01

    A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co 60 ) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH 4 H 2 PO 4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension ( + - 10 8 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30 o C for S. cerevisiae and 37 o C for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

  14. Analysis of gamma irradiator dose rate using spent fuel elements with parallel configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto; Pudjijanto MS; Ardani

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of the RSG-GAS reactor spent fuel, the gamma irradiator using spent fuel elements as a gamma source is a suitable choice. This irradiator can be used for food sterilization and preservation. The first step before realization, it is necessary to determine the gamma dose rate theoretically. The assessment was realized for parallel configuration fuel elements with the irradiation space can be placed between fuel element series. This analysis of parallel model was choice to compare with the circle model and as long as possible to get more space for irradiation and to do manipulation of irradiation target. Dose rate calculation were done with MCNP, while the estimation of gamma activities of fuel element was realized by OREGEN code with 1 year of average delay time. The calculation result show that the gamma dose rate of parallel model decreased up to 50% relatively compared with the circle model, but the value still enough for sterilization and preservation. Especially for food preservation, this parallel model give more flexible, while the gamma dose rate can be adjusted to the irradiation needed. The conclusion of this assessment showed that the utilization of reactor spent fuels for gamma irradiator with parallel model give more advantage the circle model. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-01-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities. - Highlights: • Radiation treatments up to 12.5 kGy do not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. • The irradiated samples showed enhanced antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activity. • Radiation treatment has beneficial effects on the selected phytochemicals. • Gamma irradiation increased the extraction yields of the plant leaves.

  16. Gamma irradiation, hot water and imazalil treatments on decay organisms and physical quality of stored netted muskmelon fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, G.

    1989-01-01

    Nonchemical treatments of gamma irradiation (2 Kilograys) and hot water (57°C) and the fungicide imazalil (1000 ppm) were compared with and without shrink-film wrap for effects on decay and physical quality of netted muskmelon fruit stored at 4°C for 0 through 60 days. Gamma irradiation was ineffective in controlling decay and surface molds, and injurious to physical quality by decreasing firmness, increasing fresh weight loss, membrane leakage and vein track browning. Hot water treatment coupled with shrink-film wrap was effective in controlling decay activity and maintaining physical quality up to 20 days storage. Imazalil coupled with shrink-film wrap controlled the incidence and severity of decay and maintained fruit firmness, moisture loss, membrane permeability and vein track browning for almost 60 days storage. (author)

  17. The efficiency of gamma irradiation on the bacterium pseudomonas fluorescence (Migh) against the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata (wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the bacterium pseudomonas fluorescence against the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was investigated. Adult emergence was significantly reduced by applying the wild and gamma irradiated strain (150 and 300 Gy). The highest reduction occurred by the mutant P1 and the highest concentration (10 8 ). The activity of this bacteria increased by gamma irradiation compared to that of the wild isolate. The reduction in adult survival of both males and females was highly significant by applying the irradiated bacteria with the two doses of gamma radiation and different concentration (10 8 , 10 6 and 10 4 ) of bacterial suspension. Applying the bacteria as a culture filtrate reduced adult survival of wild strain significantly, while the irradiated strain recorded a significant reduction in males and females with the highest concentration (100 %) and by applying the two doses of gamma radiation (150 and 300 Gy) and in females only at the concentration 50% by using the dose of 150 Gy

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation and storage on lutein and zeaxanthin in liquid, frozen and dried egg yolk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine Uygun-Saribay; Ece Ergun; Turhan Koeseoglu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of gamma irradiation and storage on the content of lutein and zeaxanthin in egg yolk samples. Liquid, frozen and dried egg samples were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy followed by storage of liquid samples at +4 ± 1 deg C for 21 days, frozen samples at -18 ± 1 deg C and dried samples at room temperature for 1 year. The xanthophyll concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. It was observed that concentrations of both lutein and zeaxanthin were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after irradiation and during storage. The mechanism for radiation-induced degradation was proposed as radical formation which initiate chain reactions. It was suggested that during storage active radical species and oxygen caused the degradation. (author)

  19. The protective role of Gamma-Tocopherol and zinc cysteine against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the capability of α tocopherol (naturally occurring antioxidant) and zinc cysteine against radiation induced oxidative stress. α Tocopherol was dissolved in corn oil and g, to the animals for ten successive days at a dose of 20 mg/kg b weight/day. Zinc cysteine was delivered to rats via intraperitoneal inject at a concentration of 25 mg/kg body weight/day for two successive days, rats were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of Gy. The activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and also concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (Mi . were determined in the blood. The levels of metallothionein, zinc and copper were estimated in the serum, liver and kidney of the tested animals. The obtained results revealed that administration of a-tocopherol and zinc cysteine before gamma radiation exposure diminish significantly the decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities as compared to untreated irradiated rats. Also, the decrease in blood GSH concentration was less manifested and the decrease in the level of MDA was significant. The pre-gamma irradiation administration of zinc cysteine induced significant changes in the levels of metallothionein compared to both a-tocopherol supplemented and gamma irradiated rat groups. The amelioration occurred in the levels of zinc and copper postulated the positive role of vitamin E and zinc cysteine in alleviating all the levels of these elements

  20. The effect of cyclophosphamide and gamma irradiation on adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, B.; Bohaecek, J.; Sikulova, J.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in ADA and PNP activities in the spleens and thymuses of mice were studied after a single administration of cyclophosphamide and after whole-body gamma irradiation, applied alone or three days after CY application, In the first days after the treatment the enzyme activities were significantly depressed with the exception of ADA in the spleen, where a high elevation in relation to controls was observed. During the regeneration period a pronounced rise of PNP activity in the spleen occurred mainly after a combined application of CY and irradiation. In the thymus the regeneration was manifested by a mild increase of both ADA and PNP activities towards control values. The findings suggest that the expressive changes of ADA and PNP activities, participating in the purine salvage pathway, may, after a cytotoxic treatment, influence the nucleotide pool and DNA synthesis in lymphoid organs

  1. Continuous induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weniger, P.; Klein, W.; Ott, E.; Kocsis, F.; Altmann, H.

    1990-01-01

    The induction of DNA-synthesis in non-S-phase cells is a very sensitive measure of a preceding damage of DNA. Usually, in an in vivo - in vitro test (treatment of an animal, incorporation of H3-thymidine in a cell suspension) the damaging of DNA takes place hours to days before the evaluation. In this case, the time course of the UDS-induction after a single dose of 1 Gy gamma irradiation was observed over a long period of time (21 months). C57 black mice served as test animals. In an age of about 80 days they were irradiated and the induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at ten time intervals during the whole life-span of the animals. Although the repair in this gamma radiation damage in DNA is a very quick process - with centrifugation in alkaline sucrose a half-life of some minutes is found - an induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis could be seen at the irradiated animals until the end of their life (640 days). The reason for this could be permanent disorders in cellular regulation caused by the gamma irradiation. (author) 4 figs

  2. Induced mutation In Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lama, Sainiya; Aeksomtramaet, Ladda; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand)

    2005-10-15

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds were exposed to different levels of Gamma irradiation at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Kilo rad. The exposed embryos were cultured on solid M S medium supplemented with 2 mg/l B A and overlaid with a liquid M S medium without growth regulators for 1 month. It was found that 50% growth reduction (GR50) was at 6 Kilo rad. The plant lets were subcultured twice every 2 months then they were transferred to solid M S medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA and overlaid with M S medium without growth regulators for root induction. The results revealed that plant lets in the control treatment (not exposed to Gamma irradiation) had the highest shoot growth and adventitious root formation. Plant lets at 2-Kilo rad treatment showed the second highest growth. The plant lets at 4-Kilo rad treatment did not exhibit adventitious root formation and had abnormal characteristics. Treatments at 6-10 Kilo rad inhibited the growth of the plant lets.

  3. Induced mutation In Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lama, Sainiya; Aeksomtramaet, Ladda; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon

    2005-10-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds were exposed to different levels of Gamma irradiation at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Kilo rad. The exposed embryos were cultured on solid M S medium supplemented with 2 mg/l B A and overlaid with a liquid M S medium without growth regulators for 1 month. It was found that 50% growth reduction (GR50) was at 6 Kilo rad. The plant lets were subcultured twice every 2 months then they were transferred to solid M S medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA and overlaid with M S medium without growth regulators for root induction. The results revealed that plant lets in the control treatment (not exposed to Gamma irradiation) had the highest shoot growth and adventitious root formation. Plant lets at 2-Kilo rad treatment showed the second highest growth. The plant lets at 4-Kilo rad treatment did not exhibit adventitious root formation and had abnormal characteristics. Treatments at 6-10 Kilo rad inhibited the growth of the plant lets

  4. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  5. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 o C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  6. Gamma Irradiation for the Inhibition of Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jae-Hun; Lee Ju-Woon

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation technology was conducted to reduce shrimp allergy. The experiment was designated in 3 portions as follows; A, the irradiation of raw shrimp; B the irradiation of shrimp and then cooking; and C, cooking the shrimp and then irradiation. Gamma irradiation was done with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy. A shrimp sarcoplasmic protein solution (SSPS) and a myofibrillar protein solution (SMPS) were prepared from A portion. Cooked shrimp protein solutions were also prepared from B and C portions. The binding abilities of the shrimp allergic patients' IgE and mouse monoclonal Ab 4.9.5 (mAb 4.9.5), produced to the shrimp heat-stable protein, to each sample solution were determined by ELISA. Binding abilities of patients' IgE and mAb 4.9.5 to irradiated shrimp fractions were dose-dependently reduced. The cooking treatment after irradiation was more effective than the irradiation treatment after cooking in the reduction of the binding abilities of IgE and IgG. SDS-PAGE was performed to compare irradiated shrimp proteins with non-irradiated shrimp proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that no bands were changed by gamma irradiation. The results indicated that food irradiation with an adequate dose can be reduce allergenicity of shrimp

  7. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  8. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, J.C.M.; Guenaydi, T.; Alkan, H.; Botelho, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing promising features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, for Portugese cultivars. Hence, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 deg C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) was evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for fatty acids (FA), tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids, were the only FA that undergone some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected neither by storage nor irradiation. α-tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, our results confirm that gamma irradiation is a promising conservation methodology, without inducing changes in chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  10. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling

  11. Carbamazepine degradation by gamma irradiation coupled to biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shizong [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianlong, E-mail: wangjl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Carbamazepine was removed by the combined gamma radiation and biodegradation. • The removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose. • Irradiation could enhance the mineralization of carbamazepine significantly. • The combined irradiation and biodegradation was effective for carbamazepine removal. - Abstract: Carbamazepine is an emerging contaminant and resistant to biodegradation, which cannot be effectively removed by the conventional biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the combined gamma irradiation and biodegradation was employed to remove carbamazepine from wastewater. The effect of dose on the removal of carbamazepine was studied at different doses (300, 600 and 800 Gy). The results showed that the removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose increasing during the irradiation process. The maximum removal efficiency was 99.8% at 800 Gy, while the removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) was only 26.5%. The removal efficiency of TOC increased to 79.3% after the sequent biological treatment. In addition, several intermediates and organic acids were detected. The possible degradation pathway of carbamazepine during the integrated irradiation and biodegradation was proposed. Based on the overall analysis, the combined gamma irradiation and biological treatment process can be an alternative for removing the recalcitrant organic pollutants such as carbamazepine from wastewater.

  12. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  13. Effects of Acute Gamma Irradiation on Amaryllis Orange Bio gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Shakinah Salleh; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ornamental and landscaping plants have their own demand. Color variations, shape and flower shelf life are among the important value-added characters in improvement of new varieties of ornamental plants. Mutation induction using ionizing radiation is an alternative way for obtaining plant with desirable traits. Improvement of ornamental plant Amaryllis 'Orange Bio gamma' was carried out by exposing bulbs with gamma rays at dose 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy using Bio Beam GM8000 gamma irradiation chamber at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Effect of radiation on the growth of bulbs was observed. Data on shoot and root length was recorded after 6 weeks. From the observation, the increasing dose has caused a reduction in shoot length and inhibited the root production. This paper will discuss the effects of acute gamma irradiation on the plant morphology. The result and observation obtained is useful for future work on lily improvement and will be included into Bio Beam GM8000 irradiation database. (author)

  14. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  15. Using Gamma Irradiation to Modify Properties of Polysaccharides (Guar Gum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing of material is one of most recent technology used in modification of material properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the Polysaccharides Viscosity and Molecular Weight, as definition of Guar Gum. Its series of glactomanene (glactos + manose). (1-2-,3). Guar Gum powder was the main material and Co-60 irradiator facility as main technique. For gamma–ray source of required doses, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. Viscosity of the aqueous suspensions of irradiated Guar Gum at different concentrations (0.1–0.5%) was measured, also it measured for solutions made of irradiated powder. Results used to calculate the difference occur in molecular weight, in order to determine the irradiation effect in the material. The monitored rheological parameters showed (non-Newtonian Behavior) of the samples which processed by gamma irradiation. The decrease tendency of the viscosity by irradiation of samples under study (different concentrations) and compared with control also for irradiated powder decrease of the concentration as well has been noticed. From results evaluation concluded that the viscosity values for all studied concentrations decreased by irradiation. This aspect suggests a depolymerization phenomenon of the aqueous Guar Gum solutions. This study contributes to the knowledge of the viscoelastic properties of Guar Gum as powder or aqueous solution, with application for food, agriculture, medical products, Petroleum and construction. (author)

  16. Gamma-irradiation to inactivate thioglucosidase of crucifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessman, K.J.; McCaslin, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The crucifers contain glucosinolates which through enzymatic hydrolysis give rise to toxicants that limit the use of oil-free meal obtainable from this plant family. Seeds from three crucifers were used to test gamma irradiation to inactivate enzyme systems as a step toward detoxification. Seeds of Crambe abyssinica Hochst (crambe), ground seeds of Sinapis alba L. (mustard), and seeds of Brassica napus L. (rape) were subjected to gamma-irradiation (6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.4 Mrad) to inactivate thioglucosidase and/or destroy glucosinolates. Samples of ground seeds, their oil-free meals, previously irradiated ground seeds and their oil-free meals were assayed for glucose, a product of enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates present in the crucifer seeds. The 50.4 Mrad exposure inactivated thioglucosidase but did not destroy glucosinolates. The fatty acid contents of extracted oils were affected. The amino acid profile of defatted crambe protein meal was affected, while that of white mustard was not

  17. Sensory evaluation of gamma irradiated coconut cream powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (5, 10 and 15kGy) and storage on the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. Ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 degree C for seven days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. The sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the level of acceptance on four parameters, namely odour, colour, creamy taste and overall acceptance. Twenty (20) taste panelists gave their score from scale] (least acceptable) to 5 (most acceptable). The results showed that there was a significant different (P 0. 05) in all the sensory properties. The sensory evaluation of stored samples showed that there was significant different (P>0.05) in odour, creamy taste, colour and overall acceptance compared to the control. Based on the overall acceptance, gamma irradiation as low as 5 kGy could affect the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. The possibility of using doses lower than 5 kGy for decontamination of coconut cream powder could be considered in the future study. The irradiated product was not acceptable after one-year storage. (Author)

  18. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  19. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, R.P., E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-15

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a {sup 60}Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I–V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  20. Management of Potato Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, H.; Moussa, Z.; Abd El-Rahman, A.F.; Salem, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation aims to apply a safe practice to minimize potato losses due to soft rot disease of tubers kept under ambient temperature. In this regard, gamma irradiation was used to extend keeping quality through its effect on soft rot bacteria. Eight bacterial isolates were recovered on Logan’s medium from kitchen kept tubers with symptoms of soft rot disease. Five isolates were found pathogenic and tentatively identified as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense on the basis of the usual bacteriological methods. A molecular method using 16SrDNA sequence analysis for verification of the identity of two isolates was made. The two bacterial isolates, Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays. Complete inhibition occurred at doses 2.5 and 2.0 KGy for high densities (Approximately 4.0x10"9 CFU/ml) of P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, respectively. The D10 value of gamma irradiation was 0.24 KGy for P. atrosepticum and 0.20 KGy for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Irradiation of artificially infected tubers with soft rot bacteria using the two mentioned D10 doses for the two bacterial species increased the shelf life of tubers kept under ambient temperature. The internal chemical quality of tubers was shown to be improved by keeping the tubers under ambient temperature after irradiation by the two D10 doses 0.24 and 0.20 KGy

  1. Controlling of carrier movement on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator ISG-500 is being designed. One of the design objects in the gamma irradiator is carrier movement and its controlling. Many possibilities of carrier movements can be implemented in the set-up design, such as using discrete or continuous mode. In this paper, selected discrete carriers movement and their controlling for the basic-design of the ISG-500 will be discussed. Nine stopper locations for nineteen carriers in operation will be controlled their carriers movement so that the movements have maximum positive transient load (increasing load) two carriers only. The controlling of the movement uses a train of pulses counting system as a one-dimension coordinate reference of a point on the rotated chain pulling the carrier. Every stopper location has a specific counting number in which will be used by the controlling system to let the carrier in the stopper location moving. By this movement, it is expected to prolong the life-time of the in use carrier mover motor. (author)

  2. Continuous induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weniger, P.; Klein, W.; Ott, E.; Kocsis, F.; Altmann, H.

    1988-08-01

    The induction of DNA-synthesis in non-S-phase cells is a very sensitive measure of a preceding damage of the DNA. Usually, in an in vivo -in vitro test (treatment of an animal, incorporation of H3-thymidine in a cell suspension) the damaging of DNA takes place hours to days before the evaluation. In this case, the time course of the UDS-induction after a single dose of 1 Gy gamma irradiation should be observed for a long time (21 months). C57 black mice served as test animals. In an age of about 80 days they were irradiated and the induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at ten points of time during the whole life-span of the animals. Although the repair in this gamma radiation damage in DNA is a very quick process - with centrifugation in alkaline sucrose you find a half time of some minutes - an induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis could be seen at the irradiated animals until the end of their life (640 days). The reason for this could be permanent disorders in cellular regulation caused by the gamma irradiation. 4 figs. (Author)

  3. Degradation of peptides by gamma-irradiation, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oku, Tadatake; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ishida, Tomoharu; Fukui, Manabu; Ito, Teiichiro (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    The radiolytic products of two kinds of dipeptides containing aromatic amino acid, gly-L-tyr and L-tyr-gly in 1 mM aqueous solution in the presence of air were examined by gamma-irradiation at doses of about 6, 12 and 25 kGy. Peptide samples in aqueous solution were analyzed by HPLC and GC after gamma-irradiation. Amides which the amounts of formation was very small, were collected several times by an amino acid autoanalyzer and isolated by HPLC. The ninhydrin-positive products from gly-L-tyr were detected gly, tyr, dopa, asp, ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine and glycinamide. The products from L-tyr-gly were tyr, gly, dopa, asp, ammonia, methylamine and ethylamine, but tyrosinamide was not confirmed. The total amounts of ninhydrin-positive products formed were less than the decreasing amount of each peptide at every irradiation dose. Methanal and ethanal were detected in both peptides. A radiolytic pathway of gly-L-tyr and L-tyr-gly was estimated from these results. (author).

  4. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, M.I.; ALI, S.E.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  5. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  6. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  7. Comparison of the effects of gamma irradiation and steam sterilization on Southern pine sapwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Curling; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2008-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method of sterilization of wood specimens prior to decay testing. As part of a larger series of studies, an investigation was made into the effects of gamma irradiation on flexural bending strength properties and its corresponding relationship to changes in lignin and hemicellulosic contents of wood after exposure to various dose...

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Yanyan; Yuan Shoujun; Yu Xin; Zheng Zheng; Cui Lei; Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60 Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Su; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

  10. Gamma irradiation affects the total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties in three different persian pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Aalifar, Mostafa; Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (GR) on total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were investigated in three different Persian pistachio nuts at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, revealed a significant increase in the 1-2 kGy dose range. Total phenol content (TPC) revealed a similar pattern or increase in this range. However, when radiation was increased to 4 kGy, TPC in all genotypes decreased. A radiation dose of 1 kGy had no significant effect on anthocyanin content of Kale-Ghouchi (K) and Akbari (A) genotypes, while it significantly increased the anthocyanin content in the Ghazvini (G) genotype. In addition, increasing the radiation to 4 kGy significantly increased the anthocyanin content of K and G genotypes. To conclude, irradiation could increase the phenolic content, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of pistachio nuts.

  11. Structural evolution of defective graphene under heat treatment and gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Zhao, Lihuan; Li, Jing; Jing, Miaolei

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the structural change of defective graphene built by annealing in different temperature under the condition of gamma irradiation. Firstly, we found the heat treatment not only reduced but also striped the graphene. This behavior made defects become more firstly and then become less with the increase of temperature. And then gamma irradiation removed some oxygen-containing groups, by a simultaneous changed over carbon in the graphitic lattice from sp3 to sp2. Also, the gamma irradiation decreased the interlayer spacing between graphene lowest to 3.391 Å and made a crosslink which resulting in the size of the ordered gaining. A variation was detected by Raman spectroscopy that the amorphous carbon was declined after gamma irradiation. Furtherly we found the degree of this decline raised first and then diminished with the increase in the number of defects. The change in repair capacity of gamma irradiation presented a strategy for repairing the defects of graphene.

  12. Is Vitamin E Life Supporter for Gamma Irradiated Galleria Mollenella?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E separate or combined with gamma ray in semi artificial diets on some biological aspects of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). The increase in the average number of eggs per mated female for more than 70 % of the control in both treated male and female. Also, through the F1 generation (descendant of P1 progeny fed on artificial diet plus vitamin E) in either irradiated male or female at 100 and 300 Gy dose levels. The life supporter of vitamin E clearly demonstrates throughout F1 whose offspring fed on artificial diet plus Vitamin E, also more pronounced during the first generation treated with gamma irradiation (100 and 300 Gray) which descendant from the offspring were fed on the artificial diet containing Vitamin E (0.02%) than that treatments which treated with gamma irradiation only. The average weight of larvae and pupae significantly increase by using petroleum ether only or this may be abnormal. The average weight of larvae and pupae at the concentration 0.02% was 105.07 and 121.87 % from the control treatment, respectively then decreased to 67.86 and 75.12%, respectively from the control treatment at the concentration 0.04% and then increase at the two concentrations 0.06 and 0.08 %. The increase in weight gain in the case combined ( 100 Gy or 300 Gy with Vitamin E) more than in case using a single dose of gamma irradiation , the increase in case 300 Gy only or combined with Vitamin E more than the control treatment. The best result in case of Vitamin (E) only then when treated the pest with gamma radiation after Vitamin (E) and the effect at 100 Gy better than in case 300 Gy. The combined effect of sub sterilizing dose (300 Gy) and sterilizing doses (400 and 500 Gy) of gamma radiation and vitamin E on the mating competitiveness of F1 males G. Mellenella shows that the competitiveness values more than 1.0 at the combined VE and the two dose levels 400 and 500 Gy

  13. Inhibition of alloxan diabetes by low dose {gamma}-irradiation before alloxan administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takehara, Yoshiki; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Utsumi, Kozo

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of whole body {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation at a single low dose on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. (1) In rats that received alloxan, SOD activity in pancreas significantly decreased, but the decrease was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. (2) Similarly, plasma peroxide, pancreatic peroxide, and blood glucose increased. However, the increase in pancreatic peroxide was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and the increase in blood glucose by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (3) After alloxan administration, degranulation was observed in cells, but this was inhibited by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. These results suggest that alloxan diabetes was inhibited by the increase of SOD activity in pancreas after low dose irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (author).

  14. Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Gamma Irradiated Starch/ Chitosan/ Ag Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.A.; Hassan, M.S.; Ali, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Composites based on different ratios of starch and chitosan, in the presence of a constant amount of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), were prepared in the form of thin films by casting solutions. The gamma irradiated composites were characterized in terms of solution viscosity, FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the prepared composites against different microorganisms was investigated. The results showed that the increase of irradiation dose more than 5 kGy leads to a decrease in the composite solution viscosity, the overall crystallinity, thermal stability and antimicrobial activity of the prepared films. The prepared starch based composites were applied to cotton samples to demonstrate the antimicrobial finishing. Acceptable antimicrobial results against both the tested pathogenic bacteria and in burial test were obtained.

  15. Chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants at gamma greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Activities on chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants have started since April 2010. Among plants which have been irradiated were landscaping plants such as hibiscus, canna, turnera, plumeria, amaryllis, and ornamental plants such as orchid, heliconia, cucurma and sanseviera, as well as vanilla. The main objectives at the initial stage were to develop database for optimum chronic irradiation dose and suitable experimental design for each species. The ultimate aim is to obtain new varieties of ornamental plants with flower and horticultural traits of commercial values and landscaping plants suitable for Malaysian landscape such as large and colourful flower, longer bloom period and frequent flowering. This paper discusses irradiation activities for ornamental plants in Gamma Greenhouse including preparation of samples, growing medium and screening plots, selection/determination of optimum dose and dose rate, collection of data and selection of mutants. (author)

  16. Alterations in premating behavior and pheromone biology of gamma-irradiated Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szentesi, A.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Coffelt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Exposure of female cabbage looper pupae, Trichoplusia ni, to gamma irradiation at 0 to 72 hr before eclosion resulted in significantly reduced moving and calling activity of the adults. The effects were dose-related from 10 to 40 kR. Generally, irradiation in a nitrogen atmosphere slightly reduced deleterious effects, but fractionation of the radiation dose did not. Four-day-old irradiated females contained significantly more sex pheromone than untreated females, indicating that loss of pheromone is positively correlated to the amount of calling activity. Males exposed to 20 kR or 40 kR in nitrogen were not affected in their flight response in an olfactometer to a level of synthetic pheromone ca. equal to that released by a calling female or to 0.1 x this level. The response of males exposed to 40 kR in air, however, was significantly decreased at the lower pheromone concentration

  17. Design of device for testing in the gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    In eves of the recharge of the Gamma Irradiator, JS-6500 it was detected, that there was contamination in the container that housed the pencils of Co-60, coming from Argentina, country to which the ININ buys it recharges. It was determined that the contamination in the container was it interns and after discussing several solution options it was determined to manufacture a device to make a washing of the pencils. It was touch to the Management of Radiological Safety to determine the conceptual design of the device to make the washing and the way of operation of the same one. The Management of Prototypes and Models was responsibility of the mechanical design and its production. (Author)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Saour, G.

    2002-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on all developmental stages of khapra beetle was examined. The results showed that when higher doses were applied and immature stages were treated the developmental time, larval and pupal mortality and adults' deformation were increased. Whereas, the fecundity and fertility of the emerged adults resulted from the treatment of immature stages, were increased when old eggs, larvae and pupae were treated with low doses. When newly emerged adults were irradiated the longevity of the male and the female was not affected, while the fecundity and fertility were declined especially when high doses were applied. The female of khapra beetle was more radiosensitive than the male, regardless of the applied dose or/and the treated developmental stage. (author)

  19. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

  20. Gamma-irradiated cationic starches: Paper surface-sizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofreiter, B.T.; Heath, H.D.; Schulte, M.I.; Phillips, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Cationic starches, precisely depolymerized by gamma-irradiation ( 60 Co), were dispersed in mild alkali and evaluated as surface sizes for bond paper on a pilot paper machine. The irradiated products had excellent dispersion properties, were well retained on fibers when sized wastepaper (broke) was repulped and had an ability to enhance paper properties that was comparable to that of starch-based materials used commercially. A yellow corn flour, cationized by an essentially dry reaction process recently developed at this Center, was also radiolyzed and evaluated as a size. This latter product was unique in that all drying steps were eliminated in the preparation of a cationic ceral product of reduced viscosity. (orig.) [de

  1. Characterization of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.H.; Attia, A. A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Ali, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten

  2. Study on silk yellowing induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-01-01

    The changes in the yellow color of silk threads with total dose of irradiation applied were described and studied by a colorimetric method and by monochrome photography. The change into a yellow color of the specimen in the course of irradiation was clearly detected in photographs using filters, 2B and SC 56 under light conditions at the wavelength of 366 nm. The b/L value measured by colorimetry in undegummed and degummed silk fibers sharply increased in the early stage of irradiation. Yellow color indices (b/L) of the specimen subjected to gamma-irradiation continued to increase and the yellow color of the silk threads became more pronounced above a total dose of irradiation of 21 Mrad. The b/L value of the undegummed silk fiber which had deen irradiated was about 2 times that of the degummed silk fiber. (author)

  3. A simple and efficient gamma irradiator for RVNRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, E; Ferenaz, G; Docters, E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-12-31

    This work describes a new design of a gamma irradiator for RVNRL which obeys a reliable operation and an efficient economical equation. Our irradiator is of a nobel design according to present requirements of latex industries and to the state of the art of radiation technology. The irradiator is of a wet storage type, where the radioactive sources are fixed in the reactor vessel, permanently submerged in deionized water. Preformulated latex is pumped from a deposited vessel into the reactor vessel and it is recirculated during the irradiation cycle avoiding turbulences and dose inhomogeneities. The irradiation time per one ton batch with a Co-60 charge of 3.5E15 Bq (100 kCi) is of approximately 4 hours

  4. Production of aflatoxins during storage of gamma-irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, A.G.; Sharma, A.; Padwaldesai, S.R.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation between relative humidity (RH) during storage and moisture content was obtained in wheat subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 krad. The samples were assessed for storage up to 6 months with and without artificial loading of grains with conidia of Aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxin production seemed to be determined by a critical level of moisture in the grain (13%) at RH over 80% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The total aflatoxin produced in the irradiated grains was observed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls. The amount of toxin contained in grains, artificially infected with A. flavus before or after irradiation, did not show appreciable differences. The results, while defining the storage conditions with reference to humidity, did not indicate any alterations in wheat relating to aflatoxin producing potential

  5. Thermoluminescence response of gamma-irradiated sesame with mineral dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, Y. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Calle Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: y.r.l@csic.es [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) emission of minerals isolated from Mexican and Indian sesame seeds appear as a good tool to discern between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. According to the X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning microscope, the adhered dust in both samples is mainly composed by different amounts of quartz and feldspars. These mineral phases exhibit (i) enough sensitivity to ionizing radiation inducing good Tl intensity, (ii) high stability of the Tl signal during the storage of the material (i.e. low fading) and (iii) are thermally and chemically stable. Blind tests performed under laboratory conditions, but simulating industrial preservation processes (similar temperature and moisture, and presence of white light), allows to distinguish between 1 KGy gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples even 11000 hours (15 months) after the irradiation proceeding. (Author)

  6. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  7. Disinfestation of whole and ground spices by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Sharma, Arun; Amonkar, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Number of insect species were identified in chilli (Capsicum annum Linn), turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and also in two commercial brands of prepacked ground spices. Lasioderma serricorne (Cigarette beetle), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Saw toothed grain beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) and Tribolium castaneum (Red flour beetle) were the predominant pest species found in these spices. Exposure of spices to Co 60 gamma irradiation at 1 kGy dose level did not show adult emergence of insects in these species during storage at ambient temperature (28-30degC) indicating that the radiation dose (10 kGy) that has been shown to be effective for microbial decontamination of spices destroys insect pests as well. (author). 8 refs

  8. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, G.E.; Frasca, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

  9. A simple and efficient gamma irradiator for RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolko, E.; Ferenaz, G.; Docters, E.; Keizo Makuuchi

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a new design of a gamma irradiator for RVNRL which obeys a reliable operation and an efficient economical equation. Our irradiator is of a nobel design according to present requirements of latex industries and to the state of the art of radiation technology. The irradiator is of a wet storage type, where the radioactive sources are fixed in the reactor vessel, permanently submerged in deionized water. Preformulated latex is pumped from a deposited vessel into the reactor vessel and it is recirculated during the irradiation cycle avoiding turbulences and dose inhomogeneities. The irradiation time per one ton batch with a Co-60 charge of 3.5E15 Bq (100 kCi) is of approximately 4 hours

  10. Time/effect after acute gamma irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, I.; Mileva, M.; Ivanov, B.

    1991-01-01

    Sexually mature male Wistar rats has received single acute whole body gamma irradiation with 51.6 mC/kg ( 137 Cs). Samples for cytogenetic investigations of bone-marrow cells have been prepared at 8, 24 and 50 hours, as well as on 3, 7. 15, 30 and 180 days after irradiation. Spontaneous structure aberrations are presented by acentric single and pair chromosomal fragments with occurencies 1.3 and 1.1%. Chromatid exchanges, dicentics and symmetric exchanges have been also found after irradiation. The higher percent of cells with aberrations and bigger number of aberrations per cell have been established in the initial periods (8 and 24 hrs after irradiation), then a statistically reliable reduction of the aberration rates has been observed. After the 15th day both indices are equalized with those of controls. 1 fig., 1 tab., 20 refs

  11. Thermoluminescence response of gamma-irradiated sesame with mineral dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez L, Y.; Correcher, V.; Garcia G, J.; Cruz Z, E.

    2011-10-01

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) emission of minerals isolated from Mexican and Indian sesame seeds appear as a good tool to discern between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. According to the X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning microscope, the adhered dust in both samples is mainly composed by different amounts of quartz and feldspars. These mineral phases exhibit (i) enough sensitivity to ionizing radiation inducing good Tl intensity, (ii) high stability of the Tl signal during the storage of the material (i.e. low fading) and (iii) are thermally and chemically stable. Blind tests performed under laboratory conditions, but simulating industrial preservation processes (similar temperature and moisture, and presence of white light), allows to distinguish between 1 KGy gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples even 11000 hours (15 months) after the irradiation proceeding. (Author)

  12. Use of gamma-irradiated blood for feeding tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.; Iwannek, K.H.; Hamann, H.J.; Adamsky, G.

    1980-01-01

    Freshly collected pig blood was sterilized by 60 Co gamma irradiation. A dose of 100 krad proved to be effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of at least 4.7x10 5 /ml. Glossina morsitans morsitans (Westw.) were maintained on this blood by feeding them five days per week on silicone membrane for nine months. Their performance was compared with a control fed untreated blood. In spite of the slightly faster haemolysis of the irradiated blood, the results from the experimental group compared favourably with the control. This was especially true for the percentage of daily mortality. The irradiation seems to offer a promising approach for the establishment of mass rearing plants in Africa based on in vitro feeding provided the blood from donor animals is suitable for tsetse flies. (author)

  13. Copper nanoparticles synthesis by gamma irradiation in chitosan aqueous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrul Izwan Ahmad; Md Soot Ahmad; Shahidan Radiman

    2009-01-01

    A study on effect of chitosan concentration on the copper nanoparticles synthesis using gamma irradiation as source of reducing agent has been done at total absorbed dose of 50 kGy. The addition of ethanol is vital as scavenger of oxidation radical that eliminate the function of reducing agent produced by radiolysis process of gamma ray in water system. Transmission electron microscopy observations show the formation of copper nanoparticles embedded in chitosan matrix. As the concentration of chitosan increase the solution become darker and nanoparticles produced are densely, in order form with polydisperse size. While at the low concentration of chitosan, the color of solution become more reddish and the particles produced are monodisperse in size with regular shape and more orderly. The phase of pure copper nanoparticles embedded in the chitosan matrix was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  14. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.K.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Chuttani, K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ghose, A.

    1985-01-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinie excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained upto the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels upto the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio upto the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author)

  15. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Republic of Korea))

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of {gamma}-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3{plus minus}1{sup 0}C and 80{plus minus}5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author).

  16. Effect of neutron and gamma irradiation on magnetic bubble memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambou, B.

    1981-06-01

    Many years of research preceeded the introduction of magnetic bubble memories (M.B.M.) into the memory components market. They are used as bulk storage memories principally for their non volatile characteristics under irradiation. A physical and technological description of MBM is given in the first part of the text together with the results of work on their vulnerability when subjected to irradiation. Permanent damage caused by neutrons and gamma radiation on thin magnetic layers is then studied. A theoretical analysis on the stability of bubbles based on the results of pulsed laser experiments is given. The stability of the information stored in a commercially available MBM subjected to neutron and gamma irradiation (MBM - TIB 203 of 92 kBits, Texas) is described in the last part of the text. The vulnerability thresholds determined for the MBM are too high for them to be used in a radioactive environment with an improved electronic control system [fr

  17. Modification of ethylene-norbornene copolymer by Gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačarević-Popović Zorica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of modifying polyethylene and many other polymers with high energy radiation has led to many useful applications. Due to their new combination of properties and the shortage of experimental data, the radiolysis of a new class of materials, cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC, polymerised from norbornene and ethylene using metallocene catalysts, is of great interest to the study of radiation chemistry and the physics of polymeric systems. Ethylenenorbornene copolymer, pristine and containing an antioxidant were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air and in water. The irradiated copolymer was studied using IR and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The radiation-induced changes in the molecular structure were correlated to changes in the glass transition temperature measured by the DSC method.

  18. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  19. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  20. Improvement of microbiological qualities of namphrik by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahorm, K; Neramitmansook, N; Kongsang, N; Ko, J

    2017-01-01

    Twenty samples of Namphrik from commercial markets were evaluated the microbiological qualities. It was found that 15 samples did not meet Thai Community Product Standard. The total plate count (TPC) in 15 samples were higher than the maximum limits (1.60x10 4 – 4.4x10 5 CFU/g). In addition, the other pathogens were higher than the maximum limits such as B. cereus in 11 samples (2.10x10 3 – 6.10x10 4 CFU/g) S. aureus in 2 samples (15 – 40 CFU/g) Clostridium perfringens in 4 samples (1.00x10 2 – 8.8x10 3 CFU/g) and yeast and mold in 9 samples (3.00 x10 2 – 9.00x10 3 CFU/g). To reduce TPC and pathogenic bacteria, the gamma irradiation were applied at 3.28- 4.43 kGy. The results indicated that the irradiation can reduce the TPC around 1.2 – 3.9 log cycles and eliminate pathogens bacteria in the product to make all of 15 samples qualified to the standard. The sensory evaluation was conducted in Namphrik Narok by using difference from control test to determine whether the consumers can differentiate between the non-irradiated and irradiated. The result showed that the consumers can significantly differentiate the color, odor and flavor (p<0.05). However, the preference test showed that there was no significant preferences at p>0.05. Both non-irradiated and irradiated were scored at 6.4 (slightly to moderately preference). Thus the gamma irradiation can be used as a tool to improve the microbiological qualities of the Namphrik Narok product without effecting the consumer preference. (paper)