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Sample records for metabolically active fraction

  1. [L-arginine metabolism enzyme activities in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation].

    Kopyl'chuk, G P; Buchkovskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The features of arginase and NO-synthase pathways of arginine's metabolism have been studied in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation. During the experimental period (28 days) albino male rats were kept on semi synthetic casein diet AIN-93. The protein deprivation conditions were designed as total absence of protein in the diet and consumption of the diet partially deprived with 1/2 of the casein amount compared to in the regular diet. Daily diet consumption was regulated according to the pair feeding approach. It has been shown that the changes of enzyme activities, involved in L-arginine metabolism, were characterized by 1.4-1.7 fold decrease in arginase activity, accompanied with unchanged NO-synthase activity in cytosol. In mitochondrial fraction the unchanged arginase activity was accompanied by 3-5 fold increase of NO-synthase activity. At the terminal stages of the experiment the monodirectional dynamics in the studied activities have been observed in the mitochondrial and cytosolfractions in both experimental groups. In the studied subcellular fractions arginase activity decreased (2.4-2.7 fold with no protein in the diet and 1.5 fold with partly supplied protein) and was accompanied by NO-synthase activity increase by 3.8 fold in cytosole fraction, by 7.2 fold in mitochondrial fraction in the group with no protein in the diet and by 2.2 and 3.5 fold in the group partialy supplied with protein respectively. The observed tendency is presumably caused by the switch of L-arginine metabolism from arginase into oxidizing NO-synthase parthway.

  2. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  3. Metabolic Activation of the Organic Fraction Coated Onto Air Pollution PM2.5 and its Genotoxicity in a Co Culture Model of Human Lung Cells

    Abbas, I; Garcon, G; Billet, S.; Verdin, A.; Escande, F.; Saint-Georges, F.; Mulliez, Ph.; Gosset, P.; Shirali, P.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution Particulate Matter (PM 2 .5) is described as one of the major risk factors affecting human health. Hence, the objective of our research project was to evaluate the lung toxicity of PM 2 .5 collected in Dunkerque (France), through the study of the metabolic activation of its organic fraction (e.g. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs; Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs) and its genotoxicity in two human cell models: embryonic lung epithelial L132 cells and Alveolar Macrophages (AM) isolated from bronchiolo-alveolar lavages of healthy outpatients, in mono- and/or coculture. The coculture system we used allowed the direct exposure of AM to PM 2 .5, and the interaction between the two cell types only through soluble factor diffusion. Exposure to Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5 induced the gene expression of phase I and phase II enzymes (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, NQO1, GSTπ1, GSTμ3) involved in the metabolic activation of PAHS and/or VOCS, in AM, in mono- and coculture, and in L132 cells, only in monoculture. Taken together, these results reinforced the key role of AM in lung defenses, and indicated that particles, as physical vector of the penetration and retention of coated-PAHS and/or VOCS within cells, enabled them to exert a durable toxicity. DNA bulky adduct formation was also reported not only in Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5-exposed AM, in mono- and coculture, but also in L132 cells from PAH-exposed coculture. Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) and/or MicroSatellite Instability (MSI) of some MicroSatellites (MS) located in multiple critical regions of chromosome 3 were reported in L132 cells from Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5-exposed mono- or cocultures. (author)

  4. Prokaryote metabolism activity

    Biederman, Lori

    2017-01-01

    I wrote this activity to emphasize that prokaryotic organisms can carry out 6 different types of metabolisms (as presented in Freeman’s Biological Science textbook) and this contrasts to eukaryotes, which can only use 2 metabolism pathways (photoautotroph and heterotroph).    For in class materials I remove the  red box (upper right corner) and print slides 3-10, place them back-to-back and laminate them.  The students get a key (slide 2) and a two-sided organism sheet...

  5. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of metabolic stability using the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fraction

    Standard protocols are given for assessing metabolic stability in rainbow trout using the liver S9 fraction. These protocols describe the isolation of S9 fractions from trout livers, evaluation of metabolic stability using a substrate depletion approach, and expression of the res...

  7. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5 kDa, 3–5 kDa and fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala...... and Glu. The 3–5 kDa and fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe2+ chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3–5 kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600 Da....... The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute...

  8. Pulmonary metabolism of foreign compounds: Its role in metabolic activation

    Cohen, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The lung has the potential of metabolizing many foreign chemicals to a vast array of metabolites with different pharmacological and toxicological properties. Because many chemicals require metabolic activation in order to exert their toxicity, the cellular distribution of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in a heterogeneous tissue, such as the lung, and the balance of metabolic activation and deactivation pathways in any particular cell are key factors in determining the cellular specificity of many pulmonary toxins. Environmental factors such as air pollution, cigarette smoking, and diet markedly affect the pulmonary metabolism of some chemicals and, thereby, possibly affect their toxicity

  9. Anticancer Activity from Active Fraction of Sea Cucumber

    Nurul Mutia Putram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra is one of marine organisms has been used as a new source of novel bioactive compounds. Many of them have been used as the lead compounds in discovery of new anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the active fractions of sea cucumber (H. atra which have anticancer activity. H. atra was macerated using ethanol and the extract was freezedried using a freeze dryer. The crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water (3:1:1:1. Cytotoxicity test was performed using HeLa (cervic cancer cell line and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line based on the MTT assay. The crude extract of H. atra showed the best cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 12.48 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 17.90 µg/mL. The toxicity tests showed the IC50 value of the n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and methanol-water fraction against HeLa cells HeLa (IC50 = 76.45 µg/mL; 77.95 µg/mL;  14.27 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 58.50 µg/mL; 59.59 µg/mL; 14.33 µg/mL.

  10. Metabolic Profiling Analysis of the Alleviation Effect of the Fractions of Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet on Realgar Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Wenfeng Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT is a classical formula in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and so on. In the formula, significant level of Realgar as a potentially toxic element is contained. Our previous experiments revealed that it was less toxic for combined Realgar in NJT. However, the active fraction of this prescription with toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar was still obscure. NJT was divided into five different polar fractions (NJT-PET, NJT-25, NJT-50, NJT-75, and NJT-95, and we explored the toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar. Based on 1H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA and PLS-DA were performed to identify different metabolic profiles. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis were also performed. With pattern recognition analysis of metabolites in urine and serum, Realgar group showed a clear separation from control group, while the metabolic profiles of NJT-PET, NJT-25, NJT-50, and NJT-95 groups were similar to Realgar group, and the metabolic profiles of NJT and NJT-75 groups were very close to control group. Statistics results were confirmed by the histopathological examination and biochemical assay. The present work indicated that 75% EtOH fraction of NJT was the most valid fraction with the toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar.

  11. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract and fractions of ...

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus atrophaeus were used for ... Keywords: H. bacciferum, Medicinal Plant, crude fractions, Antimicrobial activities.

  12. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  13. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  14. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  15. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  16. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity Investigation on Wuyiencin Fractions of Different Polarity

    Zengjie Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Wuyiencin fractions with different polarities against six indicator microorganisms: Rhodotorula rubra, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Cladosporium fulvum and Staphylococcus aureus. The fermentation broth of Wuyiencin was submitted to AB-8 macroporous adsorptive resin and fractionated with solvents of different polarity. The fraction eluted with water had remarkably antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms investigated except for C. fulvum and S. aureus (MIC ≤ 0.0625 mg/mL, probably due to the presence of active components. The fraction eluted with methanol showed potential antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms except for R.rubra, with MIC values of0.5 and 2 mg/mL. In conclusion, fractions eluted with water and methanol, respectively, represent the main active-part of Wuyiencin, and could be emphasized for agricultural applications in the future.

  18. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  19. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  20. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  1. Effects of low-dose fractionated external irradiation on metabolic and structural characteristics of rat thyroid

    Nadolnik, L.; Niatsetskaya, Z. [Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grodno (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The problem of thyroid radiosensitivity to the effect of low dose external ionizing irradiation presently seems to be the least studied, and the experimental findings - the most contradictory. The aim of the work was to study the effects of long-term low-dose fractionated irradiation on the iodide metabolism and structure of the thyroid. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-160 g were irradiated 20 times (5 times a week, for 4 weeks) using a 60 Co installation. The single absorbed doses were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy and the total ones - 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy, respectively. The animals were decapitated after 1 day, 4 and 24 weeks following the last irradiation. The thyroid tissue was used to assay for thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) activity as well as total, protein -bound and free iodide concentrations. Microscopic and morphometric examination of histologic thyroid preparations was carried out. Blood was assayed for thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. After a day following the irradiation, the thyroid showed a pronounced increase in the concentration of total iodide (30.0-54.4%) as well in that of free (32.1-60.8%) and protein-bound ones (24.4-37.4%). The most pronounced iodide concentration elevation was noted in the 0.1 -Gy animals, with thyroid T.P.O. activity being raised by 48.0%. Only the 0.5 Gy-group had 1.4-1.5-fold reduced thyroid hormone levels. Four weeks after the irradiation, studied parameters of irradiated rats were brought back to the control values, except for the 0.5 Gy-group. However, after 24-weeks, the 0.5-and 0.25- irradiated rats experienced a 12-20% thyroid weight elevation in comparison with the control. The thyroid of these animals demonstrated reduced contents of total and free iodide as well as T.P.O. activity by 24.5 and 34.8%. The 0.1 Gy-group had a 1.7-fold increased T.P.O. activity. The concentration of the thyroid hormones was maintained diminished only in the 0.5 Gy -irradiated group. However

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Protein Fractions.

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xu, Jianguo; Gao, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89.14-80.38%). Moreover, all the fractions except glutelin-2 could effectively protect DNA against oxidative damage. Several peptides containing five to eight amino acids with antioxidant activity were also identified by LC-MS/MS from the globulin and glutelin-2 fractions. The results demonstrated that the coconut cake protein fractions have potential usages in functional foods.

  3. Phosphorus fractions, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in ...

    Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of papain hydrolysed camel whey and its fractions

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Goda, Hanan A.; De Gobba, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Camel whey (ON) was hydrolysed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial activity of the CW, camel whey hydrolysate (CWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The CWH exhibited significantly...

  5. Nucleic acid metabolism in hemopoietic tissues of polycythemic rats during long-term fractionated irradiation

    Mushkacheva, G.S.; Murzina, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of long-term fractionated exposure with a daily dose of 50 R on the nucleic acid metabolism in hemopoietic tissues (bone marrow and spleen) of rats with erythropoiesis selectively inhibited by posttransfusion polycythemia. The comparison of present and previously obtained results enables us to conclude that the pathways of changes in the nucleic acid metabolism, which is responsible for hemopoiesis compensation during long-term exposure, are, in the main, similar for both white and red compartments of hemopoiesis

  6. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    2015-02-09

    : The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF,. BF and WF ... quantified to determine if these phytochemical parameters ..... food items using reversed-phase HPLC. Food Chem.

  9. [Immune regulation activity and mechanism of Tibetan Kefir exopolysaccharide fractions].

    Meng, Li; Zhang, Lanwei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanism on immune regulation activity in mice of two Tibetan Kefir exoploysaccharides (EPS) with different molecular weight of 0.1 x 10(5) - 3 x 10(5) (fraction 1) and 1.8 x 10(3) (fraction 2). The immune regulation activity experiment was carried out in vitro based on the Functional Assessment Procedure and Test Methods of Health Food, which was issued by Ministry of Health of China. First, we treated mice subjects with EPS at doses of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg through ig. Then we detected the index of immune organs, the ability of antibody production (tested by HC50), activity of NK cell, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytosis of macrophage in mice. Finally, we examined the expression of Erk protein in Macrophages by Western Blot assay. Fraction 1 could promote HC50, activity of NK cell and DTH in mice which low dose showed better. Fraction 2 could promote DTH, phagocytosis of macrophage which high dose showed better. The expression of Erk and COX-2 had the same trend with Phagocytic index. We verified the two fractions of Tibetan Kefir EPS could enhance immune functions in mice. Fraction 1 regulated immune function through NK cell and B cell while fraction 2 through macrophage cell and T cell. The effects to macrophage of Tibetan Kefir EPS in mice may realize through extra cellular signal-regulated kinase Erk pathway.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of monomineral fractions

    Drykhin, V.I.; Belen'kij, B.V.; Voinkov, D.M.; Il'yasova, K.I.; Lejpinskaya, D.I.; Nedostyp, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results are described of the development of an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of monomineral sulfides (pyrites, pyrrhotites, chalcopyrites and others), quartzites and other minerals, the technique being intended for geochemical investigations. For a multi-element INAA of monomineral sulfides, the optimum irradiation time in a flux of 10 12 to 1.3x10 13 n/cm 2 (neutron field of a nuclear reactor) is 20 to 40 hours, thus ensuring a reliable determination of a great number of elements not lower than 10 -4 %. The time of the induced activity for determining indium in sulfides is 0.5 to 3 min. The actual sensitivity of the method is 10 -4 %. A sensitivity with respect to gold of 0.01 g/t was attained in monominerals after an irradiation of up to 5 min

  11. Apoptosis, energy metabolism, and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells: a study of human melanoma multicellular spheroids.

    Rofstad, E K; Eide, K; Skøyum, R; Hystad, M E; Lyng, H

    1996-09-01

    The magnitude of the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells in tumours is generally believed to reflect the efficiency of the vascular network. Theoretical studies have suggested that the hypoxic fraction might also be influenced by biological properties of the tumour cells. Quantitative experimental results of cell energy metabolism, hypoxia- induced apoptosis, and radiobiological hypoxia are reported here. Human melanoma multicellular spheroids (BEX-c and WIX-c) were used as tumour models to avoid confounding effects of the vascular network. Radiobiological studies showed that the fractions of hypoxic cells in 1000-microM spheroids were 32 +/- 12% (BEX-c) and 2.5 +/- 1.1% (WIX-c). The spheroid hypoxic volume fractions (28 +/- 6% (BEX-c) and 1.4 +/- 7% (WIX-c)), calculated from the rate of oxygen consumption per cell, the cell packing density, and the thickness of the viable rim, were similar to the fractions of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Large differences between tumours in fraction of hypoxic cells are therefore not necessarily a result of differences in the efficiency of the vascular network. Studies of monolayer cell cultures, performed to identify the biological properties of the BEX-c and WIX-c cells leading to this large difference in fraction of hypoxic cells, gave the following results: (1) WIX-c showed lower cell surviving fractions after exposure to hypoxia than BEX-c, (2) WIX-c showed higher glucose uptake and lactate release rates than BEX-c both under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and (3) hypoxia induced apoptosis in WIX-c but not in BEX-c. These observations suggested that the difference between BEX-c and WIX-c spheroids in fraction of hypoxic cells resulted partly from differences in cell energy metabolism and partly from a difference in capacity to retain viability under hypoxic stress. The induction of apoptosis by hypoxia was identified as a phenomenon which has an important influence on the magnitude of the fraction of

  12. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  13. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  14. Metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro.

    Shen, Mengnan; Cheng, Jie; Wu, Ruohan; Zhang, Shenghu; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2012-06-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two major flame retardants that accumulate in fish tissues and are potentially toxic. Their debrominated and oxidated derivatives were also reported in fish tissues although the sources of theses derivatives were unidentified. Our study was to determine whether PBDEs and TBBPA could be metabolized by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro and to identify what types of metabolites were formed. Liver microsomes and S9 fractions of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE 15), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) or TBBPA solutions for 4h. Exposure of liver subcellular fractions to BDE 15 resulted in the formation of bromophenol and two monohydroxylated dibromodiphenyl ether metabolites. Neither in microsomes nor in S9 studies has revealed the presence of hydroxylated metabolites with BDE 47 exposure which indicated that the oxidation reactions in vitro were hindered by the increased number of bromine substituents on the PBDEs. TBBPA underwent an oxidative cleavage near the central carbon of the molecule, which led to the production of 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropyl-phenol and three unidentified metabolites. Another metabolite of TBBPA characterized as a hexa-brominated compound with three aromatic rings was also found in the liver subcellular fractions. These results suggest that the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, as revealed by the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and oxidative bond cleavage products. Moreover, further studies on the identification of specific CYP450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation revealed that CYP1A was the major enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver subcellular fractions and CYP3A4 also played a major role in metabolism of TBBPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  16. [Chemical Constituents in hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf].

    Yu, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ting-ting; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf. The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by IR, MS and NMR. Seven compounds were isolated from the active fraction of Celastnrus orbiculatus, which identified as kaempferol( 1) ,quercetin(2), kaempferol-7-0-α-L-rhamnoside (3), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4) , quercetin-3-0-β-D-glucoside(5), myricetrin(6) and kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside(7). Chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf are reported for the first time,and compounds 5,6 and 7 are firstly obtained from this plant.

  17. Regulation of Metabolic Activity by p53

    Jessica Flöter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells is controlled by the activation of multiple oncogenic signalling pathways in order to promote macromolecule biosynthesis during rapid proliferation. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumour microenvironment. The tumour suppressor p53 interacts with the metabolic network at multiple nodes, mostly to reduce anabolic metabolism and promote preservation of cellular energy under conditions of nutrient restriction. Inactivation of this tumour suppressor by deletion or mutation is a frequent event in human cancer. While loss of p53 function lifts an important barrier to cancer development by deleting cell cycle and apoptosis checkpoints, it also removes a crucial regulatory mechanism and can render cancer cells highly sensitive to metabolic perturbation. In this review, we will summarise the major concepts of metabolic regulation by p53 and explore how this knowledge can be used to selectively target p53 deficient cancer cells in the context of the tumour microenvironment.

  18. Effects of Aging and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Supplementation on Brain Arginine Metabolism in Rats

    Musalmah Mazlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.

  19. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  20. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  1. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  2. A Petiveria alliacea standardized fraction induces breast adenocarcinoma cell death by modulating glycolytic metabolism.

    Hernández, John Fredy; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Cifuentes, Maria Claudia; Sandoval, Tito Alejandro; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Castañeda, Diana; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2014-05-14

    Folk medicine uses aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) in leukemia and breast cancer treatment in the Caribbean, Central and South America. Herein, we validated the biological activity of a Petiveria alliacea fraction using a metastatic breast adenocarcinoma model (4T1). Petiveria alliacea fraction biological activity was determined estimating cell proliferation, cell colony growth capacity and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential) in 4T1 cells. Petiveria alliacea was used at IC₅₀ concentration (29 µg/mL) and 2 dilutions below, doxorubicin at 0.27 µg/mL (positive control) and dibenzyl disulfide at 2.93 µg/mL (IC50 fraction marker compound). Proteomic estimations were analyzed by LC-MS-MS. Protein level expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. Glucose and lactate levels were measured by enzymatic assays. LD50 was established in BALB/c mice and antitumoral activity evaluated in mice transplanted with GFP-tagged 4T1 cells. Mice were treated with Petiveria alliacea fraction via I.P (182 mg/kg corresponding to 1/8 of LD₅₀ and 2 dilutions below). Petiveria alliacea fraction in vitro induces 4T1 cells apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation without mitochondria membrane depolarization, and decreases cell colony growth capacity. Also, changes in glycolytic enzymes expression cause a decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production. Fraction also promotes breast primary tumor regression in BALB/c mice transplanted with GFP-tagged 4T1 cells. A fraction of Petiveria alliacea leaves and stems induces in vitro cell death and in vivo tumor regression in a murine breast cancer model. Our results validate in partly, the traditional use of Petiveria alliacea in breast cancer treatment, revealing a new way of envisioning Petiveria alliacea biological activity. The fraction effect on the glycolytic pathway enzymes contributes to explain the antiproliferative and antitumor activities

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  5. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  6. Activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes of bone marrow cells of rats affected by radiation

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Grinyuk, Yu.S.; Sibirnaya, N.A.; Starikovich, L.S.; Khmil', M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation (154.8 mC/kg on activity of some carbohydrate metabolism dehydrogenases in cells of the whole and fractionated rat bone marrow has been investigated. Different glucose metabolism units differently responded to radiation, the highest radiation response being exhibited by pentosophosphate cycle processes. The pattern of changes in the enzyme activity of different myelocaryocyte populations was shown to depend directly on the functional specilization of cells and the energy exchange types predominated in them

  7. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by lipoprotein fractions of human serum.

    Bier, D M; Havel, R J

    1970-11-01

    Triglycerides in fat emulsions are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase only when they are "activated" by serum lipoproteins. The contribution of different lipoprotein fractions to hydrolysis of triglycerides in soybean oil emulsion was assessed by determining the quantity of lipoprotein fraction required to give half-maximal hydrolysis. Most of the activator property of whole serum from normolipidemic, postabsorptive subjects was in high density lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins and serum from which all lipoprotein classes were removed had little or no activity. Also, little activator was present in guinea pig serum or in very low density poor serum from an individual with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, both of which are deficient in high density lipoproteins. Human very low density lipoproteins are potent activators and are much more active than predicted from their content of high density lipoprotein-protein. Per unit weight of protein, very low density lipoproteins had 13 times the activity of high density lipoproteins. These observations suggest that one or more of the major apoproteins of very low density lipoproteins, present as a minor constituent of high density lipoproteins, may be required for the activation process.

  8. Activation of peritoneal macrophages to cytoxicity against B16 melanoma cells by Serratia marcescens polyribosome fractions

    Hoover, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Serratia marcescens polyribosomes (SMPR) have been shown to elicit an anti-tumor response in vivo. The in-vitro effects of SMPR on macrophages as the nonspecific mediators of the anti-tumor response have not previously been examined. The first objective of this research project is to corroborate and analyze the in-vivo results by the development and application of an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. The second objective is to examine the effect of SMPR upon previously unstimulated peritoneal macrophages as representing the mechanism of cytotoxicity. The third objective is to identify the minimal effective component of SMPR responsible for an effect on macrophages. Results revealed that SMPR preparations exert a number of effects upon macrophages. Morphologic changes included increased spreading and increased perinuclear vacuolization. Macrophages were shown to be metabolically activate by two lines of evidence. SMPR-treated macrophages exhibited increased cellular metabolism by the increased uptake of 3 H-thymidine and by the increased levels of secreted leucine aminopeptidase as compared to control macrophages. Results also showed that SMPR activates macrophages to cytotoxicity against syngeneic tumor target cells. Buoyant-density fractions were isolated and assayed for macrophage activating ability. Results showed 50S ribosomal subunits to be the smallest fraction effective for macrophage activation. Both the RNA and protein were necessary for complete effectiveness

  9. [Abnormal metabolism of triglycerides fractions in chronic pancreatitis and results after the operation treatment].

    Diakowska, Dorota; Knast, Witold; Diakowski, Witold; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Szelachowski, Piotr; Pelczar, Piotr

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how fats digestion processes were damaged due to chronic pancreatitis, and identify, whether lipid metabolism improved after surgical treatment the patients with chronic pancreatitis. Total lipids, triglycerides, diglycerides and free fatty acids levels in serum and stool were analysed, using chemical tests, thin-layer chromatography and electrophoresis of serum lipoproteins. The patients before the operations showed higher total lipids and triglycerides concentrations, and lower concentrations of diglycerides and free fatty acids in stool. These patients had high triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL-CH concentrations, and low-diglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL-CH concentrations in serum. These data were statistically significant. After the operations and substitution therapy it was observed normalization of the total lipids and lipids fractions levels in stool and in serum. Concentrations of LDL-CH and HDL-CH fractions were irregular. We conclude, that these lipids parameters could be used in diagnosing and monitoring the results of chronic pancreatitis surgical treatment.

  10. Metabolism

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  11. Inner Retinal Oxygen Delivery, Metabolism, and Extraction Fraction in Ins2Akita Diabetic Mice.

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin; Felder, Anthony E; Brewer, Katherine C; Joslin, Charlotte E; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-11-01

    Retinal nonperfusion and hypoxia are important factors in human diabetic retinopathy, and these presumably inhibit energy production and lead to cell death. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of diabetes on inner retinal oxygen delivery and metabolism in a mouse model of diabetes. Phosphorescence lifetime and blood flow imaging were performed in spontaneously diabetic Ins2Akita (n = 22) and nondiabetic (n = 22) mice at 12 and 24 weeks of age to measure retinal arterial (O2A) and venous (O2V) oxygen contents and total retinal blood flow (F). Inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) and metabolism (MO2) were calculated as F ∗ O2A and F ∗ (O2A - O2V), respectively. Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), which equals MO2/DO2, was calculated. DO2 at 12 weeks were 112 ± 40 and 97 ± 29 nL O2/min in nondiabetic and diabetic mice, respectively (NS), and 148 ± 31 and 85 ± 37 nL O2/min at 24 weeks, respectively (P < 0.001). MO2 were 65 ± 31 and 66 ± 27 nL O2/min in nondiabetic and diabetic mice at 12 weeks, respectively, and 79 ± 14 and 54 ± 28 nL O2/min at 24 weeks, respectively (main effects = NS). At 12 weeks OEF were 0.57 ± 0.17 and 0.67 ± 0.09 in nondiabetic and diabetic mice, respectively, and 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.63 ± 0.08 at 24 weeks, respectively (main effect of diabetes: P < 0.01). Inner retinal MO2 was maintained in diabetic Akita mice indicating that elevation of the OEF adequately compensated for reduced DO2 and prevented oxidative metabolism from being limited by hypoxia.

  12. In vitro metabolism studies of 18F-labeled 1-phenylpiperazine using mouse liver S9 fraction

    Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Bong-Ho; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of 1-(4-[ 18 F]fluoromethylbenzyl)-4-phenylpiperazine ([ 18 F]1) and 1-(4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzyl)-4-phenylpiperazine ([ 18 F]2) was investigated using mouse liver S9 fraction. Results were compared to those of in vivo metabolism using mouse blood and bone and to in vitro metabolism using mouse liver microsomes. Defluorination was the main metabolic pathway for [ 18 F]1 in vitro and in vivo. Based on TLC, HPLC and LC-MS data, [ 18 F]fluoride ion and less polar radioactive metabolites derived from aromatic ring oxidation were detected in vitro, and the latter metabolites were rapidly converted into the former with time, whereas only the [ 18 F]fluoride ion was detected in vivo. Similarly, the in vitro metabolism of [ 18 F]2 using either S9 fraction or microsomes showed the same pattern as the in vivo method using blood; however, the radioactive metabolites derived from aromatic ring oxidation were not detected in vivo. These results demonstrate that liver S9 fraction can be widely used to investigate the intermediate radioactive metabolites and to predict the in vivo metabolism of radiotracers

  13. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  14. Prediction of residual metabolic activity after treatment in NSCLC patients

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Oberije, Cary; Ruysscher, Dirk De; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Metabolic response assessment is often used as a surrogate of local failure and survival. Early identification of patients with residual metabolic activity is essential as this enables selection of patients who could potentially benefit from additional therapy. We report on the development of a pre-treatment prediction model for metabolic response using patient, tumor and treatment factors. Methods. One hundred and one patients with inoperable NSCLC (stage I-IV), treated with 3D conformal radical (chemo)-radiotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received a pre and post-radiotherapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG-PET-CT scan. The electronic medical record system and the medical patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment data. Primary outcome measure was examined using a metabolic response assessment on a post-radiotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan. Radiotherapy was delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy, twice a day, with a median prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Results. Overall survival was worse in patients with residual metabolic active areas compared with the patients with a complete metabolic response (p=0.0001). In univariate analysis, three variables were significantly associated with residual disease: larger primary gross tumor volume (GTVprimary, p=0.002), higher pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , p=0.0005) in the primary tumor and shorter overall treatment time (OTT, p=0.046). A multivariate model including GTVprimary, SUV max , equivalent radiation dose at 2 Gy corrected for time (EQD2, T) and OTT yielded an area under the curve assessed by the leave-one-out cross validation of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). Conclusion. Our results confirmed the validity of metabolic response assessment as a surrogate of survival. We developed a multivariate model that is able to identify patients at risk of residual disease. These patients may benefit from

  15. Nucleons II: cryopreservation and metabolic activity.

    Reyes, R; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H M; Delgado, N M

    2001-01-01

    The establishment of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) as a routine procedure in assisted fertilization has been used in the treatment of male infertility. The major technical problem that has arisen with the use of immotile sperm for ICSI has been differentiating between live and dead cells. Nucleons from human, pig, hamster, mouse, rat, and bull have been able to induce their chromatin decondensation by the action of heparin/GSH. Cryopreservation is deleterious to sperm function, killing more than 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Nucleon cryostorage was performed at 5 and -5 degrees C and analyzed for total area (mu2), perimeter (mu), width (mu), and length (mu), using Metamorph Imaging System software. On the other hand, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) is hydrolyzed by intracellular estereases to produce fluorescein, which exhibits green fluorescence when excited by blue light. This fact is a striking result since the presence of this metabolic activity opens the possibility to select the nucleons for ICSI. In the present study, the authors decided to search for a suitable metabolic test, which might reflect the metabolism and viability of these chromatin structures. This is a simple cryostorage technique that after months of cryopreservation, allow the use of nucleons for ICSI with suitable fertilization and pregnancies rates.

  16. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  17. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation during cellulose metabolism in Lemna gibba L

    Yakir, D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Lemna gibba L. B3 was grown under heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and autotrophic conditions in water having a variety of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions. The slopes of the linear regression lines between the isotopic composition of water and leaf cellulose indicated that under the three growth conditions about 40, 70, and 100% of oxygens and carbon-bound hydrogens of cellulose exchanged with those of water prior to cellulose formation. Using the equations of the linear relationships, we estimated the overall fractionation factors between water and the exchanged oxygen and carbon bound-hydrogen of cellulose. At least two very different isotope effects must determine the hydrogen isotopic composition of Lemna cellulose. One reflects the photosynthetic reduction of NADP, while the second reflects exchange reactions that occur subsequent to NADP reduction. Oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose apparently is determined by a single type of exchange reaction with water. Under different growth conditions, variations in metabolic fluxes affect the hydrogen isotopic composition of cellulose by influencing the extent to which the two isotope effects mentioned above are recorded. The oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose is not affected by such changes in growth conditions

  18. Antiviral and antitumor activities of the protein fractions from the ...

    In this study, we present the extraction and purification of protein fractions from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica. The bioactivities of the protein fractions were indicated by pseudorabies virus (PRV) and human lung cancer cell line A 549. The crude protein fractions had no toxicity to chick embryo fibroblast-like ...

  19. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ...

    Column chromatographic fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica yielded six fractions (TiA - TiF). Among these, TiB showed about five tracks: TiC, TiD and TiE, two tracks each, on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fractions TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent ...

  1. Activity of alkaline phosphatase and its fractions in blood serum of rats with experimental hyperthyroidism, kept in a radionuclide contaminated area

    Markova, A.G.; Bagel', I.M.

    2002-01-01

    In studies on male rats, with experimentally induced thyrotoxicosis a modifying effect of the stay in radioactively contaminated zone on the total alkaline phosphatase activity was shown. The data indicate disturbances in calcium-phosphoric metabolism, resulting in pronounced deviations from the normal range in the activity of thermolabile (bone) fraction (authors)

  2. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  3. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  4. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    Crude extract of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae), and three phytochemical (HPLC) fractions containing the major phenolic compounds were investigated for their effects on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. The three fractions used contained the major peaks within ...

  5. Metabolism

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  6. Hyperspectral estimation of corn fraction of photosynthetically active radiation

    Yang Fei; Zhang Bai; Song Kaishan

    2008-01-01

    Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is one of the important variables in many productivity and biomass estimation models, this analyzed the effect of FPAR estimation with hyperspectral information, which could provide the scientific support on the improvement of FPAR estimation, remote sensing data validation, and the other ecological models. Based on the field experiment of corn, this paper analyzed the correlations between FPAR and spectral reflectance or the differential coefficient, and discussed the mechanism of FPAR estimation, studied corn FPAR estimation with reflectance, first differential coefficient, NDVI and RVI. The reflectance of visible bands showed much better correlations with FPAR than near-infrared bands. The correlation curve between FPAR and differential coefficient varied more frequently and greatly than the curve of FPAR and reflectance. Reflectance and differential coefficient both had good regressions with FPAR of the typical single band, with the maximum R2 of 0.791 and 0.882. In a word, differential coefficient and vegetation index were much effective than reflectance for corn FPAR estimating, and the stepwised regression of multibands differential coefficient showed the best regression with R2 of 0.944. 375 nm purpled band and 950 nm near-infraed band absorbed by water showed prodigious potential for FPAR estimating precision. On the whole, vegetation index and differential coefficient have good relationships with FPAR, and could be used for FAPR estimation. It would be effective of choosing right bands and excavating the hyperspectral data to improve FPAR estimating precision

  7. Development and evaluation of a multiple-plate fraction collector for sample processing: application to radioprofiling in drug metabolism studies.

    Barros, Anthony; Ly, Van T; Chando, Theodore J; Ruan, Qian; Donenfeld, Scott L; Holub, David P; Christopher, Lisa J

    2011-04-05

    Microplate scintillation counters are utilized routinely in drug metabolism laboratories for the off-line radioanalysis of fractions collected during HPLC radioprofiling. In this process, the current fraction collection technology is limited by the number of plates that can be used per injection as well as the potential for sample loss due to dripping or spraying as the fraction collector head moves from well to well or between plates. More importantly, sample throughput is limited in the conventional process, since the collection plates must be manually exchanged after each injection. The Collect PAL, an innovative multiple-plate fraction collector, was developed to address these deficiencies and improve overall sample throughput. It employs a zero-loss design and has sub-ambient temperature control. Operation of the system is completely controlled with software and up to 24 (96- or 384-well) fraction collection plates can be loaded in a completely automated run. The system may also be configured for collection into various-sized tubes or vials. At flow rates of 0.5 or 1.0 mL/min and at collection times of 10 or 15s, the system precisely delivered 83-μL fractions (within 4.1% CV) and 250-μL fractions (within 1.4% CV), respectively, of three different mobile phases into 12 mm × 32 mm vials. Similarly, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and 10s collection times, the system precisely dispensed mobile phase containing a [(14)C]-radiolabeled compound across an entire 96-well plate (% CV was within 5.3%). Triplicate analyses of metabolism test samples containing [(14)C]buspirone and its metabolites, derived from three different matrices (plasma, urine and bile), indicated that the Collect PAL produced radioprofiles that were reproducible and comparable to the current technology; the % CV for 9 selected peaks in the radioprofiles generated with the Collect PAL were within 9.3%. Radioprofiles generated by collecting into 96- and 384-well plates were qualitatively comparable

  8. Fractional Control of An Active Four-wheel-steering Vehicle

    Wang, Tianting; Tong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    A four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicle model and reference model with a drop filter are constructed. The decoupling of 4WS vehicle model is carried out. And a fractional PIλDμ controller is introduced into the decoupling strategy to reduce the effects of the uncertainty of the vehicle parameters as well as the unmodelled dynamics on the system performance. Based on optimization techniques, the design of fractional controller are obtained to ensure the robustness of 4WS vehicle during the special range of frequencies through proper choice of the constraints. In order to compare with fractional robust controller, an optimal controller for the same vehicle is also designed. The simulations of the two control systems are carried out and it reveals that the decoupling and fractional robust controller is able to make vehicle model trace the reference model very well with better robustness.

  9. The Active Fractional Order Control for Maglev Suspension System

    Peichang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maglev suspension system is the core part of maglev train. In the practical application, the load uncertainties, inherent nonlinearity, and misalignment between sensors and actuators are the main issues that should be solved carefully. In order to design a suitable controller, the attention is paid to the fractional order controller. Firstly, the mathematical model of a single electromagnetic suspension unit is derived. Then, considering the limitation of the traditional PD controller adaptation, the fractional order controller is developed to obtain more excellent suspension specifications and robust performance. In reality, the nonlinearity affects the structure and the precision of the model after linearization, which will degrade the dynamic performance. So, a fractional order controller is addressed to eliminate the disturbance by adjusting the parameters which are added by the fractional order controller. Furthermore, the controller based on LQR is employed to compare with the fractional order controller. Finally, the performance of them is discussed by simulation. The results illustrated the validity of the fractional order controller.

  10. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima aerial parts, antimicrobial activity and characterisation of isolated active fractions.

    Chanda, Sumitra; Baravalia, Yogesh

    2011-12-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz. is an ornamental plant, shrub or a small tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases and so on. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. pulcherrima was tested using an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. Further, the methanol extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography using a solvent gradient of hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol in different ratios and 56 fractions were collected. On the basis of thin layer chromatography profiles, 13 major fractions were obtained, which were tested for antimicrobial activity against 14 microorganisms using the agar disc diffusion method and also tested for their minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values. In terms of cytotoxicity, the extract caused 26% mortality of brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 µg mL(-1). Fractions 3, 9 and 10 showed significant antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical analysis of these three fractions led to the identification of 11 compounds, and their structures were established by means of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques. These findings suggest that these bioactive compounds may be useful as potential antimicrobials. Further investigation is needed to establish the mode of action of these bioactive compounds.

  11. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions and methanolic extract of Philonotis hastate (Duby Wijk & MargaDant). ... The fractions and methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant potentials with various models. The flavonoid contents of the methanol extract and fractions ranged between 1.70 ...

  12. Functional imaging to monitor vascular and metabolic response in canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy.

    Rødal, Jan; Rusten, Espen; Søvik, Åste; Skogmo, Hege Kippenes; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy causes alterations in tumor biology, and non-invasive early assessment of such alterations may become useful for identifying treatment resistant disease. The purpose of the current work is to assess changes in vascular and metabolic features derived from functional imaging of canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods. Three dogs with spontaneous head and neck tumors received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) at the treatment unit was performed at five treatment fractions. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET (D-PET) was performed prior to the start of radiotherapy, at mid-treatment and at 3-12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Tumor contrast enhancement in the CE-CBCT images was used as a surrogate for tumor vasculature. Vascular and metabolic tumor parameters were further obtained from the D-PET images. Changes in these tumor parameters were assessed, with emphasis on intra-tumoral distributions. Results. For all three patients, metabolic imaging parameters obtained from D-PET decreased from the pre- to the inter-therapy session. Correspondingly, for two of three patients, vascular imaging parameters obtained from both CE-CBCT and D-PET increased. Only one of the tumors showed a clear metabolic response after therapy. No systematic changes in the intra-tumor heterogeneity in the imaging parameters were found. Conclusion. Changes in vascular and metabolic parameters could be detected by the current functional imaging methods. Vascular tumor features from CE-CBCT and D-PET corresponded well. CE-CBCT is a potential method for easy response assessment when the patient is at the treatment unit.

  13. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  14. A fraction enriched in rat hippocampal mossy fibre synaptosomes contains trophic activities.

    Taupin, P; Roisin, M P; Ben-Ari, Y; Barbin, G

    1994-06-27

    Subcellular fractions prepared from the rat hippocampus, were assessed for the presence of trophic activities. The cytosol of synaptosomal fractions induced mitotic reinitiation of confluent 3T3 fibroblasts. The synaptosomal fraction, enriched in mossy fibre terminals, contained the highest mitotic activity. The mitogenic activity was heat and trypsin sensitive, suggesting that polypeptides are involved. The cytosol of the mossy fibre synaptosomal fraction promoted neuritic outgrowth of PC 12 cells and embryonic hippocampal neurones in primary cultures. These results suggest that mossy fibres contain both mitogenic and neurotrophic activities. These factors could participate in mossy fibre sprouting that occur following brief seizures or experimental lesions.

  15. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    Cossermelli, W; Carvalho, N; Papaleo Netto, M [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    1974-02-01

    The /sup 131/I-labelled albumin metabolism was studied in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations.

  16. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    Cossermelli, W.; Carvalho, N.; Papaleo Netto, M.

    1974-01-01

    It was studied the 131 I-labelled albumin metabolism in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations [pt

  17. Neuropharmacological activities of the aqueous fraction of methanol ...

    aminopyridine-induced seizures. At all the doses tested (125-500 mg/kg), the fraction significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of head dips (in the hole board test), upward stairs climbed and rearings (in the stair case test). In the beam walking assay, ...

  18. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  19. Antiviral and antitumor activities of the protein fractions from the ...

    AJL

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... embryo fibroblast-like (CEF) cells but effective to PRV at the concentration of 100 µg/ml .... The in vitro inhibitory effect of the purified protein fractions on ... (DMSO) with 10% fetal bovine serum was plated on 96-well plates.

  20. Hypoglycemic Activity of the Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista ...

    HP

    (0.2 mg/kg) and normal saline (2 ml/kg) serving as standard and control, respectively. ME and the fractions ... insulin or by insulin resistance at the cellular level. [1]. It is estimated that ..... Keay RWJ, Onochie CFA, Stanfield FDP. Nigerian trees.

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of ...

    Holarrhena floribunda is a common plant that has traditionally been used in Africa to treat many diseases such as fever, dysentery, sterility and diabetes. This study was set out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda and various fractions of this extract in normal fasted and ...

  2. Isolation of thymus gland fractions and the determination of their biological activity

    MILENA RADETA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A calf thymus extract was prepared and fractionated into lipid and non-lipid fractions. The non-lipid fraction was isolated from the calf thymus extract using the Folch method. The components isolated from the non-lipid fraction were characterized by IR, NMR, biuret and HPLC method. The results of the analyses indicated the presence of peptides. The lipid fraction contained phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. The biological activity of both the isolated lipid and peptide fractions was determined by the in vivo hemolytic plaques method in Wistar rats with an involuted thymus. The peptide and phospholipid fractions of the thymus extract showed a significant increase of hemolytic plaques. The glycolipid and neutral lipid fraction failed to express a significant immunological response.

  3. Bio-guided fractionation of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (bark and effect of the most active fraction on cancer cell lines

    Richard Simo Tagne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticancer and antioxidant potential of methanol bark extract of Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana, which is used by traditional healers to cure some cases of cancer in Cameroon. Methods: The methanol crude extract of Z. mauritiana has the antiproliferative activity on four cancer cell lines and its antioxidant activity. The extract was partitioned in five different solvents, and each fraction was tested. The effect of the most antiproliferative fraction on cell cycle was determined. Bio-guided fractionation was performed on the fraction with the highest antiproliferative and the highest antioxidant activities. Results: Z. mauritiana methanol extract was active on all tested cells, and showed promising antioxidant activity. All fractions except hexane fraction were active with the dichloromethane fraction being the most active and showed S and G2-M phase arrest (P<0.01 on cell cycle progression of NCI-H460 and MCF-7, respectively. Bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction led to lupeol and betulinic acid. The greatest antioxidant activity was recorded with ethyl acetate fraction and its fractionation led to catechin and epigallocatechin. Conclusions: Overall, this study showed that Z. mauritiana barks has benefits as a chemoprevention agent cancer.

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Kersten, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that

  5. Phytochemical profile, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiobesity activities of Scolymus angiospermus Gaertn. Four fractions from Jericho/Palestine.

    Jaradat, Nidal; Al-Lahham, Saad

    2018-02-28

    Background Many recent studies have shown that medicinal plants, which have been used worldwide through the past history in the folkloric medicine, harbor a significant number of novel metabolic compounds with potent pharmacological properties. In several countries, the aerial parts of the Scolymus angiospermus plant have been used as a food supply and as a folkloric medicinal plant. The current study aimed is to investigate the antimicrobial, antilipase, antioxidant activities and phytochemical profile of methanolic, hexane, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from the aerial parts of S. angiospermus. Methods Phytochemical assessments were based on standard analytical methods. The obtained fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and their antilipase activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory tests, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the obtained fractions was evaluated using broth microdilution assay against several American Type Culture Collection bacterial and fungal strains and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolate. Results Our data showed that of all obtained fractions used in the above-mentioned assays, both of methanolic and aqueous fractions, had the highest content of flavonoids (24.93 ± 2.11 and 12.21 ± 2.11 mg QUE/g, respectively) and phenolic compounds (96.28 ± 2.87 and 91.25 ± 2.63 mg of GAEq/g, respectively) as well as the best levels of both antioxidant (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 13.67 ± 1.44 and 14.69 ± 1.97 µg/ml, respectively) and antilipase (IC50 134.89 ± 1.65 and 269.15 ± 2.33 µg/ml, respectively) activities. In addition, these fractions exhibited various levels of both antibacterial and antifungal activities. Hydrophilic fractions were more potent against the investigated bacterial strains, while hydrophobic fractions were more potent against the investigated fungal strains. Conclusions The hydrophilic fractions

  6. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Maira R. Segura-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%. Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides’ inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (% ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 ( μg/mL from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 ( μg/mL from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry.

  7. Human taurine metabolism: fluxes and fractional extraction rates of the gut, liver, and kidneys

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Siroen, Michiel P. C.; Wong, Leanne N.; van den Tol, M. Petrousjka; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes. However, taurine plasma level decreases in response to pathological conditions, suggesting an increased need. Knowledge on human taurine metabolism is scarce and only described by arterial-venous differences across a single organ. Here we present

  8. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  9. In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of Coccinia grandis l. leaf ...

    The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae). The antioxidant activities of the fractions have been evaluated by using nine in vitro assays and were compared to standard antioxidants ...

  10. Anti-angiogenic activity and phytochemical screening of fruit fractions from Vitex agnus castus.

    Certo, Giovanna; Costa, Rosaria; D'Angelo, Valeria; Russo, Marina; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Dugo, Giacomo; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2017-12-01

    Although the antitumour activity of Vitex agnus castus fruits has been already addressed, no work has yet assessed their anti-angiogenic potential. To this purpose, several extractive fractions of such fruits were tested on zebrafish embrios by EAP assay, so that only the bioactive fractions could be subsequently tested on the chick chorioallantoic membrane by CAM assay. Bioactive fractions were also phytochemically screened to identify those bioactive compounds responsible for anti-angiogenic activity. A marked inhibition of vessel formation was detected only in zebrafish embryos treated with chloroform or ethyl acetate fractions. Considering CAM assay, chloroform fraction induced a strong reduction of microvasculature and haemoglobin content; while lower anti-angiogenic effects of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined. Phytochemical analyses confirmed the presence of several bioactive anti-angiogenic compounds. Overall, obtained preliminary results highlighted a potential anti-angiogenic activity of V. agnus castus fruits.

  11. Adhesive ability and biofilm metabolic activity of Listeria ...

    SWEET

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... monocytogenes strains were able to adhere to abiotic materials with different degrees. In fact, cold stressed strains ... packaging. Biofilms allow .... reduction of a tetrazolium salt by metabolically active cells to a colored water ...

  12. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  13. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  14. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of extracts and fractions from Dracaena loureiri in experimental animals

    Pisit Bouking

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried coarsely powdered material from the stem woods of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep (D loureiri has extracted with hexane and methanol to give hexane and methanol extracts, respectively. The methanol extract was roughly separated into four fractions. They were methanol, methanol + water, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. The effects of the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, methanol + water fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD5 0 value of intraperitoneally injected the methanol extract, hexane extract, methanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction in mice was 1.67 g/kg, >7 g/kg, 739.73 mg/kg, 489.77 mg/kg and 1.67 g/kg, respectively. Oral administration of the methanol extract and methanol fraction of D. loureiri (100-400 mg/kg dose de- pendently decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test. All extracts or fractions of D. loureiri had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice. Only the methanol fraction of D. loureiri suppressed yeast-induced fever in rats. Neither extracts nor fractions affected paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats. The methanol extract of D. loureiri (100- 400 mg/kg, p.o. prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract and the methanol fraction of D. loureiri possess analgesic effect. Only the methanol fraction of the extract exhibited antipyretic effect.

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF ACTIVE FRACTION FROM CHICK WEED PLANTS (Ageratum Conyzoides L. AGAINST Bacillus Subtilis AND Vibrio Cholerae

    Ratih Anggara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to determine the fractions of Chick Weed which has strong antibacterial activity  against bacteria test categories of Bacillus subtilis and Vibriocholerae.determine the value of the minimum in hibitory concentration(MIC of the active fraction antibacterial Chick Weed.This research was carried out in August up to November 2016. The method used in this study  were extracted by maceration, fractionation by liquid-liquid fractionation, separation by column chromatography fractions, antibacterial activity test by theKirby-Bauermethod, while the determination of minimum in hibitory concentration by dilution broth,with test bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Vibriocholerae.The data presented in tabular form based on the average value and percent.The results of this study showed that the methanol extract Chick Weed active against test bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae. Fractionation which has strong category to standard antibiotics are methanol fraction by fraction column S4.The concentration MIC1000;500;250;125;62.5;31.2515.62; 7.81 ppm. The minimum in hibitory concentration column fractions S4 to test bacteria Vibrio cholerae of 62.5 ppm gives half the antibacterial activity of the antibacterial activity of standard antibiotics streptomycin and penicillin,tetracycline while giving a quarter activity. It can be concluded that the active fraction of methanol extractisa methanol fraction by fraction column S4 to test bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Keywords: Chick Weed, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, active compound, Bacillus subtilis, Vibriocholera.

  16. Passive and active elements using fractional Lβ C α circuit

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces a qualitative revision of the traditional LC tank circuit in the fractional domain. The paper can be divided into six major parts, aiming in turn to establish the various conditions under which L βCα impedance may act as a resistor, negative resistor, or a positive or negative pure imaginary inductor or capacitor, in accordance to new frequency definitions; illustrate the process by which the phase response chooses the shortest path from initial to final phase, and use this illustration to verify the cases discussed in part one; develop the generalized parameters for the bandpass filter response of the L βCα circuit, such as the resonance frequency and quality factor versus α-β plane; discuss sensitivity analyses with respect to the fractional orders, as well as the time domain analyses for the impulse and step responses with their analytical formulas; and lastly, to propose some possible applications for this generalized circuit. Mathematical and PSpice simulation results are included to validate the discussion. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis.

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2012-10-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins.

  18. Synchronization of Different Fractional Order Time-Delay Chaotic Systems Using Active Control

    Jianeng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems is considered. Based on the Laplace transform theory, the conditions for achieving synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems are analyzed by use of active control technique. Then numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method. At last, effects of the fraction order and the time delay on synchronization are further researched.

  19. Glycolytic pathway (GP), kreb's cycle (KC), and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity in myocardial subcellular fractions exposed to cannabinoids

    Watson, A.T.; Manno, B.R.; King, J.W.; Fowler, M.R.; Dempsey, C.A.; Manno, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), the primary psychoactive component of marihuana, and its active metabolite 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ 9 -THC) have been reported to produce a direct cardiac depressant effect. Studies in isolated perfused rat hearts have indicated a decreased force of contraction (inotropic response) when Δ 9 -THC or 11-OH-Δ 9 -THC was administered in microgram amounts. The mechanism and site of action have not been explained or correlated with associated metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on major myocardial energy producing pathways, GP and KC, and a non-energy producing pathway, HMS. Cardiac ventricular tissue from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) was excised and homogenized for subcellular fractionation. KC, GP and HMS activity was assayed in the appropriate fractions by measuring 14 CO 2 generation from 14 C-2-pyruvate, 14 C-6-glucose and 14 C-1-glucose respectively. Duplicate assays (n=8) were performed on tissue exposed to saline (control), empty liposomes (vehicle) and four doses each of Δ 9 -THC and 11-OH-Δ 9 -THC. Changes in metabolic activity and decreases in cardiac contractile performance may be associated

  20. [Antiinflammatory activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana L. calyces].

    Franco, Luis A; Matiz, Germán E; Calle, Jairo; Pinzón, Roberto; Ospina, Luis F

    2007-03-01

    Cape gooseberry calyces (Physalis peruviana) have been used in folk medicine for their medicinal properties including anticancer, antimycobacterial, antipyretic, diuretic, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties. The antiinflammatory effect was evaluated for extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana calyces in a mice model of acute inflammation. The fractions responsible for antiinflammatory activity were extracted for possible identification. The Physalis peruviana calyces were extracted by percolation with organic solvents. The primary hydroalcoholic fraction was purified by column chromatography. The antiinflammatory effect of extracts and fractions was evaluated using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced mouse model of ear edema. Thirty-eight secondary fractions were obtained by column chromatography of primary hydroalcoholic fraction. Six fractions, evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation assay, showed significant antiinflammatory activity (pPhysalis peruviana calyces was confirmed and validated its use in folk medicine. Fractions responsible for the antiinflammatory action were identified and seem promising for phytomedicinal development. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active constituents of these fractions as well as to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the antiinflammatory effect.

  1. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  2. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus

    Hévila Oliveira Salles

    Full Text Available Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (0.05, Bonferroni test. Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    Min-Chul Cho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α,γ, and σ are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators.

  4. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  5. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    Thiago Lustosa Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous. Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL. Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%, ethyl acetate (56%, and aqueous (72% fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  6. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bioaccessible Fraction from Eryngium foetidum Leaves

    Suwitcha Dawilai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryngium foetidum (EF has long been used as a medicinal plant and culinary spice in tropical regions. Phytochemicals in its leaves have been proposed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study used in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 cells to assess such activities. Caco-2 cells were incubated with aqueous fraction from simulated digestion (bioaccessible fraction of EF leaves with/without bile extract prior to stimulation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IL-8 in culture media and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured. Approximately 24% β-carotene and 35% lutein of leaves were present in the aqueous fraction. The transfer of caffeic and chlorogenic acids to the aqueous fraction was 76%–81%, while that of kaempferol was 48%. Prior incubation of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction suppressed IL-1β activated IL-8 and MCP-1 by 33%, but the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased IL-8 and MCP-1 levels only by 11%. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction of EF reduced ROS by 34%; the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased ROS by 28%. These data suggest that bioactive compounds partitioning in mixed micelles play a significant role to suppress the proinflammatory insult but with a modest antioxidant effect.

  8. Influence of essential oil fractionation by vacuum distillation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick

    Fernando Cidade Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of essential oil fractionation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus J. and pepper tree (Schinus molle L. essential oils were fractionated by vacuum distillation yielding fractions that were analyzed by the GC/MS. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the total essential oil and fractions on larvae of the cattle tick R. (B. microplus. The fractions 04 and 05 of the C. winterianus essential oil were the most active showing LC50 values of 1.20 and 1.34 μL/mL, respectively. The LC50 of the total oil was 3.30 μL/mL while the effect of the fractions 01, 02 and 03 was less pronounced, with LC50 values of 4.37, 4.24 and 3.49 μL/mL, respectively. The fraction 03 of the S. molle essential oil was the most active showing LC50 value of 8.80 μL/mL while the fractions 01 and 02 did not show toxic effects on the larvae.

  9. Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extract and Fractions of Cola ...

    Prof. Ogunji

    control. The total antioxidant activity results indicated that, the inhibition percent of .... Statistical Analysis: Results were expressed as means ± standard deviations (SD). ... to University of Benin, Nigeria for the facilities and technical support.

  10. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of Cynodon dactylon Pers.

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C

    2008-09-01

    Petroleum ether (60 degrees-80 degrees C), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude hot water extracts of the whole plant of C. dactylon and the two fractions of aqueous extract were tested for antihyperglycaemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and in alloxan induced diabetic model at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg (po) respectively. The aqueous extract of C. dactylon and the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycaemic activity and only the non polysaccharide fraction was found to produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of the plant decreased the elevated biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin significantly. Comparatively, the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract was found to be more effective than the aqueous extract.

  11. Blocking hexose entry into glycolysis activates alternative metabolic conversion of these sugars and upregulates pentose metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    Khosravi, Claire; Battaglia, Evy; Kun, Roland S.; Dalhuijsen, Sacha; Visser, Jaap; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V.; Zhou, Miamiao; Heyman, Heino M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Baker, Scott E.; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2018-03-22

    Background: Plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source for many fungal species. In the biobased industry fungi are used to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes to degrade agricultural waste biomass. Here we evaluated if it would be possible to create an Aspergillus nidulans strain that releases but does not metabolize hexoses from plant biomass. For this purpose, metabolic mutants were generated that were impaired in glycolysis, by using hexokinase (hxkA) and glucokinase (glkA) negative strains. To prevent repression of enzyme production due to the hexose accumulation, strains were generated that combined these mutations with a deletion in creA, the repressor involved in regulating preferential use of different carbon catabolic pathways. Results: Phenotypic analysis revealed reduced growth for the hxkA1 glkA4 mutant on wheat bran. However, hexoses did not accumulate during growth of the mutants on wheat bran, suggesting that glucose metabolism is re-routed towards alternative carbon catabolic pathways. The creAΔ4 mutation in combination with preventing initial phosphorylation in glycolysis resulted in better growth than the hxkA/glkA mutant and an increased expression of pentose catabolic and pentose phosphate pathway genes. This indicates that the reduced ability to use hexoses as carbon sources created a shift towards the pentose fraction of wheat bran as a major carbon source to support growth. Conclusion: Blocking the direct entry of hexoses to glycolysis activates alternative metabolic conversion of these sugars in A. nidulans during growth on plant biomass, but also upregulates conversion of other sugars, such as pentoses.

  12. Optimized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity assay for trout liver S9 fractions

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This publication provides an optimized UGT assay for trout liver S9 fractions which can be used to perform in vitro-in vivo extrapolations of measured UGT activity....

  13. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Camporeale, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Demaria, Marco [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Monteleone, Emanuele [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Giorgi, Carlotta [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Wieckowski, Mariusz R. [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Pasteur Str. 3, Warsaw 02-093 (Poland); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Poli, Valeria, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3{sup C/C}) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms.

  14. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3 C/C ) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3 C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3 C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms

  15. Effects of catecholamines on rat myocardial metabolism. I. Influence of catecholamines on energy-rich nucleotides and phosphorylated fraction contents.

    Merouze, P; Gaudemer, Y

    1975-01-01

    1. The influence of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on energy metabolism of the rat myocardium has been studied by incubating slices of this tissue with these hormones and by following the levels of the different phosphorylated fractions and adenylic nucleotides. 2. Similar effects are obtained with both hormones, adrenaline being more effective. 3. Catecholamines decrease significantly the total amount of phosphate while Pi content increases during the first 10 minutes of incubation; labile and residual phosphate contents increase at the beginning of incubation and decrease to the initial values afterwards. 4. ATP and ADP levels decrease significantly with both hormones; however, the effect of noradrenalin on the ATP level needs a longer time of incubation. The ATP/ADP ratios decrease after 5 minutes incubation and the total adenylic nucleotide content is severely decreased (35 per cent with adrenalin, after 20 minutes incubation). 5. Similar results have been obtained with other tissues; these results can explain the decrease of aerobic metabolism we observed under the same conditions.

  16. Determination of antioxidant activity of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from yogurt.

    Aloğlu, H Sanlıdere; Oner, Z

    2011-11-01

    In this study, physicochemical and microbiological properties of traditional and commercial yogurt samples were determined during 4 wk of storage. Proteolytic activity, which occurs during the storage period of yogurt samples, was also determined. Peptide fractions obtained from yogurts were investigated and the effect of proteolysis on peptide release during storage was determined. The antioxidant activities of peptides released from yogurt water-soluble extracts (WSE) and from HPLC fractions were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The antioxidant activity of WSE from traditional yogurt was greater than that of WSE from commercial yogurts. In analysis by the ABTS method, mean values increased from 7.697 to 8.739 mM Trolox/g in commercial yogurts, and from 10.115 to 13.182 mM Trolox/g in traditional yogurts during storage. Antioxidant activities of peptides released from HPLC fractions of selected yogurt samples increased 10 to 200 times. In all yogurt samples, the greatest antioxidant activity was shown in the F2 fraction. After further fractionation of yogurt samples, the fractions coded as F2.2, F2.3, F4.3, and F4.4 had the highest antioxidant activity values. Total antioxidant activity of yogurts was low but after purification of peptides by fractionation in HPLC, peptide fractions with high antioxidant activity were obtained. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  18. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (-4.3 to -16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from -27.5 to -25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic carbonate

  19. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  20. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon.

    Murali, Krishnan Saravana; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Giridaran, Bupesh; Dinesh, Sundaram; Gunasekaran, Palani; Krishnasamy, Kaveri; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam

    2015-05-01

    To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72) or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45). The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant) and 41% lower interleukin (IL)-12 levels (significant). The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05) than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:29238351

  2. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Minjoo Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72 or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45. The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant and 41% lower interleukin (IL-12 levels (significant. The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05 than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities.

  3. Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.

    O.Z. Ameer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae. By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks. The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content.

  4. Metabolic-epigenetic crosstalk in macrophage activation

    Baardman, Jeroen; Licht, Iris; de Winther, Menno P. J.; van den Bossche, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are emerging as crucial controllers of macrophages, innate immune cells that determine the outcome of many inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that the activity of particular chromatin-modifying enzymes is regulated by the availability of specific metabolites like

  5. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, A; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, M; Bartolini, B; Moretto, Paola; DE LUCA, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vc; Passi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in euk...

  6. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  7. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  8. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-02-15

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS.

  9. Phytochemical Assay and Antiplatelet Activity of Fractions of Velvet Bean Seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.

    VICTOR IMMANUEL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is an important factor contributing to the formation of thrombus due to an uncontrolled blood clotting. An antiplatelet agent is a compound which decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. The objectives of this study were to determine the class of compound employing phytochemical assay and to determine the in vitro antiplatelet activity of four fraction, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L. using epinephrine (EPN as agonist of platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activities were tested in human platelet rich plasma with hyperaggregation. To determine the activities, EPN was arranged at 4 level of concentrations (300, 150, 75, and 30 μM, and antiplatelet agents were at 500 µg/ml. The results indicated that ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction contained high flavonoids and moderate phenols. The water, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of velvet bean seeds exhibited potential inhibition of EPN-induced platelet aggregation at all concentrations. The strongest antiplatelet agent was water fraction and had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at level 150, 75, and 30 μM of EPN. Butanol fraction had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at the lowest EPN (30 μM.

  10. Phytochemicalassay and Antiplatelet Activity of Fractions of Velvet Bean Seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.

    WAHYU WIDOWATI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is an important factor contributing to the formation of thrombus due to an uncontrolled blood clotting. An antiplatelet agent is a compound which decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. The objectives of this study were to determine the class of compound employing phytochemical assay and to determine the in vitro antiplatelet activity of four fraction, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L. using epinephrine (EPN as agonist of platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activities were tested in human platelet rich plasma with hyperaggregation. To determine the activities, EPN was arranged at 4 level of concentrations (300, 150, 75, and 30 ì M, and antiplatelet agents were at 500 µg/ml. The results indicated that ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction contained high flavonoids and moderate phenols. The water, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of velvet bean seeds exhibited potential inhibition of EPN-induced platelet aggregation at all concentrations. The strongest antiplatelet agent was water fraction and had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at level 150, 75, and 30 ì M of EPN. Butanol fraction had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at the lowest EPN (30 ì M.

  11. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    Radwan, A.G.; Moaddy, K.; Salama, Khaled N.; Momani, S.; Hashim, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  12. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    Radwan, A.G.

    2013-03-13

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  13. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays.

    Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Sahal, Dinkar

    2017-12-01

    Zea mays L. (Poacae) husk decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria. To assess the antimalarial and antiplasmodial potentials of the husk extract and fractions on malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. The ethanol husk extract and fractions (187-748 mg/kg, p.o.) of Zea mays were investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei using rodent (mice) malaria models and in vitro activity against chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the SRBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activities against HeLa and HEKS cells were also carried out. The GCMS analysis of the most active fraction was carried out. The husk extract (187-748 mg/kg, p.o.) with LD 50 of 1874.83 mg/kg was found to exert significant (p antimalarial activity against P. berghei infection in suppressive, prophylactive and curative tests. The crude extract and fractions also exerted prominent activity against both chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of P. falciparum with the ethyl acetate fraction exerting the highest activity with IC 50 values of 9.31 ± 0.46 μg/mL (Pf 3D7) and 3.69 ± 0.66 μg/mL (Pf INDO). The crude extract and fractions were not cytotoxic to the two cell lines tested with IC 50 values of >100 μg/mL against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. These results suggest that the husk extract/fractions of Zea mays possesses antimalarial and antiplasmodial activities and these justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections.

  14. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  15. DPPH RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS FRACTION FROM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TALOK FRUIT (Muntingia calabura L.

    Tatang Irianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of talok fruits (Muntingia calabura L. was shown the antioxidant activity of aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract is relatively low. Hydrolysis treatment has increased the antioxidant activity by releasing the flavonoid aglycone from glycoside form. This study aims to determine the effect of acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and hydrolysis time on the antioxidant activity of aqueous fraction of calabura fruits ethanolic extract. The antioxidant activity of acid hydrolyzed aqueous fractions in 1 and 3h hydrolysis, respectively 9.5 and 1.5 times more potent than the aqueous fraction, while the alkaline in 1 and 3h hydro-lysis were 2.5 and 6.5 times. Flavonoid aglycone liberated on acid hydrolysis and alkaline had different anti-oxidant activity. The value of IC50 by acid hydrolyzed aqueous fraction in 1h and 3h hydrolysis of 20.55 and 97.88μg/mL, while the alkaline in 1h and 3h hydrolysis of 66.64 and 25.53μg/mL. One hour acid hydrolysis had antioxidant activity greater than 3h whereas in alkaline the greatest antioxidant activity is shown in 3h.

  16. Glycyrrhiza glabra HPLC fractions: identification of Aldehydo Isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Rahman, Hazir; Khan, Ilyas; Hussain, Anwar; Shahat, Abdelaaty Abdelaziz; Tawab, Abdul; Qasim, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ullah, Riaz; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-05-02

    Medicinal plants have been founded as traditional herbal medicine worldwide. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and volatile oil. The present investigation analyzed the High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethanol and Hexane) against multidrug resistant human bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All the fractions showed antibacterial activity, were subjected to LC MS/MS analysis for identification of bioactive compounds. Among total HPLC fractions of G. glabra (n = 20), three HPLC fractions showed potential activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates. Fraction 1 (F1) of aqueous extracts, showed activity against A. baumannii (15 ± 0.5 mm). F4 from hexane extract of G. glabra showed activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.2 mm). However, F2 from ethanol extract exhibited activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.3 mm). These active fractions were further processed by LC MS/MS analysis for the identification of compounds. Ellagic acid was identified in the F1 of aqueous extract while 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone was present in F4 of hexane extract. Similarly, Liquirtigenin was identified in F2 of ethanol. Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts HPLC fractions showed anti-MDR activity. Three bioactive compounds were identified in the study. 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin were for the first time reported in G. glabra. Further characterization of the identified compounds will be helpful for possible therapeutic uses against infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  17. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Mohan, C G; Deepak, M; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Hanumantharaju, V; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-04-13

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractionation, amino acid profiles, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Citrullus lanatus seed protein.

    Dash, Priyanka; Ghosh, Goutam

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a modified Osborne fractionation method was followed to isolate albumin (C alb ), globulin (C glo ), prolamin (C pro ) and glutelin (C glu ) successively from seeds of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon). This research work was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of isolated protein fractions of C. lanatus seed. Amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution were determined to establish their relationship with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions, C pro was found to be most effective against A. baumannii followed by C alb and C glo . The results showed that growth of inhibition of these protein fractions differ significantly from each other (p ≤ 0.05). In view of antioxidant potential, C glo exhibited strongest antioxidant capacity while C glu showed weakest antioxidant potential.

  19. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. ethanolic extract fractions

    Mukesh Singh Sikarwar; M B Patil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study investigates the antihyperlipidemic effect of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) ethanolic extract fractions in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Oral administrations of 500 mg/kg body weight of various fractions of selected plant were evaluated for possible antihyperlipidemic activity in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for duration of 48 h and 14 days respectively. In triton model, hyperlipidemia was i...

  20. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K.; Chattaway, J.A.; Dawson, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ] in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and [5- 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and [2- 3 H]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P 3 was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate [Ins(4,5)P 2 ] whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P 2 ] was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P 4 . Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 and Ins(1,4,5,X)P 4 was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca 2+ . This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom

  1. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  2. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    Prapaipat Klungsupya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK and seeds (SD become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA fractionation (LDSK50-EA and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O. Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of crude fractions and morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms of North western Himalaya.

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2017-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (Morchella esculenta and Verpa bohemica) from Kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. The butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel M. esculenta showed highest 19 mm IZD against E.coli while as same fraction of Verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm IZD against same strain. The ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest IZD shown against A. fumigates. The three morel compounds showed quite impressive anti bacterial and fungal activities. The Cpd 3 showed highest inhibitory activity almost equivalent to the synthetic antibiotics used as control. The MIC/MBC values revealed the efficiency of isolated compounds against the pathogenic strains. In the current study significant inhibitory activity of morel compounds have been obtained paying the way for their local use from ancient times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Metabolic activation of the bladder carcinogen 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP)

    Swaminathan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of NBP, a dog bladder carcinogen, was examined in vitro using rat liver tissues. NBP was metabolized by enzymes localized both in the microsomes and cytosol. The microsomal enzyme activity was inducible by Aroclor 1254 and phenobarbital. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the reaction mixture, following incubation of [ 3 H]NBP with NADPH and microsomes, revealed four radioactive and UV absorbing peaks with retention times of 5, 8, 14 and 28 min. The peaks at 8, 14 and 28 min corresponded with 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), NBP and azoxy biphenyl, respectively. The early eluting component with a retention time of 5 min has been tentatively identified as a ring hydroxylated derivative. In contrast to microsomal metabolism, cytosol-mediated metabolism yielded only one major metabolite identified as ABP. Cytosol-mediate reduction was inhibited by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. In vitro incubation of NBP with NADH and commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase also yielded ABP and the formation of the latter was blocked by allopurinol. Xanthine oxidase catalyzed also the binding of [ 3 H]NBP to DNA and proteins; the binding was inhibited by allopurinol. These data support the hypothesis that the nitro reduction step is involved in the activation of the bladder carcinogen NBP, and that the nitroreductases occur in both the microsomes and cytosol. The cytosolic activity is primarily due to xanthine oxidase

  5. Central depressant activity of butanol fraction of Securinega virosa root bark in mice.

    Magaji, Mohammed Garba; Yaro, Abdullahi Hamza; Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Anuka, Joseph Akponso; Abdu-Aguye, Ibrahim; Hussaini, Isa Marte

    2012-05-07

    Securinega virosa is a commonly used medicinal plant in African traditional medicine in the management of epilepsy and mental illness. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the crude methanol root bark extract of the plant possesses significant behavioral effect in laboratory animals. In an attempt to isolate and characterize the biological principles responsible for the observed activity, this study is aimed at evaluating the central depressant activity of the butanol fraction of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa. The medial lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated using the method of Lorke. Preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted on the butanol fraction using standard protocol. The behavioral effect of the butanol fraction (75, 150 and 300mg/kg) was evaluated using diazepam induced sleep test, hole-board test, beam walking assay, staircase test, open field test and elevated plus maze assay, all in mice. The median lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated to be 1256.9mg/kg. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, similar to those found in the crude methanol extract. The butanol fraction significantly (Ptime taken to complete the task and number of foot slips in the beam walking assay, suggesting that it does not induce significant motor coordination deficit. Diazepam (2mg/kg), the standard agent used significantly (Popen field test, the butanol fraction significantly reduced the number of square crossed as well as the number of rearing. However, the butanol fraction did not significantly alter the behavior of mice in the elevated plus maze assay, while diazepam (0.5mg/kg) significantly (Ptime spent in the open arm and reduced the number of closed arm entry. The findings of this study suggest that the butanol fraction of Securinega virosa root bark contains some bioactive principles that are sedative in nature. Copyright

  6. Antioxidant and radioprotective effect of the active fraction of Pilea microphylla (L.) ethanolic extract.

    Prabhakar, K R; Veerapur, V P; Bansal, Punit; Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Reddy Kandadi, Machendar; Bhagath Kumar, P; Priyadarsini, K I; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2007-01-05

    The ethanolic extract of Pilea microphylla (L.) was defatted, successively fractionated with acetone and the residue so obtained was found to be most potent when subjected to detailed free radical scavenging and in vivo radioprotection studies. The most active fraction reacts with free radicals, such as DPPH (50 microM), ABTS(.)(-) (100 microM) and (.)OH (generated by Fenton reaction) with IC(50) value of 23.15 microg/ml, 3.0 microg/ml and 310 microg/ml, respectively. The most active fraction inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in phosphatidyl choline liposomes with an IC(50) of 13.74 microg/ml. The kinetics of scavenging of DPPH and ABTS(.)(-) radicals were followed at different concentrations of the fraction by employing stopped-flow studies. The observed first order decay rate constants at 200 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml of fraction with DPPH (50 microM) and ABTS(.)(-) (50 microM) were found to be 0.4s(-1) and 2.1s(-1), respectively. The fraction when screened for in vivo radioprotection in Swiss albino mice showed 80% protection at a dose of 900 mg/kg and with a DRF of about 1.12. The fraction was also found to protect livers of irradiated mice from depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, GST, SOD, catalase and thiols. The fraction also protected the villi height, increased the number of crypt cells while offering general protection to the intestine from acute radiation effects. The fraction also protected the hematopoietic system as assessed by endogenous spleen colony assay, contributing to the overall radioprotective ability.

  7. Recent Advance in Division of Carbohydrate and Protein Fractions of Ruminant Feed and Their Metabolism in Digestive Tract

    Xiaohua; PAN; Liang; YANG; Hairui; XIN; Benhai; XIONG

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of feed’s Carbohydrate( CHO) and protein nutritional values and rumen metabolism are significant for dairy production. Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System( CNCPS) as an important method to evaluate feedstuff nutritional values,hasn’t been widely used in China. In order to illustrate updates of CNCPS systems deeply,the following sections were reviewed:( i) CHO and protein fractions were updated,CA was subdivided into CA1,CA2,CA3 and CA4 in CNCPS v6. 1,protein was reclassified into PA1,PA2,PB1,PB2 and PC after CNCPS v6. 1. Content of CHO and protein fractions vary in different feedstuff and affected by feed processing;( ii) Degradation rates( Kd) values for the new CA expanded scheme were updated to 0,7,5,40- 60 % h-1respectively,Kd for PA and PB1 decreased to 200 % h-1and 10- 40 % h-1;( iii) Equations for passage rate( Kp) initially includes Kpf( Kp of forages) and Kpc( Kp of concentrates),and adjusted by effective NDF( e NDF),while in CNCPS v5. 0,Kpl( Kp of liquids) equation was added and e NDF was replaced by physically effective NDF( pe NDF). In CNCPS v6. 1,Fp BW and Cp BW were integrated into Kp equations and pe NDF was abandoned.( iv)The relationship and difference among Weende system of proximate analysis,Van Soest fiber analysis[35],NRC( 2001)[28]and CNCPS were analyzed. The first two systems laid the foundation for NRC( 2001) and CNCPS system. The latter two systems are different in CHO and protein division,also NRC( 2001) developed separate Kp equations for wet and dry forages but no equation for Kpl. CNCPS developed a Kp equation that work for wet and dry forages,and Kpl equation was established. In conclusion,the division and development of CHO and protein fractions,the update of Kd and Kp equation were reviewed systematically.

  8. Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. javanica Boerl leaf

    Mahayasih, Putu Gita Maya Widyaswari; Elya, Berna; Hanafi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity. The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. lateriflora leaves extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods and Feric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) to determine the antioxidant properties. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are 13.95 and 19.65 µg/mL by DPPH and FRAP methods respectively. E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 37.14 µg/mL and 34.46 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method. Meanwhile M3 fraction was the most active fraction in methanol extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 50.02 µg/mL and 37.32 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method.

  9. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  10. Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems

    Ravindranath, V.; Boyd, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    2-Methylfuran (2-MF), a constituent of cigarette smoke and coffee, causes necrosis of liver, lungs, and kidneys in rodents. 2-MF is metabolically activated by mixed-function oxidases to acetylacrolein, a reactive metabolite that binds covalently to microsomal protein. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of 2-MF to reactive metabolite required the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was dependent on incubation time and substrate concentration. The microsomal metabolism of 2-MF was inducible by pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital and was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and N-octyl imidazole, which indicates that the metabolism of 2-MF may be mediated by cytochrome P-450. Acetylacrolein was a potent inhibitor of mixed-function oxidase and completely inhibited the microsomal metabolism of 2-MF, indicating that 2-MF is a suicide substrate for the enzyme. The sulfhydryl nucleophile cysteine was a better trapping agent of the reactive metabolite of 2-MF than N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Lysine decreased the covalent binding of 2-MF metabolites, presumably by reacting with the aldehyde group of acetylacrolein. In addition, in the presence of NADPH, 2-MF was bioactivated by both pulmonary and renal cortical microsomes to reactive metabolites that were covalently bound to microsomal proteins

  11. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  12. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (Pacetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  13. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  14. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  15. Relation between presence-absence of a visible nucleoid and metabolic activity in bacterioplankton cells

    Choi, Joon, W.; Sherr, E.B.; Sherr, B.F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the report of Zweifel and Hagstroem that only a portion of marine bacteria contain nucleoids--the DNA-containing regions of procaryotic cells-- and that such bacteria correspond to the active or viable fraction of bacterioplankton. In Oregon coastal waters, 21-64% of bacteria had visible nucleoids; number of nucleoid-visible (NV) bacteria were greater than numbers of metabolically active bacteria, based on cells with active electron transport systems (ETS) and intact cell membranes. During log growth of a marine isolate, proportions of NV and ETS-active cells approached 100%. In stationary growth phase, the fraction of ETS-active cells decreased rapidly, while that of NV cells remained high for 7 d. When starved cells of the isolate were resupplied with nutrient (50 mg liter{sup -1} peptone), total cell number did not increase during the initial 6 h, but the proportion of NV cells increased from 27 to 100%, and that of ETS-active cells from 6 to 75%. In an analogous experiment with a bacterioplankton assemblage, a similar trend was observed: the number of NV cells double during the initial 6 h prior to an increase in total cell counts. These results show that some bacteria without visible nucleoids are capable of becoming NV cells, and thus have DNa in a nucleoid region not detectable with the method used here. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. GABAA receptor activity modulating piperine analogs: In vitro metabolic stability, metabolite identification, CYP450 reaction phenotyping, and protein binding.

    Zabela, Volha; Hettich, Timm; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Wimmer, Laurin; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Guillet, Fabrice; Bouaita, Belkacem; Shevchenko, Bénédicte; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2018-01-01

    In a screening of natural products for allosteric modulators of GABA A receptors (γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor), piperine was identified as a compound targeting a benzodiazepine-independent binding site. Given that piperine is also an activator of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptors involved in pain signaling and thermoregulation, a series of piperine analogs were prepared in several cycles of structural optimization, with the aim of separating GABA A and TRPV1 activating properties. We here investigated the metabolism of piperine and selected analogs in view of further cycles of lead optimization. Metabolic stability of the compounds was evaluated by incubation with pooled human liver microsomes, and metabolites were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. CYP450 isoenzymes involved in metabolism of compounds were identified by reaction phenotyping with Silensomes™. Unbound fraction in whole blood was determined by rapid equilibrium dialysis. Piperine was the metabolically most stable compound. Aliphatic hydroxylation, and N- and O-dealkylation were the major routes of oxidative metabolism. Piperine was exclusively metabolized by CYP1A2, whereas CYP2C9 contributed significantly in the oxidative metabolism of all analogs. Extensive binding to blood constituents was observed for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  19. Alteration In Bones Metabolism In Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Salem, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The strength and integrity of the human skeleton depends on a delicate equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Osteocalcin (OC) is synthesized by osteoblasts and is considered to be a marker of bone formation and helps in corporating calcium into bone tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease characterized by bone complication including bone pain, erosion and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate some factors responsible in bone metabolism termed OC, vitamin D (vit. D), oncostatin M (OSM), ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase. Fifty pre-menopausal female patients with active RA and twenty healthy controls of the same age were included in the present study. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to estimate serum OC and active vitamin D. The quantitative determination of ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were carried out colorimetrically. OSM was measured by ELISA and serum levels of OC and active vitamin D were significantly decreased in RA patients as compared to those of the control group. On the other hand, the levels of serum OSM, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in the RA patients as compared to their healthy control subjects. The results of this study indicated that early investigation and therapy of disturbances of bone metabolism in active RA are necessary for better prognosis and exhibited the importance of OC as a diagnostic tool of alterations of bone metabolism in RA patients.

  20. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  1. Trypanocidal Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius: Identification of Active Sesquiterpene Lactones by Bioassay-Guided Fractionation

    F. M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel plant-derived biologically active compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, we isolated, from the organic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius, the sesquiterpene lactones enhydrin (1, uvedalin (2, and polymatin B (3 by bioassay-guided fractionation technique. These compounds showed a significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 0.84 μM (1, 1.09 μM (2, and 4.90 μM (3. After a 24 h treatment with 10 μg/mL of enhydrin or uvedalin, parasites were not able to recover their replication rate. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 33.4 μM and 25.0 μM against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, while polymatin B was not active. When the three compounds were tested against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi, they were able to inhibit the amastigote replication with IC50 of 5.17 μM, 3.34 μM, and 9.02 μM for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in Vero cells obtaining CC50 values of 46.5 μM (1, 46.8 μM (2, and 147.3 μM (3 and the selectivity index calculated. According to these results, enhydrin and uvedalin might have potentials as agents against Chagas disease and could serve as lead molecules to develop new drugs.

  2. Chaotic incommensurate fractional order Rössler system: active control and synchronization

    Baleanu Dumitru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present an active control methodology for controlling the chaotic behavior of a fractional order version of Rössler system. The main feature of the designed controller is its simplicity for practical implementation. Although in controlling such complex system several inputs are used in general to actuate the states, in the proposed design, all states of the system are controlled via one input. Active synchronization of two chaotic fractional order Rössler systems is also investigated via a feedback linearization method. In both control and synchronization, numerical simulations show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  3. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland). Zaklad Farmakologii

    1976-03-01

    Investigations were carried out of the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas, small intestine and colon of rats after fractionated irradiation (5x150 R). Marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity was found in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine as well as an increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity, causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administation of Trichlorfon ten days before irradiation (10 mg or 30 mg/kg) evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. 30mg/kg Trichlorfon exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and bioguided fractionation of Rumex tingitanus extracts for meat preservation.

    Mhalla, Dhekra; Bouaziz, Amira; Ennouri, Karim; Chawech, Rachid; Smaoui, Slim; Jarraya, Raoudha; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Rumex tingitanus leaves extracts as well as the identification of bioactive components and their performance in meat preservation. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF). For antimicrobial efficacy, leaves extract and derived fraction were tested for their capacity to inhibit bacterial and fungal proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the others extracts. Thus, the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef meat model was examined. This fraction eradicates the L. monocytogenes population in meat in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A bio-guided purification of the Rt EtOAc fraction resulted in the isolation of the compound responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity. This compound was identified as luteolin by analysis of spectroscopic data. Luteolin (PubChem CID: 5280445); p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (PubChem CID: 64957); Amphotericin B (PubChem CID: 5280965); Gentamicin and (PubChem CID: 6419933); Hexane (PubChem CID: 8058); Methanol (PubChem CID: 887); Ethanol (PubChem CID: 702); Dimethylsulfoxide (PubChem CID: 679); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fractionation of the more active extracts of Geranium molle L.: a relationship between their phenolic profile and biological activity.

    Graça, V C; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Santos, P F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-04-25

    Geranium molle L., commonly known as Dove's-foot Crane's-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family. Contrary to many other Geranium species, the bioactivity and the phytochemical composition of G. molle seem not to have attracted attention until a recent study from our group regarding the bioactivity of several aqueous and organic extracts of the plant. In particular, we assessed the cytotoxic activity of these extracts against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and a non-tumor porcine liver primary cell line, inspired by an ethnopharmacological report describing the traditional use of this medicinal plant in some regions of Northeast Portugal for the treatment of cancer. Following this preliminary evaluation, the most active extracts (acetone and methanol) were fractionated by column chromatography and the resulting fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against the same cell lines. The bio-guided fractionation of the extracts resulted in several fractions exhibiting improved bioactivity in comparison with the corresponding crude extracts. The fractions obtained from the acetone extract consistently displayed the lowest EC50 and GI50 values and presented the highest content of total phenolic compounds. The phytochemical composition of the most bioactive fractions of the acetone and methanol extracts was also determined and about thirty compounds, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids, could be identified for the first time in G. molle.

  6. Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant properties of extracts and fractions of Carpolobia lutea.

    Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi; Elmorsy, Ekramy; Thornton, Jack; Wijamunige, Buddhika; Wijesekara, Anusha; Tarbox, Rebecca; Warren, Averil; Carter, Wayne Grant

    2017-12-01

    There is an unmet need to discover new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae). The objective of this study is to quantify C. lutea anti-AChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities and cell cytotoxicity. Plant stem, leaves and roots were subjected to sequential solvent extractions, and screened for anti-AChE activity across a concentration range of 0.02-200 μg/mL. Plant DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and cytotoxicity evaluated using human hepatocytes. Carpolobia lutea exhibited concentration-dependent anti-AChE activity. The most potent inhibitory activity for the stem was the crude ethanol extract and hexane stem fraction oil (IC 50  = 140 μg/mL); for the leaves, the chloroform leaf fraction (IC 50  = 60 μg/mL); and for roots, the methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous root fractions (IC 50  = 0.3-3 μg/mL). Dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were observed with increasing stem, leaf or root concentration. Total phenolic contents were the highest in the stem: ∼632 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for a hexane stem fraction oil. Total flavonoid content was the highest in the leaves: ∼297 mg quercetin equivalents/g for a chloroform leaf fraction. At 1 μg/mL, only the crude ethanol extract oil was significantly cytotoxic to hepatocytes. Carpolobia lutea possesses anti-AChE activity and beneficial antioxidant capacity indicative of its potential development as a treatment of Alzheimer's and other diseases characterized by a cholinergic deficit.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline: the role of physical activity

    M. Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Any of these conditions and MetS itself have been associated to Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. In recent years there is a growing evidence for the role of physical activity in preventing metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. In our research we assessed the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 154 elderly people. Furthermore, we evaluated cognition (with Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE  and the physical activity level in every patient. We found a significant association between MetS, borderline cognitive impairment and sedentary lifestyle.

  8. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  9. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies. (orig.) [de

  10. Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of roots and fruits fractions of Astrodaucus persicus extract

    Saied Goodarzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus (Apiaceae is one of the two species of this genus which grows in different parts of Iran. Roots of this plant were rich in benzodioxoles and used as food additive or salad in Iran and near countries. The aim of present study was evaluation of antimalarial and cytotoxic effects of different fractions of A. persicus fruits and roots extracts. Materials and Methods: Ripe fruits and roots of A. persicuswere extracted and fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, separately. Antimalarial activities of fractions were performed based on Plasmodium berghei suppressive test in mice model and percentage of parasitemia and suppression were determined for each sample. Cytotoxicity of fruits and roots fractions were investigated against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, colorectal carcinoma (SW480 and normal (L929 cell lines by MTT assay and IC50 of them were measured. Results: Hexane fraction of roots extract (RHE and ethyl acetate fraction of fruits extract (FEA of A. persicus demonstrated highest parasite inhibition (73.3 and 72.3%, respectively at 500 mg/kg/day which were significantly different from negative control group (P

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts and fractions from Erythrina mulungu

    Mariana S. G. de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu, is used for the treatment of insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE, the ethyl acetate and chloroformic fractions from E. mulungu in four experimental models of nociception using laboratory mice. The extracts and fractions were administered orally to mice at doses of 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions were observed for all the extracts and fractions tested, as compared to controls. All extracts and fractions from E. mulungu reduced the nociception activity produced by formalin in the 2nd phase. In the hot plate test no significant effect was observed for any extract or fraction. In the peritonitis test induced by Zymosan, all of the tested extracts and the chloroformic fraction, except for the ethyl acetate phase, reduced cell migration of the peritoneal cavity. We concluded that E. mulungu shows antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opioid system.

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts and fractions from Erythrina mulungu

    Mariana S. G. de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu, is used for the treatment of insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE, the ethyl acetate and chloroformic fractions from E. mulungu in four experimental models of nociception using laboratory mice. The extracts and fractions were administered orally to mice at doses of 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions were observed for all the extracts and fractions tested, as compared to controls. All extracts and fractions from E. mulungu reduced the nociception activity produced by formalin in the 2nd phase. In the hot plate test no significant effect was observed for any extract or fraction. In the peritonitis test induced by Zymosan, all of the tested extracts and the chloroformic fraction, except for the ethyl acetate phase, reduced cell migration of the peritoneal cavity. We concluded that E. mulungu shows antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opioid system.

  13. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  14. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  15. Punica granatum peel extracts: HPLC fractionation and LC MS analysis to quest compounds having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Khan, Ilyas; Rahman, Hazir; Abd El-Salam, Nasser M; Tawab, Abdul; Hussain, Anwar; Khan, Taj Ali; Khan, Usman Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad; Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Jalal, Abdullah; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Riaz

    2017-05-03

    Medicinal plants are rich source of traditional herbal medicine around the globe. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary bioactive compounds. The present study analyzed the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Puncia granatum (peel) extracts (aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane) against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). All the fractions having antibacterial activity was processed for bioactive compounds identification using LC MS/MS analysis. Among total HPLC fractions (n = 30), 4 HPLC fractions of P. granatum (peel) showed potential activity against MDR pathogens. Fraction 1 (F1) and fraction 4 (F4) collected from aqueous extract showed maximum activity against P. aeruginosa. Fraction 2 (F2) of hexane showed antibacterial activity against three pathogens, while ethanol F4 exhibited antibacterial activity against A. baumannii. The active fractions were processed for LC MS/MS analysis to identify bioactive compounds. Valoneic acid dilactone (aqueous F1 and F4), Hexoside (ethanol F4) and Coumaric acid (hexane F2) were identified as bioactive compounds in HPLC fractions. Puncia granatum peel extracts HPLC fractions exhibited potential inhibitory activity against MDR bacterial human pathogens. Several bioactive compounds were identified from the HPLC fractions. Further characterization of these compounds may be helpful to conclude it as therapeutic lead molecules against MDR pathogens.

  16. 2 H-fractionations during the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and lipids imprint a metabolic signal on the δ2 H values of plant organic compounds.

    Cormier, Marc-André; Werner, Roland A; Sauer, Peter E; Gröcke, Darren R; Leuenberger, Markus C; Wieloch, Thomas; Schleucher, Jürgen; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) isotope ratio (δ 2 H) analyses of plant organic compounds have been applied to assess ecohydrological processes in the environment despite a large part of the δ 2 H variability observed in plant compounds not being fully elucidated. We present a conceptual biochemical model based on empirical H isotope data that we generated in two complementary experiments that clarifies a large part of the unexplained variability in the δ 2 H values of plant organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that information recorded in the δ 2 H values of plant organic compounds goes beyond hydrological signals and can also contain important information on the carbon and energy metabolism of plants. Our model explains where 2 H-fractionations occur in the biosynthesis of plant organic compounds and how these 2 H-fractionations are tightly coupled to a plant's carbon and energy metabolism. Our model also provides a mechanistic basis to introduce H isotopes in plant organic compounds as a new metabolic proxy for the carbon and energy metabolism of plants and ecosystems. Such a new metabolic proxy has the potential to be applied in a broad range of disciplines, including plant and ecosystem physiology, biogeochemistry and palaeoecology. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  18. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Various Solvent Fractions from Clerodendrum viscosum Leaves.

    Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Basu, Tapasree; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2017-07-01

    Free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated in the body, play an important role in the fulfillment of various physiological functions but their imbalance in the body lead to cellular injury and various clinical disorders such as cancer, neurodegenaration, and inflammation. The objective of this study is to fight this problem, natural antioxidant from plants can be considered as possible protective agents against various diseases such as cancer which might also modify the redox microenvironment to reduce the genetic instability. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of Clerodendrum viscosum fractions against various carcinomas. In this present study, 70% methanolic extract of C. viscosum leaves have been fractionated to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions, which were tested for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. It was observed that chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed good free radical scavenging properties as well as inhibited the proliferation of human lung cancer (A459), breast (MCF-7), and brain (U87) cells. Moreover, they arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase of breast and brain cancer. These inhibitory effects were further confirmed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake imaging. Phytochemical investigations further indicate the presence of tannic acid, quercetin, ellagic caid, gallic acid, reserpine, and methyl gallate which might be the reason for these fractions' antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Clerodendrum viscosum leaf chloroform and Clerodendrum viscosum leaf ethyl acetate fractions from C. viscosum showed good reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging potential. Both the fractions arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase in MCF-7 and U87 cells which lead to induce apoptosis. Crude extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves was fractionated using different solventsAmong them, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions

  20. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  1. Biological activity of the non-microbial fraction of kefir: antagonism against intestinal pathogens.

    Iraporda, Carolina; Abatemarco Júnior, Mário; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Nicoli, Jacques R; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2017-08-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk obtained by the activity of kefir grains which are composed of lactic and acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Many beneficial health effects have been associated with kefir consumption such as stimulation of the immune system and inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The biological activity of kefir may be attributed to the presence of a complex microbiota as well as the microbial metabolites that are released during fermentation. The aim of this work was to characterise the non-microbial fraction of kefir and to study its antagonism against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus cereus. During milk fermentation there was a production of organic acids, mainly lactic and acetic acid, with a consequent decrease in pH and lactose content. The non-microbial fraction of kefir added to nutrient broth at concentrations above 75% v/v induced a complete inhibition of pathogenic growth that could be ascribed to the presence of un-dissociated lactic acid. In vitro assays using an intestinal epithelial cell model indicated that pre-incubation of cells with the non-microbial fraction of kefir did not modify the association/invasion of Salmonella whereas pre-incubation of Salmonella with this fraction under conditions that did not affect their viability significantly decreased the pathogen's ability to invade epithelial cells. Lactate exerted a protective effect against Salmonella in a mouse model, demonstrating the relevance of metabolites present in the non-microbial fraction of kefir produced during milk fermentation.

  2. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Seo, Sang-Wan; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:22783046

  3. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract and fractions obtained from Taraxacum mongolicum flower

    H. Qiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Resistance towards reveling antibiotics has captured great interest in evaluating the antimicrobial properties of the natural plants. Taraxacum mongolicum is widely used as a folklore medicinal plant for its diuretic, antirheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. Though there are some reports on antimicrobial properties of Taraxacum mongolicum, studies on antibacterial abilities of its flower are limited and it was decided to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the flowers in the present study. Methods: The antibacterial properties of ethanol extract of Taraxacum mongolicum flower, and its fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (ET, and aqueous fractions were examined through agar disc diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined. Four Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria were used in the study. Results: The antibacterial test results showed that the ET fraction strongly inhibited the growth of all of the microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis (with MIC values of 125 μg/mL and 62.5 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the ethanol extract and the other two fractions demonstrated moderate and weak activities, respectively. Conclusion: The ET fraction obtained from Taraxacum mongolicum flowers presented high antibacterial activity and might be suggested for use as a natural preservative ingredient in pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the n-butanol fraction of ...

    BF) using standard procedures. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the fraction was determined using Lorke's method and the analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory activity was ...

  5. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity.

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S

    2012-09-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1(st) h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum.

  6. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers.

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Abd El Halim, Mohamed F; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Basudan, Omer A; Alqasoumi, Saleh I

    2017-01-01

    The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n -butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n -hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl 3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside]-(2 E ,6 E -)-farnesol ( 6 ) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ( 9 ), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia ; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and benzyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 2 ); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ) and linalyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ); (2 E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O- α -l arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), two oligoglycosides, n -hexyl- α -l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (creoside) ( 7 ) and n -octyl α -l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) ( 8 ); and ethyl fructofuranoside ( 10 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  8. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers

    Shaza M. Al-Massarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid–liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside]-(2E,6E--farnesol (6 and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9, in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1 and benzyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside (2; three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β-d-glucopyranoside (3 and linalyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4; (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-l arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (5, two oligoglycosides, n-hexyl-α-l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (creoside (7 and n-octyl α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside (8; and ethyl fructofuranoside (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  9. Influence of metabolism on endocrine activities of bisphenol S.

    Skledar, Darja Gramec; Schmidt, Jan; Fic, Anja; Klopčič, Ivana; Trontelj, Jurij; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS; bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]sulfone) is commonly used as a replacement for bisphenol A in numerous consumer products. The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of different metabolic reactions that BPS undergoes on the endocrine activity. We demonstrate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of BPS, catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, is its major in-vitro phase I biotransformation. Nevertheless, coupled oxidative-conjugative reactions analyses revealed that glucuronidation and formation of BPS glucuronide is the predominant BPS metabolic pathway. BPS reactive metabolites that can be tracked as glutathione conjugates were not detected in the present study. Two in-vitro systems were used to evaluate the endocrine activity of BPS and its two main metabolites, BPS glucuronide and hydroxylated BPS 4-(4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (BPSM1). In addition, we have tested two structural analogs of BPS, bis[4-(2-hydroxyetoxy)phenyl]sulfone (BHEPS) and 4,4-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS). The test systems were yeast cells, for evaluating estrogenic and androgenic activities, and the GH3.TRE-Luc reporter cell line for measuring thyroid hormone activity. BPS and BPSM1 were weak agonists of the estrogen receptor, EC50 values of 8.4 × 10(-5) M and 6.7 × 10(-4) M, respectively. Additionally, BPSM1 exhibited weak antagonistic activity toward the thyroid hormone receptor, with an IC50 of 4.3 × 10(-5) M. In contrast to BPSM1, BPS glucuronide was inactive in these assays, inhibiting neither the estrogen nor the thyroid hormone receptors. Hence, glucuronidation appears to be the most important pathway for both BPS metabolism and detoxification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as a novel metabolic target

    Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Angel; Habegger, Kirk M; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    to block FAP enzymatic activity. RESULTS: TB administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) animals led to profound decreases in body weight, reduced food consumption and adiposity, increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and lowered cholesterol levels. Total...... (TB), we explored the impact of FAP inhibition on metabolic regulation in mice. METHODS: To address this question we evaluated the pharmacology of TB in various mouse models including those deficient in FGF21, GLP1 and GIP signaling. We also studied the ability of FAP to process FGF21 in vitro and TB...... and intact plasma FGF21 were observed to be elevated in TB-treated DIO mice but not lean animals where the metabolic impact of TB was significantly attenuated. Furthermore, and in stark contrast to naïve DIO mice, the administration of TB to obese FGF21 knockout animals demonstrated no appreciable effect...

  11. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  12. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Wester, P O

    1964-12-15

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied.

  13. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-12-01

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  14. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. verticillata for antitumour activity

    V. S. N. Rao

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2 have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%.

  15. Activity of Pure Streptovaricins and Fractionated Streptovaricin Complex Against Friend Virus

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Rinehart, Kenneth L.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of streptovaricin complex yields two stable components enriched (4- to 16-fold) in activity directed against the polycythemic strain of Friend virus; both components apparently contain no streptovaricins. When compared with their unfractionated parent streptovaricin complex, eight individual intact streptovaricins (A through G and J) show at least a 30-fold reduction in antiviral activity. These results further support the conclusion that the diversified biological properties of streptovaricin complex probably reside in different molecular structures. PMID:237470

  16. The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the phenanthrene fraction from fibrous roots of Bletilla striata

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Dai, Bin-Ling; Chen, Ni-Pi; Jin, Li-Xia; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Qian, Chao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Bletillae Rhizoma, the tuber of Bletilla striata, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Chemical studies indicated that phenanthrene was one of the most important components of the herb, with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to further characterize the antibacterial activity of the phenanthrene fraction from the fibrous root of the pseudobulb of B. striata. Methods The phena...

  17. Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolic and its phytotoxic activity.

    Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Lima, Carolina A; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Mayworm, Marco A S

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolis. Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3-prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α-terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl-radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  20. Fractional-order positive position feedback compensator for active vibration control of a smart composite plate

    Marinangeli, L.; Alijani, F.; HosseinNia, S. Hassan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a rectangular carbon fibre composite plate with free edges is presented. The plate is subjected to out-of-plane excitation by a modal vibration exciter and controlled by Macro Fibre Composite (MFC) transducers. Vibration measurements are performed by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) system. A fractional-order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) compensator is proposed, implemented and compared to the standard integer-order PPF. MFC actuator and sensor are positioned on the plate based on maximal modal strain criterion, so as to control the second natural mode of the plate. Both integer and fractional-order PPF allowed for the effective control of the second mode of vibration. However, the newly proposed fractional-order controller is found to be more efficient in achieving the same performance with less actuation voltage. Moreover, it shows promising performance in reducing spillover effect due to uncontrolled modes.

  1. Creating a Context for Learning: Activating Children’s Whole Number Knowledge Prepares Them to Understand Fraction Division

    Pooja Gupta Sidney

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When children learn about fractions, their prior knowledge of whole numbers often interferes, resulting in a whole number bias. However, many fraction concepts are generalizations of analogous whole number concepts; for example, fraction division and whole number division share a similar conceptual structure. Drawing on past studies of analogical transfer, we hypothesize that children’s whole number division knowledge will support their understanding of fraction division when their relevant prior knowledge is activated immediately before engaging with fraction division. Children in 5th and 6th grade modeled fraction division with physical objects after modeling a series of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems with whole number operands and fraction operands. In one condition, problems were blocked by operation, such that children modeled fraction problems immediately after analogous whole number problems (e.g., fraction division problems followed whole number division problems. In another condition, problems were blocked by number type, such that children modeled all four arithmetic operations with whole numbers in the first block, and then operations with fractions in the second block. Children who solved whole number division problems immediately before fraction division problems were significantly better at modeling the conceptual structure of fraction division than those who solved all of the fraction problems together. Thus, implicit analogies across shared concepts can affect children’s mathematical thinking. Moreover, specific analogies between whole number and fraction concepts can yield a positive, rather than a negative, whole number bias.

  2. Antioxidant activity and possible bioactive components in hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions from the seaweed Halimeda incrassata

    Alexis Vidal Novoa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, obtained from the marine algae Halimeda incrassata (J.Ellis J.V.Lamouroux, Halimedaceae, were studied by using the ²-carotene-linoleate assay system. In case of hydrophilic fractions, the total phenolic compounds were quantified and two of their components were identified as salicylic and ferulic acids. From the lipophilic fraction, fatty acid composition was studied. The highest antioxidant activities values were found on the polar fractions containing phenolic acids. The total phenolics content on the hydrophilic fractions was 255 μg of gallic acid equivalents/g of fresh seaweed. To further characterize H. incrassata chemical composition, the total lipid content was quantified (7.4 mg per gram of dried algae as well as the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (1:1.46. In summary, this paper adds more convincing evidences in support of the antioxidant abilities of the lyophilized aqueous extract of Halimeda incrassata and it also relates this bioactivity, for the first time, with particular phenolic components of the extract. Altogether, these results represent another step towards the use of this natural product as drug candidates.

  3. Constituents from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves and bioguided fractionation for gastroprotective activity

    Leite, Joao Paulo V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Braga, Fernao C.; Oliveira, Alaide B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos; Romussi, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche; Persoli, Rita M.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Psicobiologia

    2010-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is traditionally used in Brazil for treatment of gastric ulcers. Here we report the phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (EEMIL) aiming at the isolation of constituents which were used as chemical markers to monitor an activity-guided fractionation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL). From EEMIL, four flavonoids were isolated, namely the tri-flavonoid glycosides mauritianin (1), trifolin, (2) hyperin (4), and epi-catechin (5). Fractionation of LAEMIL led to 5 fractions which afforded the tetra-glycoside kaempferol derivative (3), and galactitol (6). LAEMIL and its fractions were evaluated in rats for their effects on gastric secretion volume and pH. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis revealed that only fractions containing the tri- and tetra-flavonoid glycosides 1 and 3 caused significant increase of gastric volume and pH, thus indicating that these glycosides play an important role on the gastroprotective effect of M.ilicifolia leaves. (author)

  4. Constituents from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves and bioguided fractionation for gastroprotective activity

    Leite, Joao Paulo V.; Braga, Fernao C.; Oliveira, Alaide B.; Romussi, Giovanni; Persoli, Rita M.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A.

    2010-01-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is traditionally used in Brazil for treatment of gastric ulcers. Here we report the phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (EEMIL) aiming at the isolation of constituents which were used as chemical markers to monitor an activity-guided fractionation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL). From EEMIL, four flavonoids were isolated, namely the tri-flavonoid glycosides mauritianin (1), trifolin, (2) hyperin (4), and epi-catechin (5). Fractionation of LAEMIL led to 5 fractions which afforded the tetra-glycoside kaempferol derivative (3), and galactitol (6). LAEMIL and its fractions were evaluated in rats for their effects on gastric secretion volume and pH. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis revealed that only fractions containing the tri- and tetra-flavonoid glycosides 1 and 3 caused significant increase of gastric volume and pH, thus indicating that these glycosides play an important role on the gastroprotective effect of M.ilicifolia leaves. (author)

  5. Investigation of magnetic active core sizes and hydrodynamic diameters of a magnetically fractionated ferrofluid

    Büttner, Markus; Weber, Peter; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul; Röder, Michael; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Wagner, Kerstin; Görnert, Peter; Glöckl, Gunnar; Weitschies, Werner

    2011-01-01

    In this work we address the question which relates between the size of the magnetically active core of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and the size of the overall particle in the solution (the so-called hydrodynamic diameter d hyd ) exists. For this purpose we use two methods of examination that can deliver conclusions about the properties of MNP which are not accessible with normal microscopy. On the one hand, we use temperature dependent magnetorelaxation (TMRX) method, which enables direct access to the energy barrier distribution and by using additional hysteresis loop measurements can provide details about the size of the magnetically active cores. On the other hand, to determine the size of the overall particle in the solution, we use the magnetooptical relaxation of ferrofluids (MORFF) method, where the stimulation is done magnetically while the reading of the relaxation signal, however, is done optically. As a basis for the examinations in this work we use a ferrofluid that was developed for medicinal purposes and which has been fractioned magnetically to obtain differently sized fractions of MNPs. The two values obtained through these methods for each fraction shows the success in fractioning the original solution. Therefore, one can conclude a direct correlation between the size of the magnetically active core and the size of the complete particle in the solution from the experimental results. To calculate the size of the magnetically active core we found a temperature dependent anisotropy constant which was taken into account for the calculations. Furthermore, we found relaxation signals at 18 K for all fractions in these TMRX measurements, which have their origin in other magnetic effects than the Néel relaxation.

  6. Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.

    Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

    2012-06-08

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 μg/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 μg/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Anticholinesterase activity and chemical profile of an active chromatographic fraction of ethanolic extract from Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) flowers

    Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Santos, Pauline Sousa dos; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes de; Carvalho, Rusbene Bruno Fonseca de; Melo, Cassio Herbert Santos de; David, Juceni Pereira; David, Jorge Mauricio; Lima, Luciano Silva

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the isolation of an active flavonoid fraction and identification of isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-(6’’-acetyl)- alactopyranoside from flowers of B. perennis, and also the evaluation of anticholinesterase (AChE) activity of ethanolic extract from flowers (EEF) and the active fraction. The chemical structure of the flavonoid was defined on the basis of spectroscopic 1 H NMR, IR and UV data. EEF or flavonoid reduces AChE activity in vivo, while flavonoid also reduces AChE activity in vitro, showing a value of 1.49 μM for 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ), suggesting potential use as an insecticide or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. (author)

  8. The cell-free fetal DNA fraction in maternal blood decreases after physical activity

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Hatt, Lotte; Bach, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    of cycling with a pulse-rate of 150 beats per minute. The concentrations of cffDNA (DYS14) and cfDNA (RASSF1A) were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The fetal fraction decreased significantly in all participants after physical activity (p decrease varying......OBJECTIVE: If noninvasive prenatal testing using next generation sequencing is to be effective for pregnant women, a cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fraction above 4% is essential unless the depth of sequencing is increased. This study's objective is to determine whether physical activity has...... from 1-17 percentage points. This was due to a significant increase in the concentration of cfDNA (p physical activity. CONCLUSION: When planning the timing of noninvasive...

  9. Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products.

    Halassy, Beata; Krstanović, Marina; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-02-14

    Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) is a natural compound of bacterial origin. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, water-soluble immunostimulator potentiating humoral immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. It is fast degraded and its metabolic products-the pentapeptide (PP) and the disaccharide (DS)-are excreted from the mammalian organism upon parenteral administration. The present study investigates: (a). whether PGM could influence the long-living memory generation; (b). whether metabolic products retain adjuvant properties of the parent compound and contribute to its adjuvanticity. We report now that mice immunised twice with OVA+PGM had significantly higher anti-OVA IgG levels upon challenge with antigen alone 6 months later in comparison to control group immunised with OVA only. PP and DS were prepared enzymatically in vitro as apyrogenic and chemically pure compounds. When mice were immunised with OVA plus PP and DS, respectively, the level of anti-OVA IgGs in sera was not higher than in mice immunised with OVA alone, while PGM raised the level of specific antibodies. Results implicate that the adjuvant active molecule, capable of enhancing long-living memory generation, is PGM itself, and none of its metabolic products.

  10. Chemical Composition of Oil Fraction Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC as Antibacterial Activity of E.coli

    Rahmatika Ayu Habsari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the composition of oil fraction kaffir lime which is consists as antibacterial activity of E. coli. This research was applied a branch kaffir lime to produce oil using fractional distillation (PiloDist 104-VTU number the stages 120 and reflux ratio 20/10 with 5 mbar pressure. Oil kaffir lime composition was analyzed using GC-MS (type Shimadzu QP 2010S by helium as a carrier gas with flow rate of 3mL/min. Antibacterial activity assay was employed agar well diffusion which conducted at three concentrations (500, 300, and 100 µL/mL. The result of oil fraction kaffir lime was afforded five fraction oil based on boiling point interval, such as A fraction oil (63.00 – 70.010 oC, B fraction (71.30 – 70.800 oC, C fraction (74.50 – 74.200 oC, D fraction (74.20 – 74.000 oC and E fraction (72.90 – 91.100 oC. All fractions contained oxygenated monoterpene (MO, except A oil fraction which comprises hydrocarbon monoterpene composition (MH with a yield of 12.1%. The main components of a fraction which MO compound they are citronella, linalool and isopulegol, while in MH compound they are sabine, β-pinene, β-micrene and limonene. The result of antibacterial activity assay obtained at the highest concentration (500 µL/mL. Antibacterial activity assay also depends on the fraction composition with higher composition of MO. The highest MO component of oil fraction was found on C oil fraction which has MO component such as citronella 74.94%; linalool 20.13%; and isopulegol 3.08%.

  11. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  12. Gastroprotective activity of the hydroethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers.

    Flávia Sobreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Peptic ulcers are an important pathology, and the search for safer and more effective treatment methods is of paramount importance. In this study, we assess the gastroprotective effects of the hydroethanolic extract (HE and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF from Kalanchoe pinnata leaves against an ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in rats. The HE reduced gastric lesions by approximately 47% (400 mg/kg. A significant inhibition of the gastric lesions by 50% was observed after pretreatment with the EAF (200 mg/kg. Quercetrin and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated and identified in the flavonoid fraction (EAF by HPLC and NMR analyses because this fraction showed the highest gastroprotective effect. This fraction demonstrated high antioxidant activities (CE50=41.91 µg/mL by DPPH in comparison with Trolox(r and 11.33 mmol Trolox(r equivalent by ORAC. In conclusion, the HE and FAE from K. pinnata displayed gastroprotective activity in rats, most likely due to the presence of flavonoids.

  13. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  14. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D.

    1990-01-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of [2H5]phenylalanine, [1-13C]propionate, and [1-13C]leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients

    derya atik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was carried out to reveal the level of physical activity in patients who receive hemodialysis due to chronic kidney failure and to identify its relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Material and method: The study was conducted with 55 patients at the hemodialysis units of Alanya State Hospital and Private Alanya Anadolu Hospital between 10 and 30 June 2013. The study data were collected using the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, a data collection form containing Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis Criteria, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean +/- standard deviation (SD, number and percentage distributions, independent sample t test, crosstabs, One Way Anova, and Pearson and #8217;s Correlation Analysis. Conclusion and suggestions: It was found that 41.8% of the patients were between 50 and 65 years of age, the majority of them were male (58.2%, hemodialysis had been administered to 69.1% of them for at least 36 months, and 50.9% of them met three and more of the MetS criteria. There was no statistically significant relationship between MetS and physical activity levels, but the length of physical activity was longer in those who did not meet the MetS diagnosis criteria (p>0.05. An increase in sedentary time raised the MetS criteria (p<0.05. Conclusion: Nearly 1/2 of the patients were at risk of MetS. Physical activity level being statistically ineffective on MetS can be associated with low physical activity level and longer sedentary time. It can be said that being completely sedentary increases BMI and therefore MetS. The study can be repeated on different samples and the results can be compared. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 69-75

  16. Evaluation Lactogenic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) Leaves

    Damanik, R. M.; Kustiyah, L.; Hanafi, M.; Iwansyah, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the lactogenic property of ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) leaves and to identify the compounds that responsibility as ‘milk booster’ using LC- MS approach. Lactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with commercial milk booster (AF), ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA), water extraction of torbangun (AQ) and kaempferol (KP). The feed was given orally every two days and starting from Day 2 after giving birth until Day 28. The performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. The level of prolactin serum was determined by ELISA methods. Histopathological analysis of mammary gland, liver, intestines and kidney tissues was carried out. Moreover, in order to profiling and identification of compounds of ethyl acetate fraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-ESI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was performed. The ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA) was induced milk production about 17%, and AF 22% and KP 51% compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the EA was not significantly stimulate the synthesis of serum prolactin at Day 14 and Day 28 (p>0.05). Administration of EA did not cause any signs or symptoms of toxicity. In addition, a total of ten compounds was identified by UPLC-QTOF-ESI/MS in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of C. amboinicus, mostly phenolic compounds, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, such as: digiprolatone, and kaempferol-3-7-O-di-rhamnopyranoside. The present study reveals the ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves and its bioactive compounds has the potency as a remedy for stimulating and improving milk production.

  17. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  18. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  19. HL-60 differentiating activity and flavonoid content of the readily extractable fraction prepared from citrus juices.

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Citrus plants are rich sources of various bioactive flavonoids. To eliminate masking effects caused by hesperidin, naringin, and neoeriocitrin, the abundant flavonoid glycosides which make up 90% of the conventionally prepared sample, the readily extractable fraction from Citrus juice was prepared by adsorbing on HP-20 resin and eluting with EtOH and acetone from the resin and was subjected to HL-60 differentiation assay and quantitative analysis of major flavonoids. Screening of 34 Citrus juices indicated that King (C. nobilis) had a potent activity for inducing differentiation of HL-60, and the active principles were isolated and identified as four polymethoxylated flavonoids, namely, nobiletin, 3,3',4',5,6,7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, natsudaidain, and tangeretin. HPLC analysis of the readily extractable fraction also indicated that King contained high amounts of these polymethoxylated flavonoids among the Citrus juices examined. Principal component and cluster analyses of the readily extractable flavonoids indicated peculiarities of King and Bergamot.

  20. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  1. Antibacterial activity of polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha against Vibrio cholerae: targeting cell membrane.

    Bhattacharya, D; Ghosh, D; Bhattacharya, S; Sarkar, S; Karmakar, P; Koley, H; Gachhui, R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated morphological alterations in bacterial cells when exposed to the polyphenolic fraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Permeabilization assays confirmed that the fraction disrupted bacterial membrane integrity in both time- and dose-dependent manners, which were proportional to the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, each of the polyphenols catechin and isorhamnetin showed the ability to permeate bacterial cell membranes by generating oxidative stress, thereby suggesting their role in the antibacterial potential of Kombucha. Thus, the basic mechanism of antibacterial activity of the Kombucha polyphenolic fraction against V. cholerae involved bacterial membrane permeabilization and morphological changes, which might be due to the generation of intracellular ROS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae strains has hindered an efficient anti-Vibrio therapy. This study has demonstrated the membrane damage-mediated antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, a popular fermented beverage of sugared tea, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. This study also implies the exploitation of Kombucha as a potential new source of bioactive polyphenols against V. cholerae. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Soil carbon fractions and enzyme activities under different vegetation types on the Loess Plateau of China

    Zhang, Haixin; Zeng, Quanchao; An, Shaoshan; Dong, Yanghong; Darboux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation restoration was effective way of protecting soil erosion and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. Carbon fractions and enzyme activities were sensitive parameters for assessment of soil remediation through revegetation. Forest, forest steppe and grassland soils were collected at 0–5 cm and 5–20 cm soil layers in Yanhe watershed, Shaanxi Province. Urease, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily ox...

  3. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  4. Screening and fractionation of plant extracts with antiproliferative activity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Souza-Fagundes Elaine M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and thirteen extracts from 136 Brazilian plant species belonging to 36 families were tested for their suppressive activity on phytohemaglutinin (PHA stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The proliferation was evaluated by the amount of [³H]-thymidine incorporated by the cells. Twenty extracts inhibited or strongly reduced the proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at doses between 10 and 100 µg/ml. Three of these extracts appeared to be non-toxic to lymphocytes, according to the trypan blue permeability assay and visual inspection using optical microscopy. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alomia myriadenia extract showed that myriadenolide, a labdane diterpene known to occur in this species, could account for the observed activity of the crude extract. Using a similar protocol, an active fraction of the extract from Gaylussacia brasiliensis was obtained. Analysis of the ¹H and13C NMR spectra of this fraction indicates the presence of an acetylated triterpene whose characterization is underway. The extract of Himatanthus obovatus is currently under investigation.

  5. Statistical region based active contour using a fractional entropy descriptor: Application to nuclei cell segmentation in confocal \\ud microscopy images

    Histace, A; Meziou, B J; Matuszewski, Bogdan; Precioso, F; Murphy, M F; Carreiras, F

    2013-01-01

    We propose an unsupervised statistical region based active contour approach integrating an original fractional entropy measure for image segmentation with a particular application to single channel actin tagged fluorescence confocal microscopy image segmentation. Following description of statistical based active contour segmentation and the mathematical definition of the proposed fractional entropy descriptor, we demonstrate comparative segmentation results between the proposed approach and s...

  6. A robust fractional-order PID controller design based on active queue management for TCP network

    Hamidian, Hamideh; Beheshti, Mohammad T. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a robust fractional-order controller is designed to control the congestion in transmission control protocol (TCP) networks with time-varying parameters. Fractional controllers can increase the stability and robustness. Regardless of advantages of fractional controllers, they are still not common in congestion control in TCP networks. The network parameters are time-varying, so the robust stability is important in congestion controller design. Therefore, we focused on the robust controller design. The fractional PID controller is developed based on active queue management (AQM). D-partition technique is used. The most important property of designed controller is the robustness to the time-varying parameters of the TCP network. The vertex quasi-polynomials of the closed-loop characteristic equation are obtained, and the stability boundaries are calculated for each vertex quasi-polynomial. The intersection of all stability regions is insensitive to network parameter variations, and results in robust stability of TCP/AQM system. NS-2 simulations show that the proposed algorithm provides a stable queue length. Moreover, simulations show smaller oscillations of the queue length and less packet drop probability for FPID compared to PI and PID controllers. We can conclude from NS-2 simulations that the average packet loss probability variations are negligible when the network parameters change.

  7. Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Amadid, Hanan; Johansen, Nanna B.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk for impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data-driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA...... identified subgroups in which different activity dimensions were associated with IGM. Methodology and results from this study may suggest a preliminary step toward the goal of tailoring and targeting PA interventions aimed at Type 2 diabetes prevention....... associated with IGM across age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1501 individuals (mean (SD) age, 65.6 (6.8) yr) at high risk for Type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate...

  8. Metabolic Activity Interferometer: A Powerful Tool for Testing Antibiotics

    Rachel R. P. Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the efficiency of antibiotics can be tested using an interferometric method. Two antibiotics were used as models to show that an interferometric method to monitor the metabolic activity of slowly growing bacteria can be a safer method to judge antimicrobial properties of substances than conventional methods. The susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis to hexane extract of Pterodon emarginatus and to the well-known antibiotic rifampicin was tested with the interferometric method and with the conventional microplate method. The microplate method revealed a potential activity of hexane extract against M. bovis. However, the interferometric method showed that the action of this substance is rather limited. Also in the case of rifampicin, the interferometric method was able to detect resistant bacteria.

  9. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  10. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino

    Yantao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino (GpM has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (cPARP. Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant.

  11. Anticonvulsant activity of DNS II fraction in the acute seizure models.

    Raza, Muhammad Liaquat; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana; Simjee, Shabana U

    2010-04-21

    Delphinium nordhagenii belongs to family Ranunculaceae, it is widely found in tropical areas of Pakistan. Other species of Delphinium are reported as anticonvulsant and are traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy. Delphinium nordhagenii is used by local healer in Pakistan but never used for scientific investigation as anticonvulsant. Thus, Delphinium nordhagenii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and the most active fraction, i.e. DNS II acetone was chosen for further testing in the acute seizure models of epilepsy to study the antiepileptic potential in male mice. Different doses (60, 65 and 70mg/kg, i.p.) of DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii was administered 30min prior the chemoconvulsant's injection in the male mice. Convulsive doses of chemoconvulsants (pentylenetetrazole 90mg/kg, s.c. and picrotoxin 3.15mg/kg, s.c.) were used. The mice were observed 45-90min for the presence of seizures. Moreover, four different doses of DNS II (60, 65, 70 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in the MES test. The DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii has exhibited the anticonvulsant actions by preventing the seizures against PTZ- and picrotoxin-induced seizure as well as 100% seizure protection in MES test. The results are comparable with standard AEDs (diazepam 7.5mg/kg, i.p. and phenytoin 20mg/kg, i.p.). These findings suggest that the Delphinium nordhagenii possesses the anticonvulsant activity. Further analysis is needed to confirm the structure and target the extended activity profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    Martini, Paul; Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Hickox, R. C.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Galametz, A.; Norman, D.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Murray, S.; Jones, C.; Brown, M. J. I.

    2013-01-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 10 14 M ☉ ) at 1 A = 3.0 +2.4 -1.4 % for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L X, H ≥ 10 44 erg s –1 . This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M * 3.6 (z) + 1, where M * 3.6 (z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ∼ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ∼ 0.75. AGNs with L X, H ≥ 10 43 erg s –1 exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ∼ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  13. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost

    Scaglia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.scaglia@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira [Laboratório de Química Ambiental, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Tambone, Fulvia [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Adani, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100–6000 mg carbon L{sup −1}. {sup 13}C CPMAS-NMR and GC–MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS {sup 13}CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R{sup 2} = − 0.85; p < 0.01, n = 6). - Highlights: • Vermicomposting converts waste into organic fertilizer. • Vermicomposts can have biostimulating effect for the presence of hormone-like molecules. • Auxine-like activity was associated to the vermicompost humic acid fraction (HA). • HA carboxylic acids and amino acids, were reported to act as auxin-like molecules. • A linear regression was found between molecules and auxin-like activity.

  14. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  15. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  17. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  18. Norm- and hypo-fractionated radiotherapy is capable of activating human dendritic cells.

    Kulzer, Lorenz; Rubner, Yvonne; Deloch, Lisa; Allgäuer, Andrea; Frey, Benjamin; Fietkau, Rainer; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Gaipl, Udo S

    2014-10-01

    Despite the transient immunosuppressive properties of local radiotherapy (RT), this classical treatment modality of solid tumors is capable of inducing immunostimulatory forms of tumor-cell death. The resulting 'immunotoxicity' in the tumor, but not in healthy tissues, may finally lead to immune-mediated destruction of the tumor. However, little is known about the best irradiation scheme in this setting. This study examines the immunological effects of differently irradiated human colorectal tumor cells on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Human SW480 tumor cells were irradiated with a norm-fractionation scheme (5 × 2 Gy), a hypo-fractionated protocol (3 × 5 Gy), and with a high single irradiation dose (radiosurgery; 1 × 15 Gy). Subsequently, human immature DC (iDC) were co-incubated with supernatants (SN) of these differently treated tumor cells. Afterwards, DC were analyzed regarding the expression of maturation markers, the release of cytokines, and the potential to stimulate CD4(+) T-cells. The co-incubation of iDC with SN of tumor cells exposed to norm- or hypo-fractionated RT resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the immune activating cytokines IL-12p70, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα, compared to iDC co-incubated with SN of tumor cells that received a high single irradiation dose or were not irradiated. In addition, DC-maturation markers CD80, CD83, and CD25 were also exclusively elevated after co-incubation with the SN of fractionated irradiated tumor cells. Furthermore, the SN of tumor cells that were irradiated with norm- or hypo-fractionated RT triggered iDC to stimulate CD4(+) T-cells not only in an allogenic, but also in an antigen-specific manner like mature DC. Collectively, these results demonstrate that norm- and hypo-fractionated RT induces a fast human colorectal tumor-cell death with immunogenic potential that can trigger DC maturation and activation in vitro. Such findings may contribute to the improvement of

  19. Glycolytic pathway (GP), kreb's cycle (KC), and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity in myocardial subcellular fractions exposed to cannabinoids

    Watson, A.T.; Manno, B.R.; King, J.W.; Fowler, M.R.; Dempsey, C.A.; Manno, J.E.

    1986-03-05

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (..delta../sup 9/-THC), the primary psychoactive component of marihuana, and its active metabolite 11-hydroxy-..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC) have been reported to produce a direct cardiac depressant effect. Studies in isolated perfused rat hearts have indicated a decreased force of contraction (inotropic response) when ..delta../sup 9/-THC or 11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC was administered in microgram amounts. The mechanism and site of action have not been explained or correlated with associated metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on major myocardial energy producing pathways, GP and KC, and a non-energy producing pathway, HMS. Cardiac ventricular tissue from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) was excised and homogenized for subcellular fractionation. KC, GP and HMS activity was assayed in the appropriate fractions by measuring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ generation from /sup 14/C-2-pyruvate, /sup 14/C-6-glucose and /sup 14/C-1-glucose respectively. Duplicate assays (n=8) were performed on tissue exposed to saline (control), empty liposomes (vehicle) and four doses each of ..delta../sup 9/-THC and 11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC. Changes in metabolic activity and decreases in cardiac contractile performance may be associated.

  20. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40% and water activity (0.24 and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively than those of the P. amarus water (PAW extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus. Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas, HT29 (colon, A2780 (ovarian, H460 (lung, A431 (skin, Du145 (prostate, BE2-C (neuroblastoma, MCF-7 (breast, MCF-10A (normal breast, and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL, based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than those of gemcitabine (50 nM and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product, but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  1. Anticonvulsant activity of the fractionated extract of Crinum jagus bulbs in experimental animals

    Azikiwe CCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the bulbs of Crinum jagus in experimental animals. Methods: The uprooted bulbs were air dried for a week and ground into creamy-paste. 200g of paste was macerated each in 2 litres of water, ethanol and petroleum ether and filtered after 48 h. The obtained filtrates were each evaporated at the appropriate temperature to solid residue. The residues were further fractionated with successive changes of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol into a pooled filtrate which was further evaporated to dry solid brown-paste. Phytochemistry was carried out based on Treas and Evans method of 1987. The acute toxicity study (LD50 was carried based on Lorke ’s 1983 method. Convulsion was induced using maximum electric shock (MEST, pentylenetetrazole(PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin in the appropriate animal models. Seizures onset time and death time were used as successful induction of convulsion while prolongations of these features were taken as anticonvulsant activity. Results where possible, were statistically analyzed using SPSS-16.0 version. Results: The LD 50 was got at 1118.003mg/kg (IP in mice using Lorke ’s 1983 method. Fractionated extract of Crinum jagus exhibited dose dependent antiseizure against MEST induced seizure (P<0.001 and comparable to that of phenytoin, a standard anti generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There were also observable antiseizure activity of the fractionated extracts against PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin induced seizure and comparable to their standard corresponding antiseizures. Conclusions: We conclude that the bulbs of Crinum jagus possess proven broad spectrum antiseizure and perhaps antiepileptogenic activity thus justifies its use in traditional medicine. Clinical trial in man is recommended.

  2. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, A. [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Norman, D.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, M. J. I., E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M {>=} 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z {approx} 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f{sub A} = 3.0{sup +2.4}{sub -1.4}% for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) + 1, where M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 {mu}m bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3{sigma} upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z {approx} 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z {approx} 0.75. AGNs with L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z {approx} 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  3. The Effect of Alkaloidal Fraction from Annona squamosa L. against Pathogenic Bacteria with Antioxidant Activities

    Abdulmushin M. Shami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona squamosa is used in different places such as India as a general tonic to enrich blood, relieve vomiting, cancer, as a vermicide, for skin complaints and also applied to wounds and ulcers. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties from of the alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa. Methods: Well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were used to evaluate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA and Helicobacter pylori. DPPH and SOD assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. LC-MS analysis was used to identify alkaloids and scanning electron microscopy studies that revealed mode of action. Results: Alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa exhibited significant inhibition against the tested bacteria. Extracted alkaloids from the leaves of A. squamosa showed high level of antioxidant activities. LC-MS analyses of alkaloids of the plant were identified as corydine, sanjoinine, norlaureline, norcodeine, oxanalobine and aporphine in the leaves of A. squamosa. SEM analysis of the interaction of these substances with the bacteria showed morphological changes of cell wall and lysis of the targeted bacterial cells. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the alkaloids isolated from A. squamosa showed good antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The results suggest the alkaloids can be a new source of antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria and antioxidant source.

  4. Fraction From Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduces Immunotoxicity and Enhances Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin in Mice.

    Deng, Xiangliang; Luo, Shuang; Luo, Xia; Hu, Minghua; Ma, Fangli; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lian; Huang, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fraction from Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) could reduce immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of doxorubicin (Dox) in mice. A water-soluble LBP fraction, designated LBP3, was isolated from edible Chinese herbal Lycium barbarum and used in this study. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on Dox-induced immunotoxicity, tumor-free mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, or Dox plus LBP3. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on antitumor activity of Dox, H22 tumor-bearing mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, LBP3, or Dox plus LBP3. The results showed that LBP3 did not protect against the body weight loss caused by Dox, but it promoted the recovery of body weight starting at day 5 after Dox treatment in tumor-free mice. LBP3 also improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, promoted cell cycle recovery in bone marrow cells, and restored the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. Furthermore, in H22 tumor-bearing mice, LBP3 enhanced antitumor activity of Dox and improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and the cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In brief, our results demonstrated that LBP3 could reduce the immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of Dox.

  5. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulates Energy Metabolism through Modulating Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissue

    Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Bohan; Jiang, Haowen; Duan, Yanan; Xie, Zhifu; Shuai, Lin; Li, Jia; Li, Jingya

    2018-01-01

    Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic “brown-like” cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK α1/α2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPKα induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively

  6. Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice: Identification of geraldol as an active metabolite. : Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice

    Touil, Yasmine,; Auzeil, Nicolas; Boulinguez, François; Saighi, Hanane; Regazzetti, Anne; Scherman, Daniel; Chabot, Guy,

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Although the natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been recently identified as an anticancer agent with antiangiogenic properties in mice, its in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolism are presently not characterized. Our purpose was to determine the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of fisetin in mice and determine the biological activity of a detected fisetin metabolite. After fisetin administration of an efficacious dose of 223 mg/kg i.p. in mice...

  7. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  8. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    Ana Claudia F. Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL, respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL. Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  9. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  10. Activated Fraction Of Black Carbon By Cloud Droplets And Ice Crystals At The High Alpine Site Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl)

    Cozic, J.; Mertes, S. [IFT Leipzig (Georgia); Verheggen, B.; Petzold, A. [DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen (Georgia); Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2005-03-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) were made in winter and summer 2004 at the high Alpine site Jungfraujoch in order to study the activation of BC into cloud droplets and ice crystals. Main results showed that the activated fraction represents 61% in summer and that for a large temperature range between -25 C and 5 C, the activated BC fraction increases with increasing temperature and increasing liquid water content. (author)

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract

    Arranz, E.; Mes, J.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jaime, L.; Reglero, G.; Santoyo, S.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract was examined. Uptake of rosemary extract fractions was tested on Caco-2 cell monolayers (2–12 h incubation times) and the quantification of carnosic acid and carnosol was performed

  12. The metabolic activator FOXO1 binds hepatitis B virus DNA and activates its transcription

    Shlomai, Amir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus that targets the liver and infects humans worldwide. Recently we have shown that the metabolic regulator PGC-1α coactivates HBV transcription thereby rendering the virus susceptible to fluctuations in the nutritional status of the liver. PGC-1α coactivation of HBV is mediated through the liver-enriched nuclear receptor HNF4α and through another yet unknown transcription factor(s). Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a known target for PGC-1α coactivation and a central mediator of glucose metabolism in the liver, binds HBV core promoter and activates its transcription. This activation is further enhanced in the presence of PGC-1α, implying that FOXO1 is a target for PGC-1α coactivation of HBV transcription. Thus, our results identify another key metabolic regulator as an activator of HBV transcription, thereby supporting the principle that HBV gene expression is regulated in a similar way to key hepatic metabolic genes.

  13. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

    Kuete Victor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2 and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1, B (2, C (3, F (4, G (5 and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6, were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential

  14. Bi-temporal 3D active appearance models with applications to unsupervised ejection fraction estimation

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    in four-dimensional MRI. The theoretical foundation of our work is the generative two-dimensional Active Appearance Models by Cootes et al., here extended to bi-temporal, three-dimensional models. Further issues treated include correction of respiratory induced slice displacements, systole detection......, and a texture model pruning strategy. Cross-validation carried out on clinical-quality scans of twelve volunteers indicates that ejection fraction and cardiac blood pool volumes can be estimated automatically and rapidly with accuracy on par with typical inter-observer variability....

  15. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenolic Fraction of Kombucha Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens.

    Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Patra, Madhu Manti; Chakravorty, Somnath; Sarkar, Soumyadev; Chakraborty, Writachit; Koley, Hemanta; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of multi-drug-resistant enteric pathogens has prompted the scientist community to explore the therapeutic potentials of traditional foods and beverages. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Kombucha, a fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium followed by the identification of the antibacterial components present in Kombucha. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the inhibition zone diameter, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Kombucha fermented for 14 days showed maximum activity against the bacterial strains. Its ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective upon sequential solvent extraction of the 14-day Kombucha. This potent ethyl acetate extract was then subjected to thin layer chromatography for further purification of antibacterial ingredients which led to the isolation of an active polyphenolic fraction. Catechin and isorhamnetin were detected as the major antibacterial compounds present in this polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Catechin, one of the primary antibacterial polyphenols in tea was also found to be present in Kombucha. But isorhamnetin is not reported to be present in tea, which may thereby suggest the role of fermentation process of black tea for its production in Kombucha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of isorhamnetin in Kombucha. The overall study suggests that Kombucha can be used as a potent antibacterial agent against entero-pathogenic bacterial infections, which mainly is attributed to its polyphenolic content.

  17. Comparative study of antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of Momordica charantia flesh and pulp fractions.

    Ghous, Tahseen; Aziz, Nouman; Mehmood, Zahid; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-07-01

    Momordica charantia is commonly used as a vegetable and folk medicine in most parts of South Asia. This study aims to determine and compare the antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of aqueous extracts of M. charantia fruit flesh (MCF) and fruit pulp (MCP) fractions. Our results show that MCP has pronounced DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging potential compared to MCF. In the antiglycation assay both fractions illustrated considerable inhibitory activities against the formation of AGEs induced by glucose with an efficacy of 75 and 67% with 150 μl of MCP and MCF extracts respectively, almost equal to 0.3mM amino guanidine. Results for metal catalysed protein fragmentation and autoxidative and glycoxidation assays demonstrate that MCF and MCP inhibited metal catalysed protein fragmentation. The percentage of relative standard deviation for three replicate measurements of 150 μl of MCF and MCP was < 3.0% for antiglycation. The antioxidant assays with regression values of MCP (0.981 and 0.991) and MCF (0.967 and 0.999) were also recorded. We conclude that both extracts possess high antioxidant and antiglycation activities and are equally good sources of antioxidant and antiglycating agents.

  18. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (Fabaceae in Mice

    Vanine Gomes Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (CFDv in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg, as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg. Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity.

  19. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Metabolic Activation Pathways Leading to Liver Tumor Initiation.

    Fu, Peter P

    2017-01-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides are a class of phytochemical carcinogens contained in over 6000 plant species spread around the world. It has been estimated that approximately half of the 660 PAs and PA N-oxides that have been characterized are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and tumorigenic. It was recently determined that a genotoxic mechanism of liver tumor initiation mediated by PA-derived DNA adducts is a common metabolic activation pathway of a number of PAs. We proposed this set of PA-derived DNA adducts could be a common biological biomarker of PA exposure and a potential biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. We have also found that several reactive secondary pyrrolic metabolites can dissociate and interconvert to other secondary pyrrolic metabolites, resulting in the formation of the same exogenous DNA adducts. This present perspective reports the current progress on these new findings and proposes future research needed for obtaining a greater understanding of the role of this activation pathway and validating the use of this set of PA-derived DNA adducts as a biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  1. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Galaxy Pair Fraction and Correlated Active Galactic Nuclei

    Fu, Hai; Steffen, Joshua L.; Gross, Arran C.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Isbell, Jacob W.; Lin, Lihwai; Wake, David; Xue, Rui; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike

    2018-04-01

    We have identified 105 galaxy pairs at z ∼ 0.04 with the MaNGA integral-field spectroscopic data. The pairs have projected separations between 1 and 30 kpc, and are selected to have radial velocity offsets less than 600 km s‑1 and stellar mass ratio between 0.1 and 1. The pair fraction increases with both the physical size of the integral-field unit and the stellar mass, consistent with theoretical expectations. We provide the best-fit analytical function of the pair fraction and find that ∼3% of M* galaxies are in close pairs. For both isolated galaxies and paired galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are selected using emission-line ratios and Hα equivalent widths measured inside apertures at a fixed physical size. We find AGNs in ∼24% of the paired galaxies and binary AGNs in ∼13% of the pairs. To account for the selection biases in both the pair sample and the MaNGA sample, we compare the AGN comoving volume densities with those expected from the mass- and redshift-dependent AGN fractions. We find a strong (∼5×) excess of binary AGNs over random pairing and a mild (∼20%) deficit of single AGNs. The binary AGN excess increases from ∼2× to ∼6× as the projected separation decreases from 10–30 to 1–10 kpc. Our results indicate that the pairing of galaxies preserves the AGN duty cycle in individual galaxies but increases the population of binary AGNs through correlated activities. We suggest tidally induced galactic-scale shocks and AGN cross-ionization as two plausible channels to produce low-luminosity narrow-line-selected binary AGNs.

  2. Development of achiral and chiral 2D HPLC methods for analysis of albendazole metabolites in microsomal fractions using multivariate analysis for the in vitro metabolism.

    Belaz, Kátia Roberta A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Oliveira, Regina V

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the development of two multidimensional liquid chromatography methods coupled to a fluorescence detector is described for direct analysis of microsomal fractions obtained from rat livers. The chiral multidimensional method was then applied for the optimization of the in vitro metabolism of albendazole by experimental design. Albendazole was selected as a model drug because of its anthelmintics properties and recent potential for cancer treatment. The development of two fully automated achiral-chiral and chiral-chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites albendazole sulphoxide (ABZ-SO), albendazole sulphone (ABZ-SO2) and albendazole 2-aminosulphone (ABZ-SO2NH2) in microsomal fractions are described. These methods involve the use of a phenyl (RAM-phenyl-BSA) or octyl (RAM-C8-BSA) restricted access media bovine serum albumin column for the sample clean-up, followed by an achiral phenyl column (15.0×0.46cmI.D.) or a chiral amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) column (15.0×0.46cmI.D.). The chiral 2D HPLC method was applied to the development of a compromise condition for the in vitro metabolism of ABZ by means of experimental design involving multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  4. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  5. Diversity of Metabolically Active Bacteria in Water-Flooded High-Temperature Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Tamara N. Nazina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the overall genomic diversity of microorganisms of the Dagang high-temperature oilfield (PRC and to characterize the metabolically active fraction of these populations. At this water-flooded oilfield, the microbial community of formation water from the near-bottom zone of an injection well where the most active microbial processes of oil degradation occur was investigated using molecular, cultural, radiotracer, and physicochemical techniques. The samples of microbial DNA and RNA from back-flushed water were used to obtain the clone libraries for the 16S rRNA gene and cDNA of 16S rRNA, respectively. The DNA-derived clone libraries were found to contain bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the alkB genes encoding alkane monooxygenases similar to those encoded by alkB-geo1 and alkB-geo6 of geobacilli. The 16S rRNA genes of methanogens (Methanomethylovorans, Methanoculleus, Methanolinea, Methanothrix, and Methanocalculus were predominant in the DNA-derived library of Archaea cloned sequences; among the bacterial sequences, the 16S rRNA genes of members of the genus Geobacillus were the most numerous. The RNA-derived library contained only bacterial cDNA of the 16S rRNA sequences belonging to metabolically active aerobic organotrophic bacteria (Tepidimonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, as well as of denitrifying (Azoarcus, Tepidiphilus, Calditerrivibrio, fermenting (Bellilinea, iron-reducing (Geobacter, and sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromonas. The presence of the microorganisms of the main functional groups revealed by molecular techniques was confirmed by the results of cultural, radioisotope, and geochemical research. Functioning of the mesophilic and thermophilic branches was shown for the microbial food chain of the near-bottom zone of the injection well, which included the microorganisms of the carbon, sulfur, iron, and nitrogen cycles.

  6. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.” (Matsumura et al., 2016 [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Persimmon, Antioxidant activity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, Model of the gastrointestinal tract

  7. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

    Pu Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine.

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  10. Antioxidant, ACE-Inhibitory and antibacterial activities of Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates and their peptide fractions

    Mahta Mirzaeia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been evidence that proteins are potentially excellent source of antioxidants, antihypertensive and antimicrobial peptides, and that enzymatic hydrolysis is an effective method to release these peptides from protein molecules. The functional properties of protein hydrolysates depends on the protein substrate, the specificity of the enzymes, the conditions used during proteolysis, degree of hydrolysis, and the nature of peptides released including molecular weight, amino acid composition, and hydrophobicity. Context and purpose of this study: The biomass of Kluyveromyces marxianus was considered as a source of ACE inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial peptides. Results: Autolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis were completed respectively, after 96 h and 5 h. Overall, trypsin (18.52% DH and chymotrypsin (21.59% DH treatments were successful in releasing antioxidant and ACE inhibitory peptides. Autolysate sample (39.51% DH demonstrated poor antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity compared to trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates. The chymotrypsin 3-5 kDa (301.6±22.81 μM TE/mg protein and trypsin < 3 kDa (280.16±39.16 μM TE/mg protein permeate peptide fractions showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The trypsin <3 kDa permeate peptide fraction showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging (1691.1±48.68 μM TE/mg protein and ACE inhibitory (IC50=0.03±0.001 mg/mL activities. The fraction (MW=5-10 kD obtained after autolysis treatment showed antibacterial activity against St. aureus and Lis. monocytogenes in well diffusion screening. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was 13.3 mg/mLagainst St. aureus and Lis. monocytogenes calculated by turbidimetric assay and it showed bactericidal activity against St. aureus at 21.3 mg/mL protein concentration. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of this study reveal that K. marxianus proteins contain specific peptides in their sequences which can be released by

  11. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    Miaw-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE and polysaccharide (Gt-PS extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL- 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5~50 µg/mL significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma.

  12. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    ... Rattus sp. Low concentrations of kola nut extract stimulated the heart by increasing rate and force of contraction as well as metabolic rate. Higher concentrations reduced rate and amplitude of beat resulting, at still higher concentrations in heart failure. Keywords: Kolanut, extract, basal metabolic rate, mammalian heart ...

  14. Activation energy of fractional vortices and spectroscopy of a vortex molecule in long Josephson junction

    Buckenmaier, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, the measurement of the activation energy of a fractional vortex and the spectroscopy of a vortex-molecule. Fractional vortices can be studied in long 0-κ Josephson junctions, where a jump of the Josephson phase is created artificially with a pair of tiny current injectors. To compensate for this phase discontinuity, a ρ vortex is formed. Here, ρ describes the vortex's so called topological charge. The ρ vortices are pinned at the discontinuity and they carry the fraction (ρ/2).Φ 0 of magnetic flux, with the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 2.07.10 -15 . Two stable vortex configurations are possible, a direct Vortex and a complementary one. ρ depends on the injector current. When the bias current of the junction exceeds a characteristic threshold, which dependents on ρ, the Lorentz force is bigger than the pinning force of the vortex and a fluxon is pulled away. In this case a complementary (ρ-2π) vortex is left behind. This switching of the ρ vortex and the resulting emission of a fluxon can be described as a Kramers like escape of a particle out of a tilted washboard potential. The washboard potential is tilted to the point where the barrier is small enough, so that the particle can escape via thermal or quantum fluctuations. In the case of thermal fluctuations the barrier height is called activation energy. The activation energy can be determined by measuring the junction's switching current statistics. In this thesis, the activation energy, necessary for the vortex escape, was measured as a function of ρ and a homogenous external magnetic field perpendicular to the junction. The main focus was the investigation of 0-π junctions. The temperature dependence of the activation energy was investigated, too. It turns out, that the transition-state-theory is convenient to describe the switching probability of the standard Nb-AlO x -Nb junctions at 4.2 K. For the measurements at 0.5 K a model of low to intermediate damping

  15. The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the phenanthrene fraction from fibrous roots of Bletilla striata.

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Dai, Bin-Ling; Chen, Ni-Pi; Jin, Li-Xia; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Qian, Chao-Dong

    2016-11-29

    Bletillae Rhizoma, the tuber of Bletilla striata, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Chemical studies indicated that phenanthrene was one of the most important components of the herb, with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to further characterize the antibacterial activity of the phenanthrene fraction from the fibrous root of the pseudobulb of B. striata. The phenanthrene fraction (EF60) from the ethanol extract of fibrous roots of Bletilla striata pseudobulbs was isolated using polyamide column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the fraction was evaluated in vitro using a 96-well microtiter plate and microbroth dilution method. The cytotoxicity of EF60 against mammalian cells was tested by hemolysis and MTT assays. EF60 was obtained using alcohol extraction and polyamide column chromatography, with a yield of 14.9 g per 1 kg of the fibrous roots of B. striata. In vitro tests indicated that EF60 was active against all tested strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including clinical isolates and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of EF60 against these pathogens ranged from 8 to 64 μg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration tests demonstrated that EF60 was bactericidal against S. aureus 3304 and ATCC 29213 and was bacteriostatic against S. aureus 3211, ATCC 25923, and ATCC 43300. Consistently, the time-kill assay indicated that EF60 could completely kill S. aureus ATCC 29213 at 2× the MIC within 3 h but could kill less than two logarithmic units of ATCC 43300, even at 4× the MIC within 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAE) of EF60 (4× MIC) against strains 29213 and 43300 were 2.0 and 0.38 h, respectively. Further studies indicated that EF60 (160 μg/mL) showed no cytotoxicity against human erythrocytes, and was minimally toxic to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells with an IC 50 of 75

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  17. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  18. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  19. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  20. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    Estela de Rezende Queiroz

    Full Text Available Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of the compounds are responsible for this activity. Principal component analysis explained 82.90% of the variance of the antioxidant profile of the lychee. The peel displayed higher levels of phenols, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant activity, while the seeds stood out due to their levels of lycopene. With drying, there was a decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and in antioxidant activity, with an increase in the levels of phenols and lycopene. The antioxidant activity found in the peel and seeds of the lychee is high, and is mainly due to ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, allowing the use of these fractions as sources of natural antioxidants.

  1. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves.

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, Sm Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-05-12

    Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 μg/disc. Kanamycin (30 μg/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 μg/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 μg/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p extract and its three fractions compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. In the present study, the LC50 values of the methanol crude extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, pet. ether fractions and vincristine sulfate were 223.87, 281.84, 112.2, 199.53, and 12.59 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction

  2. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  3. In vitro activity of kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction against Malassezia species isolated from seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, M A; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti- Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta , respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia .

  4. Postprandial Monocyte Activation in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    Khan, Ilvira M.; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Dadu, Razvan T.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Wu, Huaizhu

    2016-01-01

    Context: Postprandial hyperlipidemia has been suggested to contribute to atherogenesis by inducing proinflammatory changes in monocytes. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS), shown to have higher blood triglyceride concentration and delayed triglyceride clearance, may thus have increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective: Our objective was to examine fasting levels and effects of a high-fat meal on phenotypes of monocyte subsets in individuals with obesity and MS and in healthy controls. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention: Individuals with obesity and MS and gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Blood was collected from participants after an overnight fast (baseline) and at 3 and 5 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. At each time point, monocyte phenotypes were examined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels of activation markers and postprandial inflammatory response in each of the three monocyte subsets were measured. Results: At baseline, individuals with obesity and MS had higher proportions of circulating lipid-laden foamy monocytes than controls, which were positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels. Additionally, the MS group had increased counts of nonclassical monocytes, higher CD11c, CX3CR1, and human leukocyte antigen-DR levels on intermediate monocytes, and higher CCR5 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels on classical monocytes in the circulation. Postprandial triglyceride increases in both groups were paralleled by upregulation of lipid-laden foamy monocytes. MS, but not control, subjects had significant postprandial increases of CD11c and percentages of IL-1β+ and tumor necrosis factor-α+ cells in nonclassical monocytes. Conclusions: Compared to controls, individuals with obesity and MS had increased fasting and postprandial monocyte lipid accumulation and activation. PMID:27575945

  5. Ruptured human Achilles tendon has elevated metabolic activity up to 1 year after repair

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Couppé, Christian; Lonsdale, Markus

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Following Achilles tendon rupture, running is often allowed after 6 months. However, tendon healing is slow and the metabolic status of the tendon at this point is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon metabolism (glucose uptake) and vascularization at 3, 6 and 12...... demonstrate that the healing process as determined by metabolic activity and vascularization continues for 6 months after injury when large loads are typically allowed on the tendon. Indeed, metabolic activity remained elevated for more than 1 year after injury despite normalized vascularization. The robust...... negative correlation between tendon metabolism and patient-reported outcome suggests that a high metabolic activity 6 months after the injury may be related to a poor clinical healing outcome....

  6. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  7. Fractional Order PID Control of Rotor Suspension by Active Magnetic Bearings

    Parinya Anantachaisilp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in control design for Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB systems is the tradeoff between the simplicity of the controller structure and the performance of the closed-loop system. To achieve this tradeoff, this paper proposes the design of a fractional order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID controller. The FOPID controller consists of only two additional parameters in comparison with a conventional PID controller. The feasibility of FOPID for AMB systems is investigated for rotor suspension in both the radial and axial directions. Tuning methods are developed based on the evolutionary algorithms for searching the optimal values of the controller parameters. The resulting FOPID controllers are then tested and compared with a conventional PID controller, as well as with some advanced controllers such as Linear Quadratic Gausian (LQG and H ∞ controllers. The comparison is made in terms of various stability and robustness specifications, as well as the dimensions of the controllers as implemented. Lastly, to validate the proposed method, experimental testing is carried out on a single-stage centrifugal compressor test rig equipped with magnetic bearings. The results show that, with a proper selection of gains and fractional orders, the performance of the resulting FOPID is similar to those of the advanced controllers.

  8. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Carbon isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethenes during oxidation by Fe{sup 2+} activated persulfate

    Marchesi, Massimo, E-mail: m2marche@uwaterloo.ca [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalunya 08028 (Spain); Earth and Environmental Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Aravena, Ramon [Earth and Environmental Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sra, Kanwartej S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Golder Associates Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Thomson, Neil R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalunya 08028 (Spain); Mancini, Silvia [Golder Associates Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L5N 5Z7 (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    The increased use of persulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}) for in situ chemical oxidation to treat groundwater and soils contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds (CHCs) requires unbiased methods to assess treatment performance. Stable carbon isotope analysis offers a potential tool for assessing the in situ treatment performance of persulfate at sites contaminated with CHCs. This study investigated the extent of C isotope fractionation during oxidation of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) by persulfate activated by ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}). An average carbon isotope enrichment factor {epsilon}{sub bulk} of - 4.9 Per-Mille-Sign for PCE, - 3.6 Per-Mille-Sign for TCE and - 7.6 Per-Mille-Sign for cis-DCE were obtained in batch experiments. Variations in the initial S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}/Fe{sup 2+}/CHC molar ratios did not result in any significant differences in carbon isotope fractionation. The occurrence of carbon isotope fractionation during oxidation and the lack of dependence of enrichment factors upon the S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}/Fe{sup 2+}/CHC molar ratio demonstrate that carbon isotope analysis can potentially be used at contaminated sites as an additional technique to estimate treatment efficacy during oxidation of CHCs by Fe{sup 2+} activated persulfate. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is still difficult to assess. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the potential of carbon isotope analysis as a new assessing tool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C isotope of PCE, TCE and DCE oxidized by persulfate activated by Fe{sup 2+} was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enrichment factors of - 4.9 Per-Mille-Sign for PCE, - 3.6 Per-Mille-Sign for TCE and - 7.6 Per-Mille-Sign for cisDCE were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon isotope can potentially be used to estimate the ISCO treatment efficacy.

  10. Identification of antihyperuricemic peptides in the proteolytic digest of shark cartilage water extract using in vivo activity-guided fractionation.

    Murota, Itsuki; Taguchi, Satoko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Park, Eun Young; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-03-19

    A peptide that exerts antihyperuricemic activity after oral administration was identified from a microbial protease (alcalase) digest of the water extract of shark cartilage by in vivo activity-guided fractionation, using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Water extract of shark cartilage was first fractionated by preparative ampholine-free isoelectric focusing, followed by preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalse digests of the obtained fractions was evaluated using an animal model. Alcalase digests of the basic and hydrophobic fractions exerted antihyperuricemic activity. A total of 18 peptides were identified in the alcalase digest of the final active fraction. These peptides were chemically synthesized and evaluated for antihyperuricemic activity. Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr and Ser-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Pro-Tyr lowered the serum uric acid level via intravenous injection at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Furthermore, orally administered Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr showed antihyperuricemic activity. Therefore, these peptides are at least partially responsible for the antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalase digest of shark cartilage.

  11. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  12. Top-down and bottom-up lipidomic analysis of rabbit lipoproteins under different metabolic conditions using flow field-flow fractionation, nanoflow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Ju Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-07-31

    This study demonstrated the performances of top-down and bottom-up approaches in lipidomic analysis of lipoproteins from rabbits raised under different metabolic conditions: healthy controls, carrageenan-induced inflammation, dehydration, high cholesterol (HC) diet, and highest cholesterol diet with inflammation (HCI). In the bottom-up approach, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the low density lipoproteins (LDL) were size-sorted and collected on a semi-preparative scale using a multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-ESI-MS/MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis of the lipids extracted from each lipoprotein fraction. In the top-down method, size-fractionated lipoproteins were directly infused to MS for quantitative analysis of targeted lipids using chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (cAF4-ESI-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The comprehensive bottom-up analysis yielded 122 and 104 lipids from HDL and LDL, respectively. Rabbits within the HC and HCI groups had lipid patterns that contrasted most substantially from those of controls, suggesting that HC diet significantly alters the lipid composition of lipoproteins. Among the identified lipids, 20 lipid species that exhibited large differences (>10-fold) were selected as targets for the top-down quantitative analysis in order to compare the results with those from the bottom-up method. Statistical comparison of the results from the two methods revealed that the results were not significantly different for most of the selected species, except for those species with only small differences in concentration between groups. The current study demonstrated that top-down lipid analysis using cAF4-ESI-MS/MS is a powerful high-speed analytical platform for targeted lipidomic analysis that does not require the extraction of lipids from blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  13. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Mahmoud, Abelkhalig Muddathir; Ahmed, Wadah Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  14. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique.

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Mahmoud, Abelkhalig Muddathir; Ahmed, Wadah Jamal

    2014-03-01

    To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment

  15. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  16. Crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora Linn leaves showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    Falcão, Tamires Rocha; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; de Moraes Ramos, Rhayanne Thaís; Bezerra, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; de Souza Neto, Manoel André; Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Aguiar Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras; de Medeiros, Juliana Silva; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo

    2018-03-09

    This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves. Polyphenols present in crude extract (CE), in aqueous fraction (AqF), and ethyl acetate (EAF) treated fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves were shown by chromatographic analysis in order to conduct a phytochemical characterization. Antibacterial activity was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined using the agar dilution method. Doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of the CE and fractions were applied for conducting in vivo models (male Swiss mice, 8-10 weeks old). The peritonitis experimental model was induced by carrageenan following of Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and TNF-α levels by spectroscopic UV/VIS analysis. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated based on an abdominal writhing model and hot plate test. The results were statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was p fractions obtained from E. uniflora Linn leaves (0.05-0.87%w/w, 0.20-0.32%w/w, and 1.71-6.56%w/w, respectively). In general, the CE had lower MIC values than the fractions, including the lowest MIC against the MRSA strain. The CE and AqF also significantly reduced leukocyte migration and MPO activity (p fractions exhibited an antioxidant effect (p fractions from the studied E. uniflora Linn leaves exhibited antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity in the performed assays.

  17. Properties of the ATPase activity associated with peroxisome-enriched fractions from rat liver: comparison with mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase

    Wolvetang, E. J.; Wanders, R. J.; Schutgens, R. B.; Berden, J. A.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Highly purified peroxisomal fractions from rat liver contain ATPase activity (18.8 +/- 0.1 nmol/min per mg, n = 6). This activity is about 2% of that found in purified mitochondrial fractions. Measurement of marker enzyme activities and immunoblotting of the peroxisomal fraction with an antiserum

  18. Fractions as Subtraction: An Activity-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children

    Wood, Marcy B.; Olson, Amy M.; Freiberg, Elizabeth J.; Vega, Ruby I.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade student responses to the question "What is a fraction?" were examined to gain an understanding of how children in upper elementary grades make sense of fractions. Rather than measure children's understanding of fractions relative to mathematically conventional part-whole constructions of…

  19. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  20. Use of 3H-colesterol and its kinetics to assess the dynamics of the cholesterol metabolism in human lipoprotein fractions

    Grossmann, K.D.; Marek, H.; Fieber, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the dynamics of 3 H cholesterols in very low, low and high density lipoproteins, resp. lipoproteins after oral administration in normal subjects and in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia type II a and II b is described. Specific activity-time-curves of the lipoprotein fractions isolated by means of discontinuous ultracentrifugation were recorded. In order to optimize the centrifugation activity-electrophoresis-profiles of the separating steps were recorded. The fractions obtained were characterized by the determination of cholesterol, agarose electrophoresis and radioactivity measurement. The turnover of the tracer in the lipoproteins was determined on the basis of the maximum values of the specific activity-time-curves. Hyperlipoproteinemia patients showed time shifts of the maximum values especially with regard to esterized cholesterols and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as compared to healthy persons. (author)

  1. Method for the isolation of biologically active monomeric immunoglobulin A from a plasma fraction.

    Leibl, H; Tomasits, R; Wolf, H M; Eibl, M M; Mannhalter, J W

    1996-04-12

    A purification method for immunoglobulin A (IgA) yielding monomeric IgA with a purity of over 97% has been developed. This procedure uses ethanol-precipitated plasma (Cohn fraction III precipitate) as the starting material and includes heparin-Sepharose adsorption, dextran sulfate and ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography, batch adsorption by an anion-exchange matrix and gel permeation. Additional protein G Sepharose treatment leads to an IgA preparation of greater than 99% purity. The isolated IgA presented with an IgA subclass distribution, equivalent to IgA in unfractionated plasma, and was biologically active, as was shown by its ability to down-modulate Haemophilus influenzae-b-induced IL-6 secretion of human monocytes.

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  3. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  4. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of low-temperature fractioning products of Malus domestica Borkh (common Antonovka

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has been performed. We obtained by fractionation the biologically active products that are the dehydrated concentrate of juice and the powder of pomace fibers. Use of low temperature minimizes biological value losses during processing. These fractions of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka are experimentally studied. It is found that the fractions have high antioxidant activity and include bioflavonoids and organic and phenol carboxylic acids. Analysis of chromatograms showed availability of the identical compounds in the products of low-temperature fractionation. Sodium and potassium are part of the cells of biological systems as highly mobile ionic forms. Therefore, these elements prevail in the concentrated juice. Iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are biogenic trace elements or components of enzyme systems and are evenly distributed as in plant cell walls as well in protoplasm. It follows from the results of the study of the mineral composition that the products of the low-temperature fractioning can be used for a functional food as a result of its high content of magnesium and iron. The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has antimicrobial activity against the standard strains of spoilage: Bacillus subtilis VKM-B-501, Micrococcus luteus VKM-As-2230, Aspergillus flavus VKM-F-1024, Penicillium expansion VKM-F-275, Mucor mucedo VKM- F-1257, Rhizopus stolonifer VKM- F-2005. Experimental data show that the products of low-temperature fractioning of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka inhibit microorganism's growth. The detected composition of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka fractions allows using these products as natural additives in food technology to maintain and increase period of storage and also for preventive nutrition.

  5. Comparative analysis of procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude protease fractions of turmeric species.

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Nafeesa, Zohara; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-08-22

    Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30

  6. Defining the Active Fraction of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Using a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approach.

    Samira M Garonzik

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the presence of varying concentrations of human serum (HS in vitro to quantify the fraction of daptomycin that is 'active'. Time kill experiments were performed with daptomycin (0 to 256 mg/L against two MRSA strains at log-phase growth, in the presence of HS (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% combined with Mueller-Hinton broth. Daptomycin ≥ 2 mg/L achieved 99.9% kill within 8 h at all HS concentrations; early killing activity was slightly attenuated at higher HS concentrations. After 1 h, bacterial reduction of USA300 upon exposure to daptomycin 4 mg/L ranged from -3.1 to -0.5 log10CFU/mL in the presence of 0% to 70% HS, respectively. Bactericidal activity was achieved against both strains at daptomycin ≥ 4 mg/L for all fractions of HS exposure. A mechanism-based mathematical model (MBM was developed to estimate the active daptomycin fraction at each %HS, comprising 3 bacterial subpopulations differing in daptomycin susceptibility. Time-kill data were fit with this MBM with excellent precision (r2 >0.95. The active fraction of daptomycin was estimated to range from 34.6% to 25.2% at HS fractions of 10% to 70%, respectively. Despite the reported low unbound fraction of daptomycin, the impact of protein binding on the activity of daptomycin was modest. The active fraction approach can be utilized to design in vitro experiments and to optimize therapeutic regimens of daptomycin in humans.

  7. Chemical Composition of Moringa oleifera Ethyl Acetate Fraction and Its Biological Activity in Diabetic Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Muniandy, Katyakyini; Zarin, Mazni Abu; Sean, Tan Woan; Kumar, S. Suresh; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Fakurazi, Sharida; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moringa oleifera (MO), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of skin disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of MO leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activities and conduct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated against six Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical hydrogen peroxide scavenging and total phenolic content (TPC). Wound healing efficiency was studied using cell viability, proliferation, and scratch assays in diabetic human dermal fibroblast (HDF-D) cells. Results: The EtOAc fraction showed moderate activity against all bacterial strains tested, and the maximum inhibition zone was observed against Streptococcus pyogenes (30 mm in diameter). The fraction showed higher sensitivity to Gram-positive strains than Gram-negative strains. In the quantitative analysis of antioxidant content, the EtOAc fraction was found to have a TPC of 65.81 ± 0.01. The DPPH scavenging activity and the hydrogen peroxide assay were correlated with the TPC value, with IC50 values of 18.21 ± 0.06 and 59.22 ± 0.04, respectively. The wound healing experiment revealed a significant enhancement of cell proliferation and migration of HDF-D cells. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive constituents that may be the principal factors in the significant antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activity. Conclusion: The EtOAc fraction of MO leaves possesses remarkable wound healing properties, which can be attributed to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the fraction. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction possesses antibacterial activities toward Gram-positive bacteria such as

  8. Separation of active and inactive fractions from starved culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by density dependent cell sorting.

    Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kamiya, Eriko; Nishino, Tomohiko; Wada, Minoru; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The co-existence of physiologically different cells in bacterial cultures is a general phenomenon. We have examined the applicability of the density dependent cell sorting (DDCS) method to separate subpopulations from a long-term starvation culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The cells were subjected to Percoll density gradient and separated into 12 fractions of different buoyant densities, followed by measuring the cell numbers, culturability, respiratory activity and leucine incorporation activity. While more than 78% of cells were in lighter fractions, about 95% of culturable cells were present in heavier fractions. The high-density subpopulations also had high proportion of cells capable of forming formazan granules. Although this was accompanied by the cell specific INT-reduction rate, both leucine incorporation rates and INT-reduction rates per cell had a peak at mid-density fraction. The present results indicated that DDCS could be used to separate subpopulations of different physiological conditions.

  9. Wound healing activity of the ethanol root extract and polyphenolic rich fraction from Potentilla fulgens.

    Kundu, Anindita; Ghosh, Arka; Singh, Narendra K; Singh, Gireesh K; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh K; Hemalatha, Siva; Laloo, Damiki

    2016-11-01

    Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook (Rosaceae) is a potent medicinal plant of the Western Himalayas, where its roots are traditionally used by the local people of Uttaranchal (India) to treat wounds and tiger bites. The present study scientifically evaluates the wound healing activity of P. fulgens ethanol root extract (EPF) and its ethyl acetate fraction (PFEA) on experimental rats. Wounds were inflicted on animals by using both excision and incision models. The wounded animals were treated for 16 days with EPF (oral: 200-400 mg/kg and topical: 5-10% w/w) and PFEA (oral: 75 mg/kg; topical: 1.75% w/w). Various physical (wound contraction, epithelialization rate, tensile strength) and biochemical parameters (hydroxyproline, hexosamine, proteins, DNA) were examined during the study. Oxidant product (lipidperoxidase), antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide-dismutase) and reduced glutathione were determined. Morphological and histopathological studies of the skin tissues were monitored. A significant (p EPF (10% w/w) and PFEA (1.75% w/w). A significantly (p EPF and PFEA also showed significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity. The present study provided the scientific evidence, where P. fulgens rich in polyphenolic components possess remarkable wound healing activities, thereby supporting the traditional claims.

  10. Enzyme-activity mutations detected in mice after paternal fractionated irradiation

    Charles, D.J.; Pretsch, W.

    1986-01-01

    (101/E1 X C3H/E1)F 1 -hybrid male mice were exposed in a 24-h fractionation interval to either 3.0 + 3.0-Gy or 5.1 + 5.1-Gy X-irradiation, and mated to untreated Test-stock females. The offspring were examined for mutations at 7 recessive specific loci and for activity alterations of erythrocyte enzymes controlled presumably by 12 loci. No enzyme-activity mutant was found in 3610 F 1 -offspring of the control group. In the experimental groups, no mutant was detected in 533 (3.0 + 3.0 Gy) and 173 (5.1 + 5.1 Gy) offspring from postspermatogonial germ cells treated. After treatment of spermatogonia, 1 mutant in 3388 F 1 -offspring of the 3.0 + 3.0-Gy group, and 5 mutants in 3187 F 1 offspring of the 5.1 + 5.1-Gy group were found. The mutants were all genetically confirmed. The frequency (expressed as mutants/locus/gamete) of enzyme-activity mutations is 2 (5.1 + 5.1-Gy group) to 10 (3.0 + 3.0-Gy group) times lower than the frequency of recessive specific-locus mutations. (Auth.)

  11. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  12. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, SM Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion m...

  13. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ? 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched cont...

  14. Renin-Angiotensin Activation and Oxidative Stress in Early Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Smita I. Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have suggested a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation and subsequent cardiac oxidation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF. Nevertheless, RAS blockade has failed to show efficacy in treatment of HFpEF. We evaluated the role of RAS activation and subsequent systemic oxidation in HFpEF. Oxidative stress markers were compared in 50 subjects with and without early HFpEF. Derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROMs, F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs, and ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione (Eh GSH and cysteine (Eh CyS were measured. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE levels and activity were measured. On univariate analysis, HFpEF was associated with male sex (p=0.04, higher body mass index (BMI (p=0.003, less oxidized Eh CyS (p=0.001, lower DROMs (p=0.02, and lower IsoP (p=0.03. Higher BMI (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.6 and less oxidized Eh CyS (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4 maintained associations with HFpEF on multivariate analysis. Though ACE levels were higher in early HFpEF (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05, ACE activity was similar to that in controls. HFpEF is not associated with significant systemic RAS activation or oxidative stress. This may explain the failure of RAS inhibitors to alter outcomes in HFpEF.

  15. Fractional activation of accumulation-mode particles in warm continental stratiform clouds

    Gillani, N.V.; Daum, P.H.; Schwartz, S.E.; Leaitch, W.R.; Strapp, J.W.; Isaac, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    The degree of activation of accumulation-mode particles (AMP) in clouds has been studied using continuous (1 second average) aircraft measurements of the number concentrations of cloud droplets (N cd , 2 to 35 μm diameter) and of unactivated AMP (N amp , 0.17 to 2.07 μm diameter) in cloud interstitial air. The magnitude and spatial variation of the activated fraction (F) of all measured particles (defined as F triple-bond N cd /N tot , where N tot = N cd + N amp ) are investigated, based on measurements made during ten aircraft flights in non-precipitating warm continental stratiform clouds near Syracuse NY in the fall of 1984. Based on instantaneous observations throughout the clouds, the spatial distribution of F was found to be quite nonuniform. In general, F was low in cloud edges and where total particle loading was high and/or cloud convective activity was low. In the interior of clouds, the value of F exceeded 0.9 for 36% of the data, but was below 0.6 for 28%. Factors influencing F the most were the total particle loading (N tot ) and the thermal stability of the cloud layer. The dependence of F on N tot in cloud interior was characterized by two distinct regimes. For N tot -3 , F was generally close to unity and relatively insensitive to N tot . For N tot > 800 cm -3 , F tended to decrease with increasing N tot . This decrease was greatest in a stable stratus deck embedded in a warm moist airmass. The results suggest that, in warm continental stratiform clouds, the process of particle activation becomes nonlinear and self-limiting at high particle loading. The degree of this nonlinearity depends on cloud convective activity (thermal instability)

  16. An in vitro model for screening estrogen activity of environmental samples after metabolism

    Chahbane, N.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Kettrup, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    For a few years, yeast estrogen assay (YES) was accepted as a reliable and economic model for screening of environmental estrogens. Though the chemicals directly act with estrogen receptor (ER) can be filtered out by this model, there are still chemicals act with ER only after metabolism and some chemicals eliminate their estrogen activities after metabolism. That is to say, their metabolites exert or have stronger estrogen activities than themselves, which can be called bio-activation. In this case, for the lack of the metabolism enzyme system as human and other animals, only the assay with recombinant yeast cells is insufficient. So, it is necessary to combine the YES with metabolism procedure to evaluate the estrogen activities of these chemicals. The most common method used currently for in vitro metabolic activation in mutagenicity testing and also be applied to the estrogen screening field is S-9 mixture. Also, there is an attempt to develop a chemical model for cytochrome P450 as a bio-mimetic metabolic activation system. All these methods can be used as in vitro models for metabolism. Compare with these models, using whole H4II E cells for metabolism is an alternative and with superiorities. It has the excellence of short experiment period as all other in vitro models, but is much more close to the real surroundings as in vivo. Furthermore, the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) can be easily measured during the whole incubation period for us to discuss the metabolic activities in a quantitative foundation, not only in qualitative. Methoxychlor is one of the chemicals with bio-activation ability. When directly used in the YES, it shows weak estrogen activity. But a main metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis (p-hydroxyphenyl) - 1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) is a known estrogen mimic. For the long time using methoxychlor as a pesticide and its clear background, it is an ideal chemical to establish this in vitro system.

  17. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Patters, M.R.; Landsberg, R.L.; Johansson, L.-A.; Trummel, C.L.; Robertson, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated 45 Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. (author)

  18. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Patters, M R; Landsberg, R L; Johansson, L A; Trummel, C L; Robertson, P R [Department of Periodontology, University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated /sup 45/Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis.

  19. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Gloria María Molina-Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb and drug-resistant (RMtb Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA. These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods.

  20. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharide fractions from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca).

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qingrui; Meng, Qingran; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Wentao; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-02-01

    The two fractions of polysaccharide MPS-1 and MPS-2 were extracted from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) by water, and purified using a DEAE-52 and a Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular weight (M W ) of MPS-1 was 7.6kDa, and the M W of MPS-2 was 6.7kDa. The MPS-1 was composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.7:3.3:30.5; the MPS-2 was composed of arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.3:36.8. The IR spectrum implied that only α-pyranose existed in MPS-1, and both α-pyranose and β-pyranose existed in MPS-2. The anti-fatigue activities of MPS-1 and MPS-2 were measured by the forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactate (BLA), urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and liver glycogen (LG). The results indicated that both MPS-1 and MPS-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the fatigue related parameters. Additionally, MPS-2 has a better anti-fatigue effect than MPS-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  2. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Gynura procumbens leaves by fractional precipitation.

    Li, Jing-En; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Lin-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Four new polysaccharides (GPP-20, GPP-40, GPP-60 and GPP-80) were fractionated from Gynura procumbens leaves by 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% (v/v) ethanol, successively. Their physicochemical properties including the contents of neutral sugar, uronic acid and protein, as well as the monosaccharide composition were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of them were investigated via the reducing power assay and scavenging capacities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and hydroxyl free radicals, respectively. The results indicated that apart from neutral sugar, they all contained uronic acids and proteins in their structures, which were further proved by the UV-vis and FT-IR spectra. Monosaccharide composition analysis implied that they all belonged to heteropolysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and galacturonic acid with different types and ratios. What's more, GPP-20, GPP-40 and GPP-80 always exhibited better antioxidant activities than GPP-60 among these three antioxidant assays in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  4. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  5. The effective fraction isolated from Radix Astragali alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in db/db diabetic mice through its anti-inflammatory activity.

    Hoo, Ruby Lc; Wong, Janice Yl; Qiao, Cf; Xu, A; Xu, Hx; Lam, Karen Sl

    2010-08-24

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue together with the aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been identified as the key link between obesity and its related metabolic disorders. This study aims to isolate bioactive ingredients from the traditional Chinese herb Radix Astragali (Huangqi) that alleviate obesity-induced metabolic damage through inhibiting inflammation. Active fraction (Rx) that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production was identified from Radix Astragali by repeated bioactivity-guided high-throughput screening. Major constituents in Rx were identified by column chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass-spectrometry. Anti-diabetic activity of Rx was evaluated in db/db mice. Treatment with Rx, which included calycosin-7-β-D-glucoside (0.9%), ononin (1.2%), calycosin (4.53%) and formononetin (1.1%), significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1) in human THP-1 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB in mouse RAW-Blue macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic administration of Rx in db/db obese mice markedly decreased the levels of both fed and fasting glucose, reduced serum triglyceride, and also alleviated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance when compared to vehicle-treated controls. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cell markers CD68 and F4/80, and cytokines MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in epididymal adipose tissue while the alternatively activated macrophage marker arginase I was markedly increased in the Rx-treated mice. These findings suggest that suppression of the inflammation pathways in macrophages represents a valid strategy for high-throughput screening of lead compounds with anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties, and further support the etiological role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  6. The effective fraction isolated from Radix Astragali alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in db/db diabetic mice through its anti-inflammatory activity

    Hoo Ruby LC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue together with the aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been identified as the key link between obesity and its related metabolic disorders. This study aims to isolate bioactive ingredients from the traditional Chinese herb Radix Astragali (Huangqi that alleviate obesity-induced metabolic damage through inhibiting inflammation. Methods Active fraction (Rx that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production was identified from Radix Astragali by repeated bioactivity-guided high-throughput screening. Major constituents in Rx were identified by column chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass-spectrometry. Anti-diabetic activity of Rx was evaluated in db/db mice. Results Treatment with Rx, which included calycosin-7-β-D-glucoside (0.9%, ononin (1.2%, calycosin (4.53% and formononetin (1.1%, significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in human THP-1 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced activation of NF-κB in mouse RAW-Blue macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic administration of Rx in db/db obese mice markedly decreased the levels of both fed and fasting glucose, reduced serum triglyceride, and also alleviated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance when compared to vehicle-treated controls. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cell markers CD68 and F4/80, and cytokines MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in epididymal adipose tissue while the alternatively activated macrophage marker arginase I was markedly increased in the Rx-treated mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that suppression of the inflammation pathways in macrophages represents a valid strategy for high-throughput screening of lead compounds with anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties, and further support the etiological role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of

  7. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  8. Effects of Cola-Flavored Beverages and Caffeine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Dotsey, Roger P; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  10. Electrical Activation Studies of Silicon Implanted Aluminum Gallium Nitride with High Aluminum Mole Fraction

    Moore, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ...) alloys, and represents a comprehensive analysis of the resulting material's electrical and optical properties as a function of Al mole fraction, anneal temperature, anneal time, and implantation dose...

  11. Natural AMPK Activators: An Alternative Approach for the Treatment and Management of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Sharma, Hitender; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    This review covers recent discoveries of phytoconstituents, herbal extracts and some semi-synthetic compounds for treating metabolic syndrome with AMPK activation as one of their mechanisms of action. Recent researches have demonstrated AMPK activation to ameliorate multiple components of metabolic syndrome by regulating a balance between anabolic and catabolic cellular reactions. The review attempts to delineate the AMPK activation by natural agents from the perspective of its functional consequences on enzymes, transcription factors and signaling molecules and also on other potential factors contributing in the amelioration of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in a developing country, Malaysia.

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, F M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent health problem within the adult population in developing countries. We aimed to study the association of physical activity levels and metabolic risk factors among Malay adults in Malaysia. Cross-sectional. Body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured in 686 Malay participants (aged 35-74 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Malay version) and categorized into low, moderate or high activity levels. Individuals who were classified as overweight and obese predominated (65.6%). On the basis of the modified NCEP ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 31.9% of all participants, of whom 46.1% were men and 53.9% were women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among participants with low, moderate or high activity levels was 13.3%, 11.7% and 7.0%, respectively (p<0.001). Statistically significant negative associations were found between a number of metabolic risk factors and activity categories (p<0.05). The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in the moderate and high activity categories were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27-0.65) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), respectively, adjusted for gender. Moderate and high activity levels were each associated with reduced odds for metabolic syndrome independent of gender. Although a slightly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with high activity than with moderate activity, potential health benefits were observed when moderate activity was performed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  13. Activity-guided separation of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract reveals fractions with rice disease-reducing properties

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2015-01-01

    with water and methanol and the extracts separated using a group separation system followed by analysis using capillary electrophoresis. The fractions from the extracts were tested in vitro and in planta using Bipolaris oryzae (cause of brown spot of rice) to test for their potential to reduce disease...... severity. Activity-guided separation of the C. odorata extracts indicated that compounds with activity could, at least partly, be isolated on a weakly acidic cation exchange column. Further purification yielded fractions with disease reducing effects of up to 72 % at 15 days after inoculation. Activity...... was found both in methanol and water extracts, indicating that the bioactive compound(s) are hydrophilic, low molecular weight compounds. The disease-reducing fractions did not display any direct antimicrobial effects, but data indicate that they protect the plants by induced resistance as evidenced from...

  14. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP as a novel metabolic target

    Miguel Angel Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that pharmacological inhibition of FAP enhances levels of FGF21 in obese mice to provide robust metabolic benefits not observed in lean animals, thus validating this enzyme as a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis

    Ryneš, J.; Donohoe, C. D.; Frommolt, P.; Brodesser, S.; Jindra, Marek; Uhlířová, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 19 (2012), s. 3949-3962 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolic homeostasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.372, year: 2012

  16. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  17. Diminished neuronal metabolic activity in Alzheimer's disease. Review article

    Salehi, A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a hypometabolic brain disorder. Decreased metabolism in AD has been revealed by a variety of in vivo and postmortem methods and techniques including positron emission tomography and glucose

  18. Chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity and dysregulates cellular metabolism.

    Hasan, Maroof; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Dobbs, Nicole; Ali, Aktar; Palchik, Guillermo; Calvaruso, Maria A; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Yan, Nan

    2017-01-24

    Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 knockout (Trex1 -/- ) mice suffer from systemic inflammation caused largely by chronic activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes-TANK-binding kinase-interferon regulatory factor 3 (cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3) signaling pathway. We showed previously that Trex1-deficient cells have reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we performed detailed metabolic analysis in Trex1 -/- mice and cells that revealed both cellular and systemic metabolic defects, including reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism. We also genetically separated the inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes by showing that Sting deficiency rescued both inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes, whereas Irf3 deficiency only rescued inflammation on the Trex1 -/- background, and many metabolic defects persist in Trex1 -/- Irf3 -/- cells and mice. We also showed that Leptin deficiency (ob/ob) increased lipogenesis and prolonged survival of Trex1 -/- mice without dampening inflammation. Mechanistically, we identified TBK1 as a key regulator of mTORC1 activity in Trex1 -/- cells. Together, our data demonstrate that chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity, leading to dysregulated cellular metabolism.

  19. Bioactive compounds fractionated from endophyte Streptomyces SUK 08 with promising ex-vivo antimalarial activity

    Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine ex vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytic Streptomyces SUK 08 as well as the main core structure fractionated from its crude extract. Methods: The activities of SUK 08 crude extract were evaluated by using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay and synchronization test against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, instead of human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract was determined by MTT assay. The crude extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. Results: The ethyl acetate crude extract showed very promising antimalarial activity with IC50 of 1.25 mg/mL. The synchronization tests showed that ethyl acetate extraction could inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle, but it was most effective at the Plasmodium ring stage. On the basis of a MTT assay on Chang Liver cells, ethyl acetate and ethanol demonstrated IC50 values of >1.0 mg/mL. The IC50 of parasitemia at 5% and 30% for this extract was lower than chloroquine. Thin-layer chromatography, with 1: 9 ratio of ethyl acetate: hexane, was used to isolate several distinct compounds. Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry analysis, three core structures were identified as cyclohexane, butyl propyl ester, and 2,3-heptanedione. Structurally, these compounds were similar to currently available antimalarial drugs. Conclusions: The results suggest that compounds isolated from Streptomyces SUK 08 are viable antimalarial drug candidates that require further investigations. Keywords: Butyl–propyl–ester, Cyclohexane, 2,3-Heptanedione, Endophyte, Streptomyces, Antimalarial

  20. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults With Osteoarthritis.

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Waring, Molly E; Eaton, Charles B; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 566 adults with OA with available accelerometer data assessed using Actigraph AM-7164 and measurements necessary to determine metabolic syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the association between continuous variables in each activity level and metabolic syndrome components. Logistic models estimated the relationship of quartile of daily minutes of different physical activity levels to odds of metabolic syndrome adjusted for socioeconomic and health factors. Among persons with OA, most were women average age of 62.1 years and average disease duration of 12.9 years. Half of adults with OA had metabolic syndrome (51.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 44.2%-57.8%), and only 9.6% engaged in the recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate/vigorous physical activity. Total sedentary time was associated with higher rates of metabolic syndrome and its components, while light and objectively measured moderate/vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Higher levels of light activity were associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, P for linear trend physical activity, especially in light intensity, is more likely to be associated with decreasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among persons with OA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  4. The Curative Activity of Isolated Fraction from Spathodea campanulata Beauv Stem Bark on Rat’s Exposed to Benzopyrene

    Masruri Masruri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a screening results of the secondary metabolites composed in Spathodea campanulata Beauv stem bark, evaluate inhibiting activity of malondialdehyde (MDA on rat’s cancer model exposed with benzopyrene, and the histology of its lung. The secondary metabolite of the stem bark fraction consisted of alkaloids, flavonoids-phenolic, terpenoid and steroid compounds. The isolated fraction contained of these metabolites significantly indicate bioactivity by reducting of malondialdehyde (MDA level, and also histology appearance of the lung tissue prepared from the benzopyrene-exposed rat indicated a curative activity.

  5. Antibacterial activity of vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) isolated fractions of chloroform extracts of seeds of achyranthes aspera

    Noor-ul-Amin; Qadir, M.I.; Khan, T.J.; Abbas, G.; Ahmad, B.; Janbaz, K.H.; Ali, M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of locally occurring weed Achyranthes aspera were studied. Three solvents (Hexane, Chloroform, and Ethanol) were used successively for the extraction of active principles from the seeds of this plant. The extracts were concentrated on vacuum rotary evaporator. The concentrated extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities after making their solution in gum acacia. The six bacterial strains used in the antibacterial studies were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and Salmonella chloerasuis. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were compared with streptomycin and ampicillin in terms of zones of inhibition. Chloroform and ethanol extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity. Hexane extract did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. Chloroform extract was more potent than alcohol extract in terms of antibacterial activity. An attempt was made to identify the nature of compound by isolation through vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC). The fractions isolated by VLC were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC). TLC showed the presence of alkaloids and terpenoids. The active fractions were tested for their antibacterial activity. One of the fractions exhibited antibacterial activity. (author)

  6. Remotely Assessing Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR for Wheat Canopies Based on Hyperspectral Vegetation Indexes

    Changwei Tan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR, as an important index for evaluating yields and biomass production, is key to providing the guidance for crop management. However, the shortage of good hyperspectral data can frequently result in the hindrance of accurate and reliable FPAR assessment, especially for wheat. In the present research, aiming at developing a strategy for accurate FPAR assessment, the relationships between wheat canopy FPAR and vegetation indexes derived from concurrent ground-measured hyperspectral data were explored. FPAR revealed the most strongly correlation with normalized difference index (NDI, and scaled difference index (N*. Both NDI and N* revealed the increase as the increase of FPAR; however, NDI value presented the stagnation as FPAR value beyond 0.70. On the other hand, N* showed a decreasing tendency when FPAR value was higher than 0.70. This special relationship between FPAR and vegetation index could be employed to establish a piecewise FPAR assessment model with NDI as a regression variable during FPAR value lower than 0.70, or N* as the regression variable during FPAR value higher than 0.70. The model revealed higher assessment accuracy up to 16% when compared with FPAR assessment models based on a single vegetation index. In summary, it is feasible to apply NDI and N* for accomplishing wheat canopy FPAR assessment, and establish an FPAR assessment model to overcome the limitations from vegetation index saturation under the condition with high FPAR value.

  7. [Chemical constituents from petroleum ether fraction of Swertia chirayita and their activities in vitro].

    You, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xue-Qing; He, Dan-Dan; Huang, Chang-Gao; Jin, Yang; Qian, Shi-Hui; Ju, Jian-Ming; Fan, Jun-Ting

    2017-10-01

    The present work is to study the chemical constituents from petroleum ether fraction of Tibetan medicine Swertia chirayita by column chromatography and recrystallization. The structures were identified by physical and chemical properties and spectral data as swerchirin (1), decussatin (2), 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5,7-trimethoxyxanthone (3), 1-hydroxy-3,5,7,8-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), bellidifolin (5), 1-hydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (6), methylswertianin (7), 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone (8), erythrodiol (9), oleanolic acid (10), gnetiolactone (11), scopoletin (12), sinapaldehyde (13), syringaldehyde (14), and β-sitosterol (15). Compounds 3, 4, 9, 11-14 were isolated from S. chirayita for the first time. Compounds 9 and 12 were firstly isolated from the genus Swertia. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 against human pancreatic cancer cell lines SW1990 and BxPC-3,and the protective effects of these compounds against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 were investigated in vitro. The results showed no obvious effect at the high concentration of 50 μmol•L⁻¹. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  9. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  10. Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.

    Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

    2010-03-01

    Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents.

    Hu, Y; Xin, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-10-01

    Vitex rotundifolia L. is widely distributed along the sea coast of China. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of substances isolated from Fructus Viticis (the fruit of Vitex rotundifolia), which may be effective in the treatment of pre-menstrual symptoms, using acetic-acid-induced writhing and metoclopramide-dihydrochloride-induced hyperprolactinemia in mice. The fractions effective in terms of anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities were obtained from Fructus Viticis by elution through macro-porous resin, and polyamide and silica gel column chromatography. The standardization of the fractions obtained from the separation procedures was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint. In this study, the flavone-enriched fraction (Fraction 6) showed a higher inhibitory rate than indomethacin (69.4% vs. 56.4%) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt., and significantly reduced the prolactin level as compared to HPRL-treated mice (8.2 ng/ml vs. 25.5 ng/ml). Furthermore, this fraction showed anti-nociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner (10-50 mg/kg body wt., i.g.). On further purification with silica gel, Casticin was isolated from this fraction and it decreased abnormal serum levels of prolactin by approximately 50% (p screening methods, our results indicate that the presence of flavonoids such as Casticin in this plant may be responsible for the activity effects. Casticin has potent analgesic and anti-hyperprolactinaemia properties, is likely to be one of the active components of Fructus Viticis, and may have a role in treating PMS (premenstrual syndrom).

  12. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  13. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  15. Mutagenicity of silver nanoparticles in CHO cells dependent on particle surface functionalization and metabolic activation

    Guigas, Claudia; Walz, Elke; Gräf, Volker; Heller, Knut J.; Greiner, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    The potential of engineered nanomaterials to induce genotoxic effects is an important aspect of hazard identification. In this study, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity as a function of metabolic activation of three silver nanoparticle (AgNP) preparations differing in surface coating were determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) subclone K1 cells. Three silver nanoparticle preparations ( x 90,0 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) than in medium without FCS. The HPRT test without metabolic activation system S9 revealed that compared to the other AgNP formulations, citrate-coated Ag showed a lower genotoxic effect. However, addition of S9 increased the mutation frequency of all AgNPs and especially influenced the genotoxicity of Citrate-Ag. The results showed that exogenous metabolic activation of nanosilver is crucial even if interactions of the metabolic activation system, nanosilver, and cells are not really understood up to now.

  16. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  17. In vivo metabolic activity of hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei: use of anesthesia

    Schwartz, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo glucose utilization was measured in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of Golden hamsters using the 14 C-labeled deoxyglucose technique. A circadian rhythm of SCN metabolic activity could be measured in this species, but only during pentobarbital sodium anesthesia when the surrounding background activity of adjacent hypothalamus was suppressed. Both the SCN's metabolic oscillation and its time-keeping ability are resistant to general anesthesia

  18. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  19. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  20. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  1. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  2. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity in suburban Beijing, China.

    Zhang, Wei-Hong; Xue, Peng; Yao, Meng-Ying; Chang, Hai-Min; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity among suburban adults in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 19,003 suburban adults aged 18-76 years was carried out in 2007-2008. Data was collected via questionnaires and blood pressure, anthropometric, and laboratory measurements. Of the residents aged 18-76 years in suburban Beijing, 25.9% (27.3% in men and 25.1% in women), 21.3% (19.4% in men and 22.9% in women), and 25.3% (24.2% in men and 26.1% in women) had 1 component, 2 components, and 3 or more components of metabolic syndrome, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, decreased across categories with increasing physical activity. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking, and alcohol consumption, residents were more likely to have metabolic syndrome across categories with decreasing physical activity; a similar relationship also applied to components of metabolic syndrome. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components is commonly present in suburban Beijing. Increasing physical activity can reduce the relative risk of metabolic syndrome and it components.

  4. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  5. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and 50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of activated carbon preloading by EfOM fractions from treated wastewater on adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Heijman, Bas; Rietveld, Luuk

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the preloading effects of different fractions of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of trace-level pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated. A nanofiltration (NF) membrane was employed to separate the EfOM by size, and two GACs with distinct pore structures were chosen for comparison. The results showed that preloading with EfOM substantially decreased PhAC uptake of the GACs; however, comparable PhAC adsorption capacities were achieved on GACs preloaded by feed EfOM and the NF-permeating EfOM. This indicates that: (1) the NF-rejected, larger EfOM molecules with an expectation to block the PhAC adsorption pores exerted little impact on the adsorbability of PhACs; (2) the smaller EfOM molecules present in the NF permeate contributed mainly to the decrease in PhAC uptake, mostly due to site competition. Of the two examined GACs, the wide pore-size-distributed GAC was found to be more susceptible to EfOM preloading than the microporous GAC. Furthermore, among the fourteen investigated PhACs, the negatively charged hydrophilic PhACs were generally subjected to a greater EfOM preloading impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mystery Fractions

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  8. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  9. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  10. Protein-Rich Fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur Leaves: Enzymatic Characterization and Procoagulant and Fibrinogenolytic Activities

    Yamara A. S. de Menezes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes are important macromolecules in the regulation of biochemical processes in living organisms. Additionally, these versatile biomolecules have numerous applications in the industrial segment. In this study we have characterized a protein-rich fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur leaves, rich in proteolytic enzymes, and evaluated its effects on the coagulation cascade. Three protein-rich fractions were obtained from the crude extract of C. urens leaves by precipitation with acetone. Fraction F1.0 showed higher proteolytic activity upon azocasein, and thus, was chosen for subsequent tests. The proteolytic activity of F1.0 on fibrinogen was dose-dependent and time-dependent. The extract demonstrated procoagulant activity on citrated plasma and reduced the APTT, not exerting effects on PT. Despite the fibrin(ogenolytic activity, F1.0 showed no defibrinogenating activity in vivo. The fraction F1.0 did not express hemorrhagic nor hemolytic activities. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by E-64, EDTA and in the presence of metal ions, and increased when pretreated with reducing agents, suggesting that the observed activity was mostly due to cysteine proteases. Several bands with proteolytic activity were detected by zymography with gelatin, albumin and fibrinogen. The optimal enzymatic activity was observed in temperature of 60 °C and pH 5.0, demonstrating the presence of acidic proteases. In conclusion, these results could provide basis for the pharmacological application of C. urens proteases as a new source of bioactive molecules to treat bleeding and thrombotic disorders.

  11. Metabolic activity is necessary for activation of T suppressor cells by B cells

    Elkins, K.L.; Stashak, P.W.; Baker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ag-primed B cells must express cell-surface IgM, but not IgD or Ia Ag, and must remain metabolically active, in order to activate suppressor T cells (Ts) specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. Ag-primed B cells that were gamma-irradiated with 1000r, or less, retained the ability to activate Ts; however, Ag-primed B cells exposed to UV light were not able to do so. gamma-Irradiated and UV-treated Ag-primed B cells both expressed comparable levels of cell-surface IgM, and both localized to the spleen after in vivo transfer; neither could proliferate in vitro in response to mitogens. By contrast, gamma-irradiated primed B cells were still able to synthesize proteins, whereas UV-treated primed B cells could not. These findings suggest that in order for Ag-primed B cells to activate Ts, they must (a) express cell-associated IgM (sIgM) antibody bearing the idiotypic determinants of antibody specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide, and (b) be able to synthesize protein for either the continued expression of sIgM after cell transfer, or for the elaboration of another protein molecule that is also required for the activation of Ts; this molecule does not appear to be Ia Ag

  12. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Pereira, Flaviane G; Marquete, Ronaldo; Domingos, Levy T; Rocha, Marco E N; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Mansur, Elisabeth; Moreira, Davyson L

    2017-01-01

    Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a crude extract and fractions from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. Leaves

    Janaina Dorneles Mahlke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract and fractions of Buddleja thyrsoides were investigated regarding antioxidant activities by DPPH, total phenolic contents by Folin-Ciocalteau and antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution method. Total phenolics varied from 214.07 ± 3.6 to 438.4 ± 0.3 mg g-1. Crude extract, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanolic fractions exhibited a weak scavenging activity (SC50=186.04 ± 10.8, 137.70 ± 8.5, 146.89 ± 9.0 and 165.71 ± 3.2 µg mL-1, respectively. A correlation between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents could be shown (r=0.857, p<0.01. The lowest value of MIC was observed with butanolic fraction against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC and MFC at 62.5 µg mL-1. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were effective against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value at 250 and 500 µg mL-1 respectively.

  14. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  15. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with meta...

  16. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  17. Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses

    T. I. Bayeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article data are presented on dynamics of the level of indicators of metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses of the Ukrainian riding breed in the conditions of physical and emotional loading. Clinically healthy race horses were the object of  research. Blood was taken from the jugular vein to obtain serum and for further biochemical research. For the research 12 race horses from a training group were chosen. From time to time the animals took part in competitions; they were not specially used in races and were mostly used for the training of junior riders and sportsmen of different levels. Blood was taken in conditions of relative rest after ordinary training and after emotional stress during the entertainment performances when a large number of people were present and loud music was played. In the blood serum the following biochemical indicators were defined: whole protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and its fractions, glucose, cholestererol, triacylglycerol, calcium, ferrum, lactate, pyruvate, activity of the AlAT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, an alkaline phosphatase – which makes it possible to determine reasonably accurately the adaptation potential of a horse under various types of loading. We established that during training and psychoemotional loading of racing horses of the training group of the Ukrainian riding breed, multidirectional changes in the level of biochemical indicators of blood serum occurred, which is evidence of stress in the metabolic processes in the animals’ organisms. Concentration of a biomarker of an oxidative stress, uric acid, increased after physical loading by 8.6%, and after emotional loading by 55.1%, which demonstrates that emotional stress had the more negative effect, indicating insufficient adaptation by the horses before demonstration performances. After physical loading, reaction of transamination in the horses’ liver cells intensified, and after emotional loading its intensity

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of solvent fractions of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala Bak. (Moringaceae) in mice models.

    Tamrat, Yohannes; Nedi, Teshome; Assefa, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2017-09-29

    Many people still experience pain and inflammation regardless of the available drugs for treatments. In addition, the available drugs have many side effects, which necessitated a quest for new drugs from several sources in which medicinal plants are the major one. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity of the solvent fractions of Moringa stenopetala in rodent models of pain and inflammation. Successive soxhlet and maceration were used as methods of extractions using solvents of increasing polarity; chloroform, methanol and water. Swiss albino mice models were used in radiant tail flick latency, acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced paw edema to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The test groups received different doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of the three fractions (chloroform, methanol and aqueous). The positive control groups received morphine (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg) based on the respective models. The negative control groups received the 10 ml/kg of vehicles (distilled water or 2% Tween 80). In all models, the chloroform fraction had protections only at a dose of 400 mg/kg. However, the methanol and aqueous fraction at all doses have shown significant central and peripheral analgesic activities with a comparable result to the standards. The aqueous and methanol fractions significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in a dose dependent manner, in which the highest reduction of inflammation was observed in aqueous fraction at 400 mg/kg. This study provided evidence on the traditionally claimed uses of the plant in pain and inflammatory diseases, and Moringa stenopetala could be potential source for development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  19. Effect of olive cultivar on bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil.

    Quintero-Flórez, Angélica; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Sánchez-Quezada, Cristina; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Gaforio, José J; Jimenez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    This study aims to characterize the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of seven monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) and evaluate their in vitro gastrointestinal stability. 'Picual', 'Blanqueta', 'Sevillana', 'Habichuelero', and 'Chetoui' olive cultivars were selected for VOO extraction. The oils were subjected to in vitro digestion. The recovery index (RI) of phenolic compounds after each digestion step and the bioaccessibility index (BI) were evaluated. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of VOOs was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, as well as by studying the intracellular reactive oxygen species in Caco-2 cells. Differences were found in the composition of phenolic compounds in VOOs depending on cultivars. During the digestive process, important losses of phenolic compounds were observed between the buccal and duodenal steps, unlike HTy and Ty, which presented increased recovery due to the hydrolysis of secoiridoid derivatives. Differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds were found between varieties of VOOs. 'Sevillana' VOO had the highest total bioaccessibility (36%), followed by the 'Picual' (19%), 'Chetoui' (17%), 'Habichuelero' (10%), and 'Blanqueta' (8%) varieties. The BF of all the varieties of VOO showed similar radical ABTS scavenging capacity, 'Chetoui', and 'Blanqueta'-BF having the highest radical DPPH scavenging capacity, and 'Habichuelero' and 'Picual'-BF showing protective effects against the peroxyl radical measured by ORAC FL assay. All VOO-BFs presented decreases in ROS levels in Caco-2 cells. Our results suggest differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolics from diverse VOO varieties, which could lead to different biological properties. Therefore, this study represents a first step toward the development of novel dietary strategies focusing on the phenolic supplementation of different VOOs to preserve human health.

  20. Determination of Cu-Zn Fraction of an Ancient Brass Pipe by Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis

    Sun, G. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Moon, J. H.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) has an advantage over most other methods in the investigation of archeological and cultural objects which must be dealt with a non-destructive method. In this study, we study about how to determine the copper-zinc fraction in archeological objects such as a smoking pipe made from brass, where the proportions of copper and zinc can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. In this study, a Japanese smoking pipe was analyzed to determine the copper-zinc fraction at the KAERI-SNU PGAA facility.

  1. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of 95 Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire

  2. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of /sup 95/Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire.

  3. Changes in Metabolically Active Bacterial Community during Rumen Development, and Their Alteration by Rhubarb Root Powder Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing.

    Wang, Zuo; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Jiao, Jinzhen; Wang, Min; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tan, Zhiliang; Forster, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the initial establishment of metabolically active bacteria and subsequent evolution in four fractions: rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) through early weaning and supplementing rhubarb root powder in 7 different age groups (1, 10, 20, 38, 41, 50, and 60 d) during rumen development. Results of the 16S rRNA sequencing based on RNA isolated from the four fractions revealed that the potentially active bacterial microbiota in four fractions were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes regardless of different ages. An age-dependent increment of Chao 1 richness was observed in the fractions of RL and RE. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that samples in four fractions all clustered based on different age groups, and the structure of the bacterial community in RE was distinct from those in other three fractions. The abundances of Proteobacteria decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) with age, while increases in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were noted. At the genus level, the abundance of the predominant genus Mannheimia in the Proteobacteria phylum decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) after 1 d, while the genera Quinella, Prevotella, Fretibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 group , and Atopobium underwent different manners of increases and dominated the bacterial microbiota across four fractions. Variations of the distributions of some specific bacterial genera across fractions were observed, and supplementation of rhubarb affected the relative abundance of various genera of bacteria.

  4. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt lipid metabolism by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibiting autophagy activity in adipocytes.

    Beth S Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitors (PI are core components of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, the most effective treatment for HIV infection currently available. However, HIV PIs have now been linked to lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Our previous studies have shown that HIV PIs activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and disrupt lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and macrophages. Yet, little is known on how HIV PIs disrupt lipid metabolism in adipocytes, a major cell type involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.Cultured and primary mouse adipocytes and human adipocytes were used to examine the effect of frequently used HIV PIs in the clinic, lopinavir/ritonavir, on adipocyte differentiation and further identify the underlying molecular mechanism of HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The results indicated that lopinavir alone or in combination with ritonavir, significantly activated the ER stress response, inhibited cell differentiation, and induced cell apoptosis in adipocytes. In addition, HIV PI-induced ER stress was closely linked to inhibition of autophagy activity. We also identified through the use of primary adipocytes of CHOP(-/- mice that CHOP, the major transcriptional factor of the ER stress signaling pathway, is involved in lopinavir/ritonavir-induced inhibition of cell differentiation in adipocytes. In addition, lopinavir/ritonavir-induced ER stress appears to be associated with inhibition of autophagy activity in adipocytes.Activation of ER stress and impairment of autophagy activity are involved in HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The key components of ER stress and autophagy signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for HIV PI-induced metabolic side effects in HIV patients.

  5. Nonlinear Dielectric Spectroscopy as an Indirect Probe of Metabolic Activity in Thylakoid Membrane

    John H. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NDS is a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity with potential application in the development of whole-cell biosensors. However, the mechanism of NDS interaction with metabolic membrane proteins is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent complexity of single cell organisms. Here we use the light-activated electron transport chain of spinach thylakoid membrane as a model system to study how NDS interacts with metabolic activity. We find protein modification, as opposed to membrane pump activity, to be the dominant source of NDS signal change in this system. Potential mechanisms for such protein modifications include reactive oxygen species generation and light-activated phosphorylation.

  6. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  7. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin eggs of dichloromethane fraction obtained from Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae

    Louisa M. A. Sousa

    Full Text Available Allamanda (Apocynaceae is a genus of climbing shrubs known for producing compounds with a range of biological activities. Previous works have shown the anti-proliferative effect of the ethanolic extract of Allamanda schottii on leukemic cells. The present work was conducted to evaluate the effects of dichloromethane fraction, obtained from Allamanda schottii, on sea urchin Echinometra lucunter eggs, as a multicellular model for evaluating anti-tumor activity. Our results show an inhibition of sea urchin development in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of dichloromethane fraction. The IC50 values for first and third cleavage and blastulae stage were 103.7 µg/mL, 33.1 µg/mL and 10.2 µg/mL, respectively. These results also demonstrate the cumulative effect of this fraction on sea urchin embryos. In the present work, the expressive anti-mitotic activity of dichloromethane fraction towards sea urchin eggs, a multicellular model, reinforces the anti-tumor potential of the Allamanda schotti.

  8. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  9. The influence of physical activity on components of metabolic ...

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Inactivity causes obesity which is related to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ... of physical activity (PA) on the MS components and vascular function in children and ...

  10. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  12. Correlation of hypoxic cell fraction with glucose metabolic rate in gliomas with 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and 18F- Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)

    Tauro, A.J.; Scott, A.M.; Hannah, A.; Pathmaraj, K.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.D.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Egan, G.F.; Fabinyi, G.; McKay, W.J.; Cher, L.M.; Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC

    1998-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET studies of brain tumours to measure tumour activity are well established, with regions of higher grade tumour utilising more glucose compared to lower grade tumour tissue and normal tissue. FDG uptake in tumour cells may reflect anaerobic glycolysis, but this has not been proven in- vivo. FMISO is a novel positron-emitting compound that has been shown to selectively identify hypoxic but viable tissue, which may contribute to chemoradiotherapy resistance in tumour cells. Studies correlating measurements of regional hypoxia and glucose activity within brain tumours prior to therapy may help gain further insight into the relationship between hypoxic tumour tissue and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. Three patients with newly diagnosed primary brain tumours have been prospectively studied with FMISO-PET, FDG-PET and MRI, prior to surgery. Each patient presented with a suspected primary brain glioma on MRI, which were all confirmed to be high grade glioma on subsequent histology at surgery FMISO-PET, FDG-PET and MRI images of all patients were co-registered to precisely identify the areas of metabolic activity within tumour and surrounding cortical tissue. All gliomas demonstrated areas of FMISO uptake, which corresponded to areas of maximal FDG uptake, indicating a correlation between hypoxic areas within tumour with areas of increased glucose metabolic activity. This supports the hypothesis that hypoxic areas within tumour tissue may be associated with increased FDG uptake, although whether hypoxia itself increases FDG uptake remains controversial. These correlative studies characterising areas of hypoxia and glucose activity should hopefully assist in future therapeutic manipulations to improve the outcome from treatment of primary brain tumours

  13. Antiulcerogenic activity of fractions and 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane isolated from Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae).

    de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Comunello, Eros; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

    2008-01-01

    The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-soluble fractions from leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were evaluated for their protective actions against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. The treatment with all fractions (150 mg/kg) and omeprazol (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion, in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Since the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction was found to be most active in the pylorus ligated model, this fraction was further investigated and resulted in the isolation of triterpene 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane. The triterpene was evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model in mice. In this assay, both the groups treated with 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane and omeprazol, at a dose of 30 mg/kg, presented a significant reduction in lesion index, total lesion area, and in the percentage of the lesion, when compared with the control group (p<0.05). The result suggests that the antiulcer effect observed in the extract and fractions may be attributed, at least in part, to this compound. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  14. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Novel Orange Peel Extract and It's Fractions on Leukemia HL-60 Cells.

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Shafik, Reham Ezzat; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, novel orange peel was extracted with 100%EtOH (ethanol) and fractionated into four fractions namely F1, F2, F3, F4 which were eluted from paper chromatographs using 100%EtOH, 80%EtOH, 50%EtOH and pure water respectively. The crude extract and its four fractions were evaluated for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and radical scavenging activity using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Their cytotoxic activity using WST assay and DNA damage by agarose gel electrophoresis were also evaluated in a human leukemia HL-60 cell line. The findings revealed that F4 had the highest TPC followed by crude extract, F2, F3 and F1. However, the crude extract had the highest TFC followed by F4, F3, F2, and F1. Depending on the values of EC50 and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, F4 possessed the strongest antioxidant activity while F1 and F2 displayed weak antioxidant activity. Further, incubation HL-60 cells with extract/fractions for 24h caused an inhibition of cell viability in a concentration- dependent manner. F3 and F4 exhibited a high antiproliferative activity with a narrow range of IC50 values (45.9 - 48.9 μg/ml). Crude extract exhibited the weakest antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 314.89 μg/ml. Analysis of DNA fragmentation displayed DNA degradation in the form of a smear-type pattern upon agarose gel after incubation of HL-60 cells with F3 and F4 for 6 h. Overall, F3 and F4 appear to be good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and potential anticancer activities.

  15. Attached and Unattached Activity Size Distribution of Short-Lived Radon Progeny (214Pb) and Evaluation of Deposition Fraction

    Mohamed, A.; Ahmed, A.A.; Ali, A.E.; Yuness, M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of 2 '2 2 Rn progeny in the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of radon progeny. The current study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of radon progeny in indoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222 Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of this mode for 21 4 P b was determined to be 401 nm with relative mean geometric standard deviation of 2.96. The mean value of specific air activity concentration of 214 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 4.74 %0.44 Bq m -3 . The relative mean geometric standard deviations of unattached 214 Pb was determined to be 1.21 with the mean activity thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of 1.2 nm. The mean unattached activity concentration of 214 Pb was found to be 0.44%0.14 Bq m-3. Based on the obtained results of radon progeny size distributions (unattached and attached), the deposition fractions in each airway generation of the human lung were evaluated by using a lung deposition model

  16. PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY

    Venkatesh, Uday; Javarasetty, Chethan; Murari, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components. Results: Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3rd fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC. Conclusion: The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis. PMID:28480428

  17. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  18. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Cui X Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  19. Metaproteomics: extracting and mining proteome information to characterize metabolic activities in microbial communities.

    Abraham, Paul E; Giannone, Richard J; Xiong, Weili; Hettich, Robert L

    2014-06-17

    Contemporary microbial ecology studies usually employ one or more "omics" approaches to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities. Among these, metaproteomics aims to characterize the metabolic activities of the microbial membership, providing a direct link between the genetic potential and functional metabolism. The successful deployment of metaproteomics research depends on the integration of high-quality experimental and bioinformatic techniques for uncovering the metabolic activities of a microbial community in a way that is complementary to other "meta-omic" approaches. The essential, quality-defining informatics steps in metaproteomics investigations are: (1) construction of the metagenome, (2) functional annotation of predicted protein-coding genes, (3) protein database searching, (4) protein inference, and (5) extraction of metabolic information. In this article, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic approaches and software implementations in metaproteome studies in order to highlight the key considerations needed for successful implementation of this powerful community-biology tool. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Metabolic activity in dormant conidia of Aspergillus niger and developmental changes during conidial outgrowth

    Novodvorska, Michaela; Stratford, Malcolm; Blythe, Martin J.; Wilson, Raymond; Beniston, Richard G.; Archer, David B.

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of development of Aspergillus niger conidia during outgrowth were explored by combining genome-wide gene expression analysis (RNAseq), proteomics, Warburg manometry and uptake studies. Resting conidia suspended in water were demonstrated for the first time to be metabolically active as low levels of oxygen uptake and the generation of carbon dioxide were detected, suggesting that low-level respiratory metabolism occurs in conidia for maintenance. Upon triggering of spore germ...

  1. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  2. Evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of the leaves from Arctium lappa by a bioassay-guided fractionation.

    Machado, Fabio Bahls; Yamamoto, Rafael Eidi; Zanoli, Karine; Nocchi, Samara Requena; Novello, Cláudio Roberto; Schuquel, Ivânia Teresinha Albrecht; Sakuragui, Cássia Mônica; Luftmann, Heinrich; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2012-02-14

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine around the World, and shows several kinds of biological activity, particularly in vitro antitumor activity in different cell lines. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the crude extract, semipurified fractions, and isolated compounds from the leaves of A. lappa, through bioassay-guided testing in Caco-2 cells. The crude extract was obtained with a 50% hydroethanolic extract and then partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) showed antiproliferative activity. This fraction was subjected to sequential column chromatography over silica gel to afford onopordopicrin (1), mixtures of 1 with dehydromelitensin-8-(4'-hydroxymethacrylate) (2), a mixture of 2 with dehydromelitensin (3), mixture of 1 with melitensin (4), dehydrovomifoliol (5), and loliolide (6). The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) and comparison with literature data. This is the first description of compounds 2-5 from this species. The compounds tested in Caco-2 cells showed the following CC(50) (µg/mL) values: 1: 19.7 ± 3.4, 1 with 2: 24.6 ± 1.5, 2 with 3: 27 ± 11.7, 1 with 4: 42 ± 13.1, 6 30 ± 6.2; compound 5 showed no activity.

  3. Evaluation of the Antiproliferative Activity of the Leaves from Arctium lappa by a Bioassay-Guided Fractionation

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine around the World, and shows several kinds of biological activity, particularly in vitro antitumor activity in different cell lines. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the crude extract, semipurified fractions, and isolated compounds from the leaves of A. lappa, through bioassay-guided testing in Caco-2 cells. The crude extract was obtained with a 50% hydroethanolic extract and then partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF showed antiproliferative activity. This fraction was subjected to sequential column chromatography over silica gel to afford onopordopicrin (1, mixtures of 1 with dehydromelitensin-8-(4'-hydroxymethacrylate (2, a mixture of 2 with dehydromelitensin (3, mixture of 1 with melitensin (4, dehydrovomifoliol (5, and loliolide (6. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS and comparison with literature data. This is the first description of compounds 2–5 from this species. The compounds tested in Caco-2 cells showed the following CC50 (µg/mL values: 1: 19.7 ± 3.4, 1 with 2: 24.6 ± 1.5, 2 with 3: 27 ± 11.7, 1 with 4: 42 ± 13.1, 6 30 ± 6.2; compound 5 showed no activity.

  4. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study.

    Tanja G M Vrijkotte

    Full Text Available In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5-6 years.Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study were collected at age 5-6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed.In analysis adjusted for child's physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01, higher SBP (p<0.001 and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01. Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05. Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5 adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001.This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5-6 years.

  5. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  6. Channel-forming activities in the glycosomal fraction from the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Melisa Gualdron-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycosomes are a specialized form of peroxisomes (microbodies present in unicellular eukaryotes that belong to the Kinetoplastea order, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasitic protists causing severe diseases of livestock and humans in subtropical and tropical countries. The organelles harbour most enzymes of the glycolytic pathway that is responsible for substrate-level ATP production in the cell. Glycolysis is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei and enzymes comprising this pathway have been validated as drug targets. Glycosomes are surrounded by a single membrane. How glycolytic metabolites are transported across the glycosomal membrane is unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that glycosomal membrane, similarly to membranes of yeast and mammalian peroxisomes, contains channel-forming proteins involved in the selective transfer of metabolites. To verify this prediction, we isolated a glycosomal fraction from bloodstream-form T. brucei and reconstituted solubilized membrane proteins into planar lipid bilayers. The electrophysiological characteristics of the channels were studied using multiple channel recording and single channel analysis. Three main channel-forming activities were detected with current amplitudes 70-80 pA, 20-25 pA, and 8-11 pA, respectively (holding potential +10 mV and 3.0 M KCl as an electrolyte. All channels were in fully open state in a range of voltages ±150 mV and showed no sub-conductance transitions. The channel with current amplitude 20-25 pA is anion-selective (P(K+/P(Cl-∼0.31, while the other two types of channels are slightly selective for cations (P(K+/P(Cl- ratios ∼1.15 and ∼1.27 for the high- and low-conductance channels, respectively. The anion-selective channel showed an intrinsic current rectification that may suggest a functional asymmetry of the channel's pore. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the membrane of glycosomes

  7. Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

    Shaoying Zhang; Qin Li; Yulan Mao

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase...

  8. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  9. Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR

    Kavita Jadhav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activation of the bile acid (BA receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5 improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters. Methods: Wild-type (WT, Tgr5−/−, Fxr−/−, Apoe−/− and Shp−/− mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders. Results: INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPARγ expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP whereas the inhibition of CEBPα by FXR was SHP-independent. Conclusions: BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders. Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor, TGR5, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, NAFLD

  10. Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains.

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Hilou, Adama; Mavoungou, Jacques François; Lepengué, Alexis Nicaise; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Datté, Jacques Y; M'batchi, Bertrand; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2012-02-24

    The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains. The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.

  11. In Vivo antiplatelet activity aggregation assay of bromelain fractionate by ethanol from extract pineapple core (Ananas comosus [l.] merr.)

    Musfiroh, F. F.; Setiasih, S.; Handayani, S.; Hudiyono, S.; Ilyas, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    Processed fruit from pineapple is one of largest commodities tropical fruit production in Indonesia and will bring the waste from the skin and core. This study aims to isolate bromelain from the pineapple core (Ananas comusus) are purified by fractionation using ethanol and continued by activity test as an antiplatelets agent by in vivo method using white mice male ddy type with acetosal as positive control. Fractionation of crude enzyme bromelain with ethanol produces highest specific activity on ethanol 30-60% fraction (fraction 2) 3.107 Unit/mg and the protein content 61.25 mg with the degree of purity of 155 times compared to crude enzyme. Antiplatelet aggregation tests from in vivo method shows that faction of bromelain with doses 70 μg/KgBW, 140 μg/KgBW, and 210 μg/KgBW can increase a meaningful bleeding time. The highest percentage of increase shown by the isolate at a dose of 210 μg/KgBW in the amount of 515.10 ± 182.23%, when compared to aspirin (231.20 ± 140.66), the value is relatively higher.

  12. Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu)

    Zhang Tingxi; Wang Xiaorong; Jin Xiangcan

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and P fractions in sediment cores and the relationship between them were studied in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Sediment cores were collected from four sites, characterized by different degrees of eutrophication in June 2004. Sediment P was fractionated into Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The former two species made the largest contribution to the sediment P pool. Results show that trophic status and hydrological conditions have great impact on the APA of the sediments. The order of the APA in sediments was conjectured to be: macrophyte dominated lake > transitional lake > algal dominated lake. APA profiles follow a similar downcore decreasing trend. There was a positive relationship between the APA and the TP, IP. The multiple linear regression equation of the APA and P fractions is: APA = -97 + 0.768TP - 0.985Fe/Al-P. - Characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of different trophic status lake were studied in Lake Taihu

  13. Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet

    Oberbach, Andreas; Haange, Sven Bastiaan; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Till, Holger; Hugenholtz, Floor; Kullnick, Yvonne; Smidt, Hauke; Frank, Karin; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; Bergen, Von Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the

  14. Evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated samples of sage (Salvia fruticosa) by activity-guided fractionation.

    Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Kartal, Murat; Sener, Bilge; Kan, Yüksel; Celep, Ferhat; Kahraman, Ahmet; Dogan, Musa

    2011-11-01

    In European folk medicine, Salvia species have traditionally been used to enhance memory. In our previous study of 55 Salvia taxa, we explored significant anticholinesterase activity of cultivated S. fruticosa. In this study, we compared the inhibitory activity of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of 3 wild-grown samples and 1 cultivated sample of S. fruticosa against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (which are associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease) by using the spectrophotometric Ellman method. Antioxidant activities were assessed by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The dichloromethane extract of the cultivated sample was then subjected to fractionation by using open column chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography to obtain the most active fraction by activity-guided fractionation. All fractions and subfractions were tested in the same manner, and inactive subfractions were discarded. The essential oil of the cultivated sample was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  15. Chromium Fractions Changes Compared With Total-Cr As Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdou, F.M.; Elwan, I.M.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different source of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Cr was separated into six operationally defined fractions water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Result of soil total-Cr indicated the serious accumulation of Cr in soils subjected to prolonged irrigation with contaminated wastewater. As it could seen, total-Cr in the tested contaminated soils exceeds the permissible levels (75-100)ppm Cr by several order of magnitude particularly at the surface and subsurface layers. The highest accumulation of total Cr down to depth 60 cm was observed in case of soil E. Data showed that values of total Cr determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined either by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. T-test analysis showed the significant difference between NAA and either AAS or sequential extraction methods. Although T-test analysis showed that were significant differences between total content in soils as determined by destructive (AAS or SUM) and non-destructive (NAA) analytical techniques however, strong liner relation between NAA and other tested methods was obtained. Chromium distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Cr-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Cr, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a

  16. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    Chen, J.C.; Soede, N.M.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation.

  17. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population.

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons who are ≥ 18 years old. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect five domains of physical activity. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive based on meeting the cut-off value of 600 MET-min/week. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome criteria. Overall prevalence of physically active individuals was 50.1% (CI: 45.6-54.7%). Physical inactivity is significantly more in females (p40 years old (pmetabolic syndrome appeared more likely to be physically active (OR=1.48, CI: 0.71-3.09); physical inactivity showed to exist more among participants who were living in urban area (OR=6.61, CI: 3.40-12.85, pmetabolic syndrome risk factors. The high prevalence of physical inactivity in this study population is a clear indication that concerted efforts to improve physical activity may be required. However, it seems that metabolic syndrome is not improved by being physically active. This suggests that interventions directed at physical activity alone may not produce optimal efficacy in this study population. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pedometer assessed physical activity of people with metabolic syndrome in Poland.

    Anna Owlasiuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Metabolic syndrome is a contemporary disease of civilization, an effect of lack of healthy behaviour, a consequence of lifestyle devoid of physical activity, eating poor quality food rich in calories and excessive stress. Apart from a proper diet, physical activity remains an important part of metabolic syndrome management. objective. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the physical activity of an adult population of patients with metabolic syndrome. materials and method. Adults aged 35–70 fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF were included. New Lifestyles NL-2000 pedometers were used to assess locomotive physical activity during an entire week. results. In the group of 100 subjects, as many as 61 people (61% represented low or sedentary activity, while nearly one fourth of the respondents – 23 (32% represented the negligible activity type. Average weekly physical activity of those in the study was 6,743 steps/day (in 100 individuals and ranged from 1,781–15,169. A great diversity was found in the study group, since the highest number of steps per day was 23,347 and the lowest – 409. No significant differences in the number of steps on weekdays and at weekends were observed (mean: 6,676/day and 6,913/day, espectively. A statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.29 was observed between age and physical activity, between the average daily number of steps in the week and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR (r = 0.201, as well as between the average daily number of steps in the week and Body Mass Index (BMI (r = 0.226. conclusions. The majority of people with metabolic syndrome represent a low or sedentary activity type and decrease of physical activity corresponds to increasing age, BMI and WHR. No significant differences in physical activity are observed between working days and free days (weekends.

  20. Phytochemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions from Alafia barteri olive (Hook F. Icon-Apocynaceae

    A.A. Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri (Hook F. Icon was dissolved in distilled water and successively partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The fractions were evaluated for phytochemical composition, lethality against brine shrimp larvae and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strain. The obtained results revealed that the roots and leaf extracts of A. barteri exhibited broad spectrum of antiplasmodial activity (IC50 1.5 ± 0.7–6.2 ± 0.80 μg/mL. The aqueous leaf fractions displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL, which is comparable to reference antimalarial drug (IC50 value of 1.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL. The leaf fractions displayed higher activity than the root extracts. The highest minimum lethal concentration (105.2 ± 0.8 ppm was exhibited by the aqueous leaf extract followed closely by the root extract (120.2 ± 1.1 ppm. The leaf extracts contained higher polyphenols (45.3 ± 0.85 mgGAE/g and flavonoids (18.10 ± 0.2 mgCTE/g than the root extracts. The n-hexane and EtOAc extracts/fractions displayed lower activity on brine shrimp larvae.

  1. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  2. [Screening of Active Fractions from Huanglian Jiedu Decoction against Primary Neuron Injury after Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation].

    Huang, Zhu-yan; Pan, Bei-bei; Huang, Chun-yan; Ye, Yi-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Yu, Yue-ping; Zhang, Qi

    2015-08-01

    To observe the protective effect of active fractions of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on primary cortical neuron injury after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reperfusion (R) injury. Methods Using macroporous resin method, HJDFE30, HJDFE50, HJDFE75, and HJDFE95 with 30%, 50%, 75%, and 95% alcohol were respectively prepared. Then the content of active components in different HJD fractions was determined with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The OGD/R injury model was induced by sodium dithionite on primary cortical neurons in neonate rats. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of four fractions (HJDFE30, HJDFE50, HJDFE75, and HJDFE95) and seven index components of HJD on the neuron viability. RP-HPLC showed active component(s) contained in HJDFE30 was geniposide; baicalin, palmatine, berberine, and wogonside contained in HJDFE50; baicalin, berberine, baicalein, and wogonin contained in HJDFE75. The neuron viability was decreased after OGD for 20 min and reperfusion for 1 h, (P neuron viability (P neuron injury after OGD/R. Furthermore, geniposide, baicalin, and baicalein were main active components of HJD.

  3. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage.

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer Mi; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-Chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders.

  4. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer MI; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:29039412

  5. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    M. J. Laye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF and physical activity (PA are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI. Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg (similar-VO2max. The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max. Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy, improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold, and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases.

  6. Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-07-19

    Five Tempranillo wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and/or astringency were selected for the study. In each wine the non-volatile extract was obtained by freeze-drying and further liquid extraction in order to eliminate remaining volatile compounds. This extract was fractionated by semipreparative C18-reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) into nine fractions which were freeze-dried, reconstituted with water and sensory assessed for taste attributes and astringency by a specifically trained sensory panel. Results have shown that wine bitterness and astringency cannot be easily related to the bitter and astringent character of the HPLC fractions, what can be due to the existence of perceptual and physicochemical interactions. While the bitter character of the bitterest fractions may be attributed to some flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and their glycosides) the development of a sensitive UPLC-MS method to quantify astringent compounds present in wines has made it possible to demonstrate that proanthocyanidins monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, both galloylated or non-galloylated are not relevant compounds for the perceived astringency of the fractions, while cis-aconitic acid, and secondarily vainillic, and syringic acids and ethyl syringate, are the most important molecules driving astringency in two of the fractions (F5 and F6). The identity of the chemicals responsible for the astringency of the third fraction could be assigned to some proanthocyanidins (higher than the tetramer) capable to precipitate with ovalbumin. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate...... glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases were selected based on co-expression profiles from a transcriptomics analysis. Reverse genetics approach on a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in AGP biosynthesis has revealed that the enzyme activity is required for normal cell elongation in etiolated seedlings....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  8. Metabolic activity and mRNA levels of human cardiac CYP450s involved in drug metabolism.

    Veronique Michaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-specific expression of CYP450s can regulate the intracellular concentration of drugs and explain inter-subject variability in drug action. The overall objective of our study was to determine in a large cohort of samples, mRNA levels and CYP450 activity expressed in the human heart.CYP450 mRNA levels were determined by RTPCR in left ventricular samples (n = 68 of explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure. Samples were obtained from ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. In some instances (n = 7, samples were available from both the left and right ventricles. A technique for the preparation of microsomes from human heart tissue was developed and CYP450-dependent activity was determined using verapamil enantiomers as probe-drug substrates.Our results show that CYP2J2 mRNA was the most abundant isoform in all human heart left ventricular samples tested. Other CYP450 mRNAs of importance were CYP4A11, CYP2E1, CYP1A1 and CYP2C8 mRNAs while CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 mRNAs were present at low levels in only some of the hearts analyzed. CYP450 mRNAs did not differ between ischemic and non-ischemic hearts and appeared to be present at similar levels in the left and right ventricles. Incubation of verapamil with heart microsomes led to the formation of nine CYP450-dependent metabolites: a major finding was the observation that stereoselectivity was reversed compared to human liver microsomes, in which the R-enantiomer is metabolized to a greater extent.This study determined cardiac mRNA levels of various CYP450 isozymes involved in drug metabolism and demonstrated the prevalent expression of CYP2J2 mRNA. It revealed that cardiomyocytes can efficiently metabolize drugs and that cardiac CYP450s are highly relevant with regard to clearance of drugs in the heart. Our results support the claim that drug metabolism in the vicinity of a drug effector site can modulate drug effects.

  9. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consisten......High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run...... consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max......). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior...

  11. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Associations with Metabolic Health Across Weight Statuses in Children and Adolescents

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    classification compared with metabolically healthy (MH) classification for the NW group. More MVPA was associated with lower odds of MU classification than MH classification for NW and overweight groups. For multinomial logistic regressions, more MVPA was associated with lower odds of MH-obesity classification......, as well as MU-NW, -overweight, and -obesity classifications, compared with the MH-NW group. Furthermore, more sedentary time was associated with higher odds of MU-NW classification compared with the MH-NW group. CONCLUSIONS: More MVPA was beneficial for metabolic health and weight status, whereas lower......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic health across weight statuses and the associations of physical activity and sedentary time within and across metabolic health-weight status groups. METHODS: Six studies (n = 4,581) from the International Children...

  12. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  13. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Hanzhang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-01-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO 2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min -1 100 g -1 , P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO 2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O 2 min -1 100 g -1 , P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO 2 . Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO 2 . There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO 2 . Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  14. Functional activity of symphathetic-adrenal system under chronic and fractionated irradiation of rats

    Musagalieva, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of rats at 5 R twice a week (total dose 400 R) significantly increased adrenaline concentration in the brain, liver and kidney and dophamine and DOPA concentration in liver tissue, adrenal glands and thymus. Fractionated irradiation (chronic irradiation at 400 R plus acute single irradiation at 400 R) increased the adrenaline level in the brain and heart muscle and led to a higher concentration of dophamine and DOPA in the liver, thymus and heart muscle [ru

  15. Metabolic activation of amygdala, lateral septum and accumbens circuits during food anticipatory behavior.

    Olivo, Diana; Caba, Mario; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Corona-Morales, Aleph A

    2017-01-01

    When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects. Therefore, we used New Zealand white rabbit pups entrained to circadian feeding to investigate the hypothesis that structures related to reward expectation and conditioned emotional responses would show a metabolic rhythm anticipatory of the nursing event, different from that shown by structures related to reward delivery. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure regional brain metabolic activity at eight different times during the day. We found that neural metabolism peaked before nursing, during food anticipatory behavior, in nuclei of the extended amygdala (basolateral, medial and central nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), lateral septum and accumbens core. After pups were fed, however, maximal metabolic activity was expressed in the accumbens shell, caudate, putamen and cortical amygdala. Neural and behavioral activation persisted when animals were fasted by two cycles, at the time of expected nursing. These findings suggest that metabolic activation of amygdala-septal-accumbens circuits involved in temporal conditioning may contribute to food anticipatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Copaifera langsdorffii oil and evaluation of its most bioactive fraction against bacteria of dog’s dental plaque

    FA Pieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of copaiba oil and its resinous and volatile fractions against 20 bacterial isolates from dental plaque of dogs. The antimicrobial activities of the oil and its fractions were evaluated by the agar diffusion test with solutions at 10% concentration. The results showed antimicrobial activity for the copaiba oil solution on 16 isolates. The volatile fraction was considered statistically similar (P>0.05 to copaiba oil intact on the size of inhibition zones inhibiting 17 isolates. The resinous fraction inhibited only eight isolates, with smaller haloes when compared with those of the volatile fraction and intact oil (P<0.05. It is concluded from these results that copaiba oil is a potential phytotherapic to be used in dental plaque antimicrobial therapy of dogs and suggests that its activity is due to sesquiterpenes of the volatile fraction.

  18. Physical activity, stress, and metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old boys.

    Holmes, Megan E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Gentile, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37). Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r adolescents.

  19. [Coactivators in energy metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 family].

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Yong-sheng; Fang, Fu-de

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) family is highly expressed in tissues with high energy metabolism. They coactivate transcription factors in regulating genes engaged in processes such as gluconeogenesis, adipose beta-oxydation, lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Protein conformation studies demonstrated that they lack DNA binding domains and act as coactivators through physical interaction with transcription factors. PGC1 activity is regulated at transcription level or by multiple covalent chemical modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation/deacetylation. Abnormal expression of PGC1 coactivators usually is closely correlated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and arterial and brain neuron necrosis diseases.

  20. Compensation in resting metabolism for experimentally increased activity

    Deerenberg, C; Overkamp, GJF; Visser, GH; Daan, S; Heldmaier, G.

    1998-01-01

    To study zebra finch allocation of energy to day and night at two different workloads, we assessed the daily energy turnover from: (1) metabolizable energy of the food, and (2) doubly-labeled water. In both experiments we imposed two levels of activity on captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata),

  1. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  2. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  3. Metabolic Control of Dendritic Cell Activation and Function: Recent Advances and Clinical Implications

    Bart eEverts

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are key regulators of both immunity and tolerance by controlling activation and polarization of effector T helper cell and regulatory T cell responses. Therefore, there is a major focus on developing approaches to manipulate DC function for immunotherapy. It is well known that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. Over the past decade there is a growing appreciation that these metabolic changes also underlie the capacity of immune cells to perform particular functions. This has led to the concept that the manipulation of cellular metabolism can be used to shape innate and adaptive immune responses. While most of our understanding in this area has been gained from studies with T cells and macrophages, evidence is emerging that the activation and function of DCs are also dictated by the type of metabolism these cells commit to. We here discuss these new insights and explore whether targeting of metabolic pathways in DCs could hold promise as a novel approach to manipulate the functional properties of DCs for clinical purposes.

  4. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  5. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  6. Free Radicals Scavenging Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Kiessoun Konaté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea traditional Burkinabe medicinal plants were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of type 2 diabetes. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antihypertensive potential and antilipidemia and antihyperglycemia activities in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been studied. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been evaluated using β-carotene-linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, chelation of iron (II ions, and lipid peroxidation which showed more pronounced antioxidant capacities of Trichilia emetica. Total cholesterol concentrations decreased in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus under effects of flavonoid-rich fractions from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been observed. Extract of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica shown maximum radical scavenging activity and possessed marked antiamylase activity which may be due to the presence of certain secondary metabolites. Suggested better antihyperglycemia, antilipidemia, and antihypertensive properties of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica compared to the extract of Opilia amentacea are demonstrating antidiabetic potential of Trichilia emetica as therapeutic targets for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide fractions containing ß-glucans from extracts of Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. C.E. Hubb., Poaceae

    A.C.C.F.F. De Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available ß-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. The objective of the present study was to analyze the distribution of ß-glucans in different tissues of the African grass species Rhynchelytrum repens and also to evaluate their hypoglycemic activity. Leaf blades, sheaths, stems, and young leaves of R. repens were submitted to extraction with 4 M KOH. Analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of ß-glucan in these fractions was confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-ß-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by HPLC analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues were subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers was similar (250 kDa to that of maize coleoptile ß-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 h. This performance was better than that obtained with pure ß-glucan from barley, which decreased blood sugar levels for about 4 h. These results suggest that the activity of ß-glucans from R. repens is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.

  8. The determination of the inhalable fraction of 40K activity in marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. buds by instrumental neutron activation analysis and the effective dose to the body

    Johann M.R. Antoine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Total potassium in marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. buds was determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mass fraction of 40K and its activity were derived using the natural isotopic ratios of potassium. The total potassium in the marijuana buds ranged from 0.84% to 3.15% with a mean mass fraction of 1.93%. The activity concentrations of 40K in the samples of marijuana ranged from 253 to 946 Bq kg−1 with a mean activity concentration of 581 Bq kg−1. The effective dose to the body from smoking marijuana is lower than that for comparable tobacco smoking. Simulated smoking experiments show that over 90% of 40K is retained in the cigarette ash. Accepted methods of determining effective dose to the body from 40K inhalation are likely overestimations for both marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke.

  9. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  10. Genome Sequencing of Streptomyces atratus SCSIOZH16 and Activation Production of Nocardamine via Metabolic Engineering

    Yan Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Actinomycetes are metabolically flexible microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of interesting compounds, including but by no means limited to, siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of marine-derived Streptomyces atratus ZH16 and the activation of an embedded siderophore gene cluster via the application of metabolic engineering methods. The S. atratus ZH16 genome reveals that this strain has the potential to produce 26 categories of natural products (NPs barring the ilamycins. Our activation studies revealed S. atratus SCSIO ZH16 to be a promising source of the production of nocardamine-type (desferrioxamine compounds which are important in treating acute iron intoxication and performing ecological remediation. We conclude that metabolic engineering provides a highly effective strategy by which to discover drug-like compounds and new NPs in the genomic era.

  11. Metabolic and Co-Metabolic Transformation of Diclofenac by Enterobacter hormaechei D15 Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Aissaoui, Salima; Ouled-Haddar, Houria; Sifour, Mohamed; Harrouche, Kamel; Sghaier, Haitham

    2017-03-01

    The presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), in the environment, is an emerging problem due to their harmful effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations. We studied the biodegradation of DCF by the strain D15 of Enterobacter hormaechei. The strain was isolated from an activated sludge, and identified as E. hormaechei based on its physiological characteristics and its 16 S RNA sequence. Using HPTLC and GC-MS methods, we demonstrated that this strain metabolized DCF at an elimination rate of 52.8%. In the presence of an external carbon source (glucose), the elimination rate increased to approximately 82%. GC-MS analysis detected and identified one metabolite as 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one; it was produced as a consequence of dehydration and lactam formation reactions.

  12. Alterations in calcium metabolism during human monocyte activation

    Scully, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes have been prepared from plateletpheresis residues by counterflow centrifugal elutriation in sufficient quantities to enable quantitative studies of cell calcium. Kinetic analysis of 45 Ca exchange data in resting monocytes was compatible with a model of cellular calcium containing three exchangeable calcium pools. These pools are thought to represent a putative ectocellular pool, a putative cytoplasmic chelated pool, and a putative organelle sequestered pool. Exposure of monocytes to the plant lectin Con A at a concentration that maximally simulated superoxide production caused an increase in the size and a doubling in the exchange rate of the putative cytoplasmic pool without a change in the other cellular pools. The cytoplasmic ionized calcium, [Ca]/sub i/, measured with the fluorescent probe, Quin 2 rose from a resting level of 83 nM to 165 mN within 30 sec of exposure to Con A. This increase in cytoplasmic calcium preceded the release of superoxide radicals. Calcium transport and calcium ATPase activities were identified and characterized in plasma membrane vesicles prepared from monocytes. Both activities were strictly dependent on ATP and Mg, had a Km/sub Ca/ in the submicromolar range and were stimulated by calmodulin. Thus, it seems that monocyte calcium is in a dynamic steady state that is a balance between efflux and influx rates, and that the activation of these cells results in the transition to a new steady state. The alteration in [Ca]/sub i/ that accompany the new steady state are essential for superoxide production by human monocytes

  13. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-07-01

    Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  15. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and analysis of compounds with anti-influenza virus activity from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    Yang, Quanjun; Wu, Bin; Shi, Yujing; Du, Xiaowei; Fan, Mingsong; Sun, Zhaolin; Cui, Xiaolan; Huang, Chenggang

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Fructus Gardeniae led to analysis of its bioactive natural products. After infection by influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47-MA in vivo, antiviral activity of the extracts were investigated. The target fraction was orally administered to rats and blood was collected. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detector and electrospray ion trap multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was applied to screen the compounds absorbed into the blood. A structural characterization based on the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, parent ions and fragmentation ions was performed. Thirteen compounds were confirmed or tentatively identified. This provides an accurate profile of the composition of bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-influenza properties.

  16. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  17. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with 18F-fluoride PET

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn; Nieman, Fred H.M.

    2011-01-01

    18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent 18 F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average 18 F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. 18 F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. 18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that 18 F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  18. The Ionization Fraction in the Obscuring ``Torus'' of an Active Galactic Nucleus

    Wilson, A. S.; Roy, A. L.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Weaver, K. A.; Braatz, J. A.; Henkel, C.; Matsuoka, M.; Xue, S.; Iyomoto, N.; Okada, K.

    1998-10-01

    The LINER galaxy NGC 2639 contains a water vapor megamaser, suggesting the presence of a nuclear accretion disk or torus viewed close to edge-on. This galaxy is thus a good candidate for revealing absorption by the torus of any compact nuclear continuum emission. In this paper, we report VLBA radio maps at three frequencies and an ASCA X-ray spectrum obtained to search for free-free and photoelectric absorptions, respectively. The radio observations reveal a compact (~1.3 × 10-5, which is comparable to the theoretical upper limit derived by Neufeld, Maloney, and Conger for X-ray heated molecular gas. The two values may be reconciled if the molecular gas is very dense: nH2>~109 cm-3. The measured ionization fraction is also consistent with the idea that both absorptions occur in a hot (~6000 K), weakly ionized (ionization fraction a few times 10-2) atomic region that may coexist with the warm molecular gas. If this is the case, the absorbing gas is ~1 pc from the nucleus. We rule out the possibility that both absorptions occur in a fully ionized gas near 104 K. If our line of sight passes through more than one phase, the atomic gas probably dominates the free-free absorption, while the molecular gas may dominate the photoelectric absorption.

  19. Piper betel leaf extract: anticancer benefits and bio-guided fractionation to identify active principles for prostate cancer management.

    Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Gundala, Sushma R; Lakshminarayana, N; Sagwal, Arpana; Asif, Ghazia; Pandey, Anjali; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-07-01

    Plant extracts, a concoction of bioactive non-nutrient phytochemicals, have long served as the most significant source of new leads for anticancer drug development. Explored for their unique medicinal properties, the leaves of Piper betel, an evergreen perennial vine, are a reservoir of phenolics with antimutagenic, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Here, we show that oral feeding of betel leaf extract (BLE) significantly inhibited the growth of human prostate xenografts implanted in nude mice compared with vehicle-fed controls. To gain insights into the 'active principles', we performed a bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanolic BLE employing solvents of different polarity strengths using classical column chromatography. This approach yielded 15 fractions, which were then pooled to 10 using similar retention factors on thin-layer chromatographs. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that one fraction in particular, F2, displayed a 3-fold better in vitro efficacy to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells than the parent BLE. The presence of phenols, hydroxychavicol (HC) and chavibetol (CHV), was confirmed in F2 by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Further, the HC containing F2 subfraction was found to be ~8-fold more potent than the F2 subfraction that contained CHV, in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Removing CHV from F2 remarkably decreased the IC50 of this fraction, indicating that HC is perhaps the major bioactive constituent, which is present to an extent of 26.59% in BLE. These data provide evidence that HC is a potential candidate for prostate cancer management and warrants further preclinical evaluation.

  20. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  1. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  2. Plateau hypoxia attenuates the metabolic activity of intestinal flora to enhance the bioavailability of nifedipine.

    Zhang, Juanhong; Chen, Yuyan; Sun, Yuemei; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Junmin; Jia, Zhengping

    2018-11-01

    Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes. More importantly, these changes in flora could lead to a slower metabolic activity of nifedipine in the body after an acute plateau, resulting in increased bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nifedipine. Our research will provide basis and new ideas for changes in the fecal flora of human acutely entering the plateau, and contribute to rational drug use of nifedipine.

  3. Acetic acid activates the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway to regulate lipid metabolism in bovine hepatocytes.

    Xinwei Li

    Full Text Available The effect of acetic acid on hepatic lipid metabolism in ruminants differs significantly from that in monogastric animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the regulation mechanism of acetic acid on the hepatic lipid metabolism in dairy cows. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. In vitro, bovine hepatocytes were cultured and treated with different concentrations of sodium acetate (neutralized acetic acid and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor. Acetic acid consumed a large amount of ATP, resulting in an increase in AMPKα phosphorylation. The increase in AMPKα phosphorylation increased the expression and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes, thereby increasing lipid oxidation in bovine hepatocytes. Furthermore, elevated AMPKα phosphorylation reduced the expression and transcriptional activity of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein, which reduced the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis in bovine hepatocytes. In addition, activated AMPKα inhibited the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Consequently, the triglyceride content in the acetate-treated hepatocytes was significantly decreased. These results indicate that acetic acid activates the AMPKα signaling pathway to increase lipid oxidation and decrease lipid synthesis in bovine hepatocytes, thereby reducing liver fat accumulation in dairy cows.

  4. Metabolic disruptions induced by reduced ambulatory activity in free-living humans

    Thyfault, John P; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity likely plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity; however, direct evidence is minimal and mechanisms of action remain unknown. Studying metabolic outcomes that occur after transitioning from higher to lower levels of physical activity is the best tool t...

  5. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) in the metabolic activity of TBT-resistant and sensitive estuarine bacteria.

    Cruz, Andreia; Oliveira, Vanessa; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on growth and metabolic activity of three estuarine bacteria with different TBT resistance profiles was investigated in an organic-rich culture medium (TSB) and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Exposure to TBT was assessed by determining its effect on growth (OD(600 nm) measurement), bacterial productivity (leucine incorporation), viability (CFU counts), aggregation and cell size (from Live/Dead analysis), ATP and NADH concentrations. TBT exposure resulted in decrease of bacterial density, cell size, and metabolic activity. In addition, cell aggregates were observed in the TBT-treated cultures. TBT strongly affected bacterial cell metabolism and seemed to exert an effect on its equilibrium, interfering with cell activity. Also, TBT toxicity was lower when cells were grown in TSB than in PBS, suggesting that a nutrient-rich growth medium can protect cells from TBT toxicity. This study contributes to our understanding of the TBT-resistant cell behavior reflected in its physiology and metabolic activity. This information is of utmost importance for further studies of TBT bioremediation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  7. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  8. Jasmonates: Biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription

    Wasternack, Claus; Song, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 1303-1321 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activators * Amino acid conjugates * Biosynthesis * Jasmonic acid * Metabolism * Perception * Repressors * SCFJAZ co-receptor complex COI1 * Signaling Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  9. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; Ravenzwaay, van Bennard

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To

  10. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. III. Effect of partial 60Co thoracic irradiation upon pulmonary collagen metabolism and fractionation in syrian hamsters

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Hahn, F.F.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in pulmonary collagen metabolism were studied in Syrian hamsters given multiple thoracic doses of 60 Co radiation to achieve cumulative exposures of 6000, 4000, and 2000 R. At 13 to 14 wk after initial exposure, 6000- and 4000-R exposures had increased incorporation of injected [ 14 C]proline into pulmonary collagenous protein which suggested an increased collagen synthesis. By 21 to 22 wk after exposure, increased pulmonary soluble collagen was noted. Increased pulmonary scarring was indicated by a variable increase in native collagen at 13 to 36 wk. A collection of alveolar macrophages at 7 to 8 wk followed by inflammation at 13 to 14 wk and a beginning of pulmonary fibrosis at 13 to 19 wk were noted. At 21 to 22 wk after exposure a somewhat more marked pulmonary fibrosis and some epithelialization were observed. Hemosiderin deposits were also observed at 35 to 36 wk after exposure, but pathologic processes were lessened by this time. The early activation of collagen synthesis presumably caused the radiation-induced fibrosis. Later, when collagen tended to accumulate, the synthetic rate was normal. The activation of collagen synthesis caused by external thoracic irradiation resembles that caused by thoracic irradiation from the internal emitter, 144 Ce. Moreover, it demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring collagen biosynthesis by [ 14 C]proline incorporation into the lung. (U.S.)

  11. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  12. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study.

    Zheng, Gang; Wen, Jiqiu; Lu, Hanzhang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-06-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O2 min(-1) 100 g(-1), P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO2. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO2. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO2. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD maintain a normal CMRO 2 . • Cognitive function was still impaired in young ESRD adults. • The severity of cognitive dysfunction correlated with CBF and OEF changes.

  13. Inhibition of Prenylation Promotes Caspase 3 Activation, Lamin B Degradation and Loss in Metabolic Cell Viability in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Khadija G. Syeda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that constitute the main components of the lamina underlying the inner-nuclear membrane and serve to organize chromatin. Lamins (e.g., lamin B undergo posttranslational modifications (e.g., isoprenylation at their C-terminal cysteine residues. Such modifications are thought to render optimal association of lamins with the nuclear envelop. Using human islets, rodent islets, and INS-1 832/13 cells, we recently reported significant metabolic defects under glucotoxic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions, including caspase 3 activation and lamin B degradation. The current study is aimed at further understanding the regulatory roles of protein prenylation in the induction of the aforestated metabolic defects. Methods: Subcellular phase partitioning assay was done using Triton X-114. Cell morphology and metabolic cell viability assays were carried out using standard methodologies. Results: We report that exposure of pancreatic β-cells to Simvastatin, an inhibitor of mevalonic acid (MVA biosynthesis, and its downstream isoprenoid derivatives, or FTI-277, an inhibitor of farnesyltransferase that mediates farnesylation of lamins, leads to activation of caspase 3 and lamin B degradation. Furthermore, Simvastatin-treatment increased activation of p38MAPK (a stress kinase and inhibited ERK1/2 (regulator of cell proliferation. Inhibition of farnesylation also resulted in the release of degraded lamin B into the cytosolic fraction and promoted loss in metabolic cell viability. Conclusion: Based on these findings we conclude that protein prenylation plays key roles in islet β-cell function. These findings affirm further support to the hypothesis that defects in prenylation pathway induce caspase-3 activation and nuclear lamin degradation in pancreatic β-cells under the duress of metabolic stress (e.g., glucotoxicity.

  14. Insecticidal activities and phytochemical screening of crude extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis

    Ahmad, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    The extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants species Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were tested for insecticidal activities and preliminary phytochemical evaluation with the intention of standardization and proper manage of bioactive principles in such heterogonous botanicals and to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extracts and fractions from Nepeta plants showed moderate to strong insecticidal activity. Among the fractions from Nepeta kurramensis the n-butanol fraction showed strongest insecticidal activity with 89% mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum followed by methanol extract with 88% mortality ratio and in case of Nepeta leavigata the potential activity was showed by methanol extracts with 93% mortality rate against the tested insect. Surprisingly none of the extract / fractions obtained from Rhynchosia reniformis plant exhibited any insecticidal activity. The phytochemicals screening results revealed that both species of Nepeta showed similar phytochemicals profile. The group of chemicals terpenes, flavonoids and glycosides were observed in all the extracts/fractions of Nepeta plants. While phenolic compounds, acidic compounds and alkaloids were found in methanolic extracts, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The Rhynchosia reniformis was observed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and fats. (author)

  15. Changes in carbon stability and microbial activity in size fractions of micro-aggregates in a rice soil chronosequence under long term rice cultivation

    Pan, Genxing; Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Li, Lianqinfg; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Bian, Rongjun; Ding, Yuanjun; Ma, Chong

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown soil carbon sequestration through physical protection of relative labile carbon intra micro-aggregates with formation of large sized macro-aggregates under good management of soil and agricultural systems. While carbon stabilization had been increasingly concerned as ecosystem properties, the mechanisms underspin bioactivity of soil carbon with increased carbon stability has been still poorly understood. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from rice soils derived from salt marsh under different length of rice cultivation up to 700 years from eastern China. Particle size fractions (PSF) of soil aggregates were separated using a low energy dispersion protocol. Carbon fractions in the PSFs were analyzed either with FTIR spectroscopy. Soil microbial community of bacterial, fungal and archaeal were analyzed with molecular fingerprinting using specific gene primers. Soil respiration and carbon gain from amended maize as well as enzyme activities were measured using lab incubation protocols. While the PSFs were dominated by the fine sand (200-20μm) and silt fraction (20-2μm), the mass proportion both of sand (2000-200μm) and clay (soil aggregates (also referred to aggregate stability). Soil organic carbon was found most enriched in coarse sand fraction (40-60g/kg), followed by the clay fraction (20-24.5g/kg), but depleted in the silt fraction (~10g/kg). Phenolic and aromatic carbon as recalcitrant pool were high (33-40% of total SOC) in both coarse sand and clay fractions than in both fine sand and silt fractions (20-29% of total SOC). However, the ratio of LOC/total SOC showed a weak decreasing trend with decreasing size of the aggregate fractions. Total gene content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Bacterial and archaeal gene abundance was concentrated in both sand and clay fractions but that of fungi in sand fraction, and sharply decreased with the decreasing size of aggregate fraction. Gene abundance

  16. Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons: A new quantum mechanical theory

    Mohammad, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation aims to describe a quantum mechanical theory of cancer, which, on the basis of certain electronic indices calculated for the parent compound, would give prediction of its P-450 mediated metabolic activation and would provide better representation of its relative carcinogenic potency when activated to its PUM. The author's theory is based on the assumption that electronic charge distribution of activated species resembles at least qualitatively the charge distribution of the parent compound, and a careful analysis of electronic characteristics of the parent compound would suffice to give reasonable estimation of the carcinogenic activities of the metabolic products. The details of the theoretical method is given and the results for some alternant and non-alternant PAHs are presented

  17. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays.

  18. Soft X-ray variability and the covering fraction of active galactic nuclei

    Wachter, K.W.; Strauss, M.A.; Filippenko, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    A model to explain the observed soft X-ray variability to some low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxies is developed. The variability is due to changes in the covering fraction of the central source as broad-line clouds move across our line of sight. A formalism is developed which is used to demonstrate how analysis of a soft X-ray light curve can provide three important quantities: the radius of the X-ray emitting region, the radius of a typical broad-line cloud, and the electron density in the cloud. It is shown that the results are rather insensitive to the assumed radial dependence of the surface brightness of the source, but are quite sensitive to a large dispersion in cloud sizes. 55 references

  19. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  20. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of 14 C-amino acid mixture, [ 14 C]leucine, [ 14 C]uridine, and carrier-free 32 P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli

  1. A high-throughput method for quantifying metabolically active yeast cells

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Rosenkjær, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    By redesigning the established methylene blue reduction test for bacteria and yeast, we present a cheap and efficient methodology for quantitative physiology of eukaryotic cells applicable for high-throughput systems. Validation of themethod in fermenters and highthroughput systems proved....... The drop in metabolic activity associated with the diauxic shift in yeast proved more pronounced for the MBRT-derived curve compared with OD curves, consistent with a dramatic shift in the ratio between live and dead cells at this metabolic event. This method provides a tool with numerous applications, e.......g. characterizing the death phase of stationary phase cultures, or in drug screens with pathogenic yeasts....

  2. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Saravanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD. Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg−1 body weight, T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05. Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  4. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  5. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies in plants often require enzyme extraction from tissues containing high concentrations of phenols and polyphenols. Unless removed or neutralized, such compounds may hinder extraction, inactivate enzymes, and interfere with enzyme detection. The following protocol for activity...... assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf...

  6. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants.

  7. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remain