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Sample records for metabolic traits studies

  1. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

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    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

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    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  3. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

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    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pmetabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  4. Causal relationship between adiponectin and metabolic traits: a Mendelian randomization study in a multiethnic population.

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    Andrew Mente

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear.We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada.Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes.Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002. The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively. The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P = 0.10. The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001. There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001, but not with adiponectin level (P = 0.67.The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Traits Reveals Novel Gene-Metabolite-Disease Links

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    Nicholls, Andrew W.; Salek, Reza M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Montoliu, Ivan; Da Silva, Laeticia; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Steinbeck, Christoph; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Le Coutre, Johannes; Mooser, Vincent; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on 1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10−8) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10−44) and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10−33), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers. PMID:24586186

  6. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Kang, Hyun Min; Ding, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands...... dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping...

  7. Association of adiponectin promoter variants with traits and clusters of metabolic syndrome in Arabs: family-based study.

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    Zadjali, F; Al-Yahyaee, S; Hassan, M O; Albarwani, S; Bayoumi, R A

    2013-09-25

    Plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in type 2 diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Our aim was to use a family-based analysis to identify the genetic variants of the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene that are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, among Arabs. We screened 328 Arabs in one large extended family for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the ADIPOQ gene. Two common SNPs were detected: rs17300539 and rs266729. Evidences of association between traits related to the metabolic syndrome and the SNPs were studied by implementing quantitative genetic association analysis. Results showed that SNP rs266729 was significantly associated with body weight (p-value=0.001), waist circumference (p-value=0.037), BMI (p-value=0.015) and percentage of total body fat (p-value=0.003). Up to 4.1% of heritability of obesity traits was explained by the rs266729 locus. Further cross-sectional analysis showed that carriers of the G allele had significantly higher values of waist circumference, BMI and percentage of total body fat (p-values 0.014, 0.004 and 0.032, respectively). No association was detected between SNP rs266729 and other clusters of metabolic syndrome or their traits except for HOMA-IR and fasting plasma insulin levels, p-values 0.035 and 0.004, respectively. In contrast, both measured genotype and cross-sectional analysis failed to detect an association between the SNP rs17300539 with traits and clusters of metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, we showed family-based evidence of association of SNP rs266729 at ADIPOQ gene with traits defining obesity in Arab population. This is important for future prediction and prevention of obesity in population where obesity is in an increasing trend. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Voight

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands of loci with promising but not yet compelling association evidence. To establish association at additional loci and to characterize the genome-wide significant loci by fine-mapping, we designed the "Metabochip," a custom genotyping array that assays nearly 200,000 SNP markers. Here, we describe the Metabochip and its component SNP sets, evaluate its performance in capturing variation across the allele-frequency spectrum, describe solutions to methodological challenges commonly encountered in its analysis, and evaluate its performance as a platform for genotype imputation. The metabochip achieves dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping and sequencing studies and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of complex human diseases and traits.

  9. Association of rs780094 in GCKR with metabolic traits and incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease: the ARIC Study.

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    Mark Bi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The minor T-allele of rs780094 in the glucokinase regulator gene (GCKR associates with a number of metabolic traits including higher triglyceride levels and improved glycemic regulation in study populations of mostly European ancestry. Using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study, we sought to replicate these findings, examine them in a large population-based sample of African American study participants, and to investigate independent associations with other metabolic traits in order to determine if variation in GKCR contributes to their observed clustering. In addition, we examined the association of rs780094 with incident diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke over up mean follow-up times of 8, 15, and 15 years, respectively.Race-stratified analyses were conducted among 10,929 white and 3,960 black participants aged 45-64 at baseline assuming an additive genetic model and using linear and logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models.Previous findings replicated among white participants in multivariable adjusted models: the T-allele of rs780094 was associated with lower fasting glucose (p = 10(-7 and insulin levels (p = 10(-6, lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p = 10(-9, less prevalent diabetes (p = 10(-6, and higher CRP (p = 10(-8, 2-h postprandial glucose (OGTT, p = 10(-6, and triglyceride levels (p = 10(-31. Moreover, the T-allele was independently associated with higher HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.022, metabolic syndrome prevalence (p = 0.043, and lower beta-cell function measured as HOMA-B (p = 0.011. Among black participants, the T-allele was associated only with higher triglyceride levels (p = 0.004 and lower insulin levels (p = 0.002 and HOMA-IR (p = 0.013. Prospectively, the T-allele was associated with reduced incidence of diabetes (p = 10(-4 among white participants, but not with incidence of CHD or stroke.Our findings indicate rs780094 has independent associations with multiple

  10. Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways

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    McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits. PMID:9482823

  11. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

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    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Giltay, Erik J; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-01-10

    Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether personality and childhood trauma are correlates of metabolic risk factors. Among 2755 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we investigated through linear regression models whether Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness) and childhood trauma type (i.e., emotional neglect, and psychological, physical and sexual abuse) were correlates of metabolic risk factors (i.e., lipids, waist circumference (WC), glucose and blood pressure). Basic covariates (i.e., age, sex and income level), lifestyle, severity of depressive symptoms and years of education were taken into account. Openness was the most robust favorable correlate, and sexual abuse was the most robust unfavorable correlate of lipids and WC, and of overall metabolic risk (β=-.070; pchildhood sexual abuse are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

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    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  13. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  14. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  15. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

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    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase.

  16. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

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    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  17. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increas...

  18. Baseline Levels, and Changes Over Time in Body Mass Index and Fasting Insulin, and Their Relationship to Change in Metabolic Trait Clustering

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    Sullivan, Lisa M.; Fox, Caroline S.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Nathan, David M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Meigs, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Multiple abnormal metabolic traits are found together or “cluster” within individuals more often than is predicted by chance. The individual and combined role of adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) on metabolic trait clustering is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that change in trait clustering is a function of both baseline level and change in these measures. Methods: In 2616 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring Study participants, body mass index (BMI) and fasting insulin were related to a within-person 7-year change in a trait score of 0–4 Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome traits (hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia). Results: At baseline assessment, mean trait score was 1.4 traits, and 7-year mean (SEM) change in trait score was +0.25 (0.02) traits, Pfasting insulin were similarly related to trait score change. In models adjusted for age–sex–baseline cluster score, 7-year change in trait score was significantly related to both a 1-quintile difference in baseline BMI (0.07 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits), and to both a 1-quintile 7-year increase in BMI (0.21 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits). Conclusions: Change in metabolic trait clustering was significantly associated with baseline levels and changes in both BMI and fasting insulin, highlighting the importance of both obesity and IR in the clustering of metabolic traits. PMID:25007010

  19. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  20. Studies of a genetic variant in HK1 in relation to quantitative metabolic traits and to the prevalence of type 2 diabetes

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    Bonnefond Amélie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the gene encoding Hexokinase 1 (HK1 are associated with changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels. Our aim was to investigate the effect of HK1 rs7072268 on measures of glucose- and lipid-metabolism in a Danish non-diabetic population and combine the outcome of these analyses in a meta-analysis with previously published results. Furthermore, our aim was to perform a type 2 diabetes case-control analysis and meta-analysis with two previous case-control studies. Methods SNP rs7072268 was genotyped in 9,724 Danes. The quantitative trait study included 5,604 non-diabetic individuals from the Inter99 cohort. The case-control study included 4,449 glucose tolerant individuals and 3,398 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meta-analyses on quantitative traits included 24,560 Caucasian individuals and 30,802 individuals were included in the combined analysis of present and previous type 2 diabetes case-control studies. Results Using an additive model, we confirmed that the T-allele of rs7072268 associates with increased HbA1c of 0.6% (CI: 0.4 - 0.9, p = 3*10-7 per allele. The same allele associated with an increased area under the curve (AUC for glucose of 5.0 mmol/l*min (0.1 - 10.0, p = 0.045 following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and increased fasting levels of cholesterol of 0.06 mmol/l (0.03 - 1.0, p = 0.001 and triglycerides of 2.0% (0.2 - 3.8, p = 0.03 per allele in the same study sample of non-diabetic individuals from the Inter99 cohort. However, the T-allele did not show any association with estimates of insulin release or insulin sensitivity neither in Inter99 nor in combined analyses. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was increased among carriers of the rs7072268 T-allele both in the Danish study-population with an OR of 1.11 (1.02-1.21 and in a meta-analysis including the two additional sample sets with an OR of 1.06 (1.02-1.11. However, after Bonferroni correction the T

  1. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European...

  2. Multiple-trait estimates of genetic parameters for metabolic disease traits, fertility disorders, and their predictors in Canadian Holsteins.

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    Jamrozik, J; Koeck, A; Kistemaker, G J; Miglior, F

    2016-03-01

    Producer-recorded health data for metabolic disease traits and fertility disorders on 35,575 Canadian Holstein cows were jointly analyzed with selected indicator traits. Metabolic diseases included clinical ketosis (KET) and displaced abomasum (DA); fertility disorders were metritis (MET) and retained placenta (RP); and disease indicators were fat-to-protein ratio, milk β-hydroxybutyrate, and body condition score (BCS) in the first lactation. Traits in first and later (up to fifth) lactations were treated as correlated in the multiple-trait (13 traits in total) animal linear model. Bayesian methods with Gibbs sampling were implemented for the analysis. Estimates of heritability for disease incidence were low, up to 0.06 for DA in first lactation. Among disease traits, the environmental herd-year variance constituted 4% of the total variance for KET and less for other traits. First- and later-lactation disease traits were genetically correlated (from 0.66 to 0.72) across all traits, indicating different genetic backgrounds for first and later lactations. Genetic correlations between KET and DA were relatively strong and positive (up to 0.79) in both first- and later-lactation cows. Genetic correlations between fertility disorders were slightly lower. Metritis was strongly genetically correlated with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation only. All other genetic correlations between metabolic and fertility diseases were statistically nonsignificant. First-lactation KET and MET were strongly positively correlated with later-lactation performance for these traits due to the environmental herd-year effect. Indicator traits were moderately genetically correlated (from 0.30 to 0.63 in absolute values) with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation. Smaller and mostly nonsignificant genetic correlations were among indicators and metabolic diseases in later lactations. The only significant genetic correlations between indicators and fertility

  3. Association of the beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg polymorphism with common metabolic traits: studies of 7605 middle-aged white people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A. P.; Andersen, G; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2008-01-01

    , the Arg-allele was associated with a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes (OR1.15 (CI: 1.01-1.31); p=0.04), increased insulin resistance estimated by homeostasis model assessment (p=0.01), higher fasting serum insulin levels (p=0.01), and higher levels of plasma glucose 2-h after glucose ingestion...... does not confer an increased risk of obesity among Danes. Yet, in the present study of 7605 Danes the variant is associated with type 2 diabetes and quantitative traits related to type 2 diabetes....

  4. Exercise Effects for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Metabolic Health, Autistic Traits, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Chrystiane V A; Carvalho, Humberto M; Ferreira, José P

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the effects of a 48-week exercise-based intervention on the metabolic profile, autism traits, and perceived quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We randomly allocated 64 children with ASD (aged 6-12 years) to experimental ( n = 46) and control groups ( n = 18) and used multilevel regression modeling to examine responses to receiving or not receiving the intervention. The experimental group showed beneficial effects on metabolic indicators (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), autism traits, and parent-perceived quality of life. Our results provide support for exercise and physical activity, including basic coordination and strength exercises, as important therapeutic interventions for children with ASD.

  5. Relation of myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its component traits in Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Eman T; Saleh, Samy M; Ghattas, Maivel H; Mesbah, Noha M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M

    2015-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a heme protein secreted by activated macrophages and generates intermediates that oxidize lipoproteins. Myeloperoxidase-463G/A is a functional polymorphism involved in regulation of myeloperoxidase expression. The aim of this study is to assess the relation of myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its component traits in Egyptian women from the Suez Canal area. The study includes 100 healthy female subjects and 100 metabolic syndrome patients. The component traits of metabolic syndrome are determined and the genotypes of the polymorphisms assessed using the PCR-RFLP technique. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies between the metabolic syndrome and control groups. However, the GA and AA genotypes were associated with lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients. Myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism is not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Genetic markers of inflammation may not contribute to metabolic traits in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Vashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. However, little is known about a possible causal role of inflammation in metabolic disorders. Mexico is among the countries with the highest obesity rates in the world and the admixed Mexican population is a relevant sample due to high levels of genetic diversity. Methods: Here, we studied 1,462 Mexican children recruited from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in five inflammation-related genes were genotyped: rs1137101 (leptin receptor (LEPR, rs7305618 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A, rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, rs1800896, rs1800871 (interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1862513 (resistin (RETN. Ten continuous and eight binary traits were assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were used adjusting for age, sex, and recruitment centre. Results: We found that one SNP displayed a nominal evidence of association with a continuous trait: rs1800871 (IL-10 with LDL (beta = −0.068 ± 1.006, P = 0.01. Subsequently, we found one nominal association with a binary trait: rs7305618 (HNF1A with family history of hypertension (odds-ratio = 1.389 [1.054–1.829], P = 0.02. However, no P-value passed the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Discussion: Our data in a Mexican children population are consistent with previous reports in European adults in failing to demonstrate an association between inflammation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and metabolic traits.

  7. Basal metabolic rate can evolve independently of morphological and behavioural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, K J; Martin, K; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of basal metabolic rate (BMR) can inform us about the evolvability of the trait by providing estimates of heritability, and also of genetic correlations with other traits that may constrain the ability of BMR to respond to selection. Here, we studied a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in which selection lines for male courtship rate have been established. We measure BMR in these lines to see whether selection on male sexual activity would change BMR as a potentially correlated trait. We find that the genetic correlation between courtship rate and BMR is practically zero, indicating that the two traits can evolve independently of each other. Interestingly, we find that the heritability of BMR in our population (h(2)=0.45) is markedly higher than was previously reported for a captive zebra finch population from Norway. A comparison of the two studies shows that additive genetic variance in BMR has been largely depleted in the Norwegian population, especially the genetic variance in BMR that is independent of body mass. In our population, the slope of BMR increase with body mass differs not only between the sexes but also between the six selection lines, which we tentatively attribute to genetic drift and/or founder effects being strong in small populations. Our study therefore highlights two things. First, the evolvability of BMR may be less constrained by genetic correlations and lack of independent genetic variation than previously described. Second, genetic drift in small populations can rapidly lead to different evolvabilities across populations.

  8. Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Effect of genetic variants and traits related to glucose metabolism and their interaction with obesity on breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Yon; Sobel, Eric M; Papp, Jeanette C; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2017-04-26

    Impaired glucose metabolism-related genetic variants and traits likely interact with obesity and related lifestyle factors, influencing postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer (CRC), but their interconnected pathways are not fully understood. By stratifying via obesity and lifestyles, we partitioned the total effect of glucose metabolism genetic variants on cancer risk into two putative mechanisms: 1) indirect (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants mediated by glucose metabolism traits) and 2) direct (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants through pathways other than glucose metabolism traits) effects. Using 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose metabolism and data from 5379 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Harmonized and Imputed Genome-Wide Association Studies, we retrospectively assessed the indirect and direct effects of glucose metabolism-traits (fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) using two quantitative tests. Several SNPs were associated with breast cancer and CRC risk, and these SNP-cancer associations differed between non-obese and obese women. In both strata, the direct effect of cancer risk associated with the SNP accounted for the majority of the total effect for most SNPs, with roughly 10% of cancer risk due to the SNP that was from an indirect effect mediated by glucose metabolism traits. No apparent differences in the indirect (glucose metabolism-mediated) effects were seen between non-obese and obese women. It is notable that among obese women, 50% of cancer risk was mediated via glucose metabolism trait, owing to two SNPs: in breast cancer, in relation to GCKR through glucose, and in CRC, in relation to DGKB/TMEM195 through HOMA-IR. Our findings suggest that glucose metabolism genetic variants interact with obesity, resulting in altered cancer risk through pathways other than those mediated by glucose metabolism traits.

  10. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401

  11. Ca-48 metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    Calcium metabolism has been studied in depth physiologically and is a relatively well-understood element in biochemistry and medicine. There is still only restricted knowledge of the metabolic fate of calcium in normal and abnormal paediatric subjects. The latter is partially owing to inadequate techniques for tracing and modelling calcium pathways in children. The advent of radioactive tracers has unquestionably enhanced medical research and improved the quality of many metabolic studies. The present study was aimed at the development, promotion and justification of a new tracer technique using the stable isotope, calcium-48. The obvious advantages of such a technique are its harmlessness tothe subject, its applicability to both short- and long-term studies as well as its usefulness to the study for which it was originally motivated, viz research defining the actual relationship between a calcium-deficient diet and the occurrence of rickets in rural Black children in South Africa. Exploratory instrumental analyses were performed specifically with serum samples. This proved successful enough to develop a less specific pre-concentration technique which improved the sensitivity and reduces the cost of doing calcium-48 metabolism studies. The results of a simple metabolic study are presented whereby the scope of the technique is demonstrated in a real situation. The possibilities and limitations of double-isotope metabolic studies are discussed, particularly with regard to strontium as the second tracer

  12. Nutritional habits, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition in cardiovascular and metabolic traits in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sefayet; Erge, Sema; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Polimanti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic traits (CMT) are influenced by complex interactive processes including diet, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition. The present study investigated the interactions of these risk factors in relation to CMTs in the Turkish population. We applied bootstrap agglomerative hierarchical clustering and Bayesian network learning algorithms to identify the causative relationships among genes involved in different biological mechanisms (i.e., lipid metabolism, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging, and energy metabolism), lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, smoking behavior, and metropolitan residency), anthropometric traits (i.e., body mass index, body fat ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio), and dietary habits (i.e., daily intakes of macro- and micronutrients) in relation to CMTs (i.e., health conditions and blood parameters). We identified significant correlations between dietary habits (soybean and vitamin B12 intakes) and different cardiometabolic diseases that were confirmed by the Bayesian network-learning algorithm. Genetic factors contributed to these disease risks also through the pleiotropy of some genetic variants (i.e., F5 rs6025 and MTR rs180508). However, we also observed that certain genetic associations are indirect since they are due to the causative relationships among the CMTs (e.g., APOC3 rs5128 is associated with low-density lipoproteins cholesterol and, by extension, total cholesterol). Our study applied a novel approach to integrate various sources of information and dissect the complex interactive processes related to CMTs. Our data indicated that complex causative networks are present: causative relationships exist among CMTs and are affected by genetic factors (with pleiotropic and non-pleiotropic effects) and dietary habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  14. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  15. Large-scale studies of the Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene in relation to the metabolic syndrome and associated quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bing, C; Ambye, L; Fenger, M

    2005-01-01

    Recently, low-frequency polymorphisms in the coding region of the ghrelin gene were suggested to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and to modulate glucose-induced insulin secretion in different ethnic study groups. The objective of the present large study was to investigate whether the Leu7...

  16. Studies of association of the CASQ1 rs2275703 polymorphism in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative metabolic traits among 7,088 Danish whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Thomas; Hussain, Meena Shaheen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) is a calcium storage protein of fast-twitch skeletal muscle cells. In previous human association studies the results have been contradictory regarding the association between a CASQ1 rs2275703 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes. In the present study of the CASQ1 rs2275703 po...

  17. Physical activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua...... suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples.......) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results: Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg21 day21 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min21 kg21. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic...

  18. Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M G; Mucha, S G; Parrot, D; Meiffren, G; Bachega, J F R; Comte, G; Zaha, A; Sagot, M F

    2018-04-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species. Another important feature was a pathway for the metabolism of myo-inositol in M. hyopneumoniae. Here, we tested these traits to understand their relation to the different levels of pathogenicity, comparing not only the species but also pathogenic and attenuated strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Regarding the myo-inositol metabolism, we show that only M. hyopneumoniae assimilated this carbohydrate and remained viable when myo-inositol was the primary energy source. Strikingly, only the two pathogenic strains of M. hyopneumoniae produced hydrogen peroxide in complex medium. We also show that this production was dependent on the presence of glycerol. Although further functional tests are needed, we present in this work two interesting metabolic traits of M. hyopneumoniae that might be directly related to its enhanced virulence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Associations Between Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome Over Time: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the association between changes in adiposity traits including anthropometric and fat mass indicators and changes in metabolic syndrome traits including metabolic syndrome clustering and individual components over time. We also assessed the shared genetic and environmental correlations between the two traits. Participants were 284 South Korean twin individuals and 279 nontwin family members had complete data for changes in adiposity traits and metabolic syndrome traits of the Healthy Twin study. Mixed linear model and bivariate variance-component analysis were applied. Over a period of 3.1 ± 0.6 years of study, changes in adiposity traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass, and fat mass to lean mass ratio] had significant associations with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering [high blood pressure, high serum glucose, high triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] after adjusting for intra-familial and sibling correlations, age, sex, baseline metabolic syndrome clustering, and socioeconomic factors and health behaviors at follow-up. Change in BMI associated significantly with changes in individual metabolic syndrome components compared to other adiposity traits. Change in metabolic syndrome component TG was a better predictor of changes in adiposity traits compared to changes in other metabolic components. These associations were explained by significant environmental correlations but not by genetic correlations. Changes in anthropometric and fat mass indicators were positively associated with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering and those associations appeared to be regulated by environmental influences.

  20. Lack of association between PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in a Danish large-scale study: case-control studies and analyses of quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almind Katrine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in multiple ethnicities have reported linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-25. Both PKLR encoding the liver pyruvate kinase and NOS1AP encoding the nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal adaptor protein (CAPON are positioned within this chromosomal region and are thus positional candidates for the observed linkage peak. The C-allele of PKLR rs3020781 and the T-allele of NOS1AP rs7538490 are reported to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes in various European-descent populations comprising a total of 2,198 individuals with a combined odds ratio (OR of 1.33 [1.16–1.54] and 1.53 [1.28–1.81], respectively. Our aim was to validate these findings by investigating the impact of the two variants on type 2 diabetes and related quantitative metabolic phenotypes in a large study sample of Danes. Further, we intended to expand the analyses by examining the effect of the variants in relation to overweight and obesity. Methods PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising a total of 16,801 and 16,913 individuals, respectively. The participants were ascertained from four different study groups; the population-based Inter99 cohort (nPKLR = 5,962, nNOS1AP = 6,008, a type 2 diabetic patient group (nPKLR = 1,873, nNOS1AP = 1,874 from Steno Diabetes Center, a population-based study sample (nPKLR = 599, nNOS1AP = 596 from Steno Diabetes Center and the ADDITION Denmark screening study cohort (nPKLR = 8,367, nNOS1AP = 8,435. Results In case-control studies we evaluated the potential association between rs3020781 and rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes and obesity. No significant associations were observed for type 2 diabetes (rs3020781: pAF = 0.49, OR = 1.02 [0.96–1.10]; rs7538490: pAF = 0.84, OR = 0.99 [0.93–1.06]. Neither did we show association with overweight or obesity. Additionally, the PKLR and the NOS1AP genotypes were demonstrated not

  1. Heritability, parental transmission and environment correlation of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América L; Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the heritability, parental transmission and environmental contributions to the phenotypic variation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits in families of Mexican children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study of 184 tri-generational pedigrees with a total of 1160 individuals (99 families with a type 2 diabetes mellitus proband before age 19). The family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in three generations was obtained by interview. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle information was corroborated in parents and offspring. We obtained correlations for metabolic traits between relative pairs, and variance component methods were used to determine the heritability and environmental components. The heritability of early-onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 0.50 (p1.0e-7). The heritability was greater than 0.5 for hypertension, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, 2-h insulin, and cholesterol (p1). In contrast, we observed a high environmental correlation (>0.50) for blood pressure, HbA1c and HDL-cholesterol after multivariate adjustment (ptype 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, were significantly correlated only through the mother and others, such as hypertriglyceridemia, were significantly correlated only through the father. This study demonstrates that type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits are highly heritable among Mexican children and adolescents. Furthermore, several cardiometabolic factors have strong heritability and/or high environmental contributions that highlight the complex architecture of these alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: A multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Dastani (Zari); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J.R.B. Perry (John); X. Yuan (Xin); R.A. Scott (Robert); P. Hennemann (Peter); I.M. Heid (Iris); J.R. Kizer (Jorge); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A.P. Morris (Andrew); K.S. Small (Kerrin); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); M. Beekman (Marian); S. Coassin (Stefan); K. Lohman (Kurt); L. Qi (Lu); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); J.S. Pankow (James); H.-W. Uh (Hae-Won); Y. Wu (Ying); A. Bidulescu (Aurelian); L.J. Rasmussen-Torvik (Laura); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); M. Ladouceur (Martin); J.L. Grimsby (Jonna); A.K. Manning (Alisa); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); V. Mooser (Vincent); P. Vollenweider (Peter); K. Kapur (Karen); J. Chambers (John); N.J. Wareham (Nick); C. Langenberg (Claudia); R.R. Frants (Rune); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); S.M. Willems (Sara); C. Lamina (Claudia); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.P. Tracy (Russell); J. Brody (Jennifer); I. Chen (Ida); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Kähönen (Mika); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); D.M. Evans (David); B. St Pourcain (Beate); N. Sattar (Naveed); A.R. Wood (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); O.D. Carlson (Olga); J.M. Egan (Josephine); S. Böhringer (Stefan); D. van Heemst (Diana); L. Kedenko (Lyudmyla); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M.-L. Nuotio (Marja-Liisa); B.-M. Loo (Britt-Marie); T.B. Harris (Tamara); M. Garcia (Melissa); A. Kanaya (Alka); M. Haun (Margot); N. Klopp (Norman); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); E. Katsareli (Efi); D.J. Couper (David); B.B. Duncan (Bruce); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); L.S. Adair (Linda); J.B. Borja (Judith); J.G. Wilson (James); S. Musani (Solomon); X. Guo (Xiuqing); T. Johnson (Toby); R.K. Semple (Robert); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); M.A. Allison (Matthew); S. Redline (Susan); S.G. Buxbaum (Sarah); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); C. Ballantyne (Christie); G.V. Dedoussis (George); F.B. Hu (Frank B.); Y. Liu (YongMei); B. Paulweber (Bernhard); T.D. Spector (Timothy); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Jula (Antti); M. Perola (Markus); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); J.C. Florez (Jose); V. Salomaa (Veikko); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G.D. Smith (George Davey); D.S. Siscovick (David); F. Kronenberg (Florian); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D.M. Waterworth (Dawn); J.B. Meigs (James); J. Dupuis (Josée); J.B. Richards (Brent)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCirculating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of

  3. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Z.; Hivert, M.F.; Timpson, N.J.; Perry, J.R.; Yuan, X.; Scott, R.A.; Henneman, P.; Heid, I.M.; Kizer, J.R.; Lyytikäinen, L.P.; Fuchsberger, C.; Tanaka, T.; Morris, A.P.; Small, K.; Isaacs, A.; Beekman, M.; Coassin, S.; Lohman, K.; Qi, L.; Kanoni, S.; Pankow, J.S.; Uh, H.W.; Wu, Y.; Bidulescu, A.; Rasmussen-Torvik, L.J.; Greenwood, C.M.; Ladouceur, M.; Grimsby, J.; Manning, A.K.; Liu, C.T.; Kooner, J.; Mooser, V.E.; Vollenweider, P.; Kapur, K.A.; Chambers, J.; Wareham, N.J.; Langenberg, C.; Frants, R.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Oostra, B.A.; Willems, S.M.; Lamina, C.; Winkler, T.W.; Psaty, B.M.; Tracy, R.P.; Brody, J.; Chen, I.; Viikari, J.; Kähönen, M.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Evans, D.M.; St Pourcain, B.; Sattar, N.; Wood, A.R.; Bandinelli, S.; Carlson, O.D.; Egan, J.M.; Böhringer, S.; van Heemst, D.; Kedenko, L.; Kristiansson, K.; Nuotio, M.L.; Loo, B.M.; Harris, T.; Garcia, M.; Kanaya, A.; Haun, M.; Klopp, N.; Wichmann, H.E.; Deloukas, P.; Katsareli, E.; Couper, D.J.; Duncan, B.B.; Kloppenburg, M.; Adair, L.S.; Borja, J.B.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Wilson, J.G.; Musani, G.; Guo, X.; Johnson, T.; Semple, R.; Teslovich, T.M.; Allison, M.A.; Redline, S.; Buxbaum, S.G.; Mohlke, K.L.; Meulenbelt, I.; Ballantyne, C.M.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Hu, F.B.; Liu, Y.; Paulweber, B.; Spector, T.D.; Slagboom, P.E.; Ferrucci, L.; Jula, A.; Perola, M.; Raitakari, O.; Florez, J.C.; Salomaa, V.; Eriksson, J.G.; Frayling, T.M.; Hicks, A.A.; Lehtimäki, T.; Smith, G.D.; Siscovick, D.S.; Kronenberg, F.; van Duijn, C.M.; Loos, R.J.; Waterworth, D.; Meigs, J.B.; Dupuis, J.; Richards, J.B.; Posthuma, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Vogelzangs, N.; Kathiresan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European

  4. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  5. Common Variants of Homocysteine Metabolism Pathway Genes and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Related Traits in Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, is prevalent among Indians who are at high risk of these metabolic disorders. We evaluated association of common variants of genes involved in homocysteine metabolism or its levels with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits in North Indians. We genotyped 90 variants in initial phase (2.115 subjects and replicated top signals in an independent sample set (2.085 subjects. The variant MTHFR-rs1801133 was the top signal for association with type 2 diabetes (OR=0.78 (95%  CI=0.67–0.92, P=0.003 and was also associated with 2 h postload plasma glucose (P=0.04, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.004, and total cholesterol (P=0.01 in control subjects. These associations were neither replicated nor significant after meta-analysis. Studies involving a larger study population and different ethnic groups are required before ruling out the role of these important candidate genes in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits.

  6. Metabolite analysis of Mycobacterium species under aerobic and hypoxic conditions reveals common metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapal, Margit; Wheeler, Paul R; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    A metabolite profiling approach has been implemented to elucidate metabolic adaptation at set culture conditions in five Mycobacterium species (two fast- and three slow-growing) with the potential to act as model organisms for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Analysis has been performed over designated growth phases and under representative environments (nutrient and oxygen depletion) experienced by Mtb during infection. The procedure was useful in determining a range of metabolites (60-120 compounds) covering nucleotides, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides, fatty acids, glycerols, -esters, -phosphates and isoprenoids. Among these classes of compounds, key biomarker metabolites, which can act as indicators of pathway/process activity, were identified. In numerous cases, common metabolite traits were observed for all five species across the experimental conditions (e.g. uracil indicating DNA repair). Amino acid content, especially glutamic acid, highlighted the different properties between the fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria studied (e.g. nitrogen assimilation). The greatest similarities in metabolite composition between fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were apparent under hypoxic conditions. A comparison to previously reported transcriptomic data revealed a strong correlation between changes in transcription and metabolite content. Collectively, these data validate the changes in the transcription at the metabolite level, suggesting transcription exists as one of the predominant modes of cellular regulation in Mycobacterium. Sectors with restricted correlation between metabolites and transcription (e.g. hypoxic cultivation) warrant further study to elucidate and exploit post-transcriptional modes of regulation. The strong correlation between the laboratory conditions used and data derived from in vivo conditions, indicate that the approach applied is a valuable addition to our understanding of cell regulation in these Mycobacterium species.

  7. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-03-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  8. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Carbonneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  9. Long Non-Coding RNAs Associated with Metabolic Traits in Human White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs belong to a recently discovered class of molecules proposed to regulate various cellular processes. Here, we systematically analyzed their expression in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT and found that a limited set was differentially expressed in obesity and/or the insulin resistant state. Two lncRNAs herein termed adipocyte-specific metabolic related lncRNAs, ASMER-1 and ASMER-2 were enriched in adipocytes and regulated by both obesity and insulin resistance. Knockdown of either ASMER-1 or ASMER-2 by antisense oligonucleotides in in vitro differentiated human adipocytes revealed that both genes regulated adipogenesis, lipid mobilization and adiponectin secretion. The observed effects could be attributed to crosstalk between ASMERs and genes within the master regulatory pathways for adipocyte function including PPARG and INSR. Altogether, our data demonstrate that lncRNAs are modulators of the metabolic and secretory functions in human fat cells and provide an emerging link between WAT and common metabolic conditions. Keywords: White adipose tissue, Adipocytes, Long non-coding RNAs, Metabolic traits, Lipolysis, Adiponectin

  10. Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescún, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Solá, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 α-thalassemia, 20 β-thalassemia, 20 δβ-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor β-thalassemia (r =-0.530, p thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association.

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf metabolic profiles for dissecting complex traits in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Lisec, Jan; Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Sulpice, Ronan; Flis, Anna; Grieder, Christoph; Altmann, Thomas; Stitt, Mark; Willmitzer, Lothar; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2012-06-05

    The diversity of metabolites found in plants is by far greater than in most other organisms. Metabolic profiling techniques, which measure many of these compounds simultaneously, enabled investigating the regulation of metabolic networks and proved to be useful for predicting important agronomic traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of metabolites in crops such as maize. Here, a set of 289 diverse maize inbred lines was genotyped with 56,110 SNPs and assayed for 118 biochemical compounds in the leaves of young plants, as well as for agronomic traits of mature plants in field trials. Metabolite concentrations had on average a repeatability of 0.73 and showed a correlation pattern that largely reflected their functional grouping. Genome-wide association mapping with correction for population structure and cryptic relatedness identified for 26 distinct metabolites strong associations with SNPs, explaining up to 32.0% of the observed genetic variance. On nine chromosomes, we detected 15 distinct SNP-metabolite associations, each of which explained more then 15% of the genetic variance. For lignin precursors, including p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, we found strong associations (P values to ) with a region on chromosome 9 harboring cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in monolignol synthesis and a target for improving the quality of lignocellulosic biomass by genetic engineering approaches. Moreover, lignin precursors correlated significantly with lignin content, plant height, and dry matter yield, suggesting that metabolites represent promising connecting links for narrowing the genotype-phenotype gap of complex agronomic traits.

  12. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  13. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to

  14. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  15. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming...

  16. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

    OpenAIRE

    Dastani, Z.; Hivert, M. F.; Timpson, N.; Perry, J. R.; Yuan, X.; Scott, R. A.; Henneman, P.; Heid, I. M.; Kizer, J. R.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Fuchsberger, C.; Tanaka, T.; Morris, A. P.; Small, K.; Isaacs, A.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a...

  17. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

    OpenAIRE

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas; Perry, John Richard; Yuan, Xin; Scott, Robert; Henneman, Peter; Heid, Iris M; Kizer, Jorge R; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tanaka, Toshiko; Morris, Andrew P; Small, Kerrin; Isaacs, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = \\(4.5×10^{−8}–1.2×10^{−43}\\)). U...

  18. Implications of central obesity-related variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B on quantitative metabolic traits in adult Danes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe S Bille

    Full Text Available Two meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS have suggested that four variants: rs2605100 in lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1, rs10146997 in neuroxin 3 (NRXN3, rs545854 in methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA, and rs987237 in transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B associate with measures of central obesity. To elucidate potential underlying phenotypes we aimed to investigate whether these variants associated with: 1 quantitative metabolic traits, 2 anthropometric measures (waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, and BMI, or 3 type 2 diabetes, and central and general overweight and obesity.The four variants were genotyped in Danish individuals using KASPar®. Quantitative metabolic traits were examined in a population-based sample (n = 6,038 and WC and BMI were furthermore analyzed in a combined study sample (n = 13,507. Case-control studies of diabetes and adiposity included 15,326 individuals. The major G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs2605100 associated with increased fasting serum triglyceride concentrations (per allele effect (β = 3%(1;5(95%CI, p(additive = 2.7×10(-3, an association driven by the male gender (p(interaction = 0.02. The same allele associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentrations (β = 3%(1;5, p(additive = 2.5×10(-3 and increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 4%(1;6, p(additive = 1.5×10(-3. The minor G-allele of rs10146997 in NRXN3 associated with increased WC among women (β = 0.55cm (0.20;0.89, p(additive = 1.7×10(-3, p(interaction = 1.0×10(-3, but showed no associations with obesity related metabolic traits. The MSRA rs545854 and TFAP2B rs987237 showed nominal associations with central obesity; however, no underlying metabolic phenotypes became obvious, when investigating quantitative metabolic traits. None of the variants influenced the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.We demonstrate that several of the central

  19. Lack of association between PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in a Danish large-scale study: case-control studies and analyses of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla Helene; Mogensen, Mette S.; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    of the variants in relation to overweight and obesity. METHODS: PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising a total of 16,801 and 16,913 individuals, respectively. The participants were ascertained from four different study groups...

  20. Systems biology and genome-wide approaches to unveil the molecular players involved in the pre-germinative metabolism: implications on seed technology traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Anca; Pagano, Andrea; Leonetti, Paola; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma; Araújo, Susana S

    2017-05-01

    The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy. Consequently, seed dormancy, a quantitative trait related to the activation of the pre-germinative metabolism, is probably the most studied seed trait in model species and crops. Single omics, systems biology, QTLs and GWAS mapping approaches have unveiled a list of molecules and regulatory mechanisms acting at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Most of the identified candidate genes encode for regulatory proteins targeting ROS, phytohormone and primary metabolisms, corroborating the data obtained from simple molecular biology approaches. Emerging evidences show that epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the regulation of these mentioned processes, constituting a still unexploited strategy to modulate seed traits. The present review will provide an up-date of the current knowledge on seed pre-germinative metabolism, gathering the most relevant results from physiological, genetics, and omics studies conducted in model and crop plants. The effects exerted by the biotic and abiotic stresses and priming are also addressed. The possible implications derived from the modulation of pre-germinative metabolism will be discussed from the point of view of seed quality and technology.

  1. Trait impulsivity in suicide attempters: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doihara, Chiho; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Ohyama, Nene; Yamada, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Makiko; Iwamoto, Yohko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide. To investigate trait impulsivity among suicide attempters, 93 attempters admitted to an emergency department and 113 healthy controls were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11J). Impulsivity was analyzed in relation to clinical data in the attempters. Total BIS-11J, attention impulsiveness, and motor impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in the attempters than in the controls. Both total BIS-11J and non-planning impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in attempters with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among the diagnostic groups. Control of impulsivity should be considered as one of the targets for suicide prevention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Genome-enabled Modeling of Microbial Biogeochemistry using a Trait-based Approach. Does Increasing Metabolic Complexity Increase Predictive Capabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.; Karaoz, U.; Molins, S.; Bouskill, N.; Anantharaman, K.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is shaped in part by genomic information stored in the subsurface microbiome. Cultivation-independent approaches allow us to extract this information through reconstruction of thousands of genomes from a microbial community. Analysis of these genomes, in turn, gives an indication of the organisms present and their functional roles. However, metagenomic analyses can currently deliver thousands of different genomes that range in abundance/importance, requiring the identification and assimilation of key physiologies and metabolisms to be represented as traits for successful simulation of subsurface processes. Here we focus on incorporating -omics information into BioCrunch, a genome-informed trait-based model that represents the diversity of microbial functional processes within a reactive transport framework. This approach models the rate of nutrient uptake and the thermodynamics of coupled electron donors and acceptors for a range of microbial metabolisms including heterotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Metabolism of exogenous substrates fuels catabolic and anabolic processes, with the proportion of energy used for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production based upon dynamic intracellular and environmental conditions. This internal resource partitioning represents a trade-off against biomass formation and results in microbial community emergence across a fitness landscape. Biocrunch was used here in simulations that included organisms and metabolic pathways derived from a dataset of ~1200 non-redundant genomes reflecting a microbial community in a floodplain aquifer. Metagenomic data was directly used to parameterize trait values related to growth and to identify trait linkages associated with respiration, fermentation, and key enzymatic functions such as plant polymer degradation. Simulations spanned a range of metabolic complexities and highlight benefits originating from simulations

  3. Genetic engineering of cytokinin metabolism: prospective way to improve agricultural traits of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalabák, David; Pospíšilová, Hana; Šmehilová, Mária; Mrízová, Katarína; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are ubiquitous phytohormones that participate in development, morphogenesis and many physiological processes throughout plant kingdom. In higher plants, mutants and transgenic cells and tissues with altered activity of CK metabolic enzymes or perception machinery, have highlighted their crucial involvement in different agriculturally important traits, such as productivity, increased tolerance to various stresses and overall plant morphology. Furthermore, recent precise metabolomic analyses have elucidated the specific occurrence and distinct functions of different CK types in various plant species. Thus, smooth manipulation of active CK levels in a spatial and temporal way could be a very potent tool for plant biotechnology in the future. This review summarises recent advances in cytokinin research ranging from transgenic alteration of CK biosynthetic, degradation and glucosylation activities and CK perception to detailed elucidation of molecular processes, in which CKs work as a trigger in model plants. The first attempts to improve the quality of crop plants, focused on cereals are discussed, together with proposed mechanism of action of the responses involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of cell wall metabolism in the pulp of three cultivars of 'Nanfeng' tangerine differing in mastication trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Gu, Qing-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Jin-Yin

    2012-02-01

    Like sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) is another citrus crop grown widely throughout the world. However, whether it shares a common mechanism with sweet orange in forming a given mastication trait is still unclear. In this study, three 'Nanfeng' tangerine cultivars, 'Yangxiao-26' ('YX-26') with inferior mastication trait, elite 'YX-26' with moderate mastication trait and 'Miguang' ('MG') with superior mastication trait, were selected to investigate the formation mechanism of mastication trait. 'MG' had the lowest contents of total pectin, protopectin and lignin and the highest gene expression levels of citrus polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME) at the end of fruit ripening, whereas 'YX-26' had the lowest water-soluble pectin (WSP) content, the highest lignin content and the lowest PG and PME expression levels. The contents of cellulose and hemicellulose were similar among the three tangerines. The fruit mastication trait of C. reticulata was determined by the proportions of WSP and protopectin as well as lignin content, not by cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Pectin content could be a major contribution to the feeling of mastication trait, while PG and PME exhibited an important role in forming a given mastication trait according to the present results as well as previous results for C. sinensis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Exploring autistic traits in anorexia: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, Kate; Smith, Emma; Weineck, Felicitas; Fidanboylu, Eliz; Kern, Nikola; Treasure, Janet; Baron Cohen, Simon

    2013-11-12

    The objectives of this study were to explore associations between autistic traits and self-reported clinical symptoms in a population with anorexia nervosa (AN). Experimental and self-report evidence reveals similarities between AN and autism spectrum condition (ASC) populations in socio-emotional and cognitive domains; this includes difficulties with empathy, set-shifting and global processing. Focusing on these similarities may lead to better tailored interventions for both conditions. A cross-sectional independent-groups design was employed. Participants with AN (n = 66) and typical controls (n = 66) completed self-report questionnaires including the Short (10-Item) Version Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ-10) questionnaire (the first time this has been implemented in this population), the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Group differences and the relationship between autistic traits and other questionnaire measures were investigated. The AN group had a significantly higher AQ-10 total score and a greater proportion scored above the clinical cut-off than the control group. Seven out of ten AQ-10 items significantly discriminated between groups. In the AN group, levels of autistic traits correlated with a greater self-reported anxiety and depression and a lower ability to maintain close relationships; however, eating disorder symptoms were not associated with autistic traits. Women with anorexia possess a greater number of autistic traits than typical women. AQ-10 items that discriminated between groups related to 'bigger picture' (global) thinking, inflexibility of thinking and problems with social interactions, suggesting that autistic traits may exacerbate factors that maintain the eating disorder rather than cause the eating disorder directly. Using screening instruments may improve understanding of patients' problems, leading to better tailoring of intervention. We

  6. [Creativity and Character Traits of University Students: Transversal Association Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Hernando; Sánchez, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out to assess the relationship between character traits and creativity in a sample of students from a public university in Bogotá. A random sample of 157 students from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. The two instruments used for measuring character traits and creativity were the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) and the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA). Additional information about gender, psychopathological antecedents, current academic period and academic average have been recorded. Robust regression methods have been used to analyze the relationship between creativity and character traits. Creativity and narcissistic traits were associated. In a multivariate model, other variables showing a relationship with creativity were found, i.e., male gender, mental illness family antecedents, number of academic periods completed, and a high academic average. Relationship between creativity and narcissistic traits had not been reported in previous. Longitudinal studies using more accurate scales should be undertaken to determine the validity of these findings. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Adiponectin Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Syndrome: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the association of plasma adiponectin levels with longitudinal changes in metabolic syndrome and the metabolic syndrome-related traits [insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as their genetic and environmental correlations. A total of 1030 Koreans (380 men and 650 women; 44.0 ± 12.7 years old) without diabetes of the Healthy Twin Study visited at baseline (2005-2010) and returned for a follow-up examination 3.7 ± 1.2 years later. Baseline plasma adiponectin, metabolic syndrome components [waist circumference (WC), glucose, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs)] and metabolic syndrome-related traits were measured at baseline and follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, caloric intake, education level, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, and changes in BMI, 1 standard deviation increment in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with 38-63% lower odds of incident and persistent metabolic syndrome. After additionally adjusting for the baseline levels of each trait, baseline adiponectin levels were inversely associated with WC, blood pressure, insulin, HOMA-IR, and TGs values at follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline values of each trait or sum of metabolic syndrome components, baseline adiponectin levels exhibited significantly inverse genetic and environmental correlations with insulin, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C values and the sum of metabolic syndrome components at follow-up. High adiponectin levels reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and having persistent metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome-related traits over time. These associations may be explained by pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  8. Effect of dietary energy and polymorphisms in BRAP and GHRL on obesity and metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Ando, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Kato, Sawako; Kondo, Takaaki; Iwata, Masamitsu; Nakashima, Toru; Yasui, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Hideki; Okajima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Maruyama, Shoichi

    Obesity, a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, is a major health concerns among middle-aged men. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of dietary habits and obesity related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity and metabolic abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using annual health examination data of 5112 male workers, obtained between 2007 and 2011. Average dietary energy was estimated using electronically collected meal purchase data from cafeteria. We examined 8 SNPs related to obesity: GHRL rs696217, PPARG rs1175544, ADIPOQ rs2241766, ADIPOQ rs1501299, PPARD rs2016520, APOA5 rs662799, BRAP rs3782886, and ITGB2 rs235326. We also examined whether SNPs that were shown to associate with obesity affect other metabolic abnormalities such as blood pressure (BP), glucose, and lipid profile. Average dietary energy significantly associated with increased abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI). The odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity also increased. The major allele of rs696217 significantly increased BMI and an increased OR with obesity, while the minor allele of rs3782886 was associated with significantly decreased AC and the decreased ORs with overweight and obesity. The minor allele of rs3782886 was also associated with significantly decreased systolic BP (SBP), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS), while rs696217 was not associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Average dietary energy in lunch, rs3782886, and rs696217 were associated with obesity, and rs3782886 was associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  10. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  11. Variation in CAPN10 in relation to type 2 diabetes, obesity and quantitative metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorit P; Urhammer, Søren A; Eiberg, Hans

    2006-01-01

    = 4659 normoglycemic and glucose-tolerant control subjects), however, no significant associations of the SNP43 or the SNP44 variant with T2D were found. Neither were the two variants associated with obesity, and no association of either variant with diabetes-related quantitative traits was found......The first type 2 diabetes (T2D) gene to be identified in a genome wide scan followed by positional cloning was CAPN10 encoding the cysteine protease calpain-10. Subsequently, a large number of studies have investigated variation in CAPN10 in relation to T2D. Two CAPN10 single nucleotide...... in a study involving a population-based sample of 5698 middle-aged subjects. Meta-analyses, however, of the present and previously published studies involving 15,368 (SNP43) or 13,628 (SNP44) subjects yielded odds ratios of 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16, p = 0.007) and 1.15 (1.07-1.23, p = 0.0002), respectively...

  12. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mwirichia, Romano

    2016-01-13

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  13. Cellular Metabolic Rate Is Influenced by Life-History Traits in Tropical and Temperate Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cel...

  14. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Volkov

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI, lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dysmetabolic traits associated with the development of

  15. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  16. Correlated Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Behavioral and Metabolic Traits of a Large Pelagic Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn D. Laubenstein

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are co-occurring stressors, yet their effects on early life stages of large pelagic fishes are not well known. Here, we determined the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature at levels projected for the end of the century on activity levels, boldness, and metabolic traits (i.e., oxygen uptake rates in larval kingfish (Seriola lalandi, a large pelagic fish with a circumglobal distribution. We also examined correlations between these behavioral and physiological traits measured under different treatments. Kingfish were reared from the egg stage to 25 days post-hatch in a full factorial design of ambient and elevated CO2 (~500 µatm and ~1000 µatm and temperature (21 °C and 25 °C. Activity levels were higher in fish from the elevated temperature treatment compared with fish reared under ambient temperature. However, elevated CO2 did not affect activity, and boldness was not affected by either elevated CO2 or temperature. Both elevated CO2 and temperature resulted in increased resting oxygen uptake rates compared to fish reared under ambient conditions, but neither affected maximum oxygen uptake rates nor aerobic scope. Resting oxygen uptake rates and boldness were negatively correlated under ambient temperature, but positively correlated under elevated temperature. Maximum oxygen uptake rates and boldness were also negatively correlated under ambient temperature. These findings suggest that elevated temperature has a greater impact on behavioral and physiological traits of larval kingfish than elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 exposure did increase resting oxygen uptake rates and interact with temperature in complex ways. Our results provide novel behavioral and physiological data on the responses of the larval stage of a large pelagic fish to ocean acidification and warming conditions, demonstrate correlations between these traits, and suggest that these correlations could influence the direction and pace of

  17. Systems genetics of metabolism: the use of the BXD murine reference panel for multiscalar integration of traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreux, Pénélope A.; Williams, Evan G.; Koutnikova, Hana; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Champy, Marie-France; Henry, Hugues; Schoonjans, Kristina; Williams, Robert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is achieved by complex molecular and cellular networks that differ significantly among individuals and are difficult to model with genetically engineered lines of mice optimized to study single gene function. Here, we systematically acquired metabolic phenotypes by using the

  18. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  19. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Jimenez

    Full Text Available In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR, proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR], using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  20. Cellular Metabolic Rate Is Influenced by Life-History Traits in Tropical and Temperate Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a “slow pace of life,” lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal’s life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species. PMID:24498080

  1. Implications of central obesity-related variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B on quantitative metabolic traits in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Dorthe S; Banasik, Karina; Justesen, Johanne M

    2011-01-01

    Background Two meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that four variants: rs2605100 in lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1), rs10146997 in neuroxin 3 (NRXN3), rs545854 in methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), and rs987237 in transcription factor activating enhancer...... diabetes, and central and general overweight and obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings The four variants were genotyped in Danish individuals using KASPar®. Quantitative metabolic traits were examined in a population-based sample (n = 6,038) and WC and BMI were furthermore analyzed in a combined study...... sample (n = 13,507). Case-control studies of diabetes and adiposity included 15,326 individuals. The major G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs2605100 associated with increased fasting serum triglyceride concentrations (per allele effect (ß) = 3%(1;5(95%CI)), padditive = 2.7×10-3), an association driven by the male...

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus availabilities interact to modulate leaf trait scaling relationships across six plant functional types in a controlled-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Kristine Y; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Bloomfield, Keith J; Negrini, A Clarissa A; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Griffin, Kevin L; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have key roles in leaf metabolism, resulting in a strong coupling of chemical composition traits to metabolic rates in field-based studies. However, in such studies, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of nutrient supply per se on trait-trait relationships. Our study assessed how high and low N (5 mM and 0.4 mM, respectively) and P (1 mM and 2 μM, respectively) supply in 37 species from six plant functional types (PTFs) affected photosynthesis (A) and respiration (R) (in darkness and light) in a controlled environment. Low P supply increased scaling exponents (slopes) of area-based log-log A-N or R-N relationships when N supply was not limiting, whereas there was no P effect under low N supply. By contrast, scaling exponents of A-P and R-P relationships were altered by P and N supply. Neither R : A nor light inhibition of leaf R was affected by nutrient supply. Light inhibition was 26% across nutrient treatments; herbaceous species exhibited a lower degree of light inhibition than woody species. Because N and P supply modulates leaf trait-trait relationships, the next generation of terrestrial biosphere models may need to consider how limitations in N and P availability affect trait-trait relationships when predicting carbon exchange. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Genetic architecture of plasma adiponectin overlaps with the genetics of metabolic syndrome-related traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Henneman (Peter); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); R.R. Frants (Rune); I.V. Zorkoltseva (Irina); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M. Frölich (Marijke); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, is of particular interest in metabolic syndrome, because it is inversely correlated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. However, it is not known to what extent the genetics of plasma adiponectin and the genetics of obesity

  4. Altitudinal patterns of diversity and functional traits of metabolically active microorganisms in stream biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Linda; Besemer, Katharina; Fragner, Lena; Peter, Hannes; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Battin, Tom J

    2015-01-01

    Resources structure ecological communities and potentially link biodiversity to energy flow. It is commonly believed that functional traits (generalists versus specialists) involved in the exploitation of resources depend on resource availability and environmental fluctuations. The longitudinal nature of stream ecosystems provides changing resources to stream biota with yet unknown effects on microbial functional traits and community structure. We investigated the impact of autochthonous (algal extract) and allochthonous (spruce extract) resources, as they change along alpine streams from above to below the treeline, on microbial diversity, community composition and functions of benthic biofilms. Combining bromodeoxyuridine labelling and 454 pyrosequencing, we showed that diversity was lower upstream than downstream of the treeline and that community composition changed along the altitudinal gradient. We also found that, especially for allochthonous resources, specialisation by biofilm bacteria increased along that same gradient. Our results suggest that in streams below the treeline biofilm diversity, specialisation and functioning are associated with increasing niche differentiation as potentially modulated by divers allochthonous and autochthonous constituents contributing to resources. These findings expand our current understanding on biofilm structure and function in alpine streams. PMID:25978543

  5. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  6. Single feature polymorphism (SFP-based selective sweep identification and association mapping of growth-related metabolic traits in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitt Mark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana are characterized by a high level of phenotypic variation that can be used to investigate the extent and mode of selection on the primary metabolic traits. A collection of 54 A. thaliana natural accession-derived lines were subjected to deep genotyping through Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP detection via genomic DNA hybridization to Arabidopsis Tiling 1.0 Arrays for the detection of selective sweeps, and identification of associations between sweep regions and growth-related metabolic traits. Results A total of 1,072,557 high-quality SFPs were detected and indications for 3,943 deletions and 1,007 duplications were obtained. A significantly lower than expected SFP frequency was observed in protein-, rRNA-, and tRNA-coding regions and in non-repetitive intergenic regions, while pseudogenes, transposons, and non-coding RNA genes are enriched with SFPs. Gene families involved in plant defence or in signalling were identified as highly polymorphic, while several other families including transcription factors are depleted of SFPs. 198 significant associations between metabolic genes and 9 metabolic and growth-related phenotypic traits were detected with annotation hinting at the nature of the relationship. Five significant selective sweep regions were also detected of which one associated significantly with a metabolic trait. Conclusions We generated a high density polymorphism map for 54 A. thaliana accessions that highlights the variability of resistance genes across geographic ranges and used it to identify selective sweeps and associations between metabolic genes and metabolic phenotypes. Several associations show a clear biological relationship, while many remain requiring further investigation.

  7. Impact of the Polymorphism Near MC4R (rs17782313 on Obesity- and Metabolic-Related Traits in Women Participating in an Aerobic Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leońska-Duniec Agata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The C/T polymorphism (rs17782313 mapped 188 kb downstream of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R shows a strong relationship with an increased body mass index (BMI and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the information on polymorphism’s potential modifying effect on obesity- and metabolic-related traits achieved through training is still unknown. Therefore, we decided to check if selected body measurements observed in physically active participants would be modulated by the genotype. The genotype distribution was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for chosen traits before and after the completion of a 12 week moderate-intensive aerobic training program. A statistically significant relationship between the glucose level and the genotype was identified (p = 0.046. Participants with CC and CT genotypes had a higher glucose level during the entire study period compared with the TT genotype. However, our results did not confirm the relationship between the C allele and an increased BMI or other obesity-related traits. Additionally, we did not observe a near MC4R C/T polymorphism x physical activity interaction. However, our results revealed that majority of obesity-related variables changed significantly during the 12 week training program. The effect sizes (d of these changes ranged from small to medium (d = 0.11-0.80, whereas the largest effect (d = 0.80; i.e. medium was reported for the fat mass content (FM. We found a relationship between the near MC4R C/T polymorphism and an increased glucose level, and it is thus a candidate to influence type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, after the 12 week training program, participants with the C (risk allele with fasting hyperglycemia had a normal glucose level. Although, this change was not statistically significant, it shows an important trend which needs further investigation.

  8. Sample size calculation in metabolic phenotyping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Elise; Navratil, Vincent; Blaise, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    The number of samples needed to identify significant effects is a key question in biomedical studies, with consequences on experimental designs, costs and potential discoveries. In metabolic phenotyping studies, sample size determination remains a complex step. This is due particularly to the multiple hypothesis-testing framework and the top-down hypothesis-free approach, with no a priori known metabolic target. Until now, there was no standard procedure available to address this purpose. In this review, we discuss sample size estimation procedures for metabolic phenotyping studies. We release an automated implementation of the Data-driven Sample size Determination (DSD) algorithm for MATLAB and GNU Octave. Original research concerning DSD was published elsewhere. DSD allows the determination of an optimized sample size in metabolic phenotyping studies. The procedure uses analytical data only from a small pilot cohort to generate an expanded data set. The statistical recoupling of variables procedure is used to identify metabolic variables, and their intensity distributions are estimated by Kernel smoothing or log-normal density fitting. Statistically significant metabolic variations are evaluated using the Benjamini-Yekutieli correction and processed for data sets of various sizes. Optimal sample size determination is achieved in a context of biomarker discovery (at least one statistically significant variation) or metabolic exploration (a maximum of statistically significant variations). DSD toolbox is encoded in MATLAB R2008A (Mathworks, Natick, MA) for Kernel and log-normal estimates, and in GNU Octave for log-normal estimates (Kernel density estimates are not robust enough in GNU octave). It is available at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/repository, with a tutorial at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/wiki. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Peculiar alexithymic traits in burning mouth syndrome: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Roberto; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Ferro, Giovanni; Carezana, Claudio; Gandolfo, Sergio; Pentenero, Monica

    2015-11-01

    The present case-control study aims to assess the occurrence of alexithymic traits in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) subjects and to correlate alexithymic traits to anxious and depressive traits in BMS subjects. Prospectively enrolled BMS and control subjects were administered the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Anxiety and depressive traits were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Occurrence of alexithymic traits was compared between BMS and control subjects. Correlation tests were used to measure the importance of alexithymic traits related to demographic characteristics, pain intensity (VAS score), and to the other psychometric scores. Fifty-eight BMS subjects (46 females and 12 males) had a mean TAS-20 score significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001; r = 0.72), corresponding to an occurrence rate of alexithymic traits of 79.3 versus 6.9%. Alexithymic traits in BMS subjects were just related to depressive traits (p = 0.02; ρ = 0.31). The high occurrence of alexithymia in BMS is an adjunctive issue in favor of its multifactorial pathogenesis, with a not negligible role for somatization. Clinicians should be aware of the high occurrence of alexithymic traits among BMS subjects as such traits may affect the doctor-patient relationship.

  10. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  11. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Gillberg, Linn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, w...... and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys)metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and diabetes.......Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men......, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5...

  12. Genetic Determinants for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Related Metabolic Traits in Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Tapia-Maruri, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; López-Vite, Erika; García-Escalante, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Aguirre, Fernando; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Cordero-Brieño, Roberto; Manzo-Carrillo, Lizette; Zacarías-Castillo, Rogelio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Tusié-Luna, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and physiological similarities among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) suggest that both diseases, share a common genetic background. T2D risk variants have been associated to GDM susceptibility. However, the genetic architecture of GDM is not yet completely understood. We analyzed 176 SNPs for 115 loci previously associated to T2D, GDM and body mass index (BMI), as well as a set of 118 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs), in 750 pregnant Mexican women. Association with GDM was found for two of the most frequently replicated T2D loci: a TCF7L2 haplotype (CTTC: rs7901695, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326; P=2.16x10-06; OR=2.95) and a KCNQ1 haplotype (TTT: rs2237892, rs163184, rs2237897; P=1.98x10-05; OR=0.55). In addition, we found two loci associated to glycemic traits: CENTD2 (60’ OGTT glycemia: rs1552224, P=0.03727) and MTNR1B (HOMA B: rs1387153, P=0.05358). Remarkably, a major susceptibility SLC16A11 locus for T2D in Mexicans was not shown to play a role in GDM risk. The fact that two of the main T2D associated loci also contribute to the risk of developing GDM in Mexicans, confirm that both diseases share a common genetic background. However, lack of association with a Native American contribution T2D risk haplotype, SLC16A11, suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be in play for GDM. PMID:25973943

  13. Genetic determinants for gestational diabetes mellitus and related metabolic traits in Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Huerta-Chagoya

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and physiological similarities among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D suggest that both diseases, share a common genetic background. T2D risk variants have been associated to GDM susceptibility. However, the genetic architecture of GDM is not yet completely understood. We analyzed 176 SNPs for 115 loci previously associated to T2D, GDM and body mass index (BMI, as well as a set of 118 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs, in 750 pregnant Mexican women. Association with GDM was found for two of the most frequently replicated T2D loci: a TCF7L2 haplotype (CTTC: rs7901695, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326; P=2.16 x 10(-06; OR=2.95 and a KCNQ1 haplotype (TTT: rs2237892, rs163184, rs2237897; P=1.98 x 10(-05; OR=0.55. In addition, we found two loci associated to glycemic traits: CENTD2 (60' OGTT glycemia: rs1552224, P=0.03727 and MTNR1B (HOMA B: rs1387153, P=0.05358. Remarkably, a major susceptibility SLC16A11 locus for T2D in Mexicans was not shown to play a role in GDM risk. The fact that two of the main T2D associated loci also contribute to the risk of developing GDM in Mexicans, confirm that both diseases share a common genetic background. However, lack of association with a Native American contribution T2D risk haplotype, SLC16A11, suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be in play for GDM.

  14. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations. (P < 0.01) ... Assam rice; α-amylase; dormancy; cooking quality; association mapping. ...... resource management, association mapping and crop breed- ing.

  15. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas; Perry, John R B; Yuan, Xin; Scott, Robert A; Henneman, Peter; Heid, Iris M; Kizer, Jorge R; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tanaka, Toshiko; Morris, Andrew P; Small, Kerrin; Isaacs, Aaron; Beekman, Marian; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Qi, Lu; Kanoni, Stavroula; Pankow, James S; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Greenwood, Celia M T; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K; Liu, Ching-Ti; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E; Vollenweider, Peter; Kapur, Karen A; Chambers, John; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Frants, Rune; Willems-Vandijk, Ko; Oostra, Ben A; Willems, Sara M; Lamina, Claudia; Winkler, Thomas W; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Pramstaller, Peter P; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andrew R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Böhringer, Stefan; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Deloukas, Panos; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J; Duncan, Bruce B; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Wilson, James G; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Johnson, Toby; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M; Allison, Matthew A; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Mohlke, Karen L; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M; Dedoussis, George V; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Yongmei; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D; Slagboom, P Eline; Ferrucci, Luigi; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C; Salomaa, Veikko; Eriksson, Johan G; Frayling, Timothy M; Hicks, Andrew A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F; Waterworth, Dawn M; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, J Brent; Voight, Benjamin F; Scott, Laura J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Dina, Christian; Welch, Ryan P; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Huth, Cornelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; McCulloch, Laura J; Ferreira, Teresa; Grallert, Harald; Amin, Najaf; Wu, Guanming; Willer, Cristen J; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; McCarroll, Steve A; Hofmann, Oliver M; Segrè, Ayellet V; van Hoek, Mandy; Navarro, Pau; Ardlie, Kristin; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bennett, Amanda J; Blagieva, Roza; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bravenboer, Bert; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burtt, Noël P; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S; Cornelis, Marilyn; Crawford, Gabe; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Amanda L; Erdos, Michael R; Fox, Caroline S; Franklin, Christopher S; Ganser, Martha; Gieger, Christian; Grarup, Niels; Green, Todd; Griffin, Simon; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hadjadj, Samy; Hassanali, Neelam; Herder, Christian; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Paul R V; Jørgensen, Torben; Kao, Wen H L; Kong, Augustine; Kraft, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Man; Lieverse, Aloysius; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Midthjell, Kristian; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Payne, Felicity; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Platou, Carl; Proença, Christine; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Roden, Michael; Sampson, Michael J; Saxena, Richa; Shields, Beverley M; Shrader, Peter; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sparsø, Thomas; Strassburger, Klaus; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Swift, Amy J; Thorand, Barbara; Tichet, Jean; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Dam, Rob M; van Haeften, Timon W; van Herpt, Thijs; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Walters, G Bragi; Weedon, Michael N; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bergman, Richard N; Cauchi, Stephane; Collins, Francis S; Gloyn, Anna L; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Hide, Winston A; Hitman, Graham A; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Laakso, Markku; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Rudan, Igor; Sijbrands, Eric; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Campbell, Harry; Daly, Mark J; Hattersley, Andrew T; Pedersen, Oluf; Barroso, Inês; Groop, Leif; Sladek, Rob; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Wilson, James F; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Soranzo, Nicole; Wheeler, Eleanor; Glazer, Nicole L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua; Elliott, Paul; Rybin, Denis; Dehghan, Abbas; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Song, Kijoung; Goel, Anuj; Lajunen, Taina; Doney, Alex; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Kumari, Meena; Timpson, Nicholas J; Zabena, Carina; Ingelsson, Erik; An, Ping; O'Connell, Jeffrey; Luan, Jian'an; Elliott, Amanda; McCarroll, Steven A; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Pattou, François; Sethupathy, Praveen; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Barter, Philip; Beilby, John P; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan J M; Cooper, Matthew N; Crisponi, Laura; Day, Ian N M; de Geus, Eco J C; Delplanque, Jerome; Fedson, Annette C; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Forouhi, Nita G; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Galan, Pilar; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Grundy, Scott; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hallmans, Göran; Hammond, Naomi; Han, Xijing; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon C; Hercberg, Serge; Hillman, David R; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joe; Kaakinen, Marika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesaniemi, Y Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Knight, Beatrice; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Lathrop, G Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Lecoeur, Cécile; Li, Yun; Mahley, Robert; Mangino, Massimo; Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; McAteer, Jarred B; McPherson, Ruth; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Meyre, David; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Naitza, Silvia; Neville, Matthew J; Orrù, Marco; Pakyz, Ruth; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Pattaro, Cristian; Pearson, Daniel; Peden, John F; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pichler, Irene; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Potter, Simon C; Pouta, Anneli; Province, Michael A; Rayner, Nigel W; Rice, Kenneth; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rolandsson, Olov; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sandhu, Manjinder; Sanna, Serena; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Scheet, Paul; Seedorf, Udo; Sharp, Stephen J; Shields, Beverley; Sigurðsson, Gunnar; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Silveira, Angela; Simpson, Laila; Singleton, Andrew; Smith, Nicholas L; Sovio, Ulla; Swift, Amy; Syddall, Holly; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tönjes, Anke; Uitterlinden, André G; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Varma, Dhiraj; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Waeber, Gérard; Wagner, Peter J; Walley, Andrew; Ward, Kim L; Watkins, Hugh; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jaqueline C M; Yarnell, John W G; Zelenika, Diana; Zethelius, Björn; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zillikens, M Carola; Borecki, Ingrid B; Meneton, Pierre; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nathan, David M; Williams, Gordon H; Silander, Kaisa; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter; Spranger, Joachim; Karpe, Fredrik; Shuldiner, Alan R; Cooper, Cyrus; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Lind, Lars; Palmer, Lyle J; Hu, Frank B; Franks, Paul W; Ebrahim, Shah; Marmot, Michael; Kao, W H Linda; Pramstaller, Peter Paul; Wright, Alan F; Stumvoll, Michael; Hamsten, Anders; Buchanan, Thomas A; Valle, Timo T; Rotter, Jerome I; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cao, Antonio; Scuteri, Angelo; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Mooser, Vincent; Sladek, Robert; Musunuru, Kiran; Smith, Albert V; Edmondson, Andrew C; Stylianou, Ioannis M; Koseki, Masahiro; Pirruccello, James P; Chasman, Daniel I; Johansen, Christopher T; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Peloso, Gina M; Barbalic, Maja; Ricketts, Sally L; Bis, Joshua C; Feitosa, Mary F; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Mingyao; Cho, Yoon Shin; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Taesung; Kim, Kyunga; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Lange, Leslie A; Smith, Joshua D; Ziegler, Andreas; Zhang, Weihua; Zee, Robert Y L; Whitfield, John B; Thompson, John R; Surakka, Ida; Spector, Tim D; Smit, Johannes H; Sinisalo, Juha; Scott, James; Saharinen, Juha; Sabatti, Chiara; Rose, Lynda M; Roberts, Robert; Rieder, Mark; Parker, Alex N; Pare, Guillaume; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Nieminen, Markku S; Nickerson, Deborah A; Montgomery, Grant W; McArdle, Wendy; Masson, David; Martin, Nicholas G; Marroni, Fabio; Lucas, Gavin; Luben, Robert; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lettre, Guillaume; Launer, Lenore J; Lakatta, Edward G; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kyvik, Kirsten O; König, Inke R; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kaplan, Lee M; Johansson, Åsa; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Igl, Wilmar; Hovingh, G Kees; Hengstenberg, Christian; Havulinna, Aki S; Hastie, Nicholas D; Harris, Tamara B; Haritunians, Talin; Hall, Alistair S; Groop, Leif C; Gonzalez, Elena; Freimer, Nelson B; Erdmann, Jeanette; Ejebe, Kenechi G; Döring, Angela; Dominiczak, Anna F; Demissie, Serkalem; Deloukas, Panagiotis; de Faire, Ulf; Crawford, Gabriel; Chen, Yii-der I; Caulfield, Mark J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Assimes, Themistocles L; Quertermous, Thomas; Seielstad, Mark; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E-Shyong; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Taylor, Herman A; Gabriel, Stacey B; Holm, Hilma; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Krauss, Ronald M; Ordovas, Jose M; Munroe, Patricia B; Kooner, Jaspal S; Tall, Alan R; Hegele, Robert A; Kastelein, John J P; Schadt, Eric E; Strachan, David P; Reilly, Muredach P; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.

  16. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Dastani

    Full Text Available Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8-1.2×10(-43. Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans, we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4. We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3, n = 22,044, increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14, n = 93,440, increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5, n = 77,167, increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3, n = 15,234, increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238, but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13, n = 96,748 and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4, n = 121,335. These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.

  17. The Positive Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence during a Performance Review Discussion – A Psychophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Mikko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Performance review discussions of real manager–subordinate pairs were examined in two studies to investigate the effects of trait emotional intelligence (EI) on dyad member’s felt and expressed emotions. Altogether there were 84 managers and 122 subordinates in two studies using 360 measured and self-reported trait EI. Facial electromyography, and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously. Manager’s high trait EI was related to increased positive valence emotional facial expressions in the dyad during the discussions. The managers also had more EEG frontal asymmetry indicating approach motivation, than the subordinates. In addition, actor and partner effects and actor × partner interactions, and interactions between the role and actor or partner effect of trait EI were observed. Both actor and partner trait EI were related to more positive self-reported emotional valence. The results imply that trait EI has a role in organizational social interaction. PMID:28400747

  18. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Screening scale studies were performed with eight cultures for their ability to metabolize phenobarbital, an antiepileptic, sedative, hypnotic and substrate for CYP 2C9 and 2C19. Methods: The transformation of phenobarbital was confirmed and characterized by fermentation techniques, high performance liquid ...

  19. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    techniques, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) ... Keywords: Microbial metabolism, Phenobarbital, Inhibition studies, Rhizopus stolonifer, CYP 2C9, .... 24 h of incubation 0.5 ml of drug solution was ... mode, positive: spray voltage, 3.5 KV: ... Rhizopus stolonifer showed an extra peak at.

  20. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  1. Ordovas-Oxidized LDL is associated with metabolic syndrome traits independently of central obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baselin...

  2. Association of Obesity Susceptibility Gene Variants with Metabolic Syndrome and Related Traits in 1,443 Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dusatkova, L.; Zamrazilova, H.; Sedlackova, B.; Vcelak, J.; Hlavaty, P.; Hainerova, I.A.; Korenková, Vlasta; Bradnova, O.; Bendlova, B.; Kunesova, M.; Hainer, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2013), s. 123-133 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Genome-wide association studies * obesity * metabolic syndrome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2013

  3. Trait gratitude and suicidal ideation and behavior: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David; Lyke, Jennifer; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress of positive psychology, current knowledge regarding suicide protective factors is limited. Trait gratitude (a tendency to experience gratitude in daily life) may protect against suicidal ideation and behavior. The study tested a model of causal effects among gratitude, religiosity, reasons for living, coping, and social support as predictors of suicidal ideation, suicide threats, and suicide attempts after controlling for depression and stressful life events. A sample of 165 college students were administered measures of gratitude, religiosity, reasons for living, social support, coping skills, stress, and depression. The study assessed lifetime and current suicidal ideation as well as lifetime suicide threat and attempt. Both gratitude and religiosity, along with social support, coping skills, and reasons for living, correlated negatively with prior suicidal ideation, but not with prior attempted suicide. After controlling for risk factor (depression and stress), the impact of gratitude and religiosity was no longer statistically significant. Further research could help understand the role of positive emotions and human strengths, such as gratitude, in preventing and alleviating suicidal ideation and behavior.

  4. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  5. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  6. Dark triad traits and health outcomes: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Hudek-Knežević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 637 participants (358 women and 279 men we explored the relationshipbetween Dark Triad traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism and Narcissism and various healthindicators including subjective (positive and negative mood and perceived physical symptoms,protective health behaviors as well as some more objective health indicators (number ofhospitalizations, number of diseases, having specific chronic diseases, injuries and addictions.Because of the moderate relations between Dark Triad and broad personality traits that also exerttheir influence on various health-related indices, we examined the unique effects of Dark Triad traitson health indicators above and beyond five-factor personality traits as well as sociodemographicvariables related to health (gender, age and education.When sociodemographic variables, as well as five-factor personality traits were controlled inhierarchical regression analyses, Dark Triad traits significantly improved the prediction of almostall subjective health indicators, protective health behaviors, number of hospitalizations and numberof diseases. The effect sizes obtained were relatively low, and psychopathy was the most consistentpredictor.Regarding chronic diseases, injuries and addictions, the results of hierarchical binary logisticregressions showed that when sociodemographic variables were controlled, psychopathy was apositive predictor of the risk of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries, Machiavellianismnegatively predicted the risk of injuries, while Narcissism negatively predicted the risk of skindiseases and tobacco use. When five-factor personality traits were controlled, psychopathy was alsoa positive predictor of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries. Machiavellianism was a positivepredictor of high blood pressure, and negative predictor of cancer, spine and back diseases andinjuries, while Narcissism was a negative predictor of skin diseases.The results obtained are discussed

  7. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... generally from the treatments. Carbon addition led to large intraspecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition plots having smaller, denser leaves and shorter stature. Species' trait plasticity, however, was not related to the community composition response to C addition.   Our study indicates...

  8. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population ...... of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations....

  9. Exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms previously related to obesity and metabolic traits in pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América Liliana; Cruz, Miguel; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of 64 obesity-related polymorphisms with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes and other glucose- and insulin-related traits in Mexican children. Case-control and case-sibling designs were followed. We studied 99 patients with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes, their siblings (n = 101) without diabetes, 83 unrelated pediatric controls and 137 adult controls. Genotypes were determined for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a possible association was examined between those genotypes and type 2 diabetes and other quantitative traits, after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. In the case-pediatric control and case-adult control analyses, five polymorphisms were associated with increased likelihood of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes; only one of these polymorphisms (CADM2/rs1307880) also showed a consistent effect in the case-sibling analysis. The associations in the combined analysis were as follows: ADORA1/rs903361 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2; 3.0); CADM2/rs13078807 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2; 4.0); GNPDA2/rs10938397 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4; 3.7); VEGFA/rs6905288 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) and FTO/rs9939609 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0; 3.2). We also identified 16 polymorphisms nominally associated with quantitative traits in participants without diabetes. ADORA/rs903361, CADM2/rs13078807, GNPDA2/rs10938397, VEGFA/rs6905288 and FTO/rs9939609 are associated with an increased risk of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population.

  10. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  11. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS, eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L, redness in meat color (CIE a, yellowness in meat color (CIE b, filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA. A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2 was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07. The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05 SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.

  12. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  13. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL cont...

  14. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallée, A.; Daures, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables genebased selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the

  15. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  16. Effects of dietary nanocrystalline cellulose supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal development and lipid metabolism of meat ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyue Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal development, and lipid metabolism was assessed in 600 one-day-old male meat ducks (Cherry Valley ducks from 1 to 35 d of age. Diets were supplemented with 0, 200, 500, 800 and 1,500 mg/kg NCC during both the starter (1–14 d and grower (15–35 d phases. Each dietary treatment consisted of 8 replicate cages of 15 birds. Supplementation of NCC was associated with dose dependent increases in BW gain and feed intake (P < 0.01 during 1–14 d of age and in BW at 35 d of age. As NCC content increased, the percentage of breast meat weight (P < 0.05 and leg (with bone weight (P < 0.05 linearly increased, while the percentage of abdominal fat weight (P < 0.01 linearly decreased in ducks at 35 d of age. Supplementation of NCC resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the weight (P < 0.05 and density (P < 0.01 of the cecum. The percentage of total hepatic lipid content (P < 0.01 at 14 d of age and serum triglyceride (TG concentration (P = 0.052 at 35 d of age linearly decreased with increasing of dietary NCC addition. In conclusion, inclusion of 1,500 mg/kg NCC in feed resulted in the greatest improvements in duck performance, intestinal development and lipid deposition.

  17. Individual differences and reasoning: a study on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Luca; Giusberti, Fiorella; Nori, Raffaella; Gambetti, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Personality can play a crucial role in how people reason and decide. Identifying individual differences related to how we actively gather information and use evidence could lead to a better comprehension and predictability of human reasoning. Recent findings have shown that some personality traits are related to similar decision-making patterns showed by people with mental disorders. We performed research with the aim to investigate delusion-proneness, obsessive-like personality, anxiety (trait and state), and reasoning styles in individuals from the general population. We introduced personality trait and state anxiety scores in a regression model to explore specific associations with: (1) amount of data-gathered prior to making a decision; and (2) the use of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence. Results showed that all our independent variables were positively or negatively associated with the amount of data collected in order to make simple probabilistic decisions. Anxiety and obsessiveness were the only predictors of the weight attributed to evidence in favour or against a hypothesis. Findings were discussed in relation to theoretical assumptions, predictions, and clinical implications. Personality traits can predict peculiar ways to reason and decide that, in turn, could be involved to some extent in the formation and/or maintenance of psychological disorders.

  18. Genetic studies on morpho-phenological traits in lentil (Lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-12

    Aug 12, 2014 ... c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH NOTE ... pattern of these qualitative traits will also help in the identifi- cation of true to type F1 ... 2013), and also in some other research organizations (Ahmad et al. 1995; Fratini and ...

  19. Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The success of most crop improvement programs largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability help the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. A screen.

  20. No Association between Visfatin Gene Variants and Metabolic Traits in the Newfoundland Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Shea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Visfatin is a novel adipokine initially reported to exhibit insulin-mimetic effects that increase insulin sensitivity. Further studies indicate it may also be associated with obesity, serum lipids, and systemic inflammation. At the current time, the role of genetic variation in the visfatin gene (NAMPT on these parameters is not clear. In the present study, we examined the association between 10 SNPs in NAMPT and insulin resistance, obesity, serum lipids and hsCRP levels. Research design and methods A total of 1838 subjects (413 men, 1425 women were recruited from the ongoing CODING Study. All subjects were from the genetically homogenous population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage (determined using DXA were measured for all subjects. Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA IR , HOMAβ, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and hsCRP were also determined after a 12-hour fast. Ten SNPs in NAMPT were genotyped using TaqMan validated or functionally tested SNP genotyping assays including rs7789066 (A > G 5′ flanking region, rs3801266 (A > G intron, rs6963243 (G > C intron, rs2058539 (A > C intron, rs6947766 (C > T intron, rs4730153 (G > A intron, rs10808150 (G > A intron, rs2098291 (C > T intron, rs10953502 (T > C intron, and rs10953501 (A > G 3′ UTR. Results We observed no significant associations between any of the variants sites and any parameter of insulin resistance, body composition, serum lipids or hsCRP under an additive model with age and gender included as covariates. This was also true when both dominant and recessive models were applied. Conclusions Our results do not support a significant role for variations in NAMPT with differences in the measured variables in the Newfoundland population.

  1. Variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene in relation to common metabolic traits in 7,495 middle-aged white people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Albrechtsen, A.; Ek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies in animals reveal that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both the liver and skeletal muscles. Moreover, PPARdelta augments physical endurance and increases oxidative metabolism, thereby averting obesity. Th...

  2. Molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of protein in brown and yellow flaxseed with altered nutrient traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profiles; crude protein (CP) subfractions; ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and protein molecular structures using molecular spectroscopy of newly developed yellow-seeded flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seeds from two yellow flaxseed breeding lines and two brown flaxseed varieties were evaluated. The yellow-seeded lines had higher (P RUP (29.2 vs 35.1% CP) than that in the brown-seeded varieties. However, the total supply of digestible RUP was not significantly different between the two seed types. Regression equations based on protein molecular structural features gave relatively good estimation for the contents of CP (R(2) = 0.87), soluble CP (R(2) = 0.92), RUP (R(2) = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R(2) = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.

  3. Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

    2009-03-01

    1. The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens. 2. A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg feed). At 120 d, 30 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on evaluated traits. 3. The results showed that supplemental vitamin E in diet significantly increased alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh muscles, reduced the drip loss and improved tenderness but did not influence carcase yield, meat colour or pH value 24 h after slaughter. 4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased with increase in dietary vitamin E, and the addition of 100 mg/kg or more vitamin E had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability as indicated by TBARS values during storage up to 7 d. 5. Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly altered fatty acid composition of breast muscle. Supplementing with 200 mg/kg vitamin E led to lower saturated fatty acids and greater polyunsaturated fatty acids proportions in breast muscle than control and 10 mg/kg vitamin E treatments. 6. Vitamin E supplementation significantly inhibited expression of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene (cPLA(2)) in breast muscle, while enhancing that of the peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor beta (PPAP-beta) and heart fatty acid binding protein genes (H-FABP). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased lipid stability in muscle and improved meat quality and fatty acid composition, probably by its influence on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism.

  4. Genome-wide Association Studies for Female Fertility Traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aoxing; Wang, Yachun; Sahana, Goutam; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2017-08-16

    Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value Nordic Holsteins. Third, the summary statistics from single-trait association analyses were combined into meta-analyses to: (1) identify common QTL for multiple fertility traits within each Holstein population; (2) detect SNPs which were associated with a female fertility trait across two Holstein populations. A large numbers of QTL were discovered or confirmed for female fertility traits. The QTL segregating at 31.4~34.1 Mb on BTA13, 48.3~51.9 Mb on BTA23 and 34.0~37.6 Mb on BTA28 shared between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins were further ascertained using a validation approach and meta-analyses. Furthermore, multiple novel variants identified in Chinese Holsteins were validated with Nordic data as well as meta-analyses. The genes IL6R, SLC39A12, CACNB2, ZEB1, ZMIZ1 and FAM213A were concluded to be strong candidate genes for female fertility in Holsteins.

  5. Heritability studies for seed quality traits in introgressed segregating populations of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, S.; Nasim, A.; Fayyaz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations. (author)

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillerud, L.O.; Han, C.H.; Whaley, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for the detection of the metabolic transformations of biological compounds labeled with stable isotopes, particularly carbon-13 have been explored. We have studied adipose tissue in the intact rat, the exteriorized epididymal fat pad, and the isolated adipocyte. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue is regulated by lipogenic factors (insulin, corticosterone, thyroxine, and growth hormone) and lipolytic factors (glucagon and catecholamines). The synthesis of triglyceride from 5.5 mM glucose was stimulated by about 4-fold by 10 nM insulin. Triglyceride synthesis from glucose in the presence of insulin occurred at a rate of 330 nmol/hr/10 6 cells. Since the NMR signals from free and esterified fatty acids and glycerol are distinct, we could directly measure the rate of hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Epinephrine (10 μM) gave a lipolytic rate of 0.30 μmol/hr/10 6 cells as monitored by free-glycerol appearance in the medium. 13 C NMR provides a superior method for the measurement of triglyceride metabolism since it directly measures the changes in the substrates and products in situ

  7. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  8. Personality traits are associated with research misbehavior in Dutch scientists : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdink, Joeri; Bouter, Lex; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; van de Ven, Peter; Wicherts, J.M.; Smulders, Yvo; Dorta-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research

  9. Metabolic syndrome-related composite factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS family study: genetic heritability and common environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Ndiaye, Coumba; Marteau, Jean-Brice; Berrahmoune, Hind; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2010-06-03

    We estimated genetic heritability and common environmental influences for various traits related to metabolic syndrome in young families from France. At entrance and after 5 years, nineteen traits related to metabolic syndrome were measured in a sample of families drawn from the STANISLAS study. In addition, 5 aggregates of these traits were identified using factor analysis. At entrance, genetic heritability was high (20 to 44%) for plasma lipids and lipoproteins, uric acid, fasting glucose, and the related clusters "risk lipids" and "protective lipids". Intermediate or low genetic heritability (less than 20%) was shown for triglycerides, adiposity indices, blood pressure, hepatic enzyme activity, inflammatory makers and the related clusters: "liver enzymes", "adiposity/blood pressure" and "inflammation". Moreover, common environmental influences were significant for all the parameters. With regard to 5-year changes, polygenic variance was low and not statistically significant for any of the individual variables or clusters whereas shared environment influence was significant. In these young families, genetic heritability of metabolic syndrome-related traits was generally lower than previously reported while the common environmental influences were greater. In addition, only shared environment contributed to short-term changes of these traits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied

  11. Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

    2013-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with

  12. Using Extreme Phenotype Sampling to Identify the Rare Causal Variants of Quantitative Traits in Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J.; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

    2011-01-01

    Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach fo...

  13. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, April S.Y.; Ho, Emmie N.M.; Wan, Terence S.M.; Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  14. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Personality Traits in the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have been shown to be associated with longevity and healthy aging. In order to discover novel genetic modifiers associated with personality traits as related with longevity, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS on personality factors assessed by NEO-FFI in individuals enrolled in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, a study of 583 families (N up to 4595 with clustering for longevity in the United States and Denmark. Three SNPs, in almost perfect LD, associated with agreeableness reached genome-wide significance (p<10-8 and replicated in an additional sample of 1279 LLFS subjects, although one (rs9650241 failed to replicate and the other two were not available in two independent replication cohorts, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the New England Centenarian Study. Based on 10,000,000 permutations, the empirical p-value of 2X10-7 was observed for the genome-wide significant SNPs. Seventeen SNPs that reached marginal statistical significance in the two previous GWASs (p-value < 10-4 and 10-5, were also marginally significantly associated in this study (p-value < 0.05, although none of the associations passed the Bonferroni correction. In addition, we tested age-by-SNP interactions and found some significant associations. Since scores of personality traits in LLFS subjects change in the oldest ages, and genetic factors outweigh environmental factors to achieve extreme ages, these age-by-SNP interactions could be a proxy for complex gene-gene interactions affecting personality traits and longevity.

  16. A method to prioritize quantitative traits and individuals for sequencing in family-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanan P Shah

    Full Text Available Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing, it is now technically feasible to evaluate the contribution of rare variation to complex traits and diseases. However, it is still cost prohibitive to sequence the whole genome (or exome of all individuals in each study. For quantitative traits, one strategy to reduce cost is to sequence individuals in the tails of the trait distribution. However, the next challenge becomes how to prioritize traits and individuals for sequencing since individuals are often characterized for dozens of medically relevant traits. In this article, we describe a new method, the Rare Variant Kinship Test (RVKT, which leverages relationship information in family-based studies to identify quantitative traits that are likely influenced by rare variants. Conditional on nuclear families and extended pedigrees, we evaluate the power of the RVKT via simulation. Not unexpectedly, the power of our method depends strongly on effect size, and to a lesser extent, on the frequency of the rare variant and the number and type of relationships in the sample. As an illustration, we also apply our method to data from two genetic studies in the Old Order Amish, a founder population with extensive genealogical records. Remarkably, we implicate the presence of a rare variant that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI Heart study (p = 0.044, consistent with the presence of a previously identified null mutation in the APOC3 gene that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in HAPI Heart study participants.

  17. Metabolic and improved organ scan studies. III. 13N-ammonia metabolic studies in hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from an investigation into the nature of hepatic encephalopathy, through study of the uptake and metabolism of 13 N-labeled ammonia by the brain in relation to liver function, in order to develop improved methods for the management of patients with this condition

  18. A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Happ?, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: This twin study investigated whether autistic traits during childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Data were collected from a community sample of approximately 5000 twin pairs, which included 32 individuals with diagnosed autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Parents rated autistic traits in the twins at four points between ages 8–16 years. Positive, negative, and cognitive psychotic experiences were assessed at age 16 years using self- and parent-re...

  19. Whole genome association study identifies regions of the bovine genome and biological pathways involved in carcass trait performance in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Anthony G; Berry, Donagh P; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Four traits related to carcass performance have been identified as economically important in beef production: carcass weight, carcass fat, carcass conformation of progeny and cull cow carcass weight. Although Holstein-Friesian cattle are primarily utilized for milk production, they are also an important source of meat for beef production and export. Because of this, there is great interest in understanding the underlying genomic structure influencing these traits. Several genome-wide association studies have identified regions of the bovine genome associated with growth or carcass traits, however, little is known about the mechanisms or underlying biological pathways involved. This study aims to detect regions of the bovine genome associated with carcass performance traits (employing a panel of 54,001 SNPs) using measures of genetic merit (as predicted transmitting abilities) for 5,705 Irish Holstein-Friesian animals. Candidate genes and biological pathways were then identified for each trait under investigation. Following adjustment for false discovery (q-value carcass traits using a single SNP regression approach. Using a Bayesian approach, 46 QTL were associated (posterior probability > 0.5) with at least one of the four traits. In total, 557 unique bovine genes, which mapped to 426 human orthologs, were within 500kbs of QTL found associated with a trait using the Bayesian approach. Using this information, 24 significantly over-represented pathways were identified across all traits. The most significantly over-represented biological pathway was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. A large number of genomic regions putatively associated with bovine carcass traits were detected using two different statistical approaches. Notably, several significant associations were detected in close proximity to genes with a known role in animal growth such as glucagon and leptin. Several biological pathways, including PPAR signaling, were

  20. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John; Garrett, Melanie E; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Boyle, Stephen H; Siegler, Ilene C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2010-06-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations. The association between rs769450, rs405509, rs439401, and metabolic traits were analyzed in a U.S. sample of 126 white caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer';s disease or other major dementia and 122 white controls. The associations were analyzed, using multivariate analysis of variance adjusted for age, sex, and medications. Significant multivariate interactions were found, using both additive (p = .009) and dominant (p = .047) models between rs439401 (C/T) and caregiver stress in relation to a profile of metabolic variables. Univariate analyses found the TT genotype to be associated with more adverse levels of waist circumference (interaction, p = .026), triglycerides (interaction, p = .001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (interaction, p = .001) among caregivers but with a more favorable profile of these endophenotypes among controls. There were no significant associations or interactions involving the other two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The APOE rs439401 TT genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile among chronically stressed individuals compared with individuals not similarly stressed in whom a more favorable profile is expressed. Confirmation of these results in further research would indicate that the TT genotype can be used to identify persons at high risk for CVD when subjected to chronic stress.

  1. Genome-wide association studies dissect the genetic networks underlying agronomical traits in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Shiwen; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Rui; Hu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengkui; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhou, Guoan; Ren, Haixiang; Du, Weiguang; Yan, Hongrui; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dezhi; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Shulin; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jixiang; Qin, Hao; Yuan, Jia; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Baoge; Tian, Zhixi

    2017-08-24

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.

  2. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  3. A comparative study on genetic and environmental influences on metabolic phenotypes in Eastern (Chinese) and Western (Danish) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia

    2015-01-01

    the risk of clinic diseases e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic phenotypes, similar to most complex traits, can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interplay. Many family and twin studies have demonstrated both genetic...... and environmental factors play important role in the variation of metabolic phenotypes and intra-individual change over time. Although both genetic and environmental factors are involved the development of metabolic disorders, the role of environment should be emphasized as the expression or function of gene can...... be regulated to adapt to existing environmental circumstance. In other words, adaptive evolution in populations under distinct environmental and cultural circumstances could have resulted in varying genetic basis of metabolic factors and development of metabolic disorders or diseases. Thus, it can...

  4. Personality Traits Are Associated with Academic Achievement in Medical School: A Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobowale, Kunmi; Ham, Sandra A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2018-06-01

    This nationally representative study sought to identify personality traits that are associated with academic achievement in medical school. Third-year medical students, who completed an initial questionnaire in January 2011, were mailed a second questionnaire several months later during their fourth year. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and burnout, the authors used multivariate logistic regressions to determine whether Big Five personality traits were associated with receiving honors/highest grade in clinical clerkships, failing a course or rotation, and being selected for the Alpha Omega Alpha or Gold Humanism Honor Society. The adjusted response rates for the two surveys were 61 (n = 564/919) and 84% (n = 474/564). The personality trait conscientiousness predicted obtaining honors/highest grade in all clinical clerkships. In contrast, students high in neuroticism were less likely to do well in most specialties. Students with higher conscientiousness were more likely to be inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society, while students high in openness or agreeableness traits were more likely to be inducted into the Gold Humanism Honor Society. Burnout was not associated with any clinical performance measures. This study suggests the importance of personality traits, particularly conscientiousness, in predicting success during the clinical years of medical school. Medical educators should consider a nuanced examination of personality traits and other non-cognitive factors, particularly for psychiatry.

  5. Linguistic Diversity and Traffic Accidents: Lessons from Statistical Studies of Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]–[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories. PMID:23967132

  6. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  7. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  8. Abandoned seasonal livestock migration reflected by plant functional traits: A case study in Kyrgyz rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Franziska; Zhusui Kyzy, Taalaigul; Usupbaev, Adilet; Schickoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    At least 30% of Kyrgyz pasture areas are considered to be subject to vegetation and soil degradation. Since animal husbandry is the economic basis to sustain people's livelihoods, rangeland degradation presents a threat for the majority of the population. Recently, the usage of plant functional traits as a powerful tool for the characterization of vegetation dynamics in response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances has been put forward. Grazing is one of the most severe disturbances on vegetation, which concerns equally the loss of area and biomass. Because grazing is both depending on and affecting plant functional traits, important insights can be generated, based on this codependency. We hypothesized that the contrasting grazing intensity of summer and winter pastures is reflected by the chosen traits. We used traits such as plant height, flowering start, growth form as well as SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and LMA (Leaf Mass per Area). Based on former phytosociological classification of the main pasture types (summer and winter pastures), community structure and the traits of dominant plant species were analyzed. Our results showed that on winter pastures grazing decreased plant height and SLA and favored plants with an earlier flowering start as well as rosette plants and ascending plants. We conclude that the study of trait composition in relation to anthropogenic disturbances can provide important insights into the mechanism of plant response to grazing in high-altitude rangelands.

  9. The influence of depression on personality traits in patients with fibromyalgia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela M; Lage, Laís V; Jabur, Eleonora K; Kaziyama, Helena H S; Iosifescu, Dan V; De Lucia, Mara Cristina S; Fráguas, Renério

    2017-01-01

    We developed this study to investigate the association of fibromyalgia with personality traits, controlling for depression and other potential confounders. We assessed personality traits using the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 78 female patients with fibromyalgia and in a control group of 78 subjects without fibromyalgia. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess depression and anxiety diagnoses. To investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory we performed unadjusted and adjusted analyses of covariance, using the TCI score as dependent variable and adjusting the model for depression, anxiety and for clinical and socio-demographic variables. We used a backward selection method to choose the final model. In the unadjusted analysis, fibromyalgia was associated with all personality traits, except persistency. After adjusting for depression and anxiety, patients with fibromyalgia presented decreased novelty seeking compared to controls; the differences in other personality traits were no longer significant. Novelty seeking was also correlated with the length of history of fibromyalgia and pain intensity. Decreased novelty seeking may be a personality trait associated with fibromyalgia. Depression and anxiety should be considered potential confounders in the evaluation of personality traits in this population.

  10. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  11. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  12. Effect of dietary restriction on metabolic, anatomic and molecular traits in mice depends on the initial level of basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Ksiazek, Aneta; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-09-15

    Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type-specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high-BMR line type and did not change in the low-BMR line type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the level of MR and mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress.

  13. Subjective stress reactivity in psoriasis - a cross sectional study of associated psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, Charlotta; Sjöström, Karin; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-02

    Stress or psychological distress is often described as a causative or maintaining factor in psoriasis. Psychological traits may influence the appraisal, interpretation and coping ability regarding stressful situations. Detailed investigations of psychological traits in relation to stress reactivity in psoriasis are rare. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with psoriasis who report an association between psychological distress and exacerbation, "stress reactors" (SRs), differ psychologically from those with no stress reactivity "non-stress reactors" (NSRs). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with plaque psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed including questions concerning stress reactivity in relation to onset and exacerbation. Three validated self-rating scales were used: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Form-Y), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Independent samples t-tests, Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA analyses were used for group comparisons when appropriate. A logistic regression model was designed with SR as the dependent variable. Sixty-four patients (63%) reported a subjective association between disease exacerbation and stress (SRs). Patients defined as SRs reported significantly higher mean scores regarding state and trait anxiety, depression, and also five SSP scale personality traits, i.e. somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, lack of assertiveness and mistrust, compared with NSRs. In multivariate analysis, SSP-stress susceptibility was the strongest explanatory variable for SR, i.e. OR (95% CI)=1.13 (1.02 - 1.24), p=0.018. According to our results, patients who perceive stress as a causal factor in their psoriasis might have a more vulnerable psychological constitution. This finding suggests important opportunities for clinicians to identify patients who may benefit

  14. Personality traits of pharmacy and medical students throughout their course of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordina M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists and medical doctors are two professional groups that very often receive their education and practice in the same environment. However, their approach to patient care and collaboration tends to be different and this may lead to both frustration and conflict which may adversely affect patient care. Personality has been identified as a psychological issue that could contribute to conflict in a work situation. Objective: To study the personality traits of a cohort of students studying pharmacy and medicine at the University of Malta in their first and final year. Methods: The Gordon Personal Profile – Inventory was administered to a cohort of pharmacy and medical students in their first year and once again administered to the same cohort who completed their course of study in their final year. Basic demographic data was also collected. Results: In first year the most pronounced traits for both student groups were those of Emotional Stability and Personal Relations. Over a period of five years, there were shifts in personality traits. In their final year pharmacy students were characterized by high scores for Cautiousness and Personal Relations while medical students exhibited medium scores in Cautiousness and Emotional Stability. Conclusion: The changes in personality traits over the duration of the course were not radical changes but rather that of traits becoming more pronounced.

  15. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  16. Does trait mindfulness level affect quitting cannabis use? A six week follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Cihat Paltun

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Only 29% of cannabis dependent individuals seek treatment, yet significant decreases in cannabis use are seen in 31-36% of individuals that seek treatment. Follow-up studies have found that over 60% in substance use disorders end in relapse, leading to potentially chronic and relapsing cases. New and effective therapies should be researched in order to increase the success of relapse prevention treatments. Objective: In this study we aimed to evaluate the relationship between trait mindfulness level, substance dependence severity and quitting cannabis use. Methods: A hundred and sixty four patients, diagnosed with cannabis dependence, were involved in the study; socidemographic datas were recorded and Addiction Profile Index (API, Mindfuness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS were carried out. Results: We found that the trait mindfulness level is significantly related with quitting cannabis use. Discussion: Trait mindfulness may be an important determining factor of the ability to quit substance use and achieve remission.

  17. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  18. GENETIC STUDIES ON REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN CROSSBRED JERSEY CATTLE IN WESTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Dhal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 412 crossbred (Jersey X Deshi cows sired by 24 bulls, maintained over the period from 2005 to 2014. The economic traits studied were age at first calving (AFC; months, calving interval (CI; days, dry period (DP; days and service period (SP; days. The averages for AFC, CI, DP and SP were 34.46±0.22 months, 505.95±3.24, 224.20±3.31 and 228.26±3.21 days, respectively. Effect of management system was significant for all the economic traits (AFC, CI and DP except SP. It may be inferred that rearing crossbred Jersey cows under intensive system of management may be advocated to utilize the maximum genetic potential of crossbred cattle for all the traits. Semi-intensive system may help moderate exploration of the traits. But exclusively pasture dependent management should be avoided for rearing crossbred Jersey cows. Heritability estimates for AFC, CI and DP were found to be 0.462 ±0.179; 0.062 ±0.088; 0.270 ±0.138, respectively. Genetic correlations of AFC with CI and SP were high and positive. For maximum genetic improvement and their correlated response, it is necessary to include all the economic traits with differential weightage for achieving accuracy in selection programs.

  19. The relations between interpersonal self-support traits and emotion regulation strategies: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Gao, Xin; Wang, Qian; Hollon, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Although several cross-sectional surveys have shown that certain traits such as extraversion and neuroticism are related to emotion regulation, few studies have explored the nature of this relationship. The present study tried to explore the longitudinal relation between traits and emotion regulation strategies. The Interpersonal Self-Support Scale for Middle School Students (ISSS-MSS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were administrated to 374 middle school students two times across a 6-month interval. A path analysis via structural equation modeling of the five interpersonal self-support traits and the two emotion regulation strategies was tested. The results showed that interpersonal independence predicted expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, and that interpersonal initiative also predicted reappraisal, while reappraisal predicted interpersonal flexibility and interpersonal openness 6 month later. These results support the hypotheses that some personality traits influence certain emotion regulation strategies, while other traits may be influenced by specific emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Senqing; Zeng, Qinghong; Luo, Yangmei; Duan, Haijun; Ding, Cody; Hu, Weiping; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM) load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load) or six letters (high WM load) while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA) group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent) on reaction times (RTs) and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence) of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  1. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senqing Qi

    Full Text Available Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load or six letters (high WM load while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent on reaction times (RTs and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  2. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Results from Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Studies on Pig Chromosome 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Silva, De K.M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.; Merks, J.W.M.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, R.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis of results from multiple studies could lead to more precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) position estimates compared to the individual experiments. As the raw data from many different studies are not readily available, the use of results from published articles may be helpful. In this

  4. Serum under-carboxylated osteocalcin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: weight-dependent relationships with endocrine and metabolic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepene Carmen E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-carboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC, the precursor substrate of bone biomarker OC is a potent regulator of energy metabolism by promoting insulin production and adiponectin synthesis and decreasing fat stores. The aim of the present study was to point out the potential role of ucOC in the physiopathology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a common disorder defined by the constellation of anovulation, insulinresistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity and androgen excess. Methods In this prospective case–control investigation, 78 young premenopausal women, i.e. 52 PCOS patients and 26 age- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls, were successively enrolled. Recruitment of PCOS patients was performed according to Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society 2006 criteria. All study participants were subjected to clinical examination, whole-body composition assessment and measurements of serum ucOC, OC (1-49, glucose and lipids, insulin, total testosterone (TT, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP and β-CrossLaps. Results BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ucOC levels in PCOS vs. controls in lean (p = 0.001 but not overweight and obese study participants (p = 0.456. Notably, a positive correlation between ucOC and TT (p = 0.018, calculated free testosterone (cFT, p = 0.028 and serum insulin (p = 0.036, respectively, was found to be confined to the lean analysis subgroup. Furthermore, in stepwise multiple regression models, β-CrossLaps and cFT were able to predict 46.71% of serum ucOC variability. (1-43/49OC failed to be significantly associated to any PCOS trait. Conclusions Circulating ucOC concentration is related to key endocrine PCOS characteristics in a weight-dependent manner. Within the bone-pancreas loop, high ucOC may favor insulin release in lean hyperandrogenic women to compensate for

  5. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies...

  6. Personality traits as an endophenotype in genetic studies on suicidality in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, M; Maciukiewicz, M; Kapelski, P; Czerski, P; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, A; Zaremba, D; Hauser, J

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The influence of personality traits on suicidal behaviour risk has been well documented. Personality traits and suicidal behaviour are partially genetically determined and personality has been described as an endophenotype of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits with suicidal behaviour and selected serotonergic gene polymorphisms. In the study we included 156 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (BP) and 93 healthy controls. The personality dimensions were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We genotyped two selected polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene (rs1800532 218A>C and rs1799913 779A>C) and polymorphism in the promoter region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) related to serotoninergic neurotransmission. Multiple poisson regression, logistic regression and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. We found numerous differences between the BP patients and the control group in terms of their TCI dimensions/subdimensions. Significant differences were found between patients with, and without, suicidal attempts in fatigability and asthenia (Ha4), as well as in harm avoidance (Ha). We also found that the interactions between TCI subdimensions (the interaction of disordiness (Ns4) and spiritual acceptance (St3), disordiness (Ns4) and integrated conscience (C5), extravagance (Ns3) and resourcefulness (Sd3)) were significantly contributing for suicidal behaviour risk. We found association between all studied genetic polymorphisms and several TCI dimensions and subdimensions. Our results confirm that personality traits are partially determined by genes. Both personality traits and the interactions between temperament and character traits, may be helpful in predicting suicidal behaviour.

  7. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  8. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  9. A study on the effects of personality traits on building effective relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shahab Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effects of five big personality traits on development of effective communication among middle level managers of the first private Iranian bank, Bank Eghtesade Novin, in city of Tehran, Iran. To measure the effects of five big personality traits, the study uses a questionnaire developed by Jackson (1974 [Jackson, D. N. (1974. Personality research form manual. Research Psychologists Press.]. In addition, to measure the impacts of effective communication we use another questionnaire. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alphas for two mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.92 and 0.74, respectively. The implementation of Pearson test as well as regression analysis have revealed that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between four personality traits, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and effective communication. In addition, there was a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and effective communication.

  10. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  12. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  13. Protocols to Study Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburger, Katrin; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters. It then provides protocols for measuring tissue growth, cell size, and metabolic parameters such as stored lipids and glycogen, and circulating sugars.

  14. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-10-28

    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (Pvegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  16. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Van der Does, A J Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-02-01

    Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related disorders might reflect increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathology through an association with HPA axis activity. Few studies have examined the association between psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening response, with inconsistent results. The present study examined the relationship between multiple psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening curve, including both the dynamic of the CAR and overall cortisol awakening levels, in a sample of persons without psychopathology, hypothesizing that persons scoring high on vulnerability traits demonstrate an elevated cortisol awakening curve. From 2981 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), baseline data from 381 controls (aged 18-65) without previous, current and parental depression and anxiety disorders were analyzed. Psychological measures included the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) measured using the NEO-FFI, anxiety sensitivity assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, cognitive reactivity to sadness (hopelessness, acceptance/coping, aggression, control/perfectionism, risk aversion, and rumination) as measured by the LEIDS-R questionnaire, and mastery, assessed using the Pearlin and Schooler Mastery scale. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min afterwards. In adjusted analyses, high scores of hopelessness reactivity (β=.13, p=.02) were consistently associated with a higher cortisol awakening response. In addition, although inconsistent across analyses, persons scoring higher on extraversion, control/perfectionism reactivity, and

  17. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  18. Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser; Fernandes, Felipe Amorim; Failace, Daniela Motta; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2011-01-01

    Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats.

  19. A Study of Personality Traits to Explain Employees' Information Security Behavior among Generational Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Cartmell

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Big Five factor model of personality traits theory was tested for its ability to predict or explain Employee Information Security Behavior (EISB), when Generational Cohort (GCOHORT) moderated the relationship between the five factors of personality and EISB. The independent variables (IVs) Extraversion, Agreeableness,…

  20. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

  1. Factors and Traits Attributed to the Success of Virtual Managers: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the factors and traits impacting the success of virtual managers. It can be argued that given technology's role in working virtually, one would deem technology as the most important factor impacting one's work in a virtual environment, however, there are other factors "including support from the organization and one's personal…

  2. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  3. An adult-based insulin resistance genetic risk score associates with insulin resistance, metabolic traits and altered fat distribution in Danish children and adolescents who are overweight or obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Anne-Sofie; Hollensted, Mette; Kloppenborg, Julie T

    2018-01-01

    and adolescents from a population-based study. Anthropometric data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, BP, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma lipid measurements were obtained, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The GRS53 was examined for association with metabolic traits in children...... by linear regressions using an additive genetic model. In overweight/obese children and adolescents, the GRS53 associated with higher HOMA-IR (β = 0.109 ± 0.050 (SE); p = 2.73 × 10-2), fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.010 ± 0.005 mmol/l; p = 2.51 × 10-2) and systolic BP SD score (β = 0.026 ± 0.012; p = 3...

  4. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Pirkola, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2013-10-01

    Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, ≤four meals including breakfast and ≤four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents. A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63). Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal variation selects for diet-microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Rothman, Jessica M; Petrzelkova, Klara; Yeoman, Carl J; Vlckova, Klara; Umaña, Juan D; Carr, Monica; Modry, David; Todd, Angelique; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Blekhman, Ran; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-02-01

    Although the critical role that our gastrointestinal microbes play in host physiology is now well established, we know little about the factors that influenced the evolution of primate gut microbiomes. To further understand current gut microbiome configurations and diet-microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in primates, from an evolutionary perspective, we characterized fecal bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in 228 fecal samples of lowland and mountain gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. b. beringei, respectively), our closest evolutionary relatives after chimpanzees. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiomes and metabolomes of these two species exhibit significantly different patterns. This is supported by increased abundance of metabolites and bacterial taxa associated with fiber metabolism in mountain gorillas, and enrichment of markers associated with simple sugar, lipid and sterol turnover in the lowland species. However, longitudinal sampling shows that both species' microbiomes and metabolomes converge when hosts face similar dietary constraints, associated with low fruit availability in their habitats. By showing differences and convergence of diet-microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in two geographically isolated primate species, under specific dietary stimuli, we suggest that dietary constraints triggered during their adaptive radiation were potential factors behind the species-specific microbiome patterns observed in primates today.

  7. Temporal variation selects for diet–microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Rothman, Jessica M; Petrzelkova, Klara; Yeoman, Carl J; Vlckova, Klara; Umaña, Juan D; Carr, Monica; Modry, David; Todd, Angelique; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Blekhman, Ran; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Although the critical role that our gastrointestinal microbes play in host physiology is now well established, we know little about the factors that influenced the evolution of primate gut microbiomes. To further understand current gut microbiome configurations and diet–microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in primates, from an evolutionary perspective, we characterized fecal bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in 228 fecal samples of lowland and mountain gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. b. beringei, respectively), our closest evolutionary relatives after chimpanzees. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiomes and metabolomes of these two species exhibit significantly different patterns. This is supported by increased abundance of metabolites and bacterial taxa associated with fiber metabolism in mountain gorillas, and enrichment of markers associated with simple sugar, lipid and sterol turnover in the lowland species. However, longitudinal sampling shows that both species' microbiomes and metabolomes converge when hosts face similar dietary constraints, associated with low fruit availability in their habitats. By showing differences and convergence of diet–microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in two geographically isolated primate species, under specific dietary stimuli, we suggest that dietary constraints triggered during their adaptive radiation were potential factors behind the species-specific microbiome patterns observed in primates today. PMID:26315972

  8. A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Melzer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57, CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21, IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13, LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10, GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7, SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7, CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6 and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6 genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R, altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA, variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1 and altered transcription (GGT1. We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha levels (p = 6.8x10(-40, but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis

  9. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  10. Connecting theoretical and empirical studies of trait-mediated interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolker, B.; Holyoak, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Rowe, L.; Schmitz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2003), s. 1101-1114 ISSN 0012-9658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : community models * competition * empirical study Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.701, year: 2003

  11. Genetic studies on the South African Mutton Merino: growth traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breed has undergone such a metamorphosis that it no longer bears much, if any, resemblance to its European ancestor. The need for a separate genetic characterization of this distinct South African strain is therefore evident. The aim of this study was to determine the applicable non-genetic factors and to estimate genetic ...

  12. Genetic diversity Study of Dioscoreas Using Morphological Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    study. Onyilagha (1988) used polyacrylamide gel elctrophoresis on 13 cultivars of Dioscorea (5 of D.rotundata and 8 of D.cayenesis). The two taxa have some common morphological features, leading to .... g, potassium chloride = 0.725 g, ethylene ..... feasibility in broadening the genetic base for the improvement of yam.

  13. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of emotional processing and psychopathic traits by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) during a task with a relatively low cognitive load. A group of male undergraduates were classified as having either high or low levels of psychopathic traits according to their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R). A subgroup of these participants then passively viewed complex emotional and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their EEGs were recorded. As hypothesized, in general the late LPP elicited by emotional pictures was found to be significantly reduced for participants with high Total PPI-R scores relative to those with low scores, especially for pictures that were rated as less emotionally arousing. Our data suggest that male undergraduates with high, but subclinical levels of psychopathic traits did not maintain continued higher-order processing of affective information, especially when it was perceived to be less arousing in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating Nonadditive Genomic Relationship Matrices into the Study of Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Alireza; Gezan, Salvador A

    2016-03-01

    The study of genetic architecture of complex traits has been dramatically influenced by implementing genome-wide analytical approaches during recent years. Of particular interest are genomic prediction strategies which make use of genomic information for predicting phenotypic responses instead of detecting trait-associated loci. In this work, we present the results of a simulation study to improve our understanding of the statistical properties of estimation of genetic variance components of complex traits, and of additive, dominance, and genetic effects through best linear unbiased prediction methodology. Simulated dense marker information was used to construct genomic additive and dominance matrices, and multiple alternative pedigree- and marker-based models were compared to determine if including a dominance term into the analysis may improve the genetic analysis of complex traits. Our results showed that a model containing a pedigree- or marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix provided the best partitioning of genetic variance into its components, especially when some degree of true dominance effects was expected to exist. Also, we noted that the use of a marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix had the best performance in terms of accuracy of correlations between true and estimated additive, dominance, and genetic effects. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; van Aken, Marcel A G; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.05, Pwork on development paths of attending physicians in medical education.

  16. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  17. Genome-wide association study of rust traits in orchardgrass using SLAF-seq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bing; Yan, Haidong; Liu, Xinchun; Zang, Wenjing; Zhang, Ailing; Zhou, Sifan; Huang, Linkai; Liu, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    While orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L.) is a well-known perennial forage species, rust diseases cause serious reductions in the yield and quality of orchardgrass; however, genetic mechanisms of rust resistance are not well understood in orchardgrass. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology in orchardgrass. A total of 2,334,889 SLAF tags were generated to produce 2,309,777 SNPs. ADMIXTURE analysis revealed unstructured subpopulations for 33 accessions, indicating that this orchardgrass population could be used for association analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed an average r 2 of 0.4 across all SNP pairs, indicating a high extent of LD in these samples. Through GWAS, a total of 4,604 SNPs were found to be significantly ( P  rust trait. The bulk analysis discovered a number of 5,211 SNPs related to rust trait. Two candidate genes, including cytochrome P450, and prolamin were implicated in disease resistance through prediction of functional genes surrounding each high-quality SNP ( P  rust traits based on GWAS analysis and bulk analysis. The large number of SNPs associated with rust traits and these two candidate genes may provide the basis for further research on rust resistance mechanisms and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for rust-resistant lineages.

  18. Psychological differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis: a study of personality traits, anxiety and depression in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A

    2013-08-01

    Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Effects of statistical models and items difficulties on making trait-level inferences: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hauck Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers dealing with the task of estimating locations of individuals on continuous latent variables may rely on several statistical models described in the literature. However, weighting costs and benefits of using one specific model over alternative models depends on empirical information that is not always clearly available. Therefore, the aim of this simulation study was to compare the performance of seven popular statistical models in providing adequate latent trait estimates in conditions of items difficulties targeted at the sample mean or at the tails of the latent trait distribution. Results suggested an overall tendency of models to provide more accurate estimates of true latent scores when using items targeted at the sample mean of the latent trait distribution. Rating Scale Model, Graded Response Model, and Weighted Least Squares Mean- and Variance-adjusted Confirmatory Factor Analysis yielded the most reliable latent trait estimates, even when applied to inadequate items for the sample distribution of the latent variable. These findings have important implications concerning some popular methodological practices in Psychology and related areas.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method. Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS in future breeding programs.

  1. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  2. Phenotypic flexibility of traits related to energy acquisition in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazek, Aneta; Czerniecki, Jan; Konarzewski, Marek

    2009-03-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that one of the main factors determining phenotypic flexibility of the digestive system is the size (mass) of internal organs. To test this, we used mice from two lines selected for high and low levels of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Mice with higher BMRs also have larger internal organs and higher daily food consumption (C) under non-stressful conditions. We exposed animals from both lines to a sudden cold exposure by transferring them (without prior acclimation) from an ambient temperature of 23 degrees C to 5 degrees C. Cold exposure elicited a twofold increase in C and a 25% reduction of apparent digestive efficiency. For the same body mass-corrected C, small intestine, kidneys, heart and liver of cold-exposed low-BMR mice were smaller than those of the high-BMR line. Therefore, the internal organs of low-BMR animals were burdened with substantially higher metabolic loads (defined as C or digestible food intake per total mass of a particular organ). The mass-specific activity of citrate synthase (CS) in the liver and kidneys (but not heart) was also lower in the low-BMR mice. The magnitude of phenotypic flexibility of internal organ size and CS activity was strictly proportional to the organ mass (in the case of kidneys and liver, also mass-specific CS activity) prior to an increased energy demand. Thus, phenotypic flexibility had additive rather than multiplicative dynamics. Our results also suggest that variation in BMR positively correlates with the magnitude of an immediate spare capacity that fuels the initial response of internal organs to a sudden metabolic stress.

  3. A study on effect of big five personality traits on emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Dehghanan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effects of big five personal traits on emotional intelligence on some Iranian firms located in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one, which is originally developed by McCare and Costa (1992 [McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1992. Discriminant validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 229-237.] for measuring personality traits and the other, which is used for measuring emotional intelligence . The first questionnaire consists of five personal categories including extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability versus neuroticism, and openness. Using structural equation modeling and stepwise regression model, the study has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between four components namely, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as openness and emotional intelligence. In addition, the study detects a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and emotional intelligence.

  4. Missing heritability : Is the gap closing? An analysis of 32 complex traits in the Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rots, Marianne G.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swertz, Morris A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold

    Despite the recent explosive rise in number of genetic markers for complex disease traits identified in genome-wide association studies, there is still a large gap between the known heritability of these traits and the part explained by these markers. To gauge whether this 'heritability gap' is

  5. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  6. The longitudinal relation between childhood autistic traits and psychosexual problems in early adolescence : The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early

  7. Metabolic activity in the insular cortex and hypothalamus predicts hot flashes: an FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Lin, Nancy U; Makris, Nikos; Skaar, Todd C; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Hall, Janet E

    2012-09-01

    Hot flashes are a common side effect of adjuvant endocrine therapies (AET; leuprolide, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that reduce quality of life and treatment adherence in breast cancer patients. Because hot flashes affect only some women, preexisting neurobiological traits might predispose to their development. Previous studies have implicated the insula during the perception of hot flashes and the hypothalamus in thermoregulatory dysfunction. The aim of the study was to understand whether neurobiological factors predict hot flashes. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine whether metabolic activity in the insula and hypothalamic thermoregulatory and estrogen-feedback regions measured before and in response to AET predict hot flashes. Findings were correlated with CYP2D6 genotype because of CYP2D6 polymorphism associations with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. We measured regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake (rCMRglu) in the insula and hypothalamus on FDG-PET. Of 18 women without hot flashes who began AET, new-onset hot flashes were reported by 10 (55.6%) and were detected objectively in nine (50%) participants. Prior to the use of all AET, rCMRglu in the insula (P ≤ 0.01) and hypothalamic thermoregulatory (P = 0.045) and estrogen-feedback (P = 0.007) regions was lower in women who reported developing hot flashes. In response to AET, rCMRglu was further reduced in the insula in women developing hot flashes (P ≤ 0.02). Insular and hypothalamic rCMRglu levels were lower in intermediate than extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Trait neurobiological characteristics predict hot flashes. Genetic variability in CYP2D6 may underlie the neurobiological predisposition to hot flashes induced by AET.

  8. Studying the Relationship between Personality Traits of HSE Managers and Burnout. Case Study: Industry Leaders in Karaj Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits of HSE managers and burnout. In this order, a general hypothesis and five secondary hypotheses are formed. Research method is applied kind and is descriptive aspect of data collection and cross correlation and model-based structural equation. The sample of study has been considered using Cochran formula and included 200 industry executives in Karaj road. The research data were collected using a questionnaire and the validity and reliability is appropriate. Alpha Cronbach coefficients of questionnaire for burnout and personality traits of managers are 0.85 and 0.79 respectively. Findings show that there is a significant relationship between personality traits of managers (OCD - extroversion- Flexibility - Adaptability - Generosity with burnout and are -0.27, 0.38, -0.41, -0.25, 0.36, and 0.49 respectively. Results suggest that whatever the personality traits of managers be more positive and productive, job burnout in managers becomes less and equals 0.27. In other words, with an increase of one unit in the personality traits of managers, burnout in these people decreases to 0.27.

  9. GWAPower: a statistical power calculation software for genome-wide association studies with quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng; Wang, Shengchu; Chen, Chia-Cheng; Lan, Lan

    2011-01-21

    In designing genome-wide association (GWA) studies it is important to calculate statistical power. General statistical power calculation procedures for quantitative measures often require information concerning summary statistics of distributions such as mean and variance. However, with genetic studies, the effect size of quantitative traits is traditionally expressed as heritability, a quantity defined as the amount of phenotypic variation in the population that can be ascribed to the genetic variants among individuals. Heritability is hard to transform into summary statistics. Therefore, general power calculation procedures cannot be used directly in GWA studies. The development of appropriate statistical methods and a user-friendly software package to address this problem would be welcomed. This paper presents GWAPower, a statistical software package of power calculation designed for GWA studies with quantitative traits, where genetic effect is defined as heritability. Based on several popular one-degree-of-freedom genetic models, this method avoids the need to specify the non-centrality parameter of the F-distribution under the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, it can use heritability information directly without approximation. In GWAPower, the power calculation can be easily adjusted for adding covariates and linkage disequilibrium information. An example is provided to illustrate GWAPower, followed by discussions. GWAPower is a user-friendly free software package for calculating statistical power based on heritability in GWA studies with quantitative traits. The software is freely available at: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/10502931/GWAPower.zip.

  10. Genome-wide association study of anthropometric traits and evidence of interactions with age and study year in Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Ethan M; Lee, Nanette R; Adair, Linda S; Lange, Leslie A; Mohlke, Karen L

    2011-05-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first GWA study of anthropometric traits in Filipinos, a population experiencing a rapid transition into a more obesogenic environment. In addition to identifying suggestive evidence of additional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association signals (P Filipinos and provide further insight into the effects of BDNF, FTO, and MC4R on BMI.

  11. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Nine Plant Architecture Traits in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [ (L Moench], an important grain and forage crop, is receiving significant attention as a lignocellulosic feedstock because of its water-use efficiency and high biomass yield potential. Because of the advancement of genotyping and sequencing technologies, genome-wide association study (GWAS has become a routinely used method to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed a GWAS for nine grain and biomass-related plant architecture traits to determine their overall genetic architecture and the specific association of allelic variants in gibberellin (GA biosynthesis and signaling genes with these phenotypes. A total of 101 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP representative regions were associated with at least one of the nine traits, and two of the significant markers correspond to GA candidate genes, ( and (, affecting plant height and seed number, respectively. The resolution of a previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL for leaf angle on chromosome 7 was increased to a 1.67 Mb region containing seven candidate genes with good prospects for further investigation. This study provides new knowledge of the association of GA genes with plant architecture traits and the genomic regions controlling variation in leaf angle, stem circumference, internode number, tiller number, seed number, panicle exsertion, and panicle length. The GA gene affecting seed number variation ( and the genomic region on chromosome 7 associated with variation in leaf angle are also important outcomes of this study and represent the foundation of future validation studies needed to apply this knowledge in breeding programs.

  13. Stuttering as a trait or state - an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Applications of deuterium labeling in studies of drug metabolism: metabolism of trideuteroaniline mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.J.; Farmer, P.B.; Foster, A.B.; Jarman, M.

    1977-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of aniline mustard, the metabolism of 2,4,6-trideuteroaniline mustard [N-N-di-(2-chloroethyl)-2,4,6-trideuteroaniline] was investigated. Measurements of the ratios of deuterated to nondeuterated species in p-hydroxyaniline mustard and N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-hydroxyaniline isolated following in vitro metabolism of a mixture of aniline mustard and aniline mustard-d 3 enabled a determination both of the kinetic isotope effect and of the extents of NIH shifts and indicated the probable metabolite sequence

  15. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Polygenic Risk, Appetite Traits, and Weight Gain in Middle Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children's weight gain. To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4-8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2% attendance; 82.0% consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained weight and fat mass more rapidly during follow-up. Each SD increase in genetic risk score was

  17. A prospective study of fetal head growth, autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Laura M. E.; Dass, Alena; Alvares, Gail; van der Ende, Jan; Schoemaker, Nikita K.; El Marroun, Hanan; Hickey, Martha; Pennell, Craig; White, Scott; Maybery, Murray T.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; McIntosh, Will; Whitehouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population‐based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD. This study included 3,820 children from two longitudinal prenatal cohorts in The Netherlands and Australia, comprising 60 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. Latent growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between fetal head circumference measured at three different time points and autistic traits measured in postnatal life using either the Social Responsiveness Scale or the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient. While lower initial prenatal HC was weakly associated with increasing autistic traits in the Dutch cohort, this relationship was not observed in the Australian cohort, nor when the two cohorts were analysed together. No differences in prenatal head growth were found between individuals with ASD and controls. This large population‐based study identified no consistent association across two cohorts between prenatal head growth and postnatal autistic traits. Our mixed findings suggest that further research in this area is needed. Autism Res 2018, 11: 602–612. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Lay Summary It is not known whether different patterns of postnatal brain growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also occurs prenatally. We examined fetal head growth and autistic symptoms in two large groups from The Netherlands and Australia. Lower initial prenatal head circumference was associated with autistic traits in the Dutch, but not the Australian

  18. Study of a large Anglo-Saxon family with beta-thalassaemia trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raik, E; Powell, E; Gordon, S

    1976-01-01

    Study of a large Anglo-Saxon family with beta-thalassaemia trait revealed evidence of consanguinity, moreover both branches of the family shared a Spanish ancestor. The manifestations of the disorder were varied in severity and yet the degree of severity appeared to breed true within any individual part of the family. Our explanation for the inheritance pattern observed in the family was to postulate the existence of two non-allelic genes influencing the rate of beta-chain synthesis.

  19. Temperamental traits may be associated with medical students’ specialty preferences – pilot study

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    Agnieszka Pawełczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed at checking a hypothesis about a possible correlation between medical students’ temperamental traits and specialty preferences. Material and methods: The study was carried out among 202 students of the 6th year at the Medical University of Łódź in academic year 2008/2009. The examined group consisted of 140 women (69% and 62 men (31%. The average age of the students included into the study was 24.7 years (range: 23-29. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire on demographic variables and the Formal Characteristics of BehaviourTemperament Inventory (FCB-TI by Zawadzki and Strelau. Results: The students taking part in the study preferred specialties in internal diseases (22%, surgery (18% and paediatrics (11%. Two point five percent of the students were indecisive in the specialty choice, 26% preferred surgical specialty and 71% – non-surgical specialty. Differences in temperamental traits were indicated between the students preferring different specialties. Students preferring surgery scored higher than those preferring internal medicine in Endurance (p=0.0036, d=0.63 and Activity (p=0.0292, d=0.63. Significantly higher average values were observed within two temperamental traits: Briskness (p=0.0083, d=0.5 and Endurance (p=0.0070, d=0.49 in students preferring surgical specialties, as compared to those choosing non-surgical specialties. Conclusions: Students’ preferring different medical specialties differ in temperamental traits. They obtained different results on the scales of Briskness, Endurance and Activity. The obtained results may be useful in vocational guidance within the choice of medical specialty.

  20. The Implications of Big-Five Standing for the Distribution of Trait Manifestation in Behavior: Fifteen Experience-Sampling Studies and a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Gallagher, M. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions in personality psychology is whether and how strongly trait standing relates to the traits that people actually manifest in their behavior, when faced with real pressures and real consequences of their actions. One reason this question is fundamental is the common belief that traits do not predict how individuals behave, which leads to the reasonable conclusion that traits are not important to study. However, this conclusion is surprising given that there is almost no data on the ability of traits to predict distributions of naturally occurring, representative behaviors of individuals (and that there are many studies showing that traits do indeed predict specific behaviors). This paper describes a meta-analysis of 15 experience-sampling studies, conducted over the course of eight years, amassing over 20,000 reports of trait manifestation in behavior. Participants reported traits on typical self-report questionnaires, then described their current behavior multiple times per day for several days, as the behavior was occurring. Results showed that traits, contrary to expectations, were strongly predictive of individual differences in trait manifestation in behavior, predicting average levels with correlations between .42 and .56 (approaching .60 for stringently restricted studies). Several other ways of summarizing trait manifestation in behavior were also predicted from traits. These studies provide evidence that traits are powerful predictors of actual manifestation of traits in behavior. PMID:19968421

  1. The implications of Big Five standing for the distribution of trait manifestation in behavior: fifteen experience-sampling studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Gallagher, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions in personality psychology is whether and how strongly trait standing relates to the traits that people actually manifest in their behavior when faced with real pressures and real consequences of their actions. One reason this question is fundamental is the common belief that traits do not predict how individuals behave, which leads to the reasonable conclusion that traits are not important to study. However, this conclusion is surprising given that there is almost no data on the ability of traits to predict distributions of naturally occurring, representative behaviors of individuals (and that there are many studies showing that traits do indeed predict specific behaviors). The authors describe a meta-analysis of 15 experience-sampling studies, conducted over the course of 8 years, amassing over 20,000 reports of trait manifestation in behavior. Participants reported traits on typical self-report questionnaires, then described their current behavior multiple times per day for several days as the behavior was occurring. Results show that traits, contrary to expectations, were strongly predictive of individual differences in trait manifestation in behavior, predicting average levels with correlations between .42 and .56 (approaching .60 for stringently restricted studies). Several other ways of summarizing trait manifestation in behavior were also predicted from traits. These studies provide evidence that traits are powerful predictors of actual manifestation of traits in behavior.

  2. Isotopic studies of urea metabolism in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, E.; Irons, L.; Koj, A.; McFarlane, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The half-life of [15N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [14C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of 14C but is approx. 20% for 15N. [15N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of 15N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired 14CO2 confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [14C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1·5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be

  3. Autistic traits in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toy H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Harun Toy,1 Arzu Hergüner,2 Sevcan Şimşek,1 Sabri Hergüner3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Konya Training and Research Hospital, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey Objectives: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea, and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD. Methods: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels. The dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS, coded from 0 to 10. Weight and height were measured, and the body mass index was calculated. Results: There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of age, duration of education, and body mass index. Women with PD had higher AQ – Total, and AQ – Attention Switching subscale scores than subjects without PD. Spearman analysis revealed that AQ – Total and AQ – Attention Switching scores were correlated with VAS. According to the linear regression analysis, VAS was predicted only by AQ – Attention Switching subscale. Conclusion: Our findings showed an association between autistic traits and dysmenorrhea in typically developing females. Keywords: primary dysmenorrhea, autistic traits, androgens

  4. Personality traits and the risk for Parkinson disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Johanna; Gustavsson, Petter; Weibull, Caroline Elise; Feldman, Adina Leiah; Petzinger, Giselle Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we explored the association between the personality traits, neuroticism and introversion, and risk of Parkinson disease (PD). A population-based cohort study was conducted using questionnaire data from the Swedish Twin Registry for twins born 1926-1958 (n > 29,000). Personality traits were assessed in 1973 by a short form of Eysenck's Personality Inventory. The cohort was followed from 1974 to 2012 through Swedish patient and cause of death registers for PD ascertainment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate subsequent risk of PD, adjusting for attained age, sex and smoking. A mediation analysis was performed to further explore the role of smoking in the relationship between personality trait and PD. Confounding by familial factors was explored using a within-pair analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 36.8 years, 197 incident PD cases were identified. Both neuroticism and introversion were associated with an increased risk of PD after adjustment. Smoking was a significant mediator in the relationship between personality traits and PD that partly accounted for the effect of introversion, whereas it acted as a suppressor for the effect of neuroticism on PD risk. In the within-pair analyses, associations for neuroticism and introversion were attenuated. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that neuroticism is associated with an increased risk of PD that is in part suppressed by smoking. There was a weak association between introversion and PD and this effect was at least partly mediated through smoking. The observed effects may partly be explained by familial factors shared by twins.

  5. Gene Set Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies on 49 Quantitative Traits Measured in a Single Genetic Epidemiology Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr < 0.05. Pairwise comparison of the traits in terms of the semantic similarity in their GO sets revealed surprising cases where phenotypically uncorrelated traits showed high similarity in terms of biological pathways. For example, the pH level was related to 7 other traits that showed low phenotypic correlations with it. A literature survey implies that these traits may be regulated partly by common pathways that involve neuronal or nerve systems.

  6. Genetic studies for some agronomic traits in spring wheat under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M.; Khaliq, I.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    F1 progenies of 7x7 diallel fashion crosses comprising four high temperatures tolerant and three susceptible spring wheat parental genotypes were evaluated under normal and heat stress conditions. The characters days to heading, spike index at anthesis, plant height, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and grain yield per plant were studied under both conditions. Analysis of variance under both conditions indicated additive gene action with partial dominance suggesting that these traits might be useful for the development of terminal heat tolerant varieties by modified pedigree selection.. However overdominance type of gene action was recorded for spikelets per spike suggesting that further improvement in this trait may be effected by biparental mating coupled with few cycles of recurrent selection. (author)

  7. Genetic studies for some agronomic traits in spring wheat under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M.; Khaliq, I.; Khan, A.S.; Ali, A.

    2012-01-01

    F/sub 1/ progenies of 7 X 7 diallel fashion crosses comprising four high temperatures tolerant and three susceptible spring wheat parental genotypes were evaluated under normal and heat stress conditions. The characters days to heading, spike index at anthesis, plant height, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and grain yield per plant were studied under both conditions. Analysis of variance under both conditions indicated additive gene action with partial dominance suggesting that these traits might be useful for the development of terminal heat tolerant varieties by modified pedigree selection. However over-dominance type of gene action was recorded for spikelets per spike suggesting that further improvement in this trait may be effected by biparental mating coupled with few cycles of recurrent selection. (author)

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for male fertility traits in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosova, Gülüm; Scott, Nicole M; Niederberger, Craig; Prins, Gail S; Ober, Carole

    2012-06-08

    Despite the fact that hundreds of genes are known to affect fertility in animal models, relatively little is known about genes that influence natural fertility in humans. To broadly survey genes contributing to variation in male fertility, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two fertility traits (family size and birth rate) in 269 married men who are members of a founder population of European descent that proscribes contraception and has large family sizes. Associations between ∼250,000 autosomal SNPs and the fertility traits were examined. A total of 41 SNPs with p ≤ 1 × 10(-4) for either trait were taken forward to a validation study of 123 ethnically diverse men from Chicago who had previously undergone semen analyses. Nine (22%) of the SNPs associated with reduced fertility in the GWAS were also associated with one or more of the ten measures of reduced sperm quantity and/or function, yielding 27 associations with p values LRRC32, which encodes a latent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor on regulatory T cells. We suggest that mutations in these genes that are more severe may account for some of the unexplained infertility (or subfertility) in the general population. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study on Mental Health Status and Personality Traits of Pet Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Choobineh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many Iranian families manage to keep pets at home. Examining psychological consequences and personality traits of pet owners is important. The aim of this study was to examine mental health status and personality traits of pet owners. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study, 612 pet owners (143 cat owners, 162 dog owners, 155 bird owners and 152 other pet owners were asked to complete General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and IPIP Personality Scale from January to December 2006. Results: Bird owners had the highest (234 cases (38.3% and other pet owners had the lowest (129 cases (42.3% mental health problems. In general, 188 cases (30.7% of all groups had mental health problems. 122 cases (20% of them had somatic compliance, 182 cases (29.7% had anxiety, 149 cases (24.3% had social dysfunction and 84 cases (13.7% had depression. Bird owners had significant high level of social dysfunction than other pet owners. With respect to personality traits, dog owners had low level of agreeableness and openness to experience than other groups. Other pet owners had high level of emotional stability than other groups. Conclusion: Contrary to other countries, it seems that having a pet in home enhances the probability of mental disorders in Iran. It is possible that lower mental health persons were keeping pets in Iran. In personality perspectives, dog owners are more disagreeable people and other pet owners are more emotionally stable ones.

  10. Study of alexithymia trait based on Big-Five Personality Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Heshmati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between Big Five personality traits and alexithymia and to determine differences of alexithymic compare with non- alexithymic individuals in these personality traits in university students. In present study, 150 university students at Tabriz University were selected and asked to answer NEO – Five Factor Inventory (NEO - FFI, and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS - 20. Results showed that there are negative and significant relationships between conscientiousness and openness to experiences with alexithymia and positive and significant relationships between neuroticism with alexithymia. As well as, there is significant difference between alexithymic and non-alexithymic individuals in neuroticism and openness to experiences. In one hand, these results suggest that neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness to experiences are determinant of alexithymia; and in the other hand, high level of neuroticism and low level of openness to experiences are the characteristic of alexithymic people based on Big-five. Therefore, it can be conclude that high neuroticism and low openness to experiences are the alexithymic individual’s traits.

  11. A study on relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality traits among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Internet addiction is less researched entity in developing countries. There has been an explosive growth in the use of internet worldwide including India in the last decade. Aims: To study the relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality characteristics among medical students. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional observational study carried out on 140 medical students. Subjects and Methods: All the students were taken randomly. Assessment of sociodemographic details was done with the help of  semi-structured pro forma, and internet addiction test and big five inventory were used to assess internet addictive behavior and personality traits. Statistical Analysis Used: For comparison of dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. Correlation and linear regression were applied to see association. Data analysis was done with the help of  statistical software SPSS 23. 0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM Corporation. Results: Mean score of internet addiction scale among medical students was 33.94 (standard deviation 13.592. It was found that higher neuroticism (β =0.242, P = 0.004 and less extroversion (β = −0.210, P = 0.011 displayed significant associations with internet addictive behavior. Conclusions: Neurotic individuals tend to experience increased levels of stress and interpersonal conflict because of this personality trait. Internet addictive behavior was lower on extroversion traits because they are more in social activities, making friend easily, and cheerful.

  12. Genome-wide association study of swine farrowing traits. Part I: genetic and genomic parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J F; Rempel, L A; Rohrer, G A

    2012-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine genetic and genomic parameters among swine (Sus scrofa) farrowing traits. Genetic parameters were obtained using MTDFREML. Genomic parameters were obtained using GENSEL. Genetic and residual variances obtained from MTDFREML were used as priors for the Bayes C analysis of GENSEL. Farrowing traits included total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), number stillborn (NSB), number of mummies (MUM), litter birth weight (LBW), and average piglet birth weight (ABW). Statistically significant heritabilities included TNB (0.09, P = 0.048), NBA (0.09, P = 0.041), LBW (0.20, P = 0.002), and ABW (0.26, P NBA (0.97, P NBA-LBW (0.56, P NBA (0.06), NBD (0.00), NSB (0.01), MUM (0.00), LBW (0.11), and ABW (0.31). Limited information is available in the literature about genomic parameters. Only the GP estimate for NSB is significantly lower than what has been published. The GP estimate for ABW is greater than the estimate for heritability found in this study. Other traits with significant heritability had GP estimates half the value of heritability. This research indicates that significant genetic markers will be found for TNB, NBA, LBW, and ABW that will have either immediate use in industry or provide a roadmap to further research with fine mapping or sequencing of areas of significance. Furthermore, these results indicate that genomic selection implemented at an early age would have similar annual progress as traditional selection, and could be incorporated along with traditional selection procedures to improve genetic progress of litter traits.

  13. Emotional Meaning in Context in Relation to Hypomanic Personality Traits: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Gobin, Pamela; Coutté, Alexandre; Thuaire, Flavien; Iakimova, Galina; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2015-01-01

    The ability to integrate contextual information is important for the comprehension of emotional and social situations. While some studies have shown that emotional processes and social cognition are impaired in people with hypomanic personality trait, no results have been reported concerning the neurophysiological processes mediating the processing of emotional information during the integration of contextual social information in this population. We therefore chose to conduct an ERP study dealing with the integration of emotional information in a population with hypomanic personality trait. Healthy participants were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), and ERPs were recorded during a linguistic task in which participants silently read sentence pairs describing short social situations. The first sentence implicitly conveyed the positive or negative emotional state of a character. The second sentence was emotionally congruent or incongruent with the first sentence. We analyzed the difference in the modulation of two components (N400 and LPC) in response to the emotional word present at the end of the "target" sentences as a function of the HPS score and the emotional valence of the context. Our results showed a possible modulation of the N400 component in response to both positive and negative context among the participants who scored high on the Mood Volatility subscale of the Hypomanic Personality Scale. These results seem to indicate that the participants with hypomanic personality traits exhibited specificities in the integration of emotions at the level of the early-mobilized neurocognitive processes (N400). Participants with hypomanic personality traits found it difficult to integrate negative emotional contexts, while simultaneously exhibiting an enhanced integration of positive emotional contexts.

  14. Large-scale association study for structural soundness and leg locomotion traits in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenius Timo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification and culling of replacement gilts with poor skeletal conformation and feet and leg (FL unsoundness is an approach used to reduce sow culling and mortality rates in breeding stock. Few candidate genes related to soundness traits have been identified in the pig. Methods In this study, 2066 commercial females were scored for 17 traits describing body conformation and FL structure, and were used for association analyses. Genotyping of 121 SNPs derived from 95 genes was implemented using Sequenom's MassARRAY system. Results Based on the association results from single trait and principal components using mixed linear model analyses and false discovery rate testing, it was observed that APOE, BMP8, CALCR, COL1A2, COL9A1, DKFZ, FBN1 and VDBP were very highly significantly (P ALOX5, BMP8, CALCR, OPG, OXTR and WNT16 were very highly significantly (P APOE, CALCR, COL1A2, GNRHR, IHH, MTHFR and WNT16 were highly significantly (P CALCR and COL1A2 on SSC9 was detected, and haplotype -ACGACC- was highly significantly (P Conclusion The present findings provide a comprehensive list of candidate genes for further use in fine mapping and biological functional analyses.

  15. The Study of Phenological and Morphophysiological Traits of New and Old Barely Shoot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moshfeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare morphophysiological traits between new and old cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. a greenhouse experiment was conducted in greenhouse condition in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in spring and summer 2011.The type of experiment was a completely randomized design with eight treatments (Nosrat , Youssof , Fagr30 , Nick and four old cultivars include (Reihan, Kavir, Zarjo , Valfajr and three replications. All seeds were grown in PVC tubes contained washed sands and disruptive sampling was occurred with destroying plastic bags in the end of the four stages uncluding 6th leaf stage, jointing, heading and ripening. Results indicated that new cultivars showed better performances in all shoot growth parameters than the old cultivars. Modern cultivars for most traits, particularly traits that were positively correlated with yield and its components proved more successful than the old cultivars. They had longer reproductive periods and grain filling duration but their vegetative period were shorter than old cultivars. Among shoots characteristics, new cultivars had higher leaf area, stem dry weight and stem length than old cultivars. Result of this study showed that, among all the characteristics of grain yield and yield components, such as grain weight ,spike length, spike per plant, grain per spike and number tiller , new figures were better than old figures. In general, new cultivar Nick was introduced as the best cultivar and Zarjo was introduced as the weakest cultivar.

  16. An evaluation of the metabolic syndrome in the HyperGEN study

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    Lewis Cora E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP provided a categorical definition for metabolic syndrome (c-MetS. We studied the extent to which two ethnic groups, Blacks and Whites were affected by c-MetS. The groups were members of the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN, a part of the Family Blood Pressure Program, supported by the NHLBI. Although the c-MetS definition is of special interest in particular to the clinicians, the quantitative latent traits of the metabolic syndrome (MetS are also important in order to gain further understanding of its etiology. In this study, quantitative evaluation of the MetS latent traits (q-MetS was based on the statistical multivariate method factor analysis (FA. Results The prevalence of the c-MetS was 34% in Blacks and 39% in Whites. c-MetS showed predominance of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Three and four factor domains were identified through FA, classified as "Obesity," "Blood pressure," "Lipids," and "Central obesity." They explained approximately 60% of the variance in the 11 original variables. Two factors classified as "Obesity" and "Central Obesity" overlapped when FA was performed without rotation. All four factors in FA with Varimax rotation were consistent between Blacks and Whites, between genders and also after excluding type 2 diabetes (T2D participants. Fasting insulin (INS associated mainly with obesity and lipids factors. Conclusions MetS in the HyperGEN study has a compound phenotype with separate domains for obesity, blood pressure, and lipids. Obesity and its relationship to lipids and insulin is clearly the dominant factor in MetS. Linkage analysis on factor scores for components of MetS, in familial studies such as HyperGEN, can assist in understanding the genetic pathways for MetS and their interactions with the environment, as a first step in identifying the underlying pathophysiological causes of this syndrome.

  17. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    herds inwhich there is a great incidence of metabolic and health problems related to clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia in theearly postpartum.

  18. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1H NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foodstuff is discussed. The study of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor") over-expressing the KNAT1 gene from Arabidopsis is presented as a novel study-case. The 1H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out. Twenty-two wat...

  19. Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: findings from a national study of Americans (MIDUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Pitzer, Lindsay; Armour, Cherie; Karlamangla, Arun; Ryff, Carol D; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits predict numerous health outcomes, but previous studies have rarely used personality change to predict health. The current investigation utilized a large national sample of 3,990 participants from the Midlife in the U.S. study (MIDUS) to examine if both personality trait level and personality change longitudinally predict 3 different health outcomes (i.e., self-rated physical health, self-reported blood pressure, and number of days limited at work or home due to physical health reasons) over a 10-year span. Each of the Big Five traits, except openness, predicted self-rated health. Change in agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion also predicted self-rated health. Trait levels of conscientiousness and neuroticism level predicted self-reported blood pressure. All trait levels except agreeableness predicted number of work days limited. Only change in conscientiousness predicted the number of work days limited. Findings demonstrate that a full understanding of the link between personality and health requires consideration of trait change as well as trait level.

  20. The juvenile antisocial brain : brain imaging studies in clinically antisocial youth with nascent phychopathic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides important new clues on the neurobiology of juvenile psychopathic traits in clinically antisocial juveniles. The data specifically shows that these traits are ostensibly underpinned by highly specific corticolimbic network dysfunctions, in which

  1. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  2. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Justice at work and metabolic syndrome: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Adám G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-04-01

    Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35-55 years without prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 to 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organisational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men.

  4. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  5. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri K Tijdink

    Full Text Available Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior.Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65% from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ, and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score.Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06-1.53 with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively, and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows.Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research.

  6. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies variants associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that have distinct effects on metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    steatosis, a non-invasive measure of NAFLD, in large population based samples. Using variance components methods, we show that CT hepatic steatosis is heritable (~26%-27%) in family-based Amish, Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies (n¿=¿880 to 3,070). By carrying out a fixed-effects meta......-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results between CT hepatic steatosis and ~2.4 million imputed or genotyped SNPs in 7,176 individuals from the Old Order Amish, Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study (AGES), Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies, we identify variants associated at genome......Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) clusters in families, but the only known common genetic variants influencing risk are near PNPLA3. We sought to identify additional genetic variants influencing NAFLD using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic...

  8. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  9. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  10. A prospective study of fetal head growth, autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Laura M E; Dass, Alena; Alvares, Gail; van der Ende, Jan; Schoemaker, Nikita K; El Marroun, Hanan; Hickey, Martha; Pennell, Craig; White, Scott; Maybery, Murray T; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; McIntosh, Will; White, Tonya; Whitehouse, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population-based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD. This study included 3,820 children from two longitudinal prenatal cohorts in The Netherlands and Australia, comprising 60 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. Latent growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between fetal head circumference measured at three different time points and autistic traits measured in postnatal life using either the Social Responsiveness Scale or the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. While lower initial prenatal HC was weakly associated with increasing autistic traits in the Dutch cohort, this relationship was not observed in the Australian cohort, nor when the two cohorts were analysed together. No differences in prenatal head growth were found between individuals with ASD and controls. This large population-based study identified no consistent association across two cohorts between prenatal head growth and postnatal autistic traits. Our mixed findings suggest that further research in this area is needed. Autism Res 2018, 11: 602-612. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. It is not known whether different patterns of postnatal brain growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also occurs prenatally. We examined fetal head growth and autistic symptoms in two large groups from The Netherlands and Australia. Lower initial prenatal head circumference was associated with autistic traits in the Dutch, but not the Australian, group. No differences

  11. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  12. Study of personality traits, individual coping resources, and their association in HIV-seropositive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV infection is an unfortunate consequence of a defined set of behaviors. Individuals with continued high-risk behavior either due to personality factors or due to maladaptive coping skills have higher viral loads and morbidity. Research has shown significant interactions between less effective coping styles and personality factors. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate personality traits, coping skills, and their association in male HIV-seropositive cases. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted on 86 patients. Informed consent and sociodemographic details, by a structured questionnaire, were obtained. Scales pertaining to personality factors and coping were applied. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 16. Results: Neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness traits were in the average range. Scores on openness and agreeableness were below average. The results pertaining to coping showed an overall mean score of 50.78, with the highest on physical domain and then on the philosophical domain, the lowest was in social domain. The research sample perceived their coping resources as average. Neuroticism was negatively related to all the coping styles. Extraversion showed relation with physical, emotional, social, and philosophical scales. Openness was related to philosophical and emotional scales. Agreeableness correlated with all domains of coping except the social. Conscientiousness correlated significantly with all the domains of coping. Conclusion: The various personality traits associated with male HIV-seropositive patients were identified and various coping resources used by these were also delineated. Further, the association among them was identified which can help in primary prevention and mental health professionals to have a targeted approach for counseling.

  13. Study of collagen metabolism after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xulan; Wu Shiliang; Zhang Xueguang; Chen Liesong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of collagen metabolism and it's regulation after β radiation. Method: The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 was tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. Results: After exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. Conclusion: The changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 and IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  14. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée A Scheepers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. METHOD: We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ. Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI, yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. RESULTS: Overall, 622 (77% attending physicians and 549 (68% residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02. Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.05, P<0.001 and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of

  15. Association of sleep quality components and wake time with metabolic syndrome: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (QMDS), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  17. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  18. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, K.A.; Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Pirzada, A.; Mancrio, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  19. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Trait anger but not anxiety predicts incident type 2 diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sherley; Shah, Nina G; Diez Roux, Ana; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Seeman, Teresa; Szklo, Moyses; Schreiner, Pamela J; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-10-01

    Prior studies have shown a bidirectional association between depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the prospective associations of anger and anxiety with T2DM have not been established. We hypothesized that trait anger and anxiety would predict incident T2DM, independently of depressive symptoms. In the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we prospectively examined the association of trait anger and trait anxiety (assessed via the Spielberger Trait Anger and Anxiety Scales, respectively) with incident T2DM over 11.4 years in 5598 White, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants (53.2% women, mean age 61.6 years) at baseline without prevalent T2DM or cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) of incident T2DM by previously defined anger category (low, moderate, high), and anxiety quartile, as there were no previously defined categories. High total trait anger was associated with incident T2DM (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.07) relative to low total trait anger. The association was attenuated following adjustment for waist circumference (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.94-1.86). Higher anger reaction was also associated with incident T2DM (HR=1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11) that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders/explanatory factors. In contrast, trait anxiety did not predict incident T2DM. High total trait anger and anger reaction are potential modifiable risk factors for T2DM. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of the anger-diabetes relationship and to develop preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Veltman, Dick J; Pape, Louise E; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Popma, Arne

    2015-11-01

    Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient incentive processing. However, little is known about the relation between deficient incentive processing and persistence of antisocial behavior into adulthood or its relation with callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the neural correlates of incentive processing and both DBD persistence and psychopathic traits. In a sample of 128 adolescents (mean age 17.7) with a history of criminal offending before age 12, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a monetary incentive delay task designed to assess neural responses during incentive processing. Neural activation during incentive processing was then associated with DBD persistence and psychopathic traits, measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Compared with both healthy control subjects and youths who had desisted from DBD, persistent DBD subjects showed lower neural responses in the ventral striatum during reward outcomes and higher neural responses in the amygdala during loss outcomes. Callous-unemotional traits were related to lower neural responses in the amygdala during reward outcomes, while other psychopathic traits were not related to incentive processing. In the current study, aberrant incentive processing is related to persistence of childhood antisocial behavior into late adolescence and to callous-unemotional traits. This mechanism may underlie treatment resistance in a subgroup of antisocial youth and provide a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moral disengagement and callous-unemotional traits: A longitudinal study of Italian adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Paciello, Marinella; Buonanno, Carlo; Milone, Annarita; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Masi, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    Callous-unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of moral cognitive mechanisms, such as moral disengagement, but these previous studies focused primarily on normal or 'at-risk' samples. We aimed to evaluate associations and possible interactions between moral disengagement as a cognitive dimension and callous-unemotional traits as an affective dimension in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. We recruited 55 adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder from a community care hospital in Pisa. They were evaluated at baseline and after one year with measures that included a moral disengagement scale, the Antisocial Process Screening Device, to assess callous traits, and the Youth Self-Report, to explore externalising behaviour problems. Structural equation modelling showed that higher initial moral disengagement scores were associated with later higher levels of callous-unemotional traits in adolescents and vice versa, even after, respectively, controlling for previous levels of callous traits and moral disengagement. As impairments in either cognitive or affective traits may predispose to problematic development of the other, our findings would suggest that screening at the earliest opportunity possible for both moral disengagement and callous-unemotional traits among children with disruptive behaviour disorders could help to map natural outcome pathways and thus tailor more accurate interventions for prevention of antisocial or criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  4. In vivo {sup 13}C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of {sup 13}C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1{sup 13}C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F{sub TCA}) and neurotransmitter cycling (F{sub cyc}). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F{sub TCA} upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F{sub cyc} due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  5. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13 C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13 C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1 1 3 C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F TCA ) and neurotransmitter cycling (F cyc ). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F TCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F cyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  6. Study and Comparison Between Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Among Opium Addicts (within the age of 30-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.

  7. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  8. Personality trait inferences of Turkish immigrant and neutral targets: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro M; Bye, Hege H; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated whether personality traits attributed to immigrant targets differ from personality inferences made for a neutral target, and whether trait attributions differ for assimilated and integrated immigrant targets. Participants (n = 340) were randomized to one of three conditions in which they read the same story about a person, but where the person was described as either: (a) an assimilated Turkish immigrant; (b) an integrated Turkish immigrant; or (c) neutral (no nationality or religious practice indicated). Subsequently, they rated the personality of the described person on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (observer rating version) and completed the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Impression Management scale) with reference to themselves. Both immigrant targets were rated as significantly higher on extraversion and lower on neuroticism than the neutral target. The integrated target was rated as more open than the neutral target, and as higher than the assimilated target on neuroticism when controlling for impression management. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  10. Genetic study of various agronomic traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, F.; Khan, I.A.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of already existing genetic variability in the breeding material, as well as, the creation of new variability along with the genetic understanding of various agronomic traits is of crucial importance, in order to develop potential sources of cotton. For this purpose, 5 X 6 complete diallel cross experiment was conducted during 2003-04, involving 5 strains i.e. VH-55, MNH-516, ACALA-SJ-4, A-8100 and CRIS-420, to evaluate gene-action, general and specific combining ability for number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and yield of seed cotton. Additive type of gene action, with partial dominance for all the traits studied, was observed. Most dominant genes for boll weight, yield of seed-cotton, and number of sympodial branches were observed in CRIS-420, while maximum dominant genes for number of monopodial branches, plant height were observed in ACALA-SJ-4. Variety VH-55 carried maximum dominant genes for number of bolls per plant. Recessive genes for the number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, were exhibited by MNH-516. The variety ACAU-SJ-4 showed harmonius combination for bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, whereas CRIS- 420 was found a good general combiner for plant height and number of sympodial branches. (author)

  11. The Influence of Personality Traits on Emotion Expression in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Steward, Trevor; Wolz, Ines; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Formoso, José Antonio; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Facial expressions are critical in forming social bonds and in signalling one's emotional state to others. In eating disorder patients, impairments in facial emotion recognition have been associated with eating psychopathology severity. Little research however has been carried out on how bulimic spectrum disorder (BSD) patients spontaneously express emotions. Our aim was to investigate emotion expression in BSD patients and to explore the influence of personality traits. Our study comprised 28 BSD women and 15 healthy controls. Facial expressions were recorded while participants played a serious video game. Expressions of anger and joy were used as outcome measures. Overall, BSD participants displayed less facial expressiveness than controls. Among BSD women, expressions of joy were positively associated with reward dependence, novelty seeking and self-directedness, whereas expressions of anger were associated with lower self-directedness. Our findings suggest that specific personality traits are associated with altered emotion facial expression in patients with BSD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide association study on reproductive traits in Jinghai Yellow Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G X; Fan, Q C; Wang, J Y; Zhang, T; Xue, Q; Shi, H Q

    2015-12-01

    To identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with reproductive traits, a genome-wide analysis was performed in Jinghai Yellow Chickens to analyze body weight at first oviposition (BWF), age at first oviposition (AFE), weight of the egg at first oviposition (FEW), egg weight at the age of 300 days (EW300), number of eggs produced by 300 days of age (EN300), egg hatchability (HA) and multiple selection index for egg production (MSI). The results showed that seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with reproductive traits (Preproductive traits were identified (Preproductive traits will greatly advance the understanding of the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive traits and may have practical significance in breeding programs for the improvements of reproductive traits in the Jinghai Yellow Chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid hormones, interpersonal violence and personality traits : clinical studies in high-risk psychiatric cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Cave

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal and violent behaviors as well as early life adversity are prevalent in clinical high-risk populations. Early life adversity is related to developmental dysregulation of behavioral and emotional traits. The neuroendocrine systems involved in the development of dysfunctional behavior and impulsive aggressive traits are not fully known. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and personality traits, as well as to exposur...

  15. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of epithelial metabolism and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a noninvasive technique for studying cellular metabolism and function. In this review the general applications and advantages of NMR will be discussed with specific reference to epithelial tissues. Phosphorus NMR investigations have been performed on epithelial tissues in vivo and in vitro; however, other detectable nuclei have not been utilized to date. Several new applications of phosphorus NMR to epithelial tissues are also discussed, including studies on isolated renal tubules and sheet epithelia

  17. Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Wevers, R.A.; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder

  18. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirazzoli Antonella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht, bone mineral density (BMD or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and beta (ESR2 are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin (OC, and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS, total hip (TH and femoral neck (FN BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044. Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO and hip fracture (FHF (P When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008 and TH-BMD (P = 0.047 than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180 subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  19. Metabolic and inflammatory profiles of biomarkers in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in a Mediterranean population. DARIOS Inflammatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Peñafiel, Judith; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Vila, Joan; Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Guembe, María Jesús; Vega, Tomás; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto; Díaz, Oscar; Marrugat, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the differences in the biomarker profiles of patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus as compared to a healthy, normal weight population. We aimed to study the biomarker profile of the metabolic risk continuum defined by the transition from normal weight to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. We performed a pooled analysis of data from 7 cross-sectional Spanish population-based surveys. An extensive panel comprising 20 biomarkers related to carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, inflammation, coagulation, oxidation, hemodynamics, and myocardial damage was analyzed. We employed age- and sex-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for the identification of those biomarkers associated with the metabolic risk continuum phenotypes: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 2851 subjects were included for analyses. The mean age was 57.4 (8.8) years, 1269 were men (44.5%), and 464 participants were obese, 443 had metabolic syndrome, 473 had diabetes mellitus, and 1471 had a normal weight (healthy individuals). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B100, leptin, and insulin were positively associated with at least one of the phenotypes of interest. Apolipoprotein A1 and adiponectin were negatively associated. There are differences between the population with normal weight and that having metabolic syndrome or diabetes with respect to certain biomarkers related to the metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid profiles. The results of this study support the relevance of these mechanisms in the metabolic risk continuum. When metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are compared, these differences are less marked. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking climate change to community-level impacts on copepods via a new, trait-based model: Life-history and metabolic mechanisms compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Neil S.; Møller, Eva Friis; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    A new, trait-based copepod model ("Coltrane": Copepod Life-history Traits and Adaptation to Novel Environments) has been developed, drawing on past work on both optimal annual routines and trait-based plankton metacommunity models, in order to evaluate climate impacts on copepods via 1) phenology...... and physiology of local populations of C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyperboreus. Futhermore, the model replicates the observed range of stored lipid content of these copepod populations (30–60%, C. finmarchicus–C. hyperboreus), suggesting a means for linking changes in temperature and primary production...

  1. Linking climate change to community-level impacts on copepods via a new, trait-based model: Life-history and metabolic mechanisms compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Neil S.; Møller, Eva Friis; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    A new, trait-based copepod model ("Coltrane": Copepod Life-history Traits and Adaptation to Novel Environments) has been developed, drawing on past work on both optimal annual routines and trait-based plankton metacommunity models, in order to evaluate climate impacts on copepods via 1) phenology...... and physiology of local populations of C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyperboreus. Futhermore, the model replicates the observed range of stored lipid content of these copepod populations (30–60%, C. finmarchicus–C. hyperboreus), suggesting a means for linking changes in temperature and primary production...

  2. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  3. Coping with Self-Threat and the Evaluation of Self-Related Traits: An fMRI Study.

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    Andreas Hoefler

    Full Text Available A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mechanisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study the participants (N = 46 received a (negative vs. positive performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe personality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-related traits compared to positive self-related traits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related information more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mirrored in the fMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traits and even more for negative self-related traits. We also found that activation in the ACC was negatively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation of the ACC is linked to better access (faster response to positive self-related traits and to impaired access (slower response to negative self-related traits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem levels. The fMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus and the right thalamus under threat. This

  4. Coping with Self-Threat and the Evaluation of Self-Related Traits: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katja; Ebner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mechanisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study the participants (N = 46) received a (negative vs. positive) performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe personality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-related traits compared to positive self-related traits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related information more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mirrored in the fMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traits and even more for negative self-related traits. We also found that activation in the ACC was negatively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation of the ACC is linked to better access (faster response) to positive self-related traits and to impaired access (slower response) to negative self-related traits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem levels. The fMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus and the right thalamus under threat. This indicates that a down

  5. Application of radioisotopes to studies of pesticide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic form and structural change of pesticides in the living body were mentioned. In the early stage of the study, 14 C, 35 S, 36 Cl, and 32 P were used, and 32 P was used mainly. At present, specimen labelled with 14 C or 3 H can be traced easily with liquid scintillation counter, and metabolic study is performed by using gaschromatography, nuclear magnetism resonant together with mass, and infrared spectrum analysis. Generally, pesticides are fat-soluble compounds. They convert into water-soluble compounds through the changes such as oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Furthermore, they combine with ingredients in the living body, and are taken in. In animals, they are excreted outside the body, and in plants, they are stored after detoxication. Microorganisms break molecules into parts. They are used as energy source, and perform oxidative cleavage of nucleus of aromatic pesticides. (Kanao, N.)

  6. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  7. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  8. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  9. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  10. Trait Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five: A Study on Italian Children and Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo Maria; Mancini, Giacomo; Trombini, Elena; Baldaro, Bruno; Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence (EI) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This article examines the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form and investigates its relationships with Big Five factors and cognitive ability. A total of 690 children (317…

  11. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, A.; Vreeburg, S.A.; van der Does, A.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related

  12. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response : Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related

  13. Protein quantitative trait locus study in obesity during weight-loss identifies a leptin regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Jérôme; Chabert, Christian; Di Cara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    of an organism. Proteome analysis especially can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex traits like obesity. The role of genetic variation in determining protein level variation has not been assessed in obesity. To address this, we design a large-scale protein quantitative trait locus (p...

  14. Relationship of serum resistin level to traits of metabolic syndrome and serum paraoxonase 1 activity in a population with a broad range of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnok, L; Seres, I; Varga, Z; Jeges, S; Peti, A; Karanyi, Z; Juhasz, A; Csongradi, E; Mezosi, E; Nagy, E V; Paragh, G

    2008-11-01

    The relationship between resistin, one of the adipokines, and metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. Altered activity of the HDL-associated antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) that participates in the antioxidant defense mechanisms of HDL may have an important role in the obesity-related accelerated atherosclerosis. Inverse associations of PON1 with obesity and serum levels of leptin have been demonstrated. Our aim was to investigate the association of serum levels of resistin with (i) PON1 activity, and (ii) parameters of metabolic syndrome, including some that are additional for research. A total of 74 Caucasian subjects were recruited into the study and divided into 3 age and sex-matched groups. Group 1, 25 non-diabetic overweight/obese subjects with BMI of 28-39.9 kg/m (2); group 2, 25 non-diabetic obese patients with BMI >or=40 kg/m (2); and the control group 3, 24 healthy, normal-weight control subjects. Serum levels of resistin were correlated negatively with BMI (r=-0.27, Pcorrelated positively with PON1 (r=0.24, PHDL-C. During multiple regression analyses BMI and TBARS were independent predictors of PON1, while age, gender, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, HDL-C, and resistin were not. Among the study subjects, serum levels of resistin showed a positive, although not independent correlation with serum PON1, and a negative correlation with numerous parameters of the metabolic syndrome (i.e. adiposity, blood pressure, levels of leptin, free fatty acid, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid peroxidation). BMI and TBARS are independent predictors of PON1 activity.

  15. STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. GENOTYPES FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya R. KOKKIRIPATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh during kharif 2014. The experimental material consisted of 11 Groundnut genotypes along with one check (IND-156. The genotypes were sown at Field Experimentation Centre in three replications adopting randomized block design to evaluate seed yield and quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance, genotype ICG 14127 revealed better performance in primary branches/ plant, pods per plant, pod yield/plant, seed yield/plant and ICG 14482 showed better performance in kernel yield q/ha, oil content, oil yield while ICG 188 showed higher protein content.

  16. Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: a longitudinal study of Internet-addicted Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Jiangyang; Yang, Xuelong; Zhou, Hui

    2013-12-01

    As the world's fastest growing "addiction", Internet addiction is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the potential personality predictors of Internet addicts. Eight hundred and sixty-eight students were tested using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire after they had just entered university. Two years later, 49 were found to be addicted to the Internet as defined by high Internet addiction test scores. Comparisons of means and logistic regression analysis were used to explore their relationship. Students addicted to the Internet showed higher Neuroticism/Stability scores, higher Psychoticism/Socialization scores, and lower Lie scores than their normal peers before their addiction. Regression results showed that Internet addiction was accounted by three independent variables: Neuroticism/Stability, Psychoticism/Socialization, and Lie. These results suggest that the risk personality traits of Internet addiction include neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Study of multivariate analysis of quantitative traits in Iranian pumpkin lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadegari Mehrab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seed yield production and its different components fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit length/fruit diameter ratio (FL/FD, diameter of flesh, diameter of seed core, fruit weight, weight of 1000 seed from 24 lines of pumpkin grown in Iran was examined. Twenty-five characters in all plant lines were measured by Descriptor (UPOV and data were subjected to cluster analysis. Results showed that plants lines were divided in four groups. In all groups, regression comparisons were made for modeling the effect of different characters on seed yield, results also showed that fruit weight and fruit length in all groups had the most direct effect on seed yield. In conclusion, these traits are suggested as the best indirect selection criteria to improve the seed yield genetically in Cucurbita spp. genotypes especially in preliminary generation of breeding and selection programs.

  18. Influence of common variants near INSIG2, in FTO, and near MC4R genes on overweight and the metabolic profile in adolescence : the TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, E.T.; Vonk, J.M.; Sauer, P.J.J.; van der Steege, G.; Oosterom, E.; Stolk, R.P.; Snieder, H.

    Background: Overweight is a complex trait in which both environmental and genetic factors play a role. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the influence of common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies on overweight and the metabolic profile in adolescence. Design: In a

  19. Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ming; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    .Results: The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body conformation traits. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to detect multiple SNPs simultaneously for 29 body conformation traits with 1,314 Chinese...... Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the reported...... SNPs. Twenty-two SNPs were located within annotated gene regions, while the remainder were 0.6-826 kb away from known genes. Some of the genes had clear biological functions related to conformation traits. By combining information about the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions...

  20. Impaired Cognitive Control of Emotional Conflict in Trait Anxiety: A Preliminary Study Based on Clinical and Non-Clinical Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongju Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders.MethodsThe present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA, 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. All participants completed demographic information and self-report measures of trait anxiety and depression. Then, they performed the emotional flanker task with event-related potentials (ERPs recorded.ResultsBehavioral data manifested that, relative to LTA individuals, GAD patients displayed prolonged response times and increased error rates, while HTA individuals showed intact response times and accuracies. Event-related potential (ERP data revealed that HTA individuals exhibited a trend toward more negative N2 amplitudes for conflict detection. By contrast, both HTA and GAD individuals displayed decreased P3 amplitudes for conflict resolution. ERP results indicated that both HTA and GAD individuals exhibited conflict maladaptation on the N2 amplitude. Correlation analyses also showed that the increased anxiety symptoms were associated with longer reaction times, more error rates, lower P3 amplitudes, and more perturbations in conflict adaptation on reaction times and N2 amplitudes.ConclusionOur results demonstrated a severely impaired cognitive control in GAD patients while a moderately impaired cognitive control in HTA individuals. Trait anxiety can indeed serve as a predominant factor at the onset and in the maintenance of GAD. Therefore, the trait anxiety reducing strategies may provide significant therapeutic gains.

  1. On coding genotypes for genetic markers with multiple alleles in genetic association study of quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetic association study of quantitative traits using F∞ models, how to code the marker genotypes and interpret the model parameters appropriately is important for constructing hypothesis tests and making statistical inferences. Currently, the coding of marker genotypes in building F∞ models has mainly focused on the biallelic case. A thorough work on the coding of marker genotypes and interpretation of model parameters for F∞ models is needed especially for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Results In this study, we will formulate F∞ genetic models under various regression model frameworks and introduce three genotype coding schemes for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Starting from an allele-based modeling strategy, we first describe a regression framework to model the expected genotypic values at given markers. Then, as extension from the biallelic case, we introduce three coding schemes for constructing fully parameterized one-locus F∞ models and discuss the relationships between the model parameters and the expected genotypic values. Next, under a simplified modeling framework for the expected genotypic values, we consider several reduced one-locus F∞ models from the three coding schemes on the estimability and interpretation of their model parameters. Finally, we explore some extensions of the one-locus F∞ models to two loci. Several fully parameterized as well as reduced two-locus F∞ models are addressed. Conclusions The genotype coding schemes provide different ways to construct F∞ models for association testing of multi-allele genetic markers with quantitative traits. Which coding scheme should be applied depends on how convenient it can provide the statistical inferences on the parameters of our research interests. Based on these F∞ models, the standard regression model fitting tools can be used to estimate and test for various genetic effects through statistical contrasts with the

  2. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  3. Analysis of the porcine APOA2 gene expression in liver, polymorphism identification and association with fatty acid composition traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, M.; Revilla, M.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Marchesi, J.A.; Castello, A.; Corominas, J.; Fernandez, A.I.; Folch, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits

  4. An Economic Perspective on Personality Traits and Alcohol Misuse: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Asia Sikora; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Recent economic work suggests a role for personality traits in determining socioeconomic outcomes. Much of this work has considered labor market outcomes, human capital accumulation, and, to some extent, health outcomes. No economic studies have explored the role of the Big Five taxonomy in alcohol use and misuse. Given defining characteristics of the Big Five, they are plausibly linked with these outcomes. Alcohol misuse is associated with large social costs through healthcare costs, traffic fatalities, violence, and reduced labor market productivity. Thus, understanding risk factors for such use is warranted. To investigate the associations between the Big Five, and measures of alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We obtain data on older adults 50 years and older from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our outcomes include one measure of use (any use) and two measures of misuse (heavy drinking and binge drinking). Comparing across different measures of alcohol consumption can shed light on whether the Big Five are related to moderate alcohol use that need not impose social costs or alcohol misuse that may indeed impose such costs. A randomly selected sub-set of respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire developed for the Midlife Development Inventory in either the 2006 or 2008 round of the HRS. We use information collected in this instrument to generate our independent variables of primary interest: agreeableness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness traits. We find that the Big Five personality traits are linked with measures of both alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We observe substantial heterogeneity in the associations by personality traits. Specifically, agreeableness is associated with increased risk for alcohol use/misuse while extraversion and openness are negatively associated with risk for these patterns of alcohol consumption. We find no evidence that neuroticism or contentiousness predict alcohol use and misuse. We

  5. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  6. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, Fjola; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2018-04-23

    Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development. Autistic traits were assessed when the children were 6 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale and ASD diagnoses were obtained via medical records. Neuropsychological functioning was measured using the NEPSY-II-NL and included the domains of attention and executive function, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, language, and visuospatial functioning. We found that children with higher autistic traits showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance in all domains investigated and that this association remained even after excluding children with the highest autistic traits or confirmed ASD. When comparing 41 children with confirmed ASD diagnosis to typically developing controls, children with ASD showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance across all domains. Taken together, our results suggest that children with both ASD and subclinical autistic traits have lower neuropsychological performance. Thus, this may provide an understanding of why some children without an ASD diagnosis may require some additional assistance within academic settings.

  7. Heritability and genetic advance studies for biochemical traits in F2-3 introgressed families of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, N.K.; Khalil, I.H.; Nahed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)

  8. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  9. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan; Wu Shiliang; Qiu Hao; Jiang Zhi; Tu Youbin; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 , IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  10. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  11. A social work study on relationship between transactional and laissez-fair leadership style and personality traits: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Jannesari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays an essential role on personality trait in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on leadership style. The study examined the effects of two groups of leadership, namely transactional leadership and Laissez-fair leadership styles on five personality traits. The results have shown that there were some meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait extraversion, resilience, participative and consciousness but there was not meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait neuroticism. In addition, while there were meaningful and positive relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait extraversion as well as being resilience, our survey did not find any meaningful relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait neuroticism, extraversion and being consciousness.

  12. Uses and limits of radiotracers in the study of drugs and xenobiotics metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with scientific papers issued in 1977-1978, on labelling of drugs and xenobiotics and their metabolism. It is divided in five parts: site of label; in vivo metabolism in animals and human beings; in vitro metabolism on tissue slices, cells culture, microsomes, membrane receptors; metabolism of xenobiotics: nutrients, food additives, detergents, plastics and fabrics; discussion. Metabolic studies, nowadays, associate radiotracers, stable isotopes with high performing procedures for analytical separation [fr

  13. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  14. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  15. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  16. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  17. Genome-wide association studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-01-25

    Until just a few years ago, the genetic determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome were largely unknown, with the exception of a few forms of monogenic extreme obesity. Since genome-wide association studies (GWAS) became available, large advances have been made. The first single nucleotide polymorphism robustly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) was in 2007 mapped to a gene with for the time unknown function. This gene, now known as fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) has been repeatedly replicated in several ethnicities and is affecting obesity by regulating appetite. Since the first report from a GWAS of obesity, an increasing number of markers have been shown to be associated with BMI, other measures of obesity or fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. This systematic review of obesity GWAS will summarize genome-wide significant findings for obesity and metabolic syndrome and briefly give a few suggestions of what is to be expected in the next few years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A prospective study of autistic-like traits in unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autistic-like traits in relatives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well recognized, but, to our knowledge, the emergence of these traits early in development has not been studied. To prospectively investigate the emergence of autistic-like traits in unaffected (no ASD diagnosis) infant siblings of probands diagnosed as having ASD. Two groups of children unaffected with ASD were assessed prospectively-siblings of probands diagnosed as having ASD (high risk [HR]) and control subjects with no family history of ASD (low risk [LR]). Scores on a measure of autistic-like traits at 12 months of age were used in a cluster analysis of the entire sample. A prospective study of infant siblings of probands with ASD from 3 diagnostic centers in Canada. The study included 170 HR and 90 LR children, none of whom was diagnosed as having ASD at age 3 years. The Autism Observation Scale for Infants was used to measure autistic-like traits and derive clusters at 12 months of age. Clusters were compared on ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, and social-emotional difficulties at age 3 years. Two clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n = 37; 14.2% of total sample) had significantly higher levels of autistic-like traits compared with cluster 2. Within cluster 1, 33 children came from the siblings (19.4% of HR group) and only 4 came from the control subjects (4.5% of LR group). At age 3 years, children from cluster 1 had more social-communication impairment (effect size > 0.70; P autism phenotype by 12 months of age in approximately 19% of HR siblings who did not meet ASD diagnostic criteria at age 3 years.

  19. Further evidence for the fifth higher trait of personality pathology: a correlation study using normal and disordered personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Xu, Shaofang; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Xu, You; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-30

    Studies between disordered personality and the Big-Five or the Alternative Five-Factor model of normal personality have consistently shown four higher traits. The fifth higher trait, relating to Openness to Experience or Impulsive Sensation Seeking was less supported. The culture-free Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ) might help us to characterise the fifth higher trait. We therefore tried the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP), the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the NPQ in 253 healthy participants. Our results yielded five factors, four of which resembled the previous ones. The fifth one, namely Peculiarity Seeking, was defined by NPQ and NEO-PI-R Openness to Experience, ZKPQ Impulsive Sensation Seeking and DAPP Stimulus Seeking. Whether the fifth factor is linked to the schizotypal personality disorder as proposed remains unanswered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  1. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  2. Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Candidate Genes for Coat Color and Mohair Traits in the Iranian Markhoz Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari-Ghadikolaei, Anahit; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Miarei-Aashtiani, Seyed R; Staiger, Elizabeth A; Rashidi, Amir; Huson, Heather J

    2018-01-01

    The Markhoz goat provides an opportunity to study the genetics underlying coat color and mohair traits of an Angora type goat using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This indigenous Iranian breed is valued for its quality mohair used in ceremonial garments and has the distinction of exhibiting an array of coat colors including black, brown, and white. Here, we performed 16 GWAS for different fleece (mohair) traits and coat color in 228 Markhoz goats sampled from the Markhoz Goat Research Station in Sanandaj, Kurdistan province, located in western Iran using the Illumina Caprine 50K beadchip. The Efficient Mixed Model Linear analysis was used to identify genomic regions with potential candidate genes contributing to coat color and mohair characteristics while correcting for population structure. Significant associations to coat color were found within or near the ASIP, ITCH, AHCY , and RALY genes on chromosome 13 for black and brown coat color and the KIT and PDGFRA genes on chromosome 6 for white coat color. Individual mohair traits were analyzed for genetic association along with principal components that allowed for a broader perspective of combined traits reflecting overall mohair quality and volume. A multitude of markers demonstrated significant association to mohair traits highlighting potential candidate genes of POU1F1 on chromosome 1 for mohair quality, MREG on chromosome 2 for mohair volume, DUOX1 on chromosome 10 for yearling fleece weight, and ADGRV1 on chromosome 7 for grease percentage. Variation in allele frequencies and haplotypes were identified for coat color and differentiated common markers associated with both brown and black coat color. This demonstrates the potential for genetic markers to be used in future breeding programs to improve selection for coat color and mohair traits. Putative candidate genes, both novel and previously identified in other species or breeds, require further investigation to confirm phenotypic causality and

  3. Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Candidate Genes for Coat Color and Mohair Traits in the Iranian Markhoz Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahit Nazari-Ghadikolaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Markhoz goat provides an opportunity to study the genetics underlying coat color and mohair traits of an Angora type goat using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. This indigenous Iranian breed is valued for its quality mohair used in ceremonial garments and has the distinction of exhibiting an array of coat colors including black, brown, and white. Here, we performed 16 GWAS for different fleece (mohair traits and coat color in 228 Markhoz goats sampled from the Markhoz Goat Research Station in Sanandaj, Kurdistan province, located in western Iran using the Illumina Caprine 50K beadchip. The Efficient Mixed Model Linear analysis was used to identify genomic regions with potential candidate genes contributing to coat color and mohair characteristics while correcting for population structure. Significant associations to coat color were found within or near the ASIP, ITCH, AHCY, and RALY genes on chromosome 13 for black and brown coat color and the KIT and PDGFRA genes on chromosome 6 for white coat color. Individual mohair traits were analyzed for genetic association along with principal components that allowed for a broader perspective of combined traits reflecting overall mohair quality and volume. A multitude of markers demonstrated significant association to mohair traits highlighting potential candidate genes of POU1F1 on chromosome 1 for mohair quality, MREG on chromosome 2 for mohair volume, DUOX1 on chromosome 10 for yearling fleece weight, and ADGRV1 on chromosome 7 for grease percentage. Variation in allele frequencies and haplotypes were identified for coat color and differentiated common markers associated with both brown and black coat color. This demonstrates the potential for genetic markers to be used in future breeding programs to improve selection for coat color and mohair traits. Putative candidate genes, both novel and previously identified in other species or breeds, require further investigation to confirm phenotypic

  4. One-year follow-up study of first suicide attempts in first episode psychosis: Personality traits and temporal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Rodriguez-Testal, Juan F; Giner, Lucas; Obiols-Llandrich, Jordi E; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The highest suicide rates occur after psychiatric hospitalization or soon after discharge. In addition to other factors, personality traits have been suggested as predictors of suicide attempts (SA) after first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study we examined their temporal pattern and the influence of personality traits on first suicide attempts (fSA) during one year after FEP. One-year follow-up of 65 FEP patients. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the relationship between personality traits and fSA. This analysis was also adjusted for a set of sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological variables. fSAs in the six months following FEP were predicted by higher scores in passive-dependent personality traits (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.15-5.09) and severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.76). Severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.71, CI = 1.15-6.39) was the most significant predictor of fSA from six to twelve months after FEP. Seventy percent of fSA occurred during the first six months after FEP, decreasing considerably afterwards. Our study suggests that personality traits play a role in fSA after FEP. Specifically, passive-dependent personality traits emerged as a predictor of fSA in the six months following FEP. Severity of symptoms at onset predicted early and late first suicide attempts. We also found that risk of fSA is highest during the six months following FEP. These results can contribute to the implementation of prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  7. A Prospective Study of Trait Anger and PTSD Symptoms in Police

    OpenAIRE

    Meffert, Susan M.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon; Inslicht, Sabra; Chemtob, Claude; Neylan, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether anger is a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, arises as a consequence of PTSD, or both. Two hypotheses were tested in 180 police recruits: Greater trait anger during training will predict greater PTSD symptoms at one year; greater PTSD symptoms at one year will predict greater state anger at one year. Both hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that trait anger is a risk factor for PTSD symptoms, but that PTSD symptoms are al...

  8. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  9. Effects of Temperament and Character Profiles on State and Trait Depression and Anxiety: A Prospective Study of a Japanese Youth Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2, separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1 only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2 trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3 trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety.

  10. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  11. Introversion, the prevalent trait of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta D’Agata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of studies about adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis focus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. However, only a few articles aim at evaluating the personality of these patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present research is to assess the personality traits of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their relationship with HRQOL. Our hypothesis is that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis present the principal personality trait of introversion, defined as self-reliance and inhibition in social relationships. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. The examined group consisted of 43 patients (only 4 boys, mean age = 14.3 (SD = 2.23. On the day of the visit, HRQOL tools (Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire (SRS-22 and Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS and a personality test (16 Personality Factors-Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ were completed; in addition, a posterior-anterior radiography was performed. Correlations among demographic and medical data and HRQOL and personality tests were assessed. Results Results for SRS-22 were as follows: Function 4.5 (SD = .4, Pain 4.3 (SD = .5, Self-image 3.6 (SD = .7, Mental Health 3.8. (SD = .7, and Subtotal 4.2 (SD = .7. Mean TAPS was 3.5 (SD = .6. In personality, the lowest values were assessed for Extroversion (M = 29.4, SD = 24.7 and Self-reliance (M = 71, SD = 25.3. Independence was negatively related to Self-image (r = −.51, Mental Health (r = −.54, and Subtotal SRS-22 (r = −.60 (p < .01. Conclusions Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis presented a common style of personality, characterized by social inhibition (introversion, preference for staying alone, and being self-sufficient (self-reliance. Specific programs in promoting social abilities may help adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis in finding a way to express themselves and to become more sociable. Correlational studies

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

  13. Pain processing in a social context and the link with psychopathic personality traits: An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, C.H. van; Driessen, J.M.A.; Amato, M.; Berg, M.N. van den; Bhandari, P.; Bilbao-Broch, L.; Farres-Casals, J.; Hendriks, M.; Jodzio, A.C.J.; Luque-Ballesteros, L.; Schöchl, C.A.; Velasco-Angeles, L.R.; Weijer, R.H.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to

  14. Personality Traits, Autobiographical Memory and Knowledge of Self and Others: A Comparative Study in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Howlin, Patricia; Russell, Ailsa

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between dissociable components of autobiographical memory (e.g. semantic personality traits and episodic memory retrieval) and other cognitive skills that are proposed to enable one to develop a sense of self (e.g. introspection) have not previously been explored for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study compared…

  15. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A A; Rayate, S J; Mhase, L B; Thudi, M; Chitikineni, A; Harer, P N; Jadhav, A S; Varshney, R K; Kulwal, P L

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding Q values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Study from Bursa Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Orhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Obesity is one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and obesity among women aged 20 years and older. METHOD: This is a cross- sectional study, undergone in a primary health care setting in Bursa /Turkey in the year 2008. A total of 807 women were included in the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Metabolic Syndrome definition was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.713.2 years, 96.4% were married, 50.7% had education of less than 8 years, 93.7% were housewives and 85.3% had a monthly family income of $650 or less. The prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity were 17.5 % and 87.7% respectively. Those with diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma lipids had increased risk of developing MetS 11.3 and 4.5 times more than those without these situations respectively. The risk of MetS increases with age and increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an alarming risk factor for the development of MetS in our study group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 421-432

  17. Voriconazole metabolism is influenced by severe inflammation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, Anette; ter Avest, Mendy; Span, Lambert F. R.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Touw, Daan J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Background: During an infection or inflammation, several drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver are downregulated, including cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes. Since voriconazole is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, the metabolism of voriconazole can be influenced during inflammation

  18. Are obsessive-compulsive personality traits associated with a poor outcome in anorexia nervosa? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and naturalistic outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Anna M; Roberts, Marion E; Treasure, Janet

    2007-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits are commonly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD traits have an impact on the outcome of AN. A systematic electronic search of the literature (using Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) was undertaken to identify relevant publications (randomized controlled trials (RCT's) and naturalistic studies), until February 2006. Eleven prospective longitudinal studies and 12 RCT's met criteria for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not feasible as the studies were too heterogeneous. Just over half of published longitudinal studies found that OCPD traits were associated with a negative outcome in AN. Additionally, results from three RCTs suggested that these traits may moderate outcome. OCPD traits were reduced after treatment in five RCTs. There is tentative support to suggest that individuals with AN and concomitant OCPD traits have a poorer prognosis, and that these traits moderate outcome. A reduction in these traits may mediate this change. An individualized case formulation with treatment tailored to OCPD traits may improve the outcome of AN. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  20. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  2. Exploring sex differences in autistic traits: A factor analytic study of adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype consistently in autistic men and women. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form in a large sample of autistic adults. It also systematically explored specific sex differences at the item level, to determine whether the scale assesses the autism phenotype equivalently across males and females. Factor analyses were conducted among 265 males and 285 females. A two-factor structure consisting of a social behaviour and numbers and patterns factor was consistent across groups, indicating that the latent autism phenotype is similar among both autistic men and women. Subtle differences were observed on two social behaviour item thresholds of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form, with women reporting scores more in line with the scores expected in autism on these items than men. However, these differences were not substantial. This study showed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form detects autistic traits equivalently in males and females and is not biased towards the male autism phenotype.

  3. Emotional intelligence and coronary atherosclerosis: exploratory study using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are no prior studies that assess emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with coronary atherosclerosis. Aim The purpose of this study is to explore associations between emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with and without coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Design and method Cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic 30 to 80 year-old adults that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who underwent coronary multislice computed tomography. Coronary atherosclerosis was shown by 64-channel multislice computed tomography. Emotional intelligence was assessed by applying the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. Results The sample was composed of 73% men and 27% women. Fifty-one percent had coronary atherosclerotic lesions, 78% had scores below the reference values for both Clarity and Repair. Seventy-nine percent had scores above the reference values for Attention. Statistically significant associations were found between the presence of coronary atherosclerotic lesion and: a emotional attention, chi-square: 0.302, p=0.043, b emotional clarity, chi-square: -0.312, p=0.040, b emotional regulation, chi-square: -0.313, p=0.040. Conclusions: People with coronary atherosclerotic lesions showed an excessive tendency to focus on their own feelings and higher levels of rumination, together with lower ability to identify, distinguish and describe their emotions. Likewise, they have lower ability to reduce or eliminate negative emotions and to increase or maintain the intensity of positive emotions.

  4. Childhood trauma is not a confounder of the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits: A study in a non-clinical adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Ya; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-11-01

    Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Correlation analysis showed that the majority of associations between AQ variables and SPQ variables were significant (p autistic and schizotypal traits could not be explained by shared variance in terms of exposure to childhood trauma. The findings point to important overlaps in the conceptualization of ASD and SSD, independent of childhood trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol consumption and accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia; Ispas, Alexandru Teodor

    2016-10-27

    Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to identify the frequency, quantity, occasions, reasons, type of AC, and correlation with accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania. Participants were 1359 young adults aged 18-30 years (average age, 22.67 years; standard deviation [SD], 3.02 years) from urban environments including the main university centers. Several questionnaires covering issues such as health risk behavior (smoking, alcohol abuse, unprotected sex, sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating), aggression, personality, adaptability, cohesion, and communication were administered to participants between 2013 and 2014. Pearson's chi-square tests and z-tests were used for the analyses. Common reasons young adults first tried AC were curiosity (67.8 %), to be like peers (17.9 %), and adult influence (6.5 %). In terms of AC frequency, 72.5 % consumed alcohol only on special occasions/holidays, 19.4 % on weekends, 4.8 % three to four times per week, and 0.4 % on a daily basis. To overcome sexual/emotional inhibitions or for courage, 2.1 % of participants drank frequently and 23.5 % drank from time to time. AC most often occurred with a group of friends (62.3 %). For 9.7 % of participants, AC was a reason for poor concentration, or problems at work/school. At the time of interview, participants had consumed an average of 319.48 ml beer (SD, 1223.02 ml), 82.75 ml wine (SD, 385.39 ml) and 25.62 ml spirits (SD, 131.34 ml) in the previous week. AC was significantly higher in males (p aged 23-30 years (p socializing. AC also correlated with some accentuated personality traits. Therefore, public health education programs should be targeted for these categories.

  6. Relationships of personality traits and stress to gingival status or soft-tissue oral pathology: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneman, M A; Cobb, C; Soriano, F; Burns, S; Schuchman, L

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of personality traits and stress with gingival inflammation and with soft-tissue oral pathology. Personality traits of psychoticism (P), extroversion and introversion (E), and neuroticism (N) were measured with Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ). Stress was measured with a modified organizational and individual assessment survey (OIAS) developed by Hendrix. Military recruits from Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, were examined for soft-tissue oral pathology and gingival status at weeks one (n = 241) and six (n = 61) of basic combat training (BCT). The EPQ and OIAS were administered to 217 recruits during week six of BCT. A discriminant analysis was used to determine correlations among study variables. Significant correlations (P personality traits and various measures of tolerance of stress. Little variance was found between groups originally presenting with or without disease. Only physical stress (P personality traits, stress variables, and gingival inflammation or soft-tissue pathology in recruits with extreme personality characteristics or perception of high physical stress levels in basic combat training.

  7. Influence of allelic variations in relation to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on psychopathic traits: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Durand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Past findings support a relationship between abnormalities in the amygdala and the presence of psychopathic traits. Among other genes and biomarkers relevant to the amygdala, norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors might both play a role in psychopathy due to their association with traits peripheral to psychopathy. The purpose is to examine if allelic variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors play a role in the display of psychopathic traits and executive functions. Methods Fifty-seven healthy participants from the community provided a saliva sample for SNP sampling of rs5522 and rs5569. Participants then completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Short Form (PPI-SF and the Tower of Hanoi. Results Allelic variations of both rs5522 and rs5569 were significant when compared to PPI-SF total score and the fearless dominance component of the PPI-SF. A significant result was also obtained between rs5522 and the number of moves needed to complete the 5-disk Tower of Hanoi. Conclusion This pilot study offers preliminary results regarding the effect of allelic variations in SNPs related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on the presence of psychopathic traits. Suggestions are provided to enhance the reliability and validity of a larger-scale study.

  8. The relation of trait and state mindfulness with satisfaction and physical activity: A cross-sectional study in 305 Dutch participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; Lacroix, Joyca Pw; van Ee, Raymond; Vinkers, Charlotte Dw; De Ridder, Denise Td

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has shown that satisfaction mediates the relationship of state mindfulness (i.e. during physical activity) with physical activity. This study aimed to replicate this finding and to explore the role of trait mindfulness with a cross-sectional design. In all, 305 participants completed measures on trait and state mindfulness, satisfaction with physical activity, and physical activity. Mediation analyses were used. Satisfaction mediated the effect of state mindfulness on physical activity. Trait mindfulness related to physical activity via an indirect path, namely through two consecutive mediators, first state mindfulness and then satisfaction. Our results suggest that to enhance satisfaction, both state and trait mindfulness should be considered.

  9. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, Alexander B.; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  10. Trait Mindfulness as a Limiting Factor for Residual Depressive Symptoms: An Explorative Study Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Sholto; Eames, Catrin; Brennan, Kate; Lambert, Gwladys; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J. Mark G.; Duggan, Danielle S.; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been suggested to be an important protective factor for emotional health. However, this effect might vary with regard to context. This study applied a novel statistical approach, quantile regression, in order to investigate the relation between trait mindfulness and residual depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression, while taking into account symptom severity and number of episodes as contextual factors. Rather than fitting to a single indicator of central tendency, quantile regression allows exploration of relations across the entire range of the response variable. Analysis of self-report data from 274 participants with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression showed that relatively higher levels of mindfulness were associated with relatively lower levels of residual depressive symptoms. This relationship was most pronounced near the upper end of the response distribution and moderated by the number of previous episodes of depression at the higher quantiles. The findings suggest that with lower levels of mindfulness, residual symptoms are less constrained and more likely to be influenced by other factors. Further, the limiting effect of mindfulness on residual symptoms is most salient in those with higher numbers of episodes. PMID:24988072

  11. Comparing personality traits of male and female dental students: a study of two freshman classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershen, J A; McCreary, C P

    1977-10-01

    The marked increase in women enrolled in dental school warrants a reassessment of dental student personality profiles. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to compare personality profiles of two first-year dental classes, (2) to compare male and female dental student profiles to their respective norm populations, and (3) to compare male and female dental student personality traits with each other. The Comrey Personality Scales were administered to two first-year dental classes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Between sex and within sex comparisons were made over ten inventory scales. Results indicated that the collective personality profiles of male and female dental students were markedly similar to each other for both classes. These results do not reflect the differences encountered between the sexes in the norm population. It was also noted that the "average" male dental student differed from the male norms on Orderliness versus Lack of Compulsion, Social Conformity versus Rebelliousness, and Emotional Stability versus Neuroticism. In addition, "average" female dental student differed from the female norms on Masculinity versus Femininity.

  12. Mindfulness Trait Predicts Neurophysiological Reactivity Associated with Negativity Bias: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa S. P. Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship of mindfulness trait with the early and late stages of affective processing, by examining the two corresponding ERP components, P2 and LPP, collected from twenty-two male Chinese participants with a wide range of meditation experiences. Multiple regression analyses was performed on the mindfulness scores, as measured by CAMS-R, with the subjective affective ratings and ERP data collected during an emotion processing task. The results showed that increased mindfulness scores predicted increased valence ratings of negative stimuli (less negative, as well as increased P2 amplitudes at the frontocentral location for positive compared to negative stimuli. Based on these findings, a plausible mechanism of mindfulness in reducing negativity bias was discussed. Moreover, our results replicated previous findings on the age-related increase of P2 amplitudes at the frontal sites for positive compared to neutral stimuli. Since the locations at which P2 amplitudes were found as associated with age and mindfulness differed, as did the emotional contents of the stimuli being compared, indicating that the effect of age did not confound our findings on mindfulness and the two factors might operate on early affective processing from distinct sources and mechanisms.

  13. An exploratory study to subtype obese binge eaters by personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leombruni, Paolo; Rocca, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo; Gastaldi, Filippo; Nicotra, Barbara; Siccardi, Sara; Lavagnino, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) are prevalent conditions that severely affect the quality of life of many people in developed countries, but an effective treatment remains elusive. Personality traits have been studied extensively in this population, leading to different, and at times conflicting, results. Subtyping BED people along these features could add to our knowledge of the disorder. We applied a two-step cluster analysis, followed by bootstrapping validation, to the Temperament and Character Inventory scores of 462 subjects affected by obesity and BED or subthreshold BED. We found two clusters of subjects; however, the categorization in clusters 1 and 2 did not appear to strictly overlap with the distinction between BED and subthreshold BED. The first cluster showed higher harm avoidance and a lower self-directedness. Cluster 1 patients had higher depression, higher eating impulsivity, greater problems with their body image and poorer quality of life than cluster 2 patients. Our results seem to confirm the heterogeneity of the binge eater population and suggest the importance of harm avoidance and self-directedness to subtype these subjects. These results could generate exploratory works regarding personality in obese people with BED to discover more targeted treatments.

  14. Love-pursuing Patterns and Personality Traits: A Preliminary Study in Chinese University undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang CAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The love-pursuing pattern (LPP, or love-initiating behavior, is important in building or maintaining a relationship, but has been less studied. We hypothesize that the LPPs might be modulated by personality traits. Therefore we have administered an adjective-based LPP questionnaire, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS, and the Plutchik – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP in 164 Chinese undergraduates who were in a current heterosexual-love relationship. We did not find any differences of LPP, ZKPQ, SSS, or PVP scale scores when either referred to gender or initiator/ receiver. In initiators (13 women, 85 men, the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with LPP Impulsive scale, Disinhibition was positively correlated with Threatening scale, and the PVP was negatively correlated with Persistent scale. In all subjects, the ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility was negatively correlated with the perceived happiness from the relationship, Activity was positively correlated with relationship suitability, and the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with a future marriage probability. Low SSS Experience Seeking and Disinhibition, ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility, together with high Activity and emotionality would be helpful to initiate a love relationship, and increase chances of the perceived happiness and suitability, and a future marriage.

  15. Teacher Perception of Principals' Leadership Traits and Middle School Math and Science Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Causal-Comparative and Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousar, Theresa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine middle school teachers' job satisfaction (low vs. high) and how teachers perceive principals' leadership traits. The study used a causal-comparative and correlational design. The teachers were divided into two job satisfaction level groups. Teacher perception of principal leadership traits for…

  16. Sexually selected traits: a fundamental framework for studies on behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic-based mechanisms contribute to various aspects of sex differences in brain and behavior. The major obstacle in establishing and fully understanding this linkage is identifying the traits that are most susceptible to epigenetic modification. We have proposed that sexual selection provides a conceptual framework for identifying such traits. These are traits involved in intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating partners and generally entail a combination of male-male competition and female choice. These behaviors are programmed during early embryonic and postnatal development, particularly during the transition from the juvenile to adult periods, by exposure of the brain to steroid hormones, including estradiol and testosterone. We evaluate the evidence that endocrine-disrupting compounds, including bisphenol A, can interfere with the vital epigenetic and gene expression pathways and with the elaboration of sexually selected traits with epigenetic mechanisms presumably governing the expression of these traits. Finally, we review the evidence to suggest that these steroid hormones can induce a variety of epigenetic changes in the brain, including the extent of DNA methylation, histone protein alterations, and even alterations of noncoding RNA, and that many of the changes differ between males and females. Although much previous attention has focused on primary sex differences in reproductive behaviors, such as male mounting and female lordosis, we outline why secondary sex differences related to competition and mate choice might also trace their origins back to steroid-induced epigenetic programming in disparate regions of the brain.

  17. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  18. Gene-based testing of interactions in association studies of quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Various methods have been developed for identifying gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. However, most methods focus on individual markers as the testing unit, and the large number of such tests drastically erodes statistical power. In this study, we propose novel interaction tests of quantitative traits that are gene-based and that confer advantage in both statistical power and biological interpretation. The framework of gene-based gene-gene interaction (GGG tests combine marker-based interaction tests between all pairs of markers in two genes to produce a gene-level test for interaction between the two. The tests are based on an analytical formula we derive for the correlation between marker-based interaction tests due to linkage disequilibrium. We propose four GGG tests that extend the following P value combining methods: minimum P value, extended Simes procedure, truncated tail strength, and truncated P value product. Extensive simulations point to correct type I error rates of all tests and show that the two truncated tests are more powerful than the other tests in cases of markers involved in the underlying interaction not being directly genotyped and in cases of multiple underlying interactions. We applied our tests to pairs of genes that exhibit a protein-protein interaction to test for gene-level interactions underlying lipid levels using genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We identified five novel interactions that are not evident from marker-based interaction testing and successfully replicated one of these interactions, between SMAD3 and NEDD9, in an independent sample from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We conclude that our GGG tests show improved power to identify gene-level interactions in existing, as well as emerging, association studies.

  19. A genome-wide association study to detect QTL for commercially important traits in Swiss Large White boars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Becker

    Full Text Available The improvement of meat quality and production traits has high priority in the pork industry. Many of these traits show a low to moderate heritability and are difficult and expensive to measure. Their improvement by targeted breeding programs is challenging and requires knowledge of the genetic and molecular background. For this study we genotyped 192 artificial insemination boars of a commercial line derived from the Swiss Large White breed using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip with 62,163 evenly spaced SNPs across the pig genome. We obtained 26 estimated breeding values (EBVs for various traits including exterior, meat quality, reproduction, and production. The subsequent genome-wide association analysis allowed us to identify four QTL with suggestive significance for three of these traits (p-values ranging from 4.99×10⁻⁶ to 2.73×10⁻⁵. Single QTL for the EBVs pH one hour post mortem (pH1 and carcass length were on pig chromosome (SSC 14 and SSC 2, respectively. Two QTL for the EBV rear view hind legs were on SSC 10 and SSC 16.

  20. Diabetes-specific genetic effects on obesity traits in American Indian populations: the Strong Heart Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barbara V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  1. Radioisotope techniques in the study of protein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a panel meeting on June 1-5, 1964. The purpose of the panel was to discuss the present status of radioactive tracer techniques for the study of protein metabolism and to suggest ways of extending an co-ordinating the Agency's research programme in this field. The meeting was attended by 13 invited experts from ten different countries, and three representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO). Sessions of the panel were devoted to methods of preparation of labelled proteins and protein-like substances, to techniques of measurement of gastro-intestinal protein absorption and loss and to the clinical applications of these techniques. At each session, working papers were presented by various participants and then discussed in detail. This report gives the full texts of the working papers together with extensive summaries of the discussions and provides a detailed picture of the present situation and likely future developments in this field of work. It is hoped that its publication will be of interest to all concerned with problems of protein metabolism, whether in clinical medicine or the basic medical sciences. 349 refs, figs and tabs

  2. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  3. Identification of growth trait related genes in a Yorkshire purebred pig population by genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingli Meng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to identify genomic regions or genes controlling growth traits in pigs. Methods Using a panel of 54,148 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we performed a genome-wide Association (GWA study in 562 pure Yorshire pigs with four growth traits: average daily gain from 30 kg to 100 kg or 115 kg, and days to 100 kg or 115 kg. Fixed and random model Circulating Probability Unification method was used to identify the associations between 54,148 SNPs and these four traits. SNP annotations were performed through the Sus scrofa data set from Ensembl. Bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis, was used to identify the candidate genes. Results We detected 6 significant and 12 suggestive SNPs, and identified 9 candidate genes in close proximity to them (suppressor of glucose by autophagy [SOGA1], R-Spondin 2 [RSPO2], mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6 [MAP2K6], phospholipase C beta 1 [PLCB1], rho GTPASE activating protein 24 [ARHGAP24], cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 [CPEB4], GLI family zinc finger 2 [GLI2], neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 2 [NYAP2], and zinc finger protein multitype 2 [ZFPM2]. Gene ontology analysis and literature mining indicated that the candidate genes are involved in bone, muscle, fat, and lung development. Pathway analysis revealed that PLCB1 and MAP2K6 participate in the gonadotropin signaling pathway and suggests that these two genes contribute to growth at the onset of puberty. Conclusion Our results provide new clues for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying growth traits, and may help improve these traits in future breeding programs.

  4. Metabolome-genome-wide association study dissects genetic architecture for generating natural variation in rice secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yang, Zhigang; Okazaki, Yozo; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce structurally diverse secondary (specialized) metabolites to increase their fitness for survival under adverse environments. Several bioactive compounds for new drugs have been identified through screening of plant extracts. In this study, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture behind the natural variation of rice secondary metabolites. GWAS using the metabolome data of 175 rice accessions successfully identified 323 associations among 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 89 metabolites. The data analysis highlighted that levels of many metabolites are tightly associated with a small number of strong quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The tight association may be a mechanism generating strains with distinct metabolic composition through the crossing of two different strains. The results indicate that one plant species produces more diverse phytochemicals than previously expected, and plants still contain many useful compounds for human applications. PMID:25267402

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Traits by Hispanic/Latino Background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...

  6. Sex Differences in the Default Mode Network with Regard to Autism Spectrum Traits: A Resting State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyoung Jung

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum traits exist on a continuum and are more common in males than in females, but the basis for this sex difference is unclear. To this end, the present study draws on the extreme male brain theory, investigating the relationship between sex difference and the default mode network (DMN, both known to be associated with autism spectrum traits. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was carried out in 42 females (mean age ± standard deviation, 22.4 ± 4.2 years and 43 males (mean age ± standard deviation, 23.8 ± 3.9 years with typical development. Using a combination of different analyses (viz., independent component analysis (ICA, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, and seed-based analyses, we examined sex differences in the DMN and the relationship to autism spectrum traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient (AQ scores. We found significant differences between female and male subjects in DMN brain regions, with seed-based analysis revealing a significant negative correlation between default-mode resting state functional connectivity of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex seed (aMPFC and AQ scores in males. However, there were no relationships between DMN sex differences and autism spectrum traits in females. Our findings may provide important insight into the skewed balance of functional connectivity in males compared to females that could serve as a potential biomarker of the degree of autism spectrum traits in line with the extreme male brain theory.

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Five-Factor Personality Traits Model as Predictors among Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields at Indiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sowmya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify any trends in personality traits of students at a mid-western university along with the influence of gender, choice of STEM or non-STEM academic major, and level of education on personality traits. The chosen mid-western university is Indiana State University (ISU) located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This…

  8. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  9. Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfanti, Jonathan; Cortet, Jérôme; Hedde, Mickaël

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits...

  10. Radioisotopic and synthetic studies related to caroxazone metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, L.; Coda, S.; Nicolella, V.; Vicario, G.P.; Gioia, B.; Minghetti, A.; Vigevani, A.; Arcamone, F.

    1979-01-01

    Labelled 2-oxo-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H)-acetamide (caroxazone), has been synthesized by condensing N-(2-hydroxylbenzyl) glycinamide with 14 C phosgene. Metabolic studies were performed administering the labelled drug to man and recovering metabolites were identified and confirmed by synthesis, namely (3,4-dihydro - 3-carboxamidomethyl-2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazin-4-yl) urea (IX), N-carboxamidomethyl o-hydroxymethylphenyl carbamate (V), 4-methoxy-2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetamide (VIIIa), 2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetic acid (III) and 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetamide (IV). (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 GR [de

  11. Studies of the calcium metabolism of subjects with renal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    In order to perform a detailed study of calcium metabolism, it is necessary to differentiate between intestinal absorption and its subsequent behaviour in terms of either uptake onto the bone or excretion. The measurement of calcium absorption involved two separate intakes of the tracer 47 Ca. Each subject ingested a known activity. Measurements on blood samples were made after 5 hours and a smoothed curve describing the appearance of the activity in the plasma was determined. About 4 weeks after oral ingestion a known activity was injected into the subject and the procedure repeated. A curve describing the differential transfer of calcium from the intestine to the blood stream was derived by performing a deconvolution procedure on the two curves

  12. Identification of halophile bacteria from salt deserts of Iran and study some of their physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safdarian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Halophiles and halotolerant microorganisms are some of the extremophiles that are able to grow in medium containing sodium chloride and have adapted to life in salinity environments. Halophiles bacteria in saline soils by maintaining the food chain, decomposition of organic matter and improvement of soil structure and fertility improve soil conditions. Materials and methods: In order to isolate the halotoletant bacteria, from the halophyte rhizosphere, four desert areas in Golestan province were sampled. To check the Extremophile of isolates, their resistance was tested for resistant to salinity, drought, temperature and PH. Also, plant growth promoting traits were measured. Results: Fromforty-five strains which were isolated, three strains (G3, G6 and G14 have demonstrated the ability of resistance to 35% salt. Isolates G6 and G3 phosphate solubiliziation power of 301 and 201 ppm, respectively. Isolated G6 micrograms produced auxin 20/7 Mg/ ml. G14 and G6 grow at 50 °C, pH = 10 and osmotic potential -0 /7MPa. While G3 strain grows at 50 °C, pH = 7/ 5 and osmotic potential -0/49. The three strains of the bacterial genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, isolates due to the growth in concentrations of salt and saturated salt tolerance of extreme environmental conditions and are likely halotolerant or halophile bacteria and its potential for use in various fields of biotechnology including biotech, industrial enzyme production and biological fertilizers for saline soil improvement.

  13. Are sickle cell anaemia and sickle cell trait predictive factors for periodontal disease? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, H L C C; Thomaz, E B A F; Alves, C M C; Souza, S F C

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal diseases are associated with bacterial challenge and the host immune response, and are also modulated by genetic factors. There is evidence that sickle cell anaemia (SCA) does not represent a risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, it is still unclear whether the heterozygous condition [sickle cell trait (SCT)] is associated with periodontal diseases. SCT is a genetic condition that can cause vaso-occlusive events, which may be associated with a propensity to bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SCA and SCT with periodontal diseases by evaluating clinical and radiographic characteristics. The sample (n = 369) was selected and divided into two groups: exposed groups [HbSS (SCA genotype) and HbAS (SCT genotype) = 246] and a nonexposed group (HbAA = 123). HbAA consisted of individuals without SCA and SCT. The clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, clinical probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, tooth mobility and furcation involvement. The percentage of alveolar bone loss was measured using a Schei ruler. Binomial and Poisson regressions were used to estimate correlations of interest (α = 0.05). None of the periodontal parameters was associated with SCA. SCT was associated with gingivitis (p = 0.041) and periodontitis (p = 0.002). Individuals with SCT had a lower plaque index (p = 0.044) but a higher calculus index (p = 0.003) and greater alveolar bone loss (p = 0.010) compared with subjects in the HbAA group. SCT can act as a predictor for establishment of periodontal diseases. There was no correlation between SCA and periodontal diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. How scientists perceive the evolutionary origin of human traits: Results of a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna; Tuomisto, Matleena; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2018-03-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology). Some of the hypotheses were clearly more popular among the 1,266 respondents than others, but none was universally accepted or rejected. Even the most popular of the hypotheses were assessed "very likely" by 70% of the respondents. An ordination of the hypotheses identified two strong gradients. Along one gradient, the hypotheses were sorted by their popularity, measured by the average credibility score given by the respondents. The second gradient separated all hypotheses postulating adaptation to swimming or diving into their own group. The average credibility scores given for different subgroups of the hypotheses were not related to respondent's age or number of publications authored. However, (paleo)anthropologists were more critical of all hypotheses, and much more critical of the water-related ones, than were respondents representing other fields of expertise. Although most respondents did not find the water-related hypotheses likely, only a small minority found them unscientific. The most popular hypotheses were based on inherent drivers; that is, they assumed the evolution of a trait to have been triggered by the prior emergence of another human-specific behavioral or morphological trait, but opinions differed as to which of the traits came first.

  15. Genetic and Association Mapping Study of Wheat Agronomic Traits Under Contrasting Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Dodig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses and association mapping were performed on a winter wheat core collection of 96 accessions sampled from a variety of geographic origins. Twenty-four agronomic traits were evaluated over 3 years under fully irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments. Grain yield was the most sensitive trait to water deficit and was highly correlated with above-ground biomass per plant and number of kernels per m2. The germplasm was structured into four subpopulations. The association of 46 SSR loci distributed throughout the wheat genome with yield and agronomic traits was analyzed using a general linear model, where subpopulation information was used to control false-positive or spurious marker-trait associations (MTAs. A total of 26, 21 and 29 significant (P < 0.001 MTAs were identified in irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments, respectively. The marker effects ranged from 14.0 to 50.8%. Combined across all treatments, 34 significant (P < 0.001 MTAs were identified with nine markers, and R2 ranged from 14.5 to 50.2%. Marker psp3200 (6DS and particularly gwm484 (2DS were associated with many significant MTAs in each treatment and explained the greatest proportion of phenotypic variation. Although we were not able to recognize any marker related to grain yield under drought stress, a number of MTAs associated with developmental and agronomic traits highly correlated with grain yield under drought were identified.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic traits in patients with breast cancer: a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Amita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most extensively studied cancers and its genetic basis is well established. Dermatoglyphic traits are formed under genetic control early in development but may be affected by environmental factors during first trimester of pregnancy. They however do not change significantly thereafter, thus maintaining stability not greatly affected by age. These patterns may represent the genetic make up of an individual and therefore his/her predisposition to certain diseases. Patterns of dermatoglyphics have been studied in various congenital disorders like Down's syndrome and Kleinfelter syndrome. The prints can thus represent a non-invasive anatomical marker of breast cancer risk and thus facilitate early detection and treatment. Methods The study was conducted on 60 histo-pathologically confirmed breast cancer patients and their digital dermatoglyphic patterns were studied to assess their association with the type and onset of breast cancer. Simultaneously 60 age-matched controls were also selected that had no self or familial history of a diagnosed breast cancer and the observations were recorded. The differences of qualitative (dermatoglyphic patterns data were tested for their significance using the chi-square test, and for quantitative (ridge counts and pattern intensity index data using the t- test. Results It was observed that six or more whorls in the finger print pattern were statistically significant among the cancer patients as compared to controls. It was also seen that whorls in the right ring finger and right little finger were found increased among the cases as compared to controls. The differences between mean pattern intensity index of cases and controls were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion The dermatoglyphic patterns may be utilized effectively to study the genetic basis of breast cancer and may also serve as a screening tool in the high-risk population. In a developing

  17. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.; Pincetl, S.; Bunje, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. - This paper presents a chronological review of urban metabolism studies and highlights four areas of application.

  18. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  19. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  20. In situ coral reef oxygen metabolism: an eddy correlation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Long

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies of coral reefs are challenged by the three-dimensional hard structure of reefs and the high spatial variability and temporal dynamics of their metabolism. We used the non-invasive eddy correlation technique to examine respiration and photosynthesis rates, through O2 fluxes, from reef crests and reef slopes in the Florida Keys, USA. We assessed how the photosynthesis and respiration of different reef habitats is controlled by light and hydrodynamics. Numerous fluxes (over a 0.25 h period were as high as 4500 mmol O2 m(-2 d(-1, which can only be explained by efficient light utilization by the phototrophic community and the complex canopy structure of the reef, having a many-fold larger surface area than its horizontal projection. Over diel cycles, the reef crest was net autotrophic, whereas on the reef slope oxygen production and respiration were balanced. The autotrophic nature of the shallow reef crests implies that the export of organics is an important source of primary production for the larger area. Net oxygen production on the reef crest was proportional to the light intensity, up to 1750 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 and decreased thereafter as respiration was stimulated by high current velocities coincident with peak light levels. Nighttime respiration rates were also stimulated by the current velocity, through enhanced ventilation of the porous framework of the reef. Respiration rates were the highest directly after sunset, and then decreased during the night suggesting that highly labile photosynthates produced during the day fueled early-night respiration. The reef framework was also important to the acquisition of nutrients as the ambient nitrogen stock in the water had sufficient capacity to support these high production rates across the entire reef width. These direct measurements of complex reefs systems yielded high metabolic rates and dynamics that can only be determined through in situ, high temporal resolution

  1. Electrophysiological Correlates of Subliminal Perception of Facial Expressions in Individuals with Autistic Traits: A Backward Masking Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vukusic, Svjetlana; Ciorciari, Joseph; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    People with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulty in social communication, especially in the rapid assessment of emotion in faces. This study examined the processing of emotional faces in typically developing adults with high and low levels of autistic traits (measured using the Autism Spectrum Quotient—AQ). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during viewing of backward-masked neutral, fearful and happy faces presented under two conditions: subliminal (16 ms, below the leve...

  2. Comparing Facebook Users and Facebook Non-Users: Relationship between Personality Traits and Mental Health Variables ? An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Margraf, J?rgen

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion people use Facebook as a platform for social interaction and self-presentation making it one of the most popular online sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in various personality traits and mental health variables between Facebook users and people who do not use this platform. The data of 945 participants (790 Facebook users, 155 Facebook non-users) were collected. Results indicate that Facebook users score significantly higher on narcissism, se...

  3. Insights into metabolic disease from studying genetics in isolated populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Gloyn, Anna L; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10 years substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic basis for type 2 diabetes and related traits. These developments have been facilitated by technological advancements that have allowed comprehensive genome-wide assessments of the impact of common geneti......, and an overview by the Session Chair, Anna Gloyn....

  4. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  5. The study on the core personality trait words of Chinese medical university students based on social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Xue, Yunzhen; Xue, Zhanling

    2017-09-01

    The medical university students in China whose school work is relatively heavy and educational system is long are a special professional group. Many students have psychological problems more or less. So, to understand their personality characteristics will provide a scientific basis for the intervention of psychological health.We selected top 30 personality trait words according to the order of frequency. Additionally, some methods such as social network analysis (SNA) and visualization technology of mapping knowledge domain were used in this study.Among these core personality trait words Family conscious had the 3 highest centralities and possessed the largest core status and influence. From the analysis of core-peripheral structure, we can see polarized core-perpheral structure was quite obvious. From the analysis of K-plex, there were in total 588 "K-2"K-plexs. From the analysis of Principal Components, we selected the 11 principal components.This study of personality not only can prevent disease, but also provide a scientific basis for students' psychological healthy education. In addition, we have adopted SNA to pay more attention to the relationship between personality trait words and the connection among personality dimensions. This study may provide the new ideas and methods for the research of personality structure.

  6. Schizotypal traits in healthy women predict prefrontal activation patterns during a verbal fluency task: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroaki; Nagamine, Mitsue; Soshi, Takahiro; Okabe, Shigeo; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have reported that patients with schizophrenia show reduced prefrontal activation during cognitive tasks whereas patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show preserved or even increased right prefrontal activation, compared to healthy controls; on the other hand, reduced hemispheric laterality is considered to be common to these two disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between schizotypal traits at a nonclinical level and prefrontal activation patterns during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT). We examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in a nonclinical female population with prefrontal activation patterns during the VFT, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-seven healthy participants were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 13) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. Compared to the low SPQ group, the high SPQ group showed significantly larger right prefrontal activation during the performance of the VFT, leading to more bilateral activation. Our results suggest that schizotypal traits at a nonclinical level may be related to relative right prefrontal laterality with overall prefrontal activation being preserved, consistent with previous findings obtained by studies of patients with SPD. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Nonparametric evaluation of quantitative traits in population-based association studies when the genetic model is unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konietschke, Frank; Libiger, Ondrej; Hothorn, Ludwig A

    2012-01-01

    Statistical association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype and a quantitative trait in genome-wide association studies is usually assessed using a linear regression model, or, in the case of non-normally distributed trait values, using the Kruskal-Wallis test. While linear regression models assume an additive mode of inheritance via equi-distant genotype scores, Kruskal-Wallis test merely tests global differences in trait values associated with the three genotype groups. Both approaches thus exhibit suboptimal power when the underlying inheritance mode is dominant or recessive. Furthermore, these tests do not perform well in the common situations when only a few trait values are available in a rare genotype category (disbalance), or when the values associated with the three genotype categories exhibit unequal variance (variance heterogeneity). We propose a maximum test based on Marcus-type multiple contrast test for relative effect sizes. This test allows model-specific testing of either dominant, additive or recessive mode of inheritance, and it is robust against variance heterogeneity. We show how to obtain mode-specific simultaneous confidence intervals for the relative effect sizes to aid in interpreting the biological relevance of the results. Further, we discuss the use of a related all-pairwise comparisons contrast test with range preserving confidence intervals as an alternative to Kruskal-Wallis heterogeneity test. We applied the proposed maximum test to the Bogalusa Heart Study dataset, and gained a remarkable increase in the power to detect association, particularly for rare genotypes. Our simulation study also demonstrated that the proposed non-parametric tests control family-wise error rate in the presence of non-normality and variance heterogeneity contrary to the standard parametric approaches. We provide a publicly available R library nparcomp that can be used to estimate simultaneous confidence intervals or compatible

  8. 32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, G.; Pfueller, K.; Bier, H.; Mueller, D.; Rummel, G.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32 P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

  9. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physiopathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-11-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developped in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolutions, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physiopathologic studies [fr

  10. Moderation of prior exposure to trauma on the inverse relationship between callous-unemotional traits and amygdala responses to fearful expressions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Harma; Thornton, Laura C; Tyler, Patrick M; Botkin, Mary L; Erway, Anna K; Kolli, Venkata; Pope, Kayla; White, Stuart F; Blair, R James R

    2018-02-12

    Previous work has shown that amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions is inversely related to level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e. reduced guilt and empathy) in youth with conduct problems. However, some research has suggested that the relationship between pathophysiology and CU traits may be different in those youth with significant prior trauma exposure. In experiment 1, 72 youth with varying levels of disruptive behavior and trauma exposure performed a gender discrimination task while viewing morphed fear expressions (0, 50, 100, 150 fear) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent responses were recorded. In experiment 2, 66 of these youth performed the Social Goals Task, which measures self-reports of the importance of specific social goals to the participant in provoking social situations. In experiment 1, a significant CU traits-by-trauma exposure interaction was observed within right amygdala; fear intensity-modulated amygdala responses negatively predicted CU traits for those youth with low levels of trauma but positively predicted CU traits for those with high levels of trauma. In experiment 2, a bootstrapped model revealed that the indirect effect of fear intensity amygdala response on social goal importance through CU traits is moderated by prior trauma exposure. This study, while exploratory, indicates that the pathophysiology associated with CU traits differs in youth as a function of prior trauma exposure. These data suggest that prior trauma exposure should be considered when evaluating potential interventions for youth with high CU traits.

  11. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection....

  12. Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  13. Study of bone metabolism in patients with chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaccioli, S; Del Giorno, R; Crapa, G; Sabatini, C; Panaccione, A; Di Cato, L; Lavagna, A; Fatati, G; Paladini, A; Frongillo, R; Puxeddu, A

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have confirmed the high incidence of skeletal homeostasis modifications in subjects who are carriers of chronic HIV infections, and specific pharmacological treatments, which modify the metabolism and condition both the weight loss and the reshaping of the bones. The presence of a reduction in body mass index seems to contribute to the progressive deterioration of the skeletal framework. The aim of this study was to see whether the presence of HIV-seropositivity could constitute a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis/osteopenia, even in the light of the fact that our group was composed of patients with a concentrated age span well under the limit for both post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis, and with a median age superimposable for both sexes. Our study involved 26 HIV+ patients with an average duration of infection equal to 6.7 +/- 4.8 years, and a range of seropositive duration between 6 months to 16 years. The prominent ultrasonometrical parameters are as follows: Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation, Speed of Sound, Stiffness Index or Quantitative Ultra-sound Index, Bone Mineral Density, and T-score. The biochemical study was carried out by assessing a marker of neoformation such as seric osteocalcine, and uninary pyridinoline and deoxipyridonoline as resorption markers. The results confirmed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in 46% of the samples (11%, and 35%, respectively), with a progressive reduction in bone mineral density in relation to the duration of HIV infection. Assessment of the marker for bone metabolism showed a significant increase in osteocalcine in the female population compared to the males, without any significant variations in the normal values. Extreme variability in the morphological appearance at bone level during the course of HIV infection would lead us to believe that in the genesis of various forms, depending on the mechanisms and the time involved only in the parts defined, other attributable factors

  14. Study of brain metabolism using positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W D

    1983-03-21

    Positron emission tomography permits the three-dimensional regional measurement of metabolism and blood flow in the brain. For the determination of cerebral metabolic rates of glucose by PET /sup 18/fluordeoxyglucose is usually applied: cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was found to be 36 to 47 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the grey matter and 23 to 29 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the white matter of normal volunteers. During physiologic activation metabolic rate of glucose is increased in the respective brain areas in relation to the strength and complexity of the stimulation. In patients suffering from ischaemic stroke glucose metabolism is markedly decreased within the infarction. Additonally, glucose metabolism is reduced by 20% in morphologically intact areas of the homolateral cortex, in the basal ganglia, in the cortical area contralateral to the infarction and in the contralateral cerebellum. This remote reduction of glucose utilization is probably caused by functional inactivation of these brain structures; it could be responsible for the diffuse organic syndrome in stroke victims not caused by the focal lesion. In patients suffering from dementia of the multi-infarct type and of the Alzheimer type glucose metabolism is reduced; the lesions in Alzheimer cases are most prominent in partietal and frontal cortical areas. In Chorea Huntington cases glucose metabolism is primarily disturbed in the striate, especially in the caudate nucleus; in these cases the metabolic disturbance can be detected earlier than the atrophy in computed tomograms. Disturbances of glucose and oxygen utilization are not necessary causes, but may also be sequelae od functional impairment. Additional information on pathogentic mechanisms may be obtained by the investigation of the protein synthesis.

  15. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Association between personality traits and future choice of specialisation among Swedish doctors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Tomas S; Olsson, Caroline; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Parmskog, Malin; Ponzer, Sari; Dahlin, Marie

    2016-08-01

    Medical students' choice of their future specialty is influenced by several factors, including working conditions and type of patient relations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the choice of specialty and personality traits. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 399 alumni from Karolinska Institutet Medical School who were assumed to undergo specialty training at the time of the survey in 2013. The Big Five Inventory was used to assess the personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience. Medical specialties were categorised as primary care, psychiatry, internal medicine and surgical and hospital service specialties. Adjustments were made for demographic factors and the method of selection for medical school admission. The response rate was 72% (n=289, of which 262 were in training to become specialists). Among these, surgeons scored lower in agreeableness than physicians in primary care, internal medicine and hospital services. Psychiatrists and hospital service physicians showed lower conscientiousness compared with surgeons. We found distinctive differences in personality traits between medical specialties even after adjusting for other potential explanatory variables. Since there are differences between specialties, for example, surgeons and psychiatrists, this supports previous findings that personality may affect medical students' specialty choice also in a Swedish setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  20. Relationships Among Avoidant Personality Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Normative Personality Traits: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander-Vatn, Audun; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind

    2018-03-05

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later. Associations between AvPD, SAD, and personality traits were investigated with multivariate biometric analyses. The authors found that AvPD and SAD are differentially related to several personality traits at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental level. The genetic and environmental liability to AvPD could be fully accounted for by the genetic and environmental factors influencing SAD and personality. The findings may increase current etiological understanding of these disorders and inform future classification and treatment efforts.

  1. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  2. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. �Sari� (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. �Sari�.

  3. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. Sari (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. Sari.

  4. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility Loci for osteoporosis-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability for complex traits. Due to the modest genetic effect size and inadequate power, true association signals may not be revealed based on a stringent genome-wide significance threshold. Here, we take advantage of SNP and transcript arrays and integrate GWAS and expression signature profiling relevant to the skeletal system in cellular and animal models to prioritize the discovery of novel candidate genes for osteoporosis-related traits, including bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN, as well as geometric indices of the hip (femoral neck-shaft angle, NSA; femoral neck length, NL; and narrow-neck width, NW. A two-stage meta-analysis of GWAS from 7,633 Caucasian women and 3,657 men, revealed three novel loci associated with osteoporosis-related traits, including chromosome 1p13.2 (RAP1A, p = 3.6x10(-8, 2q11.2 (TBC1D8, and 18q11.2 (OSBPL1A, and confirmed a previously reported region near TNFRSF11B/OPG gene. We also prioritized 16 suggestive genome-wide significant candidate genes based on their potential involvement in skeletal metabolism. Among them, 3 candidate genes were associated with BMD in women. Notably, 2 out of these 3 genes (GPR177, p = 2.6x10(-13; SOX6, p = 6.4x10(-10 associated with BMD in women have been successfully replicated in a large-scale meta-analysis of BMD, but none of the non-prioritized candidates (associated with BMD did. Our results support the concept of our prioritization strategy. In the absence of direct biological support for identified genes, we highlighted the efficiency of subsequent functional characterization using publicly available expression profiling relevant

  5. Metabolism of allylnitrile to cyanide: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, M Y; Ybarra, B; Piper, J

    1993-09-01

    In liver fractions from male Sprague-Dawley rats, the metabolism of allylnitrile (ALN) to cyanide (CN-) was localized in the microsomal fraction and required NADPH and oxygen for maximal activity. The biotransformation of ALN to CN- was characterized with respect to time, microsomal protein concentration, pH and temperature. Metabolism of ALN was increased in microsomes obtained from phenobarbital-treated rats (160% of control) and decreased with cobaltous chloride and beta-diethyl aminoethyl-2,2-diphenyl pentanoate (SKF 525-A) treatments (48% of control). Addition of SKF 525-A to the incubation mixtures inhibited ALN metabolism to CN-. Addition of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropane 2,3-oxide, decreased the formation of CN- from ALN. Addition of glutathione, cysteine, D-penicillamine, and 2-mercaptoethanol enhanced the release of CN- from ALN. These findings indicate that ALN is metabolized to CN- via a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system.

  6. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  7. The sensitivity of murine spermiogenesis to miglustat is a quantitative trait: a pharmacogenetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomkamp Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    parental strains. Conclusion The effects of miglustat on spermatogenesis in mice are strain-dependent, while in rabbits the drug is ineffective. Evaluation of interstrain hybrid mice indicated that the sensitivity of spermatogenesis to miglustat is a quantitative trait. These studies pave the way for identifying the genetic factors underlying the strain/species differences in the effect of miglustat.

  8. Comparative study on production, reproduction and functional traits between Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic-Toma Cziszter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate production outputs, reproduction efficiency and functional traits in dual-purpose Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cows, reared under temperate European conditions. Methods A data-set from 414 Fleckvieh and 42 Braunvieh cows and 799 lactations was analysed. ID tag number, milk yield per milking session, number of steps/interval and milk conductivity were recorded and collected daily using AfiMilk 3.076 A-DU software (Afimilk Ltd., Kibbutz, Israel. Production and milk quality data were taken from the results of the official performance recordings and the reproductive outputs of cows were recorded by the research stations veterinarians. Comparisons between the two genotypes were carried out using the one way analysis of variance protocol, with categorical factor being considered the breed of cows. All the statistical inferences were carried out using Statistica software (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA. Results Fleckvieh cows significantly outperformed (p≤0.05 the Braunvieh herd, with average milk yields of 5,252.1±35.79 kg and 4,897.6±128.94 kg, respectively. Age at first calving was significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the breed, with Fleckvieh heifers being more precocious (32.8±0.29 mo compared to those of Braunvieh breed (35.7±0.84 mo. Reproduction efficiency as defined by the number of inseminations per gestation, calving interval, dystocia, days dry and days open, was not influenced by genotype (p>0.05. Incidences of sub-clinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, lameness and abortions were not influenced by the breed factor (p>0.05. Stayability of cows was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by genotype, with Braunvieh cows having an average age at culling of 117.88±11.78 months compared to 90.88±2.89 months in Fleckvieh. Conclusion Overall, results have shown that genotype significantly influenced milk yield, age at first calving and longevity.

  9. Study of Patterns and Subjective Quality of Sleep and Their Correlation with Personality Traits among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farhadi Nasab

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sleep quality can affect human health and daily function. On the other hand, every person has relatively stable personality trait which lives with and has occupational, social and interpersonal interaction. Regarding the importance of sleep quality, and because less considerations have been devoted to correlation between sleep disturbances and personality traits, the present investigation was done. The purpose of this study was to determine personality traits and sleep patterns among medical students in Hamadan medical university and the relationship between traits inquestion sleep patterns as well. Materials & Methods: This descriptive and Cross – Sectional study involving 150 randomly selected medical students. Pittsburgh questionnaire, MMPI and a checking list for demographic information were employed. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS10.Results: The findings of this study have showed that 48 percent of our cases have suffered from sleep disturbances. The number of personality traits such as narcissistic, histrionic and borderline (cluster B observed among students had greater frequencies than other traits. The average of night and day sleep time was 8.95±2.01. No meaningful correlation has been found between sleep disturbances and personality traits in our cases.Conclusion: A great number of medical students suffer from sleep disturbances, because it may highly affect student’s health and their daily function. More and wider studies should be done.

  10. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    likely products of dioxane metabolism-2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEM or 13- hydroxyethoxyacetic acid ) and 1 ,4-dioxan-2-one (or dioxanone...Mar 10 (2) Hoch-Ligeti and coworkers (Hoch-Ligeti et al. 1974) originally proposed that dioxane was metabolized to oxalic acid by way of diglycolic... acid . This proposal was based upon chemical oxidation experiments on dioxane using nitric acid originally conducted by Fairley and coworkers (Fairley

  11. Personality trait interactions in parents of patients with borderline personality disorder: a controlled study using the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo

    2009-01-30

    Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.

  12. Studies on fluctuating asymmetry (FA for certain morphological traits in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Parul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA is defined as subtle deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, evident in differences between the right and the left sides of any given trait. It is a pattern of variation between sides and measures developmental instability. Differences in the level of FA may be used for comparing developmental precision among closely related species and thus may give an idea whether developmental stability was affected during the divergence and separation of populations into distinct species. Keeping this in view, FA was studied in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex i.e. D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae. In females of all the four species, FA values did not vary significantly for any of the traits considered. However, in case of males, they varied significantly for Wing length (WL and sex comb tooth number (SCTN. Also, while in females Composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA did not exhibit significant variation, in males it was found to vary significantly across the four species. However, Bonferroni t-tests did not reveal any consistent difference in FA levels between any two species. The magnitude of FA was found to differ significantly among traits and CFA values were found to be higher for males than females in all the four species. Therefore, it may be concluded that the level of FA shows trait specific variations and males are more prone to developmental perturbations. However, the FA levels are more or less similar in all the four species of this complex. Thus, developmental precision remains nearly same in all the four species of this complex irrespective of the degree of evolutionary divergence reached.

  13. A Netnographic Study of Entrepreneurial Traits: Evaluating classic typologies using the crowdsourcing algorithm of an online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cerqueira Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates how the advices of experienced entrepreneurs to young start-up creators in an online community reflect entrepreneurship traits commonly found in conceptual typologies. The overall goal is to contrast and evaluate existing models based on evidence from an online community. This should facilitate future studies to improve current typologies by ranking entrepreneurial traits according to perceived relevance. In order to achieve these objectives, we have conducted a “netnographic study” (i.e., the qualitative analysis of web-based content of 96 answers to the question “What is the best advice for a young, first-time startup CEO?” on Quora.com. Relying on Quora’s ranking algorithm (based on crowdsourcing of votes and community prestige, we focused on the top 50% of answers (which we shall call the “above Quora 50” category considered the most relevant by its 2000+ followers and 120,000+ viewers. We used Nvivo as a Qualitative Data Analysis Software to code all the entries into the literature categories. These codes were then later retrieved using matrix queries to compare the incidence of traits and the perceived relevance of answers. We found that among the 50% highest ranking answers on Quora, the following traits are perceived as the most important for young entrepreneurs to develop: management style, attitude in interpersonal relations, vision, self-concept, leadership style, marketing, market and customer knowledge, innovation, technical knowledge and skills, attitude to growth, ability to adapt, purpose and relations system. These results could lead to improving existing typologies and creating new models capable of better identifying people with the highest potential to succeed in new venture creation.

  14. Pilot study of personality traits assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, Roma; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-12-01

    Asthma and atopy are common diseases. To study associations between personality and asthma, atopy, rhinitis, and personality traits were measured on the Karolinska Scales of Personality for 193 persons working in 19 buildings with suspected indoor air problems. In addition, information on history of atopy, asthma, and rhinitis was collected by postal questionnaire. In analyses, asthma was associated with higher impulsiveness scores, and atopy in non-asthmatics was associated with higher social desirability scores and lower irritability, guilt, and impulsiveness scores. Non-atopic rhinitis was associated with scores on several anxiety-related scales, while atopic rhinitis was not associated with scores on the Karolinska Scales of Personality. This exploration implies that asthma, atopy, and rhinitis may be associated with various but different personality trait scores. The finding of such personality trait associations in persons with non-asthmatic atopy raises the question of a potential role of an emotional conflict in atopy and the role of personality in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

  15. Comparing Facebook Users and Facebook Non-Users: Relationship between Personality Traits and Mental Health Variables - An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion people use Facebook as a platform for social interaction and self-presentation making it one of the most popular online sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in various personality traits and mental health variables between Facebook users and people who do not use this platform. The data of 945 participants (790 Facebook users, 155 Facebook non-users) were collected. Results indicate that Facebook users score significantly higher on narcissism, self-esteem and extraversion than Facebook non-users. Furthermore, they have significantly higher values of social support, life satisfaction and subjective happiness. Facebook non-users have (marginally) significantly higher values of depression symptoms than Facebook users. In both groups, extraversion, self-esteem, happiness, life satisfaction, resilience and social support, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, on the other hand, are negatively correlated. Neuroticism is positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. However, significant differences exist between Facebook users and Facebook non-users regarding some associations of personality traits and mental health variables. Compared to Facebook non-users, the present results indicate that Facebook users have higher values of certain personality traits and positive variables protecting mental health. These findings are of particular interest considering the high importance of social online-platforms in the daily life of many people.

  16. Daily diary study of personality disorder traits: Momentary affect and cognitive appraisals in response to stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnecke, Amber M; Miller, Michelle L; South, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in emotional expression and emotion regulation are core features of many personality disorders (PDs); yet, we know relatively little about how individuals with PDs affectively respond to stressful situations. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by examining how PD traits are associated with emotional responses to subjective daily stressors, while accounting for cognition and type of stressor experienced (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores. Participants (N = 77) completed a 1-week experience sampling procedure that measured affect and cognition related to a current stressor 5 times per day. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether and how baseline PD features, momentary cognitions, and type of stressor predicted level of affect. Results demonstrated that paranoid, borderline, and avoidant PD traits predicted negative affect beyond what could be accounted for by cognitions and type of stressor. No PD traits predicted positive affect after accounting for the effects of cognitive appraisals and type of stressor. Findings have implications for validating the role of affect in PDs and understanding how individuals with PDs react in the presence of daily hassles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The role of personal values and basic traits in perceptions of the consequences of immigration: a three-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gianvittorio; Schoen, Harald; Castro, Josè Luis Gonzàlez; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2012-08-01

    Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N= 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz's (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modelling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the five-factor model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals' traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Comparing Facebook Users and Facebook Non-Users: Relationship between Personality Traits and Mental Health Variables - An Exploratory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brailovskaia

    Full Text Available Over one billion people use Facebook as a platform for social interaction and self-presentation making it one of the most popular online sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in various personality traits and mental health variables between Facebook users and people who do not use this platform. The data of 945 participants (790 Facebook users, 155 Facebook non-users were collected. Results indicate that Facebook users score significantly higher on narcissism, self-esteem and extraversion than Facebook non-users. Furthermore, they have significantly higher values of social support, life satisfaction and subjective happiness. Facebook non-users have (marginally significantly higher values of depression symptoms than Facebook users. In both groups, extraversion, self-esteem, happiness, life satisfaction, resilience and social support, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, on the other hand, are negatively correlated. Neuroticism is positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. However, significant differences exist between Facebook users and Facebook non-users regarding some associations of personality traits and mental health variables. Compared to Facebook non-users, the present results indicate that Facebook users have higher values of certain personality traits and positive variables protecting mental health. These findings are of particular interest considering the high importance of social online-platforms in the daily life of many people.

  19. Comparing Facebook Users and Facebook Non-Users: Relationship between Personality Traits and Mental Health Variables – An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion people use Facebook as a platform for social interaction and self-presentation making it one of the most popular online sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in various personality traits and mental health variables between Facebook users and people who do not use this platform. The data of 945 participants (790 Facebook users, 155 Facebook non-users) were collected. Results indicate that Facebook users score significantly higher on narcissism, self-esteem and extraversion than Facebook non-users. Furthermore, they have significantly higher values of social support, life satisfaction and subjective happiness. Facebook non-users have (marginally) significantly higher values of depression symptoms than Facebook users. In both groups, extraversion, self-esteem, happiness, life satisfaction, resilience and social support, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, on the other hand, are negatively correlated. Neuroticism is positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. However, significant differences exist between Facebook users and Facebook non-users regarding some associations of personality traits and mental health variables. Compared to Facebook non-users, the present results indicate that Facebook users have higher values of certain personality traits and positive variables protecting mental health. These findings are of particular interest considering the high importance of social online-platforms in the daily life of many people. PMID:27907020

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study with Targeted and Non-targeted NMR Metabolomics Identifies 15 Novel Loci of Urinary Human Metabolic Individuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Raffler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies with metabolic traits (mGWAS uncovered many genetic variants that influence human metabolism. These genetically influenced metabotypes (GIMs contribute to our metabolic individuality, our capacity to respond to environmental challenges, and our susceptibility to specific diseases. While metabolic homeostasis in blood is a well investigated topic in large mGWAS with over 150 known loci, metabolic detoxification through urinary excretion has only been addressed by few small mGWAS with only 11 associated loci so far. Here we report the largest mGWAS to date, combining targeted and non-targeted 1H NMR analysis of urine samples from 3,861 participants of the SHIP-0 cohort and 1,691 subjects of the KORA F4 cohort. We identified and replicated 22 loci with significant associations with urinary traits, 15 of which are new (HIBCH, CPS1, AGXT, XYLB, TKT, ETNPPL, SLC6A19, DMGDH, SLC36A2, GLDC, SLC6A13, ACSM3, SLC5A11, PNMT, SLC13A3. Two-thirds of the urinary loci also have a metabolite association in blood. For all but one of the 6 loci where significant associations target the same metabolite in blood and urine, the genetic effects have the same direction in both fluids. In contrast, for the SLC5A11 locus, we found increased levels of myo-inositol in urine whereas mGWAS in blood reported decreased levels for the same genetic variant. This might indicate less effective re-absorption of myo-inositol in the kidneys of carriers. In summary, our study more than doubles the number of known loci that influence urinary phenotypes. It thus allows novel insights into the relationship between blood homeostasis and its regulation through excretion. The newly discovered loci also include variants previously linked to chronic kidney disease (CPS1, SLC6A13, pulmonary hypertension (CPS1, and ischemic stroke (XYLB. By establishing connections from gene to disease via metabolic traits our results provide novel hypotheses about molecular

  1. ASSESSMENT OF TRAIT ANGER AND LEVEL OF ANGER EXPRESSION STYLES OF STUDENTS WHO STUDIED AT SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Çağatay Dereceli; Hüseyin Kırımoğlu; Mehmet Dallı

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on reviewing trait anger and level of anger expression styles of students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports of Adnan Menderes University during 2016-2017 academic year in terms of some variables. As data collection tools; “Personal Information Form” and “Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale” –designed by Spielberger et al. (1988) and adapted by Özer (1994) into Turkish- were employed. Participants’ trait anger and anger expression styles were compared...

  2. Genome-wide mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for fatness, fat cell characteristics and fat metabolism in three porcine F2 crosses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geldermann, H.; Čepica, Stanislav; Stratil, Antonín; Bartenschlager, H.; Preuss, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 31 (2010), s. 1-16 ISSN 0999-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0353; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fat metabolism * porcine * genome mapping Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.484, year: 2010

  3. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  4. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  5. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H.; Santos, U.P.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  6. Autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: precursors and early signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Patrick F; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D

    2012-03-01

    To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and December 1992. Parents' contemporaneous reports of their infant's development (241 questionnaire responses collected up to 30 months of age) were examined in relation to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder by age 11 years (n = 86) and a measure of autistic traits, derived by factor analysis. Among the children later diagnosed with ASD, concerns about vision and hearing were more often reported in the first year, and differences in social, communication, and fine motor skills were evident from 6 months of age. Repetitive behaviors and differences in play, imitation, and feeding habits were reported in the second year. Differences in temperament emerged at 24 months of age and bowel habit by 30 months. All of these early signs were strongly associated with the presence of autistic traits in the rest of the population and these differences were often evident in the first year of development. Over the first 30 months of development, the best predictors of both later ASD and autistic traits included the Social Achievement and Communication scores from the Denver Developmental Screening Test, measures of communicative skills (Vocabulary and Combines Words) from the MacArthur Infant Communicative Development Inventories, and a repetitive behavior score. Precursors, early signs, and other developmental differences were reported in the first year of development among children from the general population who later developed autism spectrum disorder and subtler autistic traits. Other differences emerged and unfolded as development progressed. The findings confirm the long-held suspicion that early differences underscore the multifaceted

  7. Genome-wide association study identified genetic variations and candidate genes for plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Caixiang; Gu, Lijiao; Wang, Hantao; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Qibao; Huang, Long; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-06-01

    Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton were identified via GWAS. Four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits. A candidate gene, Gh_D03G0922, might be responsible for plant height in upland cotton. A compact plant architecture is increasingly required for mechanized harvesting processes in China. Therefore, cotton plant architecture is an important trait, and its components, such as plant height, fruit branch length and fruit branch angle, affect the suitability of a cultivar for mechanized harvesting. To determine the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel composed of 355 accessions and 93,250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing method. Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits were identified via GWAS. Most importantly, four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits, and these SNPs were harbored in one linkage disequilibrium block. Furthermore, 21 candidate genes for plant architecture were predicted in a 0.95-Mb region including the four peak SNPs. One of these genes (Gh_D03G0922) was near the significant SNP D03_31584163 (8.40 kb), and its Arabidopsis homologs contain MADS-box domains that might be involved in plant growth and development. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gh_D03G0922 was upregulated in the apical buds and young leaves of the short and compact cotton varieties, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) proved that the silenced plants exhibited increased PH. These results indicate that Gh_D03G0922 is likely the candidate gene for PH in cotton. The genetic variations and candidate genes identified in this study lay a foundation

  8. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Toine; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed

  9. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F. H.; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality traits. Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed

  10. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  11. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF TELMISARTAN (ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKER ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesekhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is currently a major worldwide epidemic. It strongly associates with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are major pathologies contributing to mortality and morbidity worldwide. The effect of PPAR-y on metabolic syndrome is significant it is critical regulator of adipogenesis the gain in PPAR-y is resulted in obesity but loss of PPAR–y by mutation is associated with loss of weight and insulin resistance. Telmisartan is an orally active, long-acting, non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (ATI receptor blocker. In addition to this, it has been identified as partial agonist/selective modulator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-y. MATERIAL AND METHOD This is a prospective, randomised and open labelled 16 weeks study conducted in the Dept. of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Science, Amalapuram. Present study is designed to study the effect of telmisartan on various metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients who fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. RESULT There was statistically significant change in all parameters most important was lipid profile; LDL concentration was decreased from 139.2 mg/dL to 120.2 mg/dL. Baseline triglyceride concentration was 161.0 mg/dL which was changed 152.8 mg/dL Total cholesterol was decreased from 203.2 to 193.8 mg/dL. CONCLUSION In our study, we have also found that use of telmisartan is associated with decrease in lipid concentration in addition to its effect on blood pressure regulation. But a long term study with high dose required of this drug is required because safety profile of this drug is better than thiazolidinedione. Financial part of this study is our limitation.

  13. Genetic determinants of lipid traits in diverse populations from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past five years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of common variants associated with human diseases and traits, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG levels. Approximately 95 loci associated with lipid levels have been identified primarily among populations of European ancestry. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study was established in 2008 to characterize GWAS-identified variants in diverse population-based studies. We genotyped 49 GWAS-identified SNPs associated with one or more lipid traits in at least two PAGE studies and across six racial/ethnic groups. We performed a meta-analysis testing for SNP associations with fasting HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG levels in self-identified European American (~20,000, African American (~9,000, American Indian (~6,000, Mexican American/Hispanic (~2,500, Japanese/East Asian (~690, and Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian (~175 adults, regardless of lipid-lowering medication use. We replicated 55 of 60 (92% SNP associations tested in European Americans at p<0.05. Despite sufficient power, we were unable to replicate ABCA1 rs4149268 and rs1883025, CETP rs1864163, and TTC39B rs471364 previously associated with HDL-C and MAFB rs6102059 previously associated with LDL-C. Based on significance (p<0.05 and consistent direction of effect, a majority of replicated genotype-phentoype associations for HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG in European Americans generalized to African Americans (48%, 61%, and 57%, American Indians (45%, 64%, and 77%, and Mexican Americans/Hispanics (57%, 56%, and 86%. Overall, 16 associations generalized across all three populations. For the associations that did not generalize, differences in effect sizes, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium offer clues to the next generation of association studies for these traits.

  14. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  15. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  16. Heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies of some important traits in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bughio, H.R.; Asad, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Bughio, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variability, estimates of broad sense heritability, genetic advance as percent of mean and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed in eight rice genotypes at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam in 2005. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited for number of fertile grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant, indicating additive gene action and possibility of improving these traits by simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance was exhibited for plant height, 1000-grain weight and panicle length indicating the involvement of additive and non-additive type of gene action and postponement of selection programs for the improvement of these traits. The characters productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield per plant. While plant height and days to 50% flowering were observed non-significant and negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. Fertile grain had significant and positive correlation with panicle fertility percentage. (author)

  17. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trait susceptibility to worry modulates the effects of cognitive load on cognitive control: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max; Derakshan, Nazanin; Richards, Anne

    2015-10-01

    According to the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) of anxiety (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), worry is a central feature of anxiety that interferes with the ability to inhibit distracting information necessary for successful task performance. However, it is unclear how such cognitive control deficits are modulated by task demands and by the emotionality of the distractors. A sample of 31 participants (25 female) completed a novel flanker task with emotional and neutral distractors under low- and high-cognitive-load conditions. The negative-going N2 event-related potential was measured to index participants' level of top-down resource allocation in the inhibition of distractors under high- and low-load conditions. Results showed N2 amplitudes were larger under high- compared with low-load conditions. In addition, under high but not low load, trait worry was associated with greater N2 amplitudes. Our findings support ACT predictions that trait worry adversely affects goal-directed behavior, and is associated with greater recruitment of cognitive resources to inhibit the impact of distracting information under conditions in which cognitive resources are taxed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Study on Behavioral Traits of Library and Information Science Students in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour normally depends on the environment of the incident and the time of its occurrence. The behaviour of people depends on many factors and these behaviour traits are an important aspect in the Library and Information Science (LIS field. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to examine the behaviour traits of LIS students in South India. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed 367 have responded and the response rate is 91.75%. In this survey three aspects comprising student behaviour have been analysed such as Work Environment, Natural Environment, and Social Environment. In the case of Work Environment the respondents were grouped as Workaholic, Impatience, Achievement oriented, Rash nature, and Punctuality. Further, in respect to Natural environment, the respondents are grouped as Complacent, Patience, Easygoing, and Relaxed. Last, the respondents were grouped in the Social Environment as Balancing nature, Magnanimity, Naturalistic, Assertive nature, Dependency, Lucrative, Lonely nature, and Time Based personality. Finally the authors conclude that LIS students need to possess these qualities and behaviours to work in different environments.

  20. Drosophila as a Model to Study the Link between Metabolism and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Hector; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    new approaches to therapy. Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable model to study multiple aspects of tumor formation and malignant transformation. In this review, we discuss the use of Drosophila as model to study how changes in cellular metabolism, as well as metabolic disease, contribute...

  1. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  2. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  3. The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Lazo, Mariana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Gamble, Mary V; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Cole, Shelley A; Umans, Jason G; Howard, Barbara V; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-03-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose) in 1,047 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective family-based cohort in American Indian communities (baseline visits in 1998-1999 and 2001-2003, follow-up visits in 2001-2003 and 2006-2009). 32% of participants developed metabolic syndrome over follow-up. An IQR increase in arsenic exposure was associated with 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) greater risk for elevated fasting plasma glucose but not with other individual components or overall metabolic syndrome. Arsenic metabolism, specifically lower MMA% and higher DMA% was associated with higher risk of overall metabolic syndrome and elevated waist circumference, but not with any other component. These findings support there is a contrasting and independent association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic outcomes which may contribute to overall diabetes risk.

  4. Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    These studies demonstrated increasing glucose metabolic rates in the human primary (PVC) and associative (AVC) visual cortex as the complexity of visual scenes increased. The metabolic response of the AVC increased more rapidly with scene complexity than that of the PVC, indicating the greater involvement of the higher order AVC for complex visual interpretations. Increases in local metabolic activity by as much as a factor of 2 above that of control subjects with eyes closed indicate the wide range and metabolic reserve of the visual cortex

  5. A simple and efficient in vitro method for metabolism studies of radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choe, Yearn Seong E-mail: yschoe@samsung.co.krjeewoo@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Bok-Nam; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Lee, Jeewoo E-mail: yschoe@samsung.co.krjeewoo@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2001-05-01

    In vitro metabolism of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors containing 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethylbenzyl- ([{sup 18}F]1) and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl-piperidine moieties ([{sup 18}F]2) was studied and compared with the in vivo metabolism. Defluorination of the [{sup 18}F]1 mainly occurred to generate [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the [{sup 18}F]2 was converted into an unknown polar metabolite in both metabolism methods and another metabolite, 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoic acid in vitro. These results demonstrated that the in vitro method can be used to predict the in vivo metabolism of both radiotracers.

  6. A simple and efficient in vitro method for metabolism studies of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Bok-Nam; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2001-01-01

    In vitro metabolism of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors containing 3-[ 18 F]fluoromethylbenzyl- ([ 18 F]1) and 4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzyl-piperidine moieties ([ 18 F]2) was studied and compared with the in vivo metabolism. Defluorination of the [ 18 F]1 mainly occurred to generate [ 18 F]fluoride ion both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the [ 18 F]2 was converted into an unknown polar metabolite in both metabolism methods and another metabolite, 4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoic acid in vitro. These results demonstrated that the in vitro method can be used to predict the in vivo metabolism of both radiotracers

  7. Your friends know how long you will live: a 75-year study of peer-rated personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua J; Connolly, James J; Garrison, S Mason; Leveille, Madeleine M; Connolly, Seamus L

    2015-03-01

    Although self-rated personality traits predict mortality risk, no study has examined whether one's friends can perceive personality characteristics that predict one's mortality risk. Moreover, it is unclear whether observers' reports (compared with self-reports) provide better or unique information concerning the personal characteristics that result in longer and healthier lives. To test whether friends' reports of personality predict mortality risk, we used data from a 75-year longitudinal study (the Kelly/Connolly Longitudinal Study on Personality and Aging). In that study, 600 participants were observed beginning in 1935 through 1938, when they were in their mid-20s, and continuing through 2013. Male participants seen by their friends as more conscientious and open lived longer, whereas friend-rated emotional stability and agreeableness were protective for women. Friends' ratings were better predictors of longevity than were self-reports of personality, in part because friends' ratings could be aggregated to provide a more reliable assessment. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observers' reports in the study of health and provide insights concerning the pathways by which personality traits influence health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Statistical correction of the Winner's Curse explains replication variability in quantitative trait genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Palmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of SNPs responsible for variation in human quantitative traits. However, genome-wide-significant associations often fail to replicate across independent cohorts, in apparent inconsistency with their apparent strong effects in discovery cohorts. This limited success of replication raises pervasive questions about the utility of the GWAS field. We identify all 332 studies of quantitative traits from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Database with attempted replication. We find that the majority of studies provide insufficient data to evaluate replication rates. The remaining papers replicate significantly worse than expected (p < 10-14, even when adjusting for regression-to-the-mean of effect size between discovery- and replication-cohorts termed the Winner's Curse (p < 10-16. We show this is due in part to misreporting replication cohort-size as a maximum number, rather than per-locus one. In 39 studies accurately reporting per-locus cohort-size for attempted replication of 707 loci in samples with similar ancestry, replication rate matched expectation (predicted 458, observed 457, p = 0.94. In contrast, ancestry differences between replication and discovery (13 studies, 385 loci cause the most highly-powered decile of loci to replicate worse than expected, due to difference in linkage disequilibrium.

  9. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  10. Hyperpolarized C-13 MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Hartwig, V.; Frijia, F.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac metabolism assessment with hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models requires the design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work presents a comparison between a commercial 13C quadrature...

  11. Importance of metabolism in pharmacological studies: possible in vitro predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaforge, M.

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic transformation of drug leads to the formation of a large number of secondary compounds. These metabolites may (a) participate to the elimination of the patent drug, (b) have similar or different therapeutic effects compared to the parent drug (c) exert toxic effects. Cytochromes P450 are the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of exogenous drugs, leading to oxidized, reduced or peroxidized metabolites. Different isozymes of P450 are present in already all the organs and differ by their affinity for substrate families. P450 3A is the most abundant P450 protein in the adult human liver and is able to transform hundreds of substrates into either drugs or endogenous compounds such as testosterone. Its catalytic activities are regulated either by induction or by inhibition. Attempts to predict metabolic transformation of a given drug are based on the amount of P450 expressed in heterologous systems, induction, and inhibition experiments and by comparison to classical P450 substrates. Erythromycin metabolism and its P450 effects are used to illustrate the complexity and the consequences of metabolic transformation of a given drug

  12. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data...

  13. Studies of CTNNBL1 and FDFT1 variants and measures of obesity: analyses of quantitative traits and case-control studies in 18,014 Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla Helene; Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    of obesity-related quantitative traits, and case-control studies in large study samples of Danes. METHODS: The FDFT1 rs7001819, CTNNBL1 rs6013029 and rs6020846 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising 18,014 participants ascertained from; the population...... and a previous study. FDFT1 rs7001819 showed no association with obesity, neither when analysing quantitative traits nor when performing case-control studies of obesity.......). The most significantly associating variants within CTNNBL1 including rs6013029 and rs6020846 were additionally confirmed to associate with morbid obesity in a French Caucasian case-control sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these three variants on obesity, through analyses...

  14. Admixture mapping in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos reveals regions of genetic associations with blood pressure traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Sofer

    Full Text Available Admixture mapping can be used to detect genetic association regions in admixed populations, such as Hispanics/Latinos, by estimating associations between local ancestry allele counts and the trait of interest. We performed admixture mapping of the blood pressure traits systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and pulse pressure (PP, in a dataset of 12,116 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL. Hispanics/Latinos have three predominant ancestral populations (European, African, and Amerindian, for each of which we separately tested local ancestry intervals across the genome. We identified four regions that were significantly associated with a blood pressure trait at the genome-wide admixture mapping level. A 6p21.31 Amerindian ancestry association region has multiple known associations, but none explained the admixture mapping signal. We identified variants that completely explained this signal. One of these variants had p-values of 0.02 (MAP and 0.04 (SBP in replication testing in Pima Indians. A 11q13.4 Amerindian ancestry association region spans a variant that was previously reported (p-value = 0.001 in a targeted association study of Blood Pressure (BP traits and variants in the vitamin D pathway. There was no replication evidence supporting an association in the identified 17q25.3 Amerindian ancestry association region. For a region on 6p12.3, associated with African ancestry, we did not identify any candidate variants driving the association. It may be driven by rare variants. Whole genome sequence data may be necessary to fine map these association signals, which may contribute to disparities in BP traits between diverse populations.

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Five-Factor Personality Traits Model as Predictors among Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields at Indiana State University

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    Challa, Sowmya

    The purpose of this study is to identify any trends in personality traits of students at a mid-western university along with the influence of gender, choice of STEM or non-STEM academic major, and level of education on personality traits. The chosen mid-western university is Indiana State University (ISU) located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This study investigated the personality traits of student's through administering Goldberg's (1999) International Personality Item Pool of the Big Five Broad Domains of Personality. The personality profiles of students at ISU who have taken the questionnare are summarized. The personality profiles of female students were analyzed further with special focus to identify the role of level of education and choice of major among female students. Based on the responses of the study's subjects, there are significant relationships found between gender and all of the big five personality traits. Level of education, graduate or undergraduate, had significant impact on extraversion, agreeability, concientiousness, and emotional stability. Choice of STEM and non-STEM major impacted emotional stability for subjects in general but its influence is not significant among female subjects. Choice of STEM or non-STEM major had a significant influence on the intelligence/imagination trait for both male and female subjects. Level of education did not have any significant influence on intellegence/imagination. Overall, this study found a few significant relationships between Big-Five personality traits and identified categorizations.

  16. Genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color in individuals of East Asian ancestry

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    Lida Rawofi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer (N = 305. Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* CIELab coordinates were extracted from high-resolution iris pictures (N = 342. We also measured the color differences between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris (e.g., iris heterochromia. DNA samples were genotyped with Illumina’s Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA and imputed using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 samples as reference haplotypes. Results For skin pigmentation, we did not observe any genome-wide significant signal. We followed-up in three independent Chinese samples the lead SNPs of five regions showing multiple common markers (minor allele frequency ≥ 5% with good imputation scores and suggestive evidence of association (p-values < 10−5. One of these markers, rs2373391, which is located in an intron of the ZNF804B gene on chromosome 7, was replicated in one of the Chinese samples (p = 0.003. For iris color, we observed genome-wide signals in the OCA2 region on chromosome 15. This signal is driven by the non-synonymous rs1800414 variant, which explains 11.9%, 10.4% and 6% of the variation observed in the b*, a* and L* coordinates in our sample, respectively. However, the OCA2 region was not associated with iris heterochromia. Discussion Additional genome-wide association studies in East Asian samples will be necessary to further disentangle the genetic architecture of pigmentary traits in East Asian populations.

  17. Quantitative trait loci (QTL study identifies novel genomic regions associated to Chiari-like malformation in Griffon Bruxellois dogs.

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    Philippe Lemay

    Full Text Available Chiari-like malformation (CM is a developmental abnormality of the craniocervical junction that is common in the Griffon Bruxellois (GB breed with an estimated prevalence of 65%. This disease is characterized by overcrowding of the neural parenchyma at the craniocervical junction and disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow. The most common clinical sign is pain either as a direct consequence of CM or neuropathic pain as a consequence of secondary syringomyelia. The etiology of CM remains unknown but genetic factors play an important role. To investigate the genetic complexity of the disease, a quantitative trait locus (QTL approach was adopted. A total of 14 quantitative skull and atlas measurements were taken and were tested for association to CM. Six traits were found to be associated to CM and were subjected to a whole-genome association study using the Illumina canine high density bead chip in 74 GB dogs (50 affected and 24 controls. Linear and mixed regression analyses identified associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on 5 Canis Familiaris Autosomes (CFAs: CFA2, CFA9, CFA12, CFA14 and CFA24. A reconstructed haplotype of 0.53 Mb on CFA2 strongly associated to the height of the cranial fossa (diameter F and an haplotype of 2.5 Mb on CFA14 associated to both the height of the rostral part of the caudal cranial fossa (AE and the height of the brain (FG were significantly associated to CM after 10 000 permutations strengthening their candidacy for this disease (P = 0.0421, P = 0.0094 respectively. The CFA2 QTL harbours the Sall-1 gene which is an excellent candidate since its orthologue in humans is mutated in Townes-Brocks syndrome which has previously been associated to Chiari malformation I. Our study demonstrates the implication of multiple traits in the etiology of CM and has successfully identified two new QTL associated to CM and a potential candidate gene.

  18. Suicidality, self-stigma, social anxiety and personality traits in stabilized schizophrenia patients – a cross-sectional study

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    Vrbova K

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1–3 Marie Ociskova,1,2 Michaela Holubova,4 Krystof Kantor,1,2 Antonin Kolek,1,2 Aleš Grambal,1,2 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background and aim: Patients who have schizophrenia are more prone to suicidal behavior than the general population. This study aimed to find connections between suicidality and self-stigma, hope, and personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Forty-eight stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia attended this cross-sectional study. Patients were diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI using the ICD-10 research diagnostic criteria. The assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. Results: The individual rate of suicidality (suicidal index from MINI strongly positively correlated with self-stigma, level of depression, social anxiety, and harm-avoidance, and negatively correlated with hope, self-directedness, and stigma resistance. Conclusion: Individuals with additional symptoms of depression, social anxiety, trait-like anxiety, and self-stigma should be carefully monitored for suicidal ideation. On the opposite side, patients with sufficient hope, self-esteem, and goal-directed attitudes are less likely to have suicidal thoughts and may potentially be role models in group rehabilitation programs, motivating more

  19. Use of modern tomato breeding germplasm for deciphering the genetic control of agronomical traits by Genome Wide Association study.

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    Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.

  20. Psychological Resources, Personality Traits and Buddhism: A Study of Italian Young Adults.

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    Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Beraldi, Daniela; Gori, Alessio

    2018-04-28

    We aimed to examine whether young adults practicing Buddhism have elevated levels of psychological resources and specific personality traits compared to Catholics and Atheists. We recruited 184 participants: Soka Gakkai Buddhists (n = 60); non-practicing Roman Catholic Church believers (n = 62); Atheists (n = 62). We found that the Buddhists have higher optimism than both Catholics and Atheists. They also have higher self-efficacy and self-esteem than Catholics and higher perceived social support than Atheists. Concerning global personality factors, they are more extraverted than the other groups, and they are less tough-minded than Catholics. Differences also emerged relating some primary personality factors. Since we did not find differences between Catholics and Atheists about psychological resources, we speculate that religion alone does not provide an efficacious source of psychological resources; it could be that religious practice is determinant.

  1. Study of Genetic Diversity of grain yield-associated traits in Iranian and Exotic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Germplasm

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    M. M. Majidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from