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Sample records for metabolic syndrome physical

  1. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  2. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities

    Jeonghee Jeong, RN, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. Methods: The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Keywords: disabled persons, metabolic syndrome X, physical activity, obesity

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline: the role of physical activity

    M. Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Any of these conditions and MetS itself have been associated to Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. In recent years there is a growing evidence for the role of physical activity in preventing metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. In our research we assessed the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 154 elderly people. Furthermore, we evaluated cognition (with Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE  and the physical activity level in every patient. We found a significant association between MetS, borderline cognitive impairment and sedentary lifestyle.

  4. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome and Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients

    derya atik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was carried out to reveal the level of physical activity in patients who receive hemodialysis due to chronic kidney failure and to identify its relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Material and method: The study was conducted with 55 patients at the hemodialysis units of Alanya State Hospital and Private Alanya Anadolu Hospital between 10 and 30 June 2013. The study data were collected using the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, a data collection form containing Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis Criteria, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean +/- standard deviation (SD, number and percentage distributions, independent sample t test, crosstabs, One Way Anova, and Pearson and #8217;s Correlation Analysis. Conclusion and suggestions: It was found that 41.8% of the patients were between 50 and 65 years of age, the majority of them were male (58.2%, hemodialysis had been administered to 69.1% of them for at least 36 months, and 50.9% of them met three and more of the MetS criteria. There was no statistically significant relationship between MetS and physical activity levels, but the length of physical activity was longer in those who did not meet the MetS diagnosis criteria (p>0.05. An increase in sedentary time raised the MetS criteria (p<0.05. Conclusion: Nearly 1/2 of the patients were at risk of MetS. Physical activity level being statistically ineffective on MetS can be associated with low physical activity level and longer sedentary time. It can be said that being completely sedentary increases BMI and therefore MetS. The study can be repeated on different samples and the results can be compared. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 69-75

  6. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced.

  7. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  9. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  10. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  11. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  12. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  13. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  14. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity in suburban Beijing, China.

    Zhang, Wei-Hong; Xue, Peng; Yao, Meng-Ying; Chang, Hai-Min; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity among suburban adults in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 19,003 suburban adults aged 18-76 years was carried out in 2007-2008. Data was collected via questionnaires and blood pressure, anthropometric, and laboratory measurements. Of the residents aged 18-76 years in suburban Beijing, 25.9% (27.3% in men and 25.1% in women), 21.3% (19.4% in men and 22.9% in women), and 25.3% (24.2% in men and 26.1% in women) had 1 component, 2 components, and 3 or more components of metabolic syndrome, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, decreased across categories with increasing physical activity. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking, and alcohol consumption, residents were more likely to have metabolic syndrome across categories with decreasing physical activity; a similar relationship also applied to components of metabolic syndrome. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components is commonly present in suburban Beijing. Increasing physical activity can reduce the relative risk of metabolic syndrome and it components.

  16. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  17. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults With Osteoarthritis.

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Waring, Molly E; Eaton, Charles B; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 566 adults with OA with available accelerometer data assessed using Actigraph AM-7164 and measurements necessary to determine metabolic syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the association between continuous variables in each activity level and metabolic syndrome components. Logistic models estimated the relationship of quartile of daily minutes of different physical activity levels to odds of metabolic syndrome adjusted for socioeconomic and health factors. Among persons with OA, most were women average age of 62.1 years and average disease duration of 12.9 years. Half of adults with OA had metabolic syndrome (51.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 44.2%-57.8%), and only 9.6% engaged in the recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate/vigorous physical activity. Total sedentary time was associated with higher rates of metabolic syndrome and its components, while light and objectively measured moderate/vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Higher levels of light activity were associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, P for linear trend physical activity, especially in light intensity, is more likely to be associated with decreasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among persons with OA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  19. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population.

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons who are ≥ 18 years old. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect five domains of physical activity. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive based on meeting the cut-off value of 600 MET-min/week. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome criteria. Overall prevalence of physically active individuals was 50.1% (CI: 45.6-54.7%). Physical inactivity is significantly more in females (p40 years old (pmetabolic syndrome appeared more likely to be physically active (OR=1.48, CI: 0.71-3.09); physical inactivity showed to exist more among participants who were living in urban area (OR=6.61, CI: 3.40-12.85, pmetabolic syndrome risk factors. The high prevalence of physical inactivity in this study population is a clear indication that concerted efforts to improve physical activity may be required. However, it seems that metabolic syndrome is not improved by being physically active. This suggests that interventions directed at physical activity alone may not produce optimal efficacy in this study population. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with meta...

  1. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  4. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in a developing country, Malaysia.

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, F M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent health problem within the adult population in developing countries. We aimed to study the association of physical activity levels and metabolic risk factors among Malay adults in Malaysia. Cross-sectional. Body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured in 686 Malay participants (aged 35-74 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Malay version) and categorized into low, moderate or high activity levels. Individuals who were classified as overweight and obese predominated (65.6%). On the basis of the modified NCEP ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 31.9% of all participants, of whom 46.1% were men and 53.9% were women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among participants with low, moderate or high activity levels was 13.3%, 11.7% and 7.0%, respectively (p<0.001). Statistically significant negative associations were found between a number of metabolic risk factors and activity categories (p<0.05). The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in the moderate and high activity categories were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27-0.65) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), respectively, adjusted for gender. Moderate and high activity levels were each associated with reduced odds for metabolic syndrome independent of gender. Although a slightly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with high activity than with moderate activity, potential health benefits were observed when moderate activity was performed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  6. Pedometer assessed physical activity of people with metabolic syndrome in Poland.

    Anna Owlasiuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Metabolic syndrome is a contemporary disease of civilization, an effect of lack of healthy behaviour, a consequence of lifestyle devoid of physical activity, eating poor quality food rich in calories and excessive stress. Apart from a proper diet, physical activity remains an important part of metabolic syndrome management. objective. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the physical activity of an adult population of patients with metabolic syndrome. materials and method. Adults aged 35–70 fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF were included. New Lifestyles NL-2000 pedometers were used to assess locomotive physical activity during an entire week. results. In the group of 100 subjects, as many as 61 people (61% represented low or sedentary activity, while nearly one fourth of the respondents – 23 (32% represented the negligible activity type. Average weekly physical activity of those in the study was 6,743 steps/day (in 100 individuals and ranged from 1,781–15,169. A great diversity was found in the study group, since the highest number of steps per day was 23,347 and the lowest – 409. No significant differences in the number of steps on weekdays and at weekends were observed (mean: 6,676/day and 6,913/day, espectively. A statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.29 was observed between age and physical activity, between the average daily number of steps in the week and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR (r = 0.201, as well as between the average daily number of steps in the week and Body Mass Index (BMI (r = 0.226. conclusions. The majority of people with metabolic syndrome represent a low or sedentary activity type and decrease of physical activity corresponds to increasing age, BMI and WHR. No significant differences in physical activity are observed between working days and free days (weekends.

  7. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.

  8. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  9. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  10. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors formetabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects offasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.

  11. Physical activity does not attenuate the relationship between daily cortisol and metabolic syndrome in obese youth.

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J; Stansbury, Kathy; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations among daily cortisol, physical activity (MVPA) and continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS) in obese youth. Fifty adolescents (mean age 14.8 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from medical clinics. Daily MVPA (min/day) was assessed by accelerometry. Saliva was sampled at prescribed times: immediately upon waking; 30 min after waking; and 3, 6 and 9 h after waking. Fasting lipids, glucose, waist circumference and blood pressure were used to calculate a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations among variables. The mean cMetS score was 4.16 ± 4.30 and did not differ by clinic or sex. No significant relationship was found between cortisol area under the curve (cAUC) and cMetS, nor did the interaction of MVPA with cAUC significantly predict cMetS. Physical activity, cortisol, and metabolic risk were not associated in this sample of obese adolescents. Future research should examine the role of insulin sensitivity in these relationships.

  12. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in youth.

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Leite, Neiva; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Martins, Raul A; Mascarenhas, Luis P G; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Padez, Cristina; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with lifestyle behaviors in youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk and encourage interventions. This study evaluates the associations among the clustering of metabolic risk factors and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. The sample comprised 522 girls and 402 boys (N = 924) aged 11 to 17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressures were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test. MVPA was estimated with a 3-day diary. Outcome variables were statistically normalized and expressed as z scores. A clustered metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations between metabolic risk and MVPA by sex, adjusted for age, WC, and CRF. After adjustment for potential confounders, MVPA was inversely associated with the clustering of metabolic risk factors in girls, but not in boys; in addition, after adjusting for WC, the statistical model of that relationship was substantially improved in girls. MVPA was independently associated with increased risk of MetS in girls. Additional efforts are needed to encourage research with different analytical approach and standardization of criteria for MetS in youth.

  13. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  16. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  17. The Stress-Metabolic Syndrome Relationship in Adolescents: An Examination of the Moderating Potential of Physical Activity.

    Holmes, Megan E; Pivarnik, Jim; Pfeiffer, Karin; Maier, Kimberly S; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ewing, Martha

    2016-10-01

    The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status. Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = -.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04). Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.

  18. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury : associations with physical activity and capacity

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J.; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In

  20. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  2. Anthropometry and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome in children.

    Andaki, Alynne Christian Ribeiro; Tinôco, Adelson Luiz Araújo; Mendes, Edmar Lacerda; Andaki Júnior, Roberto; Hills, Andrew P; Amorim, Paulo Roberto S

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of anthropometric measures and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. Cross-sectional study with children from public and private schools. Children underwent an anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical evaluation of serum for determination of TAG, HDL-cholesterol and glucose. Physical activity level was calculated and number of steps per day obtained using a pedometer for seven consecutive days. Viçosa, south-eastern Brazil. Boys and girls (n 187), mean age 9·90 (SD 0·7) years. Conicity index, sum of four skinfolds, physical activity level and number of steps per day were accurate in predicting MetS in boys. Anthropometric indicators were accurate in predicting MetS for girls, specifically BMI, waist circumference measured at the narrowest point and at the level of the umbilicus, four skinfold thickness measures evaluated separately, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, the sum of four skinfolds and body fat percentage. The sum of four skinfolds was the most accurate method in predicting MetS in both genders.

  3. Changes in dietary habits, physical activity and status of metabolic syndrome among expatriates in Saudi Arabia.

    Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Leisure time sedentary behavior, occupational/domestic physical activity, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. men and women.

    Sisson, Susan B; Camhi, Sarah M; Church, Timothy S; Martin, Corby K; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Bouchard, Claude; Earnest, Conrad P; Smith, Steven R; Newton, Robert L; Rankinen, Tuomo; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2009-12-01

    This study examines leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB) and usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA) and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, independent of physical activity level. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 data from men (n = 1868) and women (n = 1688) with fasting measures were classified as having metabolic syndrome by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definition. LTSB was determined from self-reported television viewing and computer usage. UODA was self-reported daily behavior (sitting, standing, walking, carrying loads). LTSB >or=4 hours/day was associated with odds of having metabolic syndrome of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24, 3.03) in men compared to or=4 hour/day was also associated with higher odds of elevated waist circumference (1.88, CI, 1.03, 3.41), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.84, CI, 1.35, 2.51), and high blood pressure (1.55, CI, 1.07, 2.24) in men. LTSB 2-3 hours/day was associated with higher odds of elevated glucose (1.32, CI, 1.00, 1.75) in men. In women, odds of metabolic syndrome were 1.54 (CI, 1.00, 2.37) with >or=4 hours/day LTSB, but LTSB was not associated with risk of the individual CVD risk factors. Higher LTSB was associated with metabolic syndrome in inactive men (1.50, CI, 1.07, 2.09), active men (1.74, CI, 1.11, 2.71), inactive women (1.69, CI, 1.24, 2.33), but not active women (1.62, CI, 0.87,3.01). UODA was not strongly associated with metabolic syndrome or CVD risk factors in either men or women. In men, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome and individual CVD risk factors regardless of meeting physical activity recommendations. In women, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome only in those not meeting the physical activity recommendations.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  7. Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components.

    Katano, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Aki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Taichiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Takebayashi, Toru; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-06-30

    To examine the relation between lifestyle and the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnostic components in a general population, and to find a means of preventing the development of MetS components. We examined baseline data from 3,365 participants (2,714 men and 651 women) aged 19 to 69 years who underwent a physical examination, lifestyle survey, and blood chemical examination. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We defined four components for MetS in this study as follows: 1) high BP: systolic BP > or = 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration or = 150 mg/dL, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) Impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar level > or = 110 mg/d, or if less than 8 hours after meals > or = 140 mg/dL), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2). Those who had 0 to 4 MetS diagnostic components accounted for 1,726, 949, 484, 190, and 16 participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors contributing to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b=0.600, p physical activity was inversely associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components, whereas smoking was not associated.

  8. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical...

  9. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of long-term physical exercise program and/or diet on metabolic syndrome in obese boys.

    García Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra García, José Miguel; Escalante González, Yolanda; Domínguez Pachón, Ana María

    2014-07-01

    There have been just a few studies examining the influence of detraining on obese boys. They conclude that any gains regress to the untrained control values during the detraining period. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate the effects of detraining (6 months) on metabolic syndrome after two types of intervention (both 31 months), one of an exercise program alone and the other of a diet-plus-exercise program, in obese boys. The participants were 18 sedentary boys (8- 11 years old) with a body mass index equal or greater than the 97th percentile for the age and sex (male) of the subject, without any dysfunction or metabolic problem. The participants were divided into two groups - the E group (physical exercise program) and the E+D group (physical exercise program plus a low calorie diet). Metabolic parameters were evaluated (TC, HDL, LDL, TG, glucose, insulin, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Diastolic Blood Pressure), allowing the metabolic syndrome index to be calculated. Changes were observed in LDL-C (effect sizes = -3.19 and -2.28) and in the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (effect sizes = -3.02 and -1.16) in the E and E+D groups, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity was completely removed only in the E group (100% norisk and non-obese subjects - exercise program (with or without diet) seems not to negatively affect the cardiovascular profile, suggesting that the program provides benefits and fosters healthy habits that can be maintained over time, preventing the development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and risk of Metabolic Syndrome in an urban Mexican cohort

    Huitrón Gerardo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Mexican population metabolic syndrome (MS is highly prevalent. It is well documented that regular physical activity (PA prevents coronary diseases, type 2 diabetes and MS. Most studies of PA have focused on moderate-vigorous leisure-time activity, because it involves higher energy expenditures, increase physical fitness, and decrease the risk of MS. However, for most people it is difficult to get a significant amount of PA from only moderately-vigorous leisure activity, so workplace activity may be an option for working populations, because, although may not be as vigorous in terms of cardio-respiratory efforts, it comprises a considerable proportion of the total daily activity with important energy expenditure. Since studies have also documented that different types and intensity of daily PA, including low-intensity, seem to confer important health benefits such as prevent MS, we sought to assess the impact of different amounts of leisure-time and workplace activities, including low-intensity level on MS prevention, in a sample of urban Mexican adults. Methods The study population consisted of 5118 employees and their relatives, aged 20 to 70 years, who were enrolled in the baseline evaluation of a cohort study. MS was assessed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, ATP III and physical activity with a validated self-administered questionnaire. Associations between physical activity and MS risk were assessed with multivariate logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of the components of MS in the study population were: high glucose levels 14.2%, high triglycerides 40.9%, high blood pressure 20.4%, greater than healthful waist circumference 43.2% and low-high density lipoprotein 76.9%. The prevalence of MS was 24.4%; 25.3% in men and 21.8% in women. MS risk was reduced among men (OR 0.72; 95%CI 0.57–0.95 and women (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.64–0.94 who reported an amount of ≥30

  12. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    Hargrove, James L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia...

  13. Physical exercise restores microvascular function in obese rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; Martins, Rômulo Lanza; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are related to systemic functional microvascular alterations, including a significant reduction in microvessel density. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on functional capillary density in the skeletal muscle and skin of obese rats with metabolic syndrome. We used male Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed a standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks. Animals receiving the HFD were randomly divided into sedentary (HFD+SED) and training groups (HFD+TR) at the 20(th) week. After 12 weeks of aerobic treadmill training, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); hemodynamic, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters; and functional capillary density were assessed. In addition, a maximal exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased the VO2max (69 ± 3 mL/kg per min) and exercise tolerance (30 ± 1 min) compared with the HFD+SED (41 ± 6 mL/kg per min, P Exercise training also increased the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries in the skeletal muscle (252 ± 9 vs. 207 ± 9 capillaries/mm(2)) of the training group compared with that in the sedentary animals (260 ± 15 capillaries/mm(2)). These results demonstrate that exercise training reverses capillary rarefaction in our experimental model of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  14. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  15. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    Hargrove James L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3–4 g Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  16. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds.

    Hargrove, James L

    2005-12-13

    Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria), polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3-4 g) Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  17. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  18. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  19. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children.

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Michels, Nathalie; Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Metabolic score was assessed through z-score standardization using 4 components: waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin resistance. Assessment also included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Linear regression analyses with group (CHD vs control) as a predictor were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, and parental education. Measured physical activity level, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and total metabolic score did not differ between children with CHD and controls, whereas reported physical activity was greater in the CHD group than control group. Boys with CHD were less strong in upper muscular strength, speed, and balance, whereas girls with CHD were better in lower muscular strength and worse in balance. High-density lipoprotein was greater in boys and girls with CHD, whereas boys with CHD showed unhealthier glucose homeostasis. Appropriate physical fitness was achieved in children after surgery for CHD, especially in girls. Consequently, children with CHD were not at increased total metabolic risk. Lifestyle counseling should be part of every patient interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study

    Holme, Ingar; Tonstad, Serena; Sogaard, Anne Johanne; Larsen, Per G Lund; Haheim, Lise Lund

    2007-01-01

    Background Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart. Methods Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209) were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported. Results Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's ρ = 0.25). Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54–0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52–0.91] for diabetes) (test for trend P < 0.05). However, when adjusted for more factors measured in 1972/3 including glucose, triglycerides, body mass index, treated hypertension and systolic blood pressure these associations were markedly attenuated. Smoking was associated with the metabolic syndrome but not with diabetes in 2000. Conclusion Physical activity during leisure recorded in middle age prior to the current waves of obesity and diabetes had an independent predictive association with the presence of the metabolic syndrome but not significantly so with diabetes 28 years later in life, when

  2. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Courteix, Daniel; Doré, Eric; Chapier, Robert; Roszyk, Laurence; Sapin, Vincent; Lesourd, Bruno

    2012-09-17

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3) for the protein intake (PI) needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21) controlled for nutrition (energy balance of -500 kcal/day) and physical activity (3.5 hours/day). Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day) and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day). Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Örjan Ekblom

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs. Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1, in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90 and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48, were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  5. Treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Wagh, Arati; Stone, Neil J

    2004-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is intended to identify patients who have increased risk of diabetes and/or a cardiac event due to the deleterious effects of weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and/or an atherogenic diet. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition uses easily measured clinical findings of increased abdominal circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose and/or elevated blood pressure. Three of these five are required for diagnosis. The authors also note that other definitions of metabolic syndrome focus more on insulin resistance and its key role in this syndrome. This review focuses on how treatment might affect each of the five components. Abdominal obesity can be treated with a variety of lower calorie diets along with regular exercise. Indeed, all of the five components of the metabolic syndrome are improved by even modest amounts of weight loss achieved with diet and exercise. For those with impaired fasting glucose tolerance, there is good evidence that a high fiber, low saturated fat diet with increased daily exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes by almost 60%. Of note, subjects who exercise the most, gain the most benefit. Metformin has also been shown to be helpful in these subjects. Thiazolidinedione drugs may prove useful, but further studies are needed. Although intensified therapeutic lifestyle change will help the abnormal lipid profile, some patients may require drug therapy. This review also discusses the use of statins, fibrates, and niacin. Likewise, while hypertension in the metabolic syndrome benefits from therapeutic lifestyle change, physicians should also consider angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs or angiotensin receptor blockers, due to their effects on preventing complications of diabetes, such as progression of diabetic nephropathy and due to their effects on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Aspirin

  6. [Syndrome X vs metabolic syndrome].

    Morales Villegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Himsworth in 1939 postulated that Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) was not only an insulin deficiency state but also a cellular insulin insensitivity disease. Thirty years later, DeFronzo and Reaven demonstrated that insulin resistance (IR) preceded and predisposed for DM2 and atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease (ACVD). Reaven was the first to point out the relationship between IR and with hyperglycemia, dyslipidosis, and hypertension as mediators for ACVD, creating the concept of Syndrome X (SX) in 1988. WHO and, thereafter, other medical societies and medical groups, mainly ATP-III, in 2002, based on the difficulty of diagnosing IR in a simple, reliable, and inexpensive way, proposed and published the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) concept, as a group of five variables, i.e., obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and hypertension, as an easy clinical approximation to suspect and treat an increased cardiometabolic risk. Nowadays, there are deep and extensive controversies on this issue; however, these controversies do not really exist since all discordant points of view are rather quantitative and not qualitative in nature. This article is aimed at differentiating and harmonizing the complementary concepts of SX and MS, at analyzing why MS is a good "clinical window" to look for IR and its underlying manifestations, and finally to accept that the MS concept complements, but does not substitute or antagonize, traditional scales used to asses cardiovascular risk, such as the Framingham scale.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia

    Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels...... in patients with T2D. HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit. Patients with a prolactinoma, patients with schizophrenia and/or T2D often have disturbances in this balance and the finding of lower prolactin (PRL) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS......) may indicate increased dopaminergic tonus. Recent studies supported that PRL levels within or above reference range may be differently related to MetS. In healthy study populations and in PCOS, PRL levels were inversely associated with metabolic risk markers. Ongoing research on PRL fragments...

  8. Metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.

  9. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Neuroprotection

    Melisa Etchegoyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2, for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function. First, we revise a few essential concepts of MetS pathophysiology. Second, we explore some neuroprotective approaches in MetS pertaining brain hypoxia. The articles chosen for this review range from the years 1989 until 2017; the selection criteria was based on those providing data and exploratory information on MetS as well as those that studied innovative therapeutic approaches.Pathophysiology: The characteristically impaired metabolic pathways of MetS lead to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hypoxia, all closely associated with an overall pro-oxidative status. Oxidative stress is well-known to cause the wreckage of cellular structures and tissue architecture. Alteration of the redox homeostasis and oxidative stress alter the macromolecular array of DNA, lipids, and proteins, in turn disrupting the biochemical pathways necessary for normal cell function.Neuroprotection: Different neuroprotective strategies are discussed involving lifestyle changes, medication aimed to mitigate MetS cardinal symptoms, and treatments targeted toward reducing oxidative stress. It is well-known that the routine practice of physical exercise, aerobic activity in particular, and a complete and well-balanced nutrition are key factors to prevent MetS. Nevertheless, pharmacological control of MetS as a whole and

  11. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  13. Clinical update on metabolic syndrome

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.

  14. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  15. Metabolic syndrome and physical activity in southern Brazilian community-dwelling elders: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Reichert César L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The association between a sedentary lifestyle and obesity is well documented, and is linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS. There is some evidence that information regarding the health benefits of physical activity is beginning to impact on the elderly people and is beginning to change their behavior. We aimed to investigate the level of physical activity undertaken by elderly people with MS and those without this condition. Methods - We evaluated 362 community-dwelling elders of Novo Hamburgo, southern Brazil. Diagnosis of MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the physical activity (PA level was estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was carried out to verify associations between MS risk factors and the level of PA. Logistic regression was used to estimate the MS odds ratio for each level of PA. Results - No significant association was found between MS and the level of physical activity, irrespective of sex. The odds ratio for the presence of MS adjusted for sex and age and using insufficiently active elderly people as reference was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7 in sufficiently active elderly people and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0 in very active elderly people. Conclusion - The elderly citizens of a southern Brazilian community who were diagnosed with MS presented the same levels of PA as the individuals who did not have this diagnosis. This may imply that information on the importance of physical activity has already reached this higher risk population.

  16. A CASE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Khoo Ee Ming; Rabia Khatoon

    2006-01-01

    This case report illustrates a 40-year-old woman who presented with chest discomfort that was subsequently diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a common condition associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As primary care providers, we should be detect this condition early, intervene and prevent appropriately before complications occur.

  17. Drug treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Altabas, Velimir

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury: associations with physical activity and capacity.

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Post, Marcel W M

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In a cross-sectional study, persons with SCI (N = 223; time since injury of ≥10 years) were tested. The individual components of the MetS were assessed together with the physical activity measured by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD), while peak aerobic capacity was tested during a graded wheelchair exercise test on a treadmill. Thirty-nine percent of the participants had MetS. In a multivariate logistic regression analyses and after performing a backward regression analysis, only age and education were significant determinants of the MetS. A 10-year increase in age leads to a 1.5 times more chance to have the MetS. Furthermore, people with a low education will multiply the relative risk of MetS compared with people with high education by almost 2. With and without correcting for confounders, no significant relationship was found between PASIPD or peak aerobic capacity and the MetS. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the MetS is high (39%) in people with a long-standing SCI but is comparable to the general Dutch population. Older people and those with a lower education level are most at risk for the MetS. Physical activity and peak aerobic fitness were not related to the MetS in this group with a long-standing SCI.

  19. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  4. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and metabolic syndrome plus depressive symptoms in the FIN-D2D survey.

    Korniloff, Katariina; Katariina, Korniloff; Häkkinen, Arja; Arja, Häkkinen; Kautiainen, Hannu; Hannu, Kautiainen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Peltonen, Markku; Markku, Peltonen; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Pekka, Mäntyselkä; Oksa, Heikki; Heikki, Oksa; Kampman, Olli; Olli, Kampman; Vanhala, Mauno; Mauno, Vanhala

    2010-12-01

    To examine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and simultaneous presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive symptoms (DS) based on a population-based FIN-D2D cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007. 4500 randomly selected Finnish men and women aged 45-74 years were initially enrolled; 2868 (64%) attended a health examination. Participants with complete information (n=2778) were grouped into three LTPA categories: low, moderate and high. MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria and DS on the Beck Depression Inventory (≥10 points). The prevalence of MetS and DS were 53% and 15%, respectively; the prevalence of simultaneous MetS and DS was 10%. The proportion of subjects with MetS, DS and simultaneous presence of MetS and DS increased with decreasing LTPA (pimportance of LTPA as part of the general health promotion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low level of objectively measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Pakistani male immigrants in Oslo, Norway

    Eivind Andersen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of physical fitness in south Asian immigrants living in Norway is largely unknown, but the level of physical activity seems to be low, possibly in part explaining their high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies have used self-reported measures of physical activity, and it might be questioned whether the previous data reflect the true physical activity level.Aim: To describe objectively measured physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk in a group of Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway.Methods: One hundred and fifty Pakistani immigrant men in the age group 25-60 years were included. Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured until exhaustion on a treadmill, and diabetes risk was evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test.Results: Mean age was 37.3 years (SD=7.7. Total physical activity level was 308 counts/min (SD=131, and peak oxygen uptake was 34.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 (SD=5.6. Fifty percent of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, and 76% were obese. Physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness level were lower, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome higher in a subgroup of taxi drivers as compared with those inother occupations (P<0.05.Conclusions: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels are low and diabetes risk high among Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, especially in taxi drivers

  7. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE, FITNESS AND AEROBIC TRAINING IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC AND HEALTHY MEN IN RELATION TO THE LIPID PROFILE, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    David E. Laaksonen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and possibly lipid peroxidation play important roles in the development of macro- and microvascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Little is known, however, of the role of aerobic exercise in dyslipidemia and resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes. Despite the well-known effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on components of the metabolic syndrome, little is known of the association of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max with development of the metabolic syndrome itself. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of a 12-16 week aerobic exercise program on VO2max and the lipid profile was carried out in otherwise healthy young men with type 1 diabetes. The effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses and the relation to VO2max in men with type 1 diabetes was also evaluated. To test four recently proposed definitions by the World Health Organization (WHO and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP of the metabolic syndrome, the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions for prevalent and incident diabetes were assessed in a population-based cohort of middle-aged men. We also studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalent and incident cases of the metabolic syndrome. A 12-16 week endurance exercise program produced antiatherogenic changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in 20 type 1 diabetic men who for the most part were already physically active at baseline. The most favorable training-induced changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and apolipoprotein A-I/apolipoprotein B ratios were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL levels, likely the group with the most benefit to be gained by such changes. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was higher in nine

  8. Impact of Baseline Physical Activity and Diet Behavior on Metabolic Syndrome in a Pharmaceutical Trial: Results from NAVIGATOR

    Huffman, Kim M.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W.; Califf, Robert M.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Holman, Rury R.; McMurray, John J.V.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. Materials/Methods This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. Results For every 2000-stepincrease in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29(95%CI−0.33to−0.25).For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95%CI−0.08 to −0.01).Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Conclusions Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements providescardiometabolic

  9. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    Bhalli, M.A.; Aamir, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  10. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    Bhalli, M A; Aamir, M; Mustafa, G [Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  11. Management issues in the metabolic syndrome.

    Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R

    2006-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, central obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to this syndrome are physical inactivity and an atherogenic diet and cornerstone clinical feature is abdominal obesity or adiposity. In addition, patients usually have elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, other abnormal lipid parameters, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Impaired fibrinolysis, increased susceptibility to thrombotic events, and raised inflammatory markers are also observed. Given that India has the largest number of subjects with type-2 diabetes in the world it can be extrapolated that this country also has the largest number of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies confirm a high prevalence. Therapeutic approach involves intervention at a macro-level and control of multiple risk factors using therapeutic lifestyle approaches (diet control and increased physical activity, pharmacotherapy - anti-obesity agents) for control of obesity and visceral obesity, and targeted approach for control of individual risk factors. Pharmacological therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals. Anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat can be tried to reduce weight and central obesity and jointly control the metabolic syndrome components. Other than weight loss, there is no single best therapy and treatment should consist of treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Newer drugs such as the endocannabinoid receptor blocker,rimonabant, appear promising in this regard. Atherogenic dyslipidemia should be controlled initially with statins if there is an increase in LDL cholesterol. If there are other lipid abnormalities then combination therapy of statin with fibrates

  12. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    physical activity than men; therefore, the incidence of metabolic syndrome is higher among women. PMID:27003972

  13. Relationship Between Physical Activity Patterns and Metabolic Syndrome Among Male Coal Miners of Shanxi Province in China.

    Liang, Jie; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Xu, Shu-Hong; Guan, Hongwei; Wang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China. The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 3076 males aged 18-65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633-0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516-0.762). Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.

  14. Associations of Metabolic Syndrome, Elevated C-Reactive Protein, and Physical Activity in U.S. Adolescents.

    Williams, Bethany D; Richardson, Michael R; Johnson, Tammie M; Churilla, James R

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and physical activity (PA) as well as the odds of MetS criteria in those active versus inactive utilizing a representative sample of U.S. adolescents. The study sample (n = 676) included male and female adolescent (12-17 years) participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The criteria analyzed were based on a modified definition of MetS using the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Current adult cut points were used to determine elevated CRP. Activity was estimated using reported days per week and minutes per day of moderate/vigorous PA. The MetS criteria with the highest and lowest overall prevalence estimates were elevated fasting glucose and elevated blood pressure (20.7% [95% confidence interval, 17.02-24.38] and 5.7% [95% confidence interval, 3.70-7.70], respectively). The prevalence of elevated CRP was 7.1% (6.3% and 7.8% in males and females, respectively; p = .42). The prevalence of insufficient PA was 75.0%. Odds of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in active adolescents when compared with inactive adolescents (odds ratio = .39, p < .05). In a representative sample of U.S. adolescents, elevated fasting glucose is the most prevalent MetS criterion. One out of five U.S. adolescents has elevated fasting glucose, and three out four do not meet the daily federal PA recommendations. Adolescents meeting the federal PA recommendation demonstrate approximately 60% lower odds of having low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  16. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  17. Neuroinflammatory basis of metabolic syndrome.

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-10-05

    Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  18. Different physical activity subtypes and risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese people.

    Mu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is growing rapidly in China. Tai chi and dancing are common types of exercise among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. It remains unclear whether these activities are associated with a lower risk of MetS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 15,514 individuals (6,952 men, 8,562 women aged 50 to 70 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in Shiyan, China participated in a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and other lifestyle factors were assessed with semi-structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. MetS was defined by the current National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. The prevalence of MetS was 33.2% in the study population. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, total physical activity levels were monotonically associated with a lower odds of MetS [OR 0.75 comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.66-0.86, P<0.001]. Compared with non-exercisers in a specific exercise type, jogging (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-1.00, P = 0.046, tai chi (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, P<0.001, and dancing (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47-0.67, P<0.001 were associated with significantly lower odds of MetS. Furthermore, each 1-h/week increment in tai chi and dancing was associated with a 5% (95% CI 2%-9% and a 9% (95% CI 6%, 12% lower risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Jogging, tai chi and dancing are associated with a significantly lower risk of having MetS in middle-aged and older Chinese. Future intervention studies should consider the role of jogging, tai chi and dancing in preventing MetS.

  19. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  20. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  1. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend metabolic syndrome components (p for trend metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  2. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  3. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  4. Metabolic syndrome presenting as abdominal pain

    Mohammed Y Al-Dossary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome represents a sum of risk factors that lead to the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The early detection of metabolic syndrome is extremely important in adults who are at risk. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome are not yet clear, insulin resistance plays a key role that could explain the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in untreated metabolic syndrome patients. Here, we present the case of a 26-year-old male who was diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and severe hypertriglyceridemia after presenting with abdominal pain. Although hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia are the most common predictors of metabolic syndrome, clinicians need to be vigilant for unexpected presentations in patients at risk for metabolic syndrome. This case sheds light on the importance of early detection.

  5. Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean People with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Moon, Seongmi

    2017-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  7. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  8. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2 presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20 cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6 follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal.

  10. Oral contraceptives versus physical exercise on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Giallauria, F; Savastano, S; Bottiglieri, P; Tafuri, D; Predotti, P; Colarieti, G; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2016-11-01

    Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are one the most widespread therapy in young polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and physical exercise represents a crucial first step in the treatment of overweight and obese PCOS, no studies were performed to compare the effects on cardiovascular risk (CVR) of OCs and physical exercise in PCOS. To compare the effects of OCs administration and physical exercise on the CVR, clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in PCOS women. One hundred and fifty PCOS women were enrolled and were randomized to OCs (3 mg drospirenone plus 30 μg ethinyloestradiol), structured exercise training programme (SETP) or polyvitamin tablets. The intervention phase study was of 6 months. Primary outcome was intima-media thickness (IMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Secondary outcomes were clinical, hormonal and metabolic changes. A significant reduction of IMT and a significant increase of FMD were observed in the SETP group after treatment. Compared to baseline, in the SETP group, a significant improvement in anthropometric measures, insulin sensitivity indexes, lipid profile, cardiopulmonary function, inflammatory markers and frequency of menses was observed. Oral contraceptives use was associated with a significant decrease of hyperandrogenism and a significant improvement of frequency of menses. Further, OCs use had a neutral effect on CVR risk factors. OCs effectively treat hyperandrogenism and menstrual disturbances, while SETP is more effective in improving cardiometabolic profile and cardiopulmonary function in PCOS . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  12. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    Rinki Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1 severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2 pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3 severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  13. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

    Olinichenko, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the research is to study the features of gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 490 patients (250 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome and 240 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease without the metabolic syndrome). The patients besides general clinical examination were carried out video-fibro-gastro-duodeno-skopy, pH-monitoring in the esophagus, anthropometry, deter...

  15. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  16. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  17. RESISTANT HYPERTENSION IN A PATIENT WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    O. M. Drapkina; J. S. Sibgatullina

    2016-01-01

    Clinical case of resistant hypertension in a patient with metabolic syndrome is presented. Features of hypertension in metabolic syndrome and features of metabolic syndrome in women of pre- and postmenopausal age are also considered. Understanding the features of metabolic syndrome in women, as well as features of hypertension and metabolic syndrome will improve the results of treatment in patients with resistant hypertension.

  18. The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Saklayen, Mohammad G

    2018-02-26

    Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts. The two basic forces spreading this malady are the increase in consumption of high calorie-low fiber fast food and the decrease in physical activity due to mechanized transportations and sedentary form of leisure time activities. The syndrome feeds into the spread of the diseases like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke, and other disabilities. The total cost of the malady including the cost of health care and loss of potential economic activity is in trillions. The present trend is not sustainable unless a magic cure is found (unlikely) or concerted global/governmental/societal efforts are made to change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban planning to encourage active lifestyle, subsidizing consumption of whole grains and possible taxing high calorie snacks, restricting media advertisement of unhealthy food, etc. Revitalizing old fashion healthier lifestyle, promoting old-fashioned foods using healthy herbs rather than oil and sugar, and educating people about choosing healthy/wholesome food over junks

  19. Physics of metabolic organization

    Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-03-01

    We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic syndrome among rural Indian adults.

    Barik, Anamitra; Das, Kausik; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    To prevent an increasing level of mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among the rural Indian population, a management strategy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be devised. This study aims to estimate the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Data from the Birbhum Population Project covering 9886 individuals (4810 male and 5076 female population) aged ≥18 years were used. The burden of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, was determined. Bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were used to attain the study objective. Over 10.7% of the males and 20.3% of the females were diagnosed with MetS. Irrespective of sex, older individuals, being overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m 2 ) had higher probability of developing MetS, whereas being underweight is deemed a protective factor against MetS. Low physical activity among women appeared to be a risk factor for MetS. The prevalence of MetS is concerning even in rural India. Any intervention designed to address the issue could emphasize on weight loss, and physical activity, focusing on women and people at an advanced stage of life. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  3. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  4. [Physical activity in patients with symptoms of metabolic syndrome reduces the concentration of plasma antioxidant vitamins - protective effect of vitamin C].

    Godala, Małgorzata; Materek-Kuśmierkiewicz, Izabela; Moczulski, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Szatko, Franciszek; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Tokarski, Sławomir; Kowalski, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases, including those with the symptoms of metabolic syndrome (MS), are recommended regular exercise but many studies indicate its role in the production of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C supplementation may enhance the antioxidant barrier in MS patients. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of regular physical activity (PA)and vitamin C supplementation on plasma vitamin A, C and E levels in patients with MS. The study included 62 patients with MS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria, 32 men and 30 women, aged 38-57 years (mean age 51,24 ± 5,29 years). The patients were divided in two groups: group I (MS+PA) - 31 patients with recommended regular physical activity; group II ( MS+PA+C) - 31 patients with recommended regular physical activity and vitamin C supplementation per os. The control group consisted of 23 healthy individuals without MS, 17 men and 6 women, aged 49-56 years (mean age 53,21 ± 3,6 years), who were not recommended any vitamin supplementation nor physical activity. Plasma vitamin A, C and E levels were estimated in MS patients with spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after regular exercise with and without vitamin C supplementation. In the control group plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins were assessed only once. The plasma vitamin A, C and E levels were significantly lower (pvitamins was observed in MS patients. In the group of patients with regular physical activity and vitamin C supplementation there was detected a significant rise in the level of all the tested vitamins close to the levels in control group. Regular physical activity enhances the decrease in plasma antioxidant vitamin level in patients with MS. Vitamin C supplementation conducted in parallel with regular physical activity normalize plasma vitamin A, C and E levels in these patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  6. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press.

  7. The metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors

    de Haas, Esther C.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Gietema, Jourik A.

    The metabolic syndrome, as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, may represent an important connection between cancer treatment and its common late effect of cardiovascular disease. Insight into the aetiology of the metabolic syndrome after cancer treatment might help to identify and treat

  8. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  9. Metabolic syndrome: clinical concept and molecular basis.

    Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia and is a common basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, a practical definition is needed. A worldwide definition that considers increased waist circumference as an essential component has been settled. Visceral fat locates upstream of the liver. Free fatty acids and glycerol derived from visceral fat reach the liver and stimulate lipoprotein synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively. The adipose tissue produces a variety of bioactive substances conceptualized as 'adipocytokines'. Overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor- seems to relate to the thrombotic and inflammatory tendency. On the other hand, adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities, is reduced in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the waist circumference criterion based on visceral fat accumulation has been adopted. The concept of this syndrome has been widely publicized, and health promotion programs based on the concept have commenced in various areas of the country. Such 'Adipo-Do-It' movement is an incentive to encourage physical exercise to reduce visceral fat and is a big challenge to prevent life-style-related diseases and CVD.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in Children: Clinical Picture, Features of Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    O.S. Bobrykovych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study included 225 children aged from 14 to 18 years with various manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in neighborhoods, different by iodine provision. The physical development (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences has been examined. Biochemical investigations are focused on the study of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in children. It is found that children who live in mountains have more severe obesity. In parallel with the increase of the degree of obesity, disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism aggravate in children with sings of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  12. Randomized comparison of the influence of dietary management and/or physical exercise on ovarian function and metabolic parameters in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Nybacka, Åsa; Carlström, Kjell; Ståhle, Agneta; Nyrén, Sven; Hellström, Per Martin; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2011-12-01

    To compare the influence of dietary management and/or physical exercise on ovarian function and metabolic variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized 4-month trial with three interventions and a long-term follow-up. Women's health clinical research unit at a university hospital. Fifty-seven overweight/obese women with PCOS. Dietary management, physical exercise, or both, using programs individually adapted and supervised by a dietician and/or a physical therapist. Ovarian function, endocrinologic, and metabolic status and body composition. On average, body mass index was reduced 6% by the dietary management, 3% by the exercise, and 5% by the combined interventions. Lower body fat and lean body mass were significantly decreased in the dietary groups, whereas upper body fat was lowered and lean body mass maintained by exercise alone. The menstrual pattern was significantly improved in 69% and ovulation confirmed in 34% of the patients, with no differences among the groups. The strongest predictor of resumed ovulation was a high serum level of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 after the intervention. Follow-up of one-half of the patients for a median of 2.8 years revealed sustained weight reduction and improvement in menstrual pattern. Dietary management and exercise, alone or in combination, are equally effective in improving reproductive function in overweight/obese women with PCOS. The underlying mechanisms appear to involve enhanced insulin sensitivity. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert long-term beneficial effects. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk in PCOS.

    Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F

    2007-02-01

    The cardiovascular risk associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently attracted much interest. Women with PCOS are more likely to fulfill the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of related cardiometabolic factors known to predict long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We review the literature pertaining to the link between the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and PCOS. We focus on the influence of obesity and hyperandrogenemia, and on strategies for identifying cardiovascular risk in PCOS.

  15. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  16. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among adults

    Reem Hunain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality and morbidity due cardiovascular diseases in India is on the rise. Metabolic Syndrome which is a collection of risk factors of metabolic origin, can greatly contribute to its rising burden. Aims & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk among adults. Material & Methods: This hospital-based study included 260 adults aged 20-60 years. Metabolic Syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel -3 criteria. The 10 year cardiovascular risk was estimated using Framingham risk scoring. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study participants was 38.8%. Age (41-60yrs, male gender and daily consumption of high salt items were positively associated with metabolic syndrome whereas consumption of occasional high sugar items showed an inverse association with metabolic syndrome. According to Framingham Risk Scoring, 14.3% of the participants belonged to intermediate/high risk category. Conclusion: With a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a considerable proportion of individuals with intermediate to high 10 yr CVD risk, there is a need to design strategies to prevent future cardiovascular events.

  17. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics.

  18. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  19. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  20. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  1. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh

    2008-11-01

    Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in developing countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Literature search was carried out using the terms obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, nutrition, physical activity, and developing countries, from PubMed from 1966 to June 2008 and from web sites and published documents of the World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization. With improvement in economic situation in developing countries, increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in adults and particularly in children. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, and reduced physical activity. Furthermore, aggressive community nutrition intervention programs for undernourished children may increase obesity. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood catch-up obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and T2DM. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budgets is enormous. To prevent increasing morbidity and mortality due to obesity-related T2DM and cardiovascular disease in developing countries, there is an urgent need to initiate large-scale community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options, particularly for children. International health agencies and respective government should intensively focus on primordial and primary prevention programs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

  2. Executive functions in persons with metabolic syndrome

    Subotić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern man lyfestyle contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome in the developed world. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults ranges from 20 to 25%, and it tends to increase. Each year, 3.2 million people around the world die from complications associated with this syndrome. Treatment involves cooperation of medical doctors of various specialties, but the decisive factor is patient motivation, given that the treatment requires significant lifestyle changes. Our hypothesis is that metabolic syndrome patients have reduced ability to plan, convert plan into action and effectively implement planned activities, showing signs of dysexecutive syndrome. The term executive functions comes from the English word 'executive', which also means the controlling, in neuropsychology reserved for high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking and speaking. The main objective of this study was to determine characteristics of executive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome. The sample consisted of 61 subjects of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, divided into two groups - those with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and those without this diagnosis. The results suggest that people with metabolic syndrome showed significantly poorer performance in almost all indicators of executive functions, represented by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variables.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and its components among university students in Kenya.

    Mbugua, Samuel Mungai; Kimani, Samuel Thuo; Munyoki, Gilbert

    2017-11-28

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus. Stratified sampling was used to select participants. Self-administered questionnaires were issued to participants after a signed consent had been obtained following which clinical assessments and biochemical measures were performed. They included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, anthropometric measurements; height, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Pearson's chi-square tests and non-parametric independent t-test were used to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per gender, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI and prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI category. The study established that 1.9% of the participants met the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to HJSS criteria. Among the elements, there was statistical difference in gender BMI and waist circumference. 11.8% of subjects had two metabolic syndrome components while 3.1% had three components while none of the subjects had all six components. Elevated triglycerides was the most prevalent defining component for metabolic syndrome. There is a statistically significant relationship between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits as risk factors to metabolic syndrome. Young adults in university have begun developing metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing the syndrome continues to increase with the

  4. KUDESAN EFFICACY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    M.B. Kolesnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities in metabolic syndrome affect the functioning of practically all organs and systems, and most seriously — cardio-vascular system. Cardio-vascular abnormalities in metabolic syndrome manifest as arterial hypertension, Riley-Day syndrome and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to decrease of adaptive and reserve capabilities. Co-enzyme Q10 possesses cardioprotective,  stress-protective and anti-ischaemic activity. Clinical study performed on 40 children aged 10 to 17 years with constitutive obesity, complicated metabolic syndrome, has proven validity of co-enzyme Q10 treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. The use of co-enzyme Q10 15 mg/day during 30 days has lead to improvement of psycho-emotional condition, decrease in anxiety complaints, sleep improvement, decrease in asthenic syndrome symptoms, improvement in electrophysiological heart indices Key words: metabolic syndrome, co-enzyme Q10. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 102–106.

  5. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.

    Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun

    2018-05-01

    The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  8. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring? A prospective study over two decades.

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Brink Henriksen, Tine; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-08-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring. Longitudinal study where 965 pregnant women during 1988-1989 had four dimensions of PA assessed by questionnaires in gestation week 30: PA at work; leisure time PA, daily amount of walking-biking and sport participation. The following MS markers were assessed in the offspring (n=439): body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance as well as fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol), insulin and leptin levels. Walking-biking PA in pregnancy is associated with unchanged or subtle, adverse changes of distinct MS markers among offspring including lower levels of HDL cholesterol (ratio 0.95 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98) per 1 h increment in walking-biking), a higher diastolic blood pressure (difference 1.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 2.20) mm Hg/1 h increment) and a higher BMI (ratio 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 1 h increment). In separate analyses in males, these associations persisted and additional adverse associations were found for triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and leptin. No associations were detected with other measures of PA. The study did not substantiate any protective effects of PA in pregnancy. In contrast, data suggested that high amounts of daily walking-biking in pregnancy may have adverse effects on levels of HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure and BMI in young adult offspring.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Outcomes after Renal Intervention

    Daynene Vykoukal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases can partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Multiple observational studies have consistently shown that increased body mass index as well as insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels is associated with chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for related disorders. Metabolic syndrome appears to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, likely due to the combination of dysglycemia and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome is associated with markedly reduced renal clinical benefit and increased progression to hemodialysis following endovascular intervention for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inferior early outcomes for dialysis access procedures.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    Methods: A total of 384 first-year students attending university medical clinics for obligatory medical ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, ..... requires the attention of all health professionals.

  11. Pre-diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    which is termed impaired fasting glycaemia. (IFG), or an abnormal ... Insulin resistance is a feature common to ... fast patients are given a standard dose ... Different criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome ... drug therapy for high.

  12. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p metabolic syndrome score ( p metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  13. [A better self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among university students].

    Fonseca-Camacho, Deivy Fredery; Hernández-Fonseca, John Manuel; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-12-17

    To evaluate whether more positive self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in university students in Bogotá, Colombia Method: A total of 493 men (mean age 28.5±11.5 years old) without cardiovascular disease university students completed the self-report fitness tool, namely "The International FItness Scale" (IFIS). The overall prevalence of MetS and its components according to "International Diabetes Federation" (IDF) criteria and the "National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood, Cholesterol in Adults" (NCEP: ATP-III) were measured. Body Fat Mass (BFM), Body Fat Percentage (BF %), Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI), were estimated using segmental bioelectrical impedance equipment. Twenty three percent of participants had met the criteria of MetS. Central obesity (33%) was the most prevalent factor, followed by low HDL cholesterol level (31%). The other factors associated with the presence of MetS were hypercholesterolemia (60%), high LDL cholesterol level (32%) and hypertriglyceridemia (19%). Participants reporting to have a "good/very good" in the self-reported (cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness specific components), shown a healthy range in blood pressure, FFM, FFMI and triglycerides level (p self-perception of physical fitness have an increased prevalence of MetS and its components. This study suggests that the self-report tool used in this study, the IFIS tool, is a useful method to be used in large scale surveys and epidemiological studies in which, because of time, equipment, or qualified personnel limitations, fitness cannot be directly measured. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

    Chen, Hui; Xiong, Shenghua; Ren, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to s...

  15. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gout and Metabolic Syndrome: a Tangled Web.

    Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-08-26

    The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.

  17. Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2006-01-01

    (HAART) may encounter the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), which attenuates patient compliance to this treatment. HALS is characterised by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This review depicts the metabolic abnormalities associated...... with HAART by describing the key cell and organ systems that are involved, emphasising the role of insulin resistance. An opinion on the remedies available to treat the metabolic abnormalities and phenotype of HALS is provided....

  18. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Yasmin, S.; Naveed, T.; Shakoor, T.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). Cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 100 subjects with ischemic heart disease, fulfilling the inclusion criteria, were enrolled in the study. Demographic data (age and gender) and the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome were noted. Subjects were physically assessed for the abdominal obesity, based on waist circumference. Fasting blood samples for glucose and lipid profile in first 24 hours after acute coronary insult were drawn and tested in central laboratory. Variables were processed for descriptive statistics. In this study population, 68% were male and 32% were female with mean age of 52 +-13.6 years in men and 56 +- 12.5 years in women. Frequency of metabolic syndrome was 32% in men and 28% in women. It increased with age. The highest rate of metabolic syndrome was in men diagnosed as STEMI (odds ratio: 3.39, 95% CI=1.36-8.41). Frequency of metabolic syndrome was high among the patients with IHD. It supports the potential for preventive efforts in persons with high-risk of IHD. (author)

  20. Metabolic syndrome in urban DRDO population

    Prakash P Bellubbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a common condition occurring all over the world which is also known by other terminology such as Dysmetabolic syndrome, Syndrome X, Insulin Resistance syndrome, Obesity syndrome, or Reaven′s syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is constituted by a group of Risk Factors such as Trunkal Obesity, Impaired or Altered Glucose Tolerance, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension. Individuals with these risk factors are at a greater risk of developing a cardiovascular disease or Type 2 Diabetes. NCEP, National Heart, lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health periodically publishes ATP clinical updates as warranted by advances in the cholesterol management. Each of the guideline reports -ATP I, II and III - has a major thrust in Cardiovascular Risk Management. While some of the features of ATP I and ATP II are shared by ATP III guidelines, there are some salient differences. ATP III focuses on Multiple risk factors and recommends the use ofFramingham projections of 10 year absolute risk, modifies lipid and lipoprotein classification and supports for implementation of a revised schedule for screening and Therapeutic Life-style Changes. DRDO has embarked upon a program to assess the occupational health risk and the coronary risk status of the DRDO and defence employees. The present paper describes incidence of Metabolic Syndrome amongst the DRDO and Defence employees, using the ATP III guidelines and importance of calculating the absolute coronary risk status of these personnel.

  1. The risk of metabolic syndrome and nutrition

    Aleksandr Konstantinovich Kuntsevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present literature review modern epidemiological studies the role of nutrition in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed mainly work on the association of certain types of dietary intake of the population to the risk of metabolic syndrome in several Western and Asian countries. The purpose of these studies was to determine deemed "good" type and the "bad" type of food, risk assessment and exchange of metabolic disorders to determine the optimal dietary recommendations.  Application of factor and cluster analysis allowed in a number of studies to identify groups of products associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to estimate the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome when compared with the "bad" diet.  A number of papers were obtained confirm the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Commitment to the traditional Western diet is associated with deterioration in health, compared with the recommended "healthy" diet.  Data from epidemiological studies nutrition and metabolic disorders associated with a number of diseases, may be useful in determining how the recommendations on the best type of feeding the population, so to identify ways to further research.

  2. [Metabolic syndrome: what, why, how and who?].

    Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2007-06-01

    being recommended that the discussion on the metabolic syndrome be limited to persons without diabetes or already diagnosed cardiovascular disease, as the primary goal for these individuals is to prevent these diseases. It has already been shown that this was possible, primarily by intensive change in lifestyle - healthy diet and exercise. In conclusion, further basic research is necessary to explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms, which might serve to develop new therapies. Moreover, epidemiological and public health aspects are extremely important in the creation of a prevention program. Preliminary results of the Croatian Health Survey (2003) indicate that the metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria is present even in the youngest age group, with expected age-dependent increase in both men and women. This is even an underestimate since in this survey only blood pressure and waist circumference were actually measured, and data on dislipidemia and blood glucose were based on a questionnaire. It is already obvious that a wide action with two main goals aimed primarily at the youngest population is necessary: an increase in regular physical activity and the promotion of healthy and energy-adequate diet in the population at large.

  3. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Examine the Effects of Sex and Physical Activity on the Metabolic Syndrome and Health-related Quality of Life Relationship

    Peter D. Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to use structural equation modeling (SEM to investigate the moderating effects of sex and the mediating effects of physical activity (PA on the metabolic syndrome (MetS and health-related quality of life (HRQOL relationship. Methods The 2013-14 NHANES was used and included 1,077 adults 50+ years of age. A latent construct of MetS was created using five observed variables: waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, and mean arterial pressure. A PA variable was created from self-reported moderate and vigorous recreational activity and converted to quartiles of moderate-to-vigorous PA minutes per week. HRQOL was assessed from a question regarding self-rated general health and dichotomized to indicate poor/good HRQOL. Results The MetS latent model showed adequate fit (χ2/df=2.47, GFI=0.99, CFI=0.99, and RMSEA=0.04 and significantly (P<.001 predicted all observed variables. The structural model also showed adequate fit with significant direct effects of MetS on HRQOL (β= −0.118, P<0.001 and PA on HRQOL (β=0.176, P<0.001. The effect of MetS on HRQOL (β= −0.048, P=0.001 through PA revealed that PA mediates the relationship. The multi-group analysis showed that the structural model was significantly different between males and females, with PA completely mediating the MetS and HRQOL relationship in males and partially mediating the relationship in females. Conclusions Results from this study support the use of SEM for investigating moderating and mediating effects while simultaneously measuring a latent construct. Additionally, PA was a stronger mediator to the MetS and HRQOL relationship in older males than in older females.

  4. a family doctor look for metabolic syndrome?

    Izabela Maria Banaś

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asymptomatic course, early genesis, multifactorial onset, and the lack of a single definition of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents make it difficult to assess its prevalence. Metabolic syndrome developed in childhood increases cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Objectives. The evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on age, sex, weight and abdominal obesity in a population of children and adolescents in a family doctor’s practice. Material and methods. The study group comprised 325 children and adolescents (177♀, 148♂ aged 7, 13 and 16 years. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference were made, along with the determination of blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels. Overweight states and obesity were assessed according to the IOTF criteria. Abdominal obesity and hypertension were evaluated using growth charts appropriate for the age, gender and height of the children of Lodz. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the NCEP/AT P III criteria. Results . Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 6.5% of the subjects. In children aged 13 and 16 years – 7.6% (p > 0.05 vs. 7 years, aged 7 years – 3.9% (p > 0.05 vs. 13, 16 years, boys (8.8%; p > 0.05, girls (4.5%; p > 0.05. Among children with excessive body weight, metabolic syndrome was observed in every fourth child (25.4%, more often in those with obesity (44.1% than with abdominal obesity (32% and those who were overweight (19.2%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. metabolic syndrome. The number of components of metabolic syndrome elevated with increasing body weight (p < 0.001. Abdominal obesity was observed in 17.5% of the subjects. Children with abdominal obesity had higher levels of triglycerides (p < 0.05 and lower HDL cholesterol (p 110 mg/dl in 85 (26.1% and excessive body weight in 71 subjects (21.8%. Conclusions . The presence of metabolic syndrome correlated with overweight state, obesity and abdominal obesity

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  6. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Metabolic syndrome and aortic stiffness].

    Simková, A; Bulas, J; Murín, J; Kozlíková, K; Janiga, I

    2010-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that move the patient into higher level of risk category of cardiovascular disease and the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus manifestation. Definition of MS is s based on the presence of selected risk factors as: abdominal obesity (lager waist circumpherence), atherogenic dyslipidemia (low value of HDL-cholesterol and increased level of triglycerides), increased fasting blood glucose (or type 2 DM diagnosis), higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy. In 2009 there were created harmonizing criteria for MS definition; the condition for assignment of MS is the presence of any 3 criteria of 5 mentioned above. The underlying disorder of MS is an insulin resistance or prediabetes. The patients with MS more frequently have subclinical (preclinical) target organ disease (TOD) which is the early sings of atherosclerosis. Increased aortic stiffness is one of the preclinical diseases and is defined by pathologically increased carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao). With the aim to assess the influence of MS on aortic stiffness we examined the group of women with arterial hypertension and MS and compare them with the group of women without MS. The aortic stiffness was examined by Arteriograph--Tensiomed, the equipment working on the oscillometric principle in detection of pulsations of brachial artery. This method determines the global aortic stiffness based on the analysis of the shape of pulse curve of brachial artery. From the cohort of 49 pts 31 had MS, the subgroups did not differ in age or blood pressure level. The mean number of risk factors per person in MS was 3.7 comparing with 1.7 in those without MS. In the MS group there was more frequently abdominal obesity present (87% vs 44%), increased fasting blood glucose (81% vs 22%) and low HDL-cholesterol level. The pulse wave velocity in aorta, PWV Ao, was significantly higher in patients with MS (mean value 10,19 m/s vs 8,96 m

  8. Influence of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome groups on quality of life in women with metabolic syndrome

    Li-Wen Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī syndrome groups are based on the symptoms of human diseases and guide the use of Chinese herbs. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TCM syndrome groups on biochemical characteristics and quality of life (QOL in women with metabolic syndrome (MS. Among the 1080 registered female patients screened at our outpatient clinic, a total of 322 women aged between 18 and 65 years and meeting the requirements of MS were enrolled. All the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire on metabolic TCM syndrome groups and a questionnaire on the QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Short Form-12 (SF-12. Data of biochemical characteristics were collected at the same time. The present study showed MS women in TCM syndrome groups had significantly lower physical and mental component scores in SF-12 compared with those not in TCM syndrome groups. We also found MS patients in TCM syndrome groups, except Kidney Deficiency syndrome, showed higher body mass indexes, waist circumference, and hip circumference. However, there was almost no difference in most biochemical characteristics between TCM syndrome groups. The MS patients diagnosed as belonging to TCM syndrome groups had poor QOL.

  9. Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research

    Sunil K. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

  10. Association of metabolic syndrome in patients with osteoarthritis

    Malik, S.; Salim, B.; Khalil, Z.; Nasim, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine association of osteoarthritis (OA) with metabolic syndrome in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients were randomly interviewed in the Female Rheumatology department and a total of 240 patients with single rheumatologic disease and age >35 years were selected. Informed consent was taken and patients were interviewed using a self-made questionnaire to evaluate their medical history, physical and laboratory examination. SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 240 subjects, 81 patients had OA and another 81 patients were randomly selected from the age and gender matched control (non-OA) group. The mean age of patients in OA and non-OA group was 56.68 ± 09.76 and 53.57 ± 11.01 years, respectively. In OA group, 48.1% and in non-OA group 22.2% of patients were falling in category of being obese/morbidly obese. According to AHA criteria for Metabolic Syndrome, percentage of OA patients labeled to have metabolic syndrome was 58.8% as compared to 19.5% in non-OA group. Conclusion: There was a strong association of metabolic syndrome with OA and would surely make a foreground for future studies to be conducted on developing preventive strategies and ultimately reducing the morbidities and mortalities associated with Metabolic Osteoarthritis. (author)

  11. Incidence and Major Metabolic Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome ...

    The study involved 300 (92 males and 208 females) type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted at the Tamale Teaching/Regional Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) criteria. The incidence of the ...

  12. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology and clinical presentation.

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.

  13. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents].

    Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

  14. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in ...

    Objective: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and metabolic syndrome (MS) share a ... patients with other known systemic disorders, long‑term intake of drugs that ... Keywords: Alcohol, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome ...

  16. Associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

    Choi, Jihyun E; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. Adults aged 40-70 years were divided into three groups by tertile of accelerometer-determined steps/d (in men and women, respectively): tertile 1 (sedentary), active), ≥10699, ≥9226. The active men consumed more grain products, fruits and vegetables, whereas the active women consumed more legumes and vegetables, compared with the sedentary group. Serum vitamin concentrations were associated with daily steps in both men and women. Vitamin C, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, γ-tocopherol and vitamin D were significantly associated with daily steps. OR (Pmen and women, respectively. Those with the highest steps taken showed a more healthful eating profile and a better serum vitamin profile compared with less active adults. Those with the lowest steps taken had greater odds of having metabolic syndrome and its risk components. Probably, daily walking is a marker of a healthful eating profile and increasing daily walking is one of the healthful ways to decrease the metabolic syndrome and its risk components.

  17. Modifiable Lifestyle Behaviors Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Taiwanese Population.

    Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2015-11-01

    To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Association between Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among African Americans in the United States

    Chintan J. Bhanushali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although there is a reported association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome, very few studies have used national level data restricted to the African Americans (AAs in the United States (US. Methods. A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2006 including men and nonpregnant women of 20 years or older. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome. Results. AA women had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (39.43% than AA men (26.77%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, no significant association was found between metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors including alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Age and marital status were significant predictors for metabolic syndrome. With increase in age, both AA men and AA women were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (AA men: ORadj=1.05, 95% CI 1.04–1.06, AA women: ORadj=1.06, 95% CI 1.04–1.07. Single AA women were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than married women (ORadj=0.66, 95% CI 0.43–0.99. Conclusion. Lifestyle factors had no significant association with metabolic syndrome but age and marital status were strong predictors for metabolic syndrome in AAs in the US.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Tunisian bipolar I patients | Ezzaher | African ...

    Gender, age, illness episode and treatment were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, while patients under lithium had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those under valproic acid, carbamazepine or antipsychotics. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significant higher levels of HOMA-IR and ...

  20. Background and treatment of metabolic syndrome: a therapeutic challenge

    van Zwieten, Pieter A.; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognized as a distinct pathologic entity. It is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature and also in the lay press. People with metabolic syndrome have

  1. Does vitamin D affects components of the metabolic syndrome?

    Sevil Karahan Yılmaz; Aylin Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major public health problem which has become increasingly common worlwide with cardiometabolic complications and have high morbidity and mortality. In addition to some genetical features, environmental factors such sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits constitutes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Important components of the metabolic syndrome are dyslipidemia (low HDL levels, high triglycerides level), hyperglycemia, elevated blood...

  2. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  3. THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG PATIENTS WITH ...

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of occurrence of the Metabolic Syndrome among patients presenting with cardiovascular disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods: This was a case-control study of 100 con-secutive cardiovascular disease patients and 100 age- and sex- matched controls who ...

  4. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis

    Yee V. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.

  5. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  7. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  8. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factor...

  9. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  10. Historical perspectives of the metabolic syndrome.

    Oda, Eiji

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009. WHO warned the next year that MetS has limited practical utility as a management tool. Adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements, associated with ectopic lipid deposit and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  12. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation...

  13. Reduced Flexibility Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Community-Dwelling Elders

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Han, Der-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population. Methods A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force), lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test). Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables. Results Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI) (odds ratio (OR), 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.07) and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95–0.99) compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI. Conclusion Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength

  14. Reduced flexibility associated with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elders.

    Ke-Vin Chang

    Full Text Available The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population.A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force, lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test, flexibility (sit-and-reach test, and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test. Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables.Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI (odds ratio (OR, 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.25-2.07 and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99 compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI.Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in the

  15. Metabolic syndrome and atypical antipsychotics: Possibility of prediction and control.

    Franch Pato, Clara M; Molina Rodríguez, Vicente; Franch Valverde, Juan I

    Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality, due to inherent health factors, genetic factors, and factors related to psychopharmacological treatment. Antipsychotics, like other drugs, have side-effects that can substantially affect the physical health of patients, with substantive differences in the side-effect profile and in the patients in which these side-effects occur. To understand and identify these risk groups could help to prevent the occurrence of the undesired effects. A prospective study, with 24 months follow-up, was conducted in order to analyse the physical health of severe mental patients under maintenance treatment with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine any predictive parameters at anthropometric and/or analytical level for good/bad outcome of metabolic syndrome in these patients. There were no significant changes in the physical and biochemical parameters individually analysed throughout the different visits. The baseline abdominal circumference (lambda Wilks P=.013) and baseline HDL-cholesterol levels (lambda Wilks P=.000) were the parameters that seem to be more relevant above the rest of the metabolic syndrome constituents diagnosis criteria as predictors in the long-term. In the search for predictive factors of metabolic syndrome, HDL-cholesterol and abdominal circumference at the time of inclusion were selected, as such that the worst the baseline results were, the higher probability of long-term improvement. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Resveratrol Is Not as Effective as Physical Exercise for Improving Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Rats with Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Anna Benrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive and metabolic disorder associated with obesity and insulin resistance that often precedes the development of type-2 diabetes. Rats continuously exposed to dihydrotestosterone from prepuberty display typical reproductive and metabolic PCOS characteristics including anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. Our aim was to investigate if resveratrol improves reproductive and metabolic functions in PCOS rats. The effect was compared to exercise. Control and PCOS rats were treated with vehicle or resveratrol (400 mg · kg−1 · day−1 for 5-6 weeks. Another group of PCOS rats received vehicle treatment and exercised for 5-6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The glucose infusion rate was lower in the PCOS-vehicle group compared to control-vehicle rats (P<0.05. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity compared with PCOS-vehicle rats (P<0.05, but resveratrol did not. Resveratrol treatment and exercise resulted in smaller adipocytes, upregulated estrogen-related receptor α gene expression in subcutaneous fat, and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic PCOS rats. Although resveratrol had positive effects on adiposity and cyclicity in a similar manner to exercise, resveratrol does not seem to be a good candidate for treating insulin resistance associated with PCOS because no improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in PCOS rats on normal chow.

  17. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome’s definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.

  18. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  19. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Capobianco, Giampiero; Delitala, Giuseppe; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Original articles, reviews, and meta-analysis were included. PCOS women are prone to visceral fat hypertrophy in the presence of androgen excess and the presence of these conditions is related to insulin resistance and worsens the PCO phenotype. Disturbed secretion of many adipocyte-derived substances (adipokines) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulate ovarian and adrenal androgen production, and may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, thus creating a vicious cycle. The high prevalence of metabolic disorders mainly related to insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in women with PCOS highlight the need for early lifestyle changes for reducing metabolic risks in these patients.

  1. The effect of metabolic syndrome components on exercise performance in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S

    2008-06-01

    To determine the effect of metabolic syndrome components on intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify the metabolic syndrome components most predictive of each outcome measure. Patients limited by intermittent claudication with three (n = 48), four (n = 45), or five (n = 40) components of metabolic syndrome were studied. Patients were assessed on PAD-specific measures consisting of ankle-brachial index (ABI), initial claudication distance, absolute claudication distance, physical function measures, health-related quality of life, and calf blood flow and transcutaneous oxygen tension responses after 3 minutes of vascular occlusion. Initial claudication distance (mean +/- SD) progressively declined (P = .019) in those with three (203 +/- 167 m), four (124 +/- 77 m), and five (78 +/- 57 m) metabolic syndrome components, and absolute claudication distance progressively declined (P = .036) in these groups as well (414 +/- 224 m vs 323 +/- 153 m vs 249 +/- 152 m, respectively). Furthermore, compared with patients with only three components of metabolic syndrome, those with all five components had impaired values (P obesity was the predictor (P fasting glucose was the predictor (P intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation. Abdominal obesity and elevated fasting glucose are the metabolic syndrome components that are most predictive of these outcome measures. Aggressively treating these metabolic syndrome components may be particularly important in managing symptoms and long-term prognosis of PAD patients.

  2. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  3. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Gitte Lindved

    2018-01-01

    and plasma levels of cytokines and high sensitive C-reactive protein as outcomes and measures of abdominal obesity were added to test if they explained the potential association. Similarly, multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and factors of the metabolic syndrome...... sensitive C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18, and directly associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but not associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma or IL-1β. Abdominal obesity could partly explain the significant associations. Moreover, CR...... these associations. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that CR-fitness has anti-inflammatory effects that are partly explained by a reduction in abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic syndrome risk profile. The overall inflammatory load was mainly driven by high sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6....

  5. Prevalence of Hypertension within the Metabolic Syndrome

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Marušiaková, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30 (2007), s. 371-372 ISSN 1420-4096. [Central European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  6. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football linemen.

    Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.

  7. Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    Alexandra J Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS. Melatonin levels are reduced in diseases associated with insulin resistance like MS. Melatonin improves sleep efficiency and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, partly for its role as a metabolic regulator and mitochondrial protector. We discuss in the present review the several cytoprotective melatonin actions that attenuate inflammatory responses in MS. The clinical data that support the potential therapeutical value of melatonin in human MS are reviewed.

  9. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods:

  10. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pmetabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  11. Ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in malaysia: an analysis by risk factors.

    Tan, Andrew K G; Dunn, Richard A; Yen, Steven T

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes.

  12. Association between pancreatic fat and incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year Japanese cohort study.

    Yamazaki, Hajime; Tauchi, Shinichi; Kimachi, Miho; Dohke, Mitsuru; Hanawa, Nagisa; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Katanuma, Akio; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-04-26

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that pancreatic fat was associated with metabolic syndrome. However, no longitudinal study has evaluated whether people with high pancreatic fat are likely to develop future metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between baseline pancreatic fat and metabolic syndrome incidence. In 2008-2009, 320 participants without metabolic syndrome underwent health checks, which included unenhanced computed tomography, and were followed up annually for 4-5 years. Baseline pancreatic fat amounts were evaluated using a histologically validated method that measured differences between pancreas and spleen attenuations on computed tomography. The participants were divided into low (reference), intermediate, and high pancreatic fat groups based on pancreas and spleen attenuation tertiles. Metabolic syndrome incidence was evaluated annually over a median follow-up period of 4.99 (interquartile range, 4.88-5.05) years, in accordance with the 2009 harmonized criteria. Risk ratios (RRs) for the association between baseline pancreatic fat amounts and metabolic syndrome incidence were estimated using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, liver fat, pre-metabolic syndrome, cigarette use, alcohol use, and physical activity. Metabolic syndrome incidence was 30.6% (98/320). Pancreatic fat was associated with an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, based on a univariate analysis (RRs [95% confidence interval], 3.14 [1.74-5.67] and 3.96 [2.23-7.03] in the intermediate and high pancreatic fat groups, respectively). The association remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (RR [95% confidence interval], 2.04 [1.14-3.64] and 2.30 [1.28-4.14] for the same groups, respectively). Pancreatic fat predicts the future risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Adiponectin Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Syndrome: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the association of plasma adiponectin levels with longitudinal changes in metabolic syndrome and the metabolic syndrome-related traits [insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as their genetic and environmental correlations. A total of 1030 Koreans (380 men and 650 women; 44.0 ± 12.7 years old) without diabetes of the Healthy Twin Study visited at baseline (2005-2010) and returned for a follow-up examination 3.7 ± 1.2 years later. Baseline plasma adiponectin, metabolic syndrome components [waist circumference (WC), glucose, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs)] and metabolic syndrome-related traits were measured at baseline and follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, caloric intake, education level, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, and changes in BMI, 1 standard deviation increment in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with 38-63% lower odds of incident and persistent metabolic syndrome. After additionally adjusting for the baseline levels of each trait, baseline adiponectin levels were inversely associated with WC, blood pressure, insulin, HOMA-IR, and TGs values at follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline values of each trait or sum of metabolic syndrome components, baseline adiponectin levels exhibited significantly inverse genetic and environmental correlations with insulin, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C values and the sum of metabolic syndrome components at follow-up. High adiponectin levels reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and having persistent metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome-related traits over time. These associations may be explained by pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  14. The relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women.

    Hwang, D-K; Choi, H-J

    2010-03-01

    We examined the relationship between low bond mass and metabolic syndrome in 2,475 Korean women. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, age and weight adjusted vertebral BMD was significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. It has been suggested that proinflammatory cytokines and low-grade systemic inflammation activate bone resorption and may lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women. This is a cross-sectional study of 2,548 women aged 18 years and over who had visited the Health Promotion Center. Physical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Vertebral BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Among 2,475 women, 511 (21.0%) women had metabolic syndrome. Women with abdominal obesity or hypertriglyceridemia had significantly lower vertebral BMD than women without respective components after adjustment for age, weight, and height. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.031). Moreover, age- and weight-adjusted vertebral BMD were significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.004). These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome might be another risk factor for osteoporosis and related fractures.

  15. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation

    Thoefner, Line Buch; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2018-01-01

    syndrome after liver transplantation. METHODS: The databases Medline and Scopus were searched for observational studies evaluating prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. Meta-analyses were performed based on odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable analyses...

  16. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

    Rashmi H Mallappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above "Pharmaco-nutritional" approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  18. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  19. OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH: A HEALTH RISK WE CANNOT AFFORD

    Serge P. von Duvillard

    2012-01-01

    Ample observational and empirical evidence has been provided that indicates that childhood metabolic syndrome risk factors inevitably lead to significantly more profound health risk factors of developing potent adulthood metabolic syndrome. Much of these data has been provided from medical, nutritional, health, pediatric, physical education and associated communities. Perhaps the most visible and observable health risk factor among children (here referred to as youth) is the childhood obesit...

  20. Connexins, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Hamelin, Romain; Allagnat, Florent; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes and the related metabolic syndrome are multi system disorders that result from improper interactions between various cell types. Even though the underlying mechanism remains to be fully understood, it is most likely that both the long and the short distance range cell interactions, which normally ensure the physiologic functioning of the pancreas, and its relationships with the insulin-targeted organs, are altered. This review focuses on the short-range type of interactions that depend on the contact between adjacent cells and, specifically, on the interactions that are dependent on connexins. The widespread distribution of these membrane proteins, their multiple modes of action, and their interactions with conditions/molecules associated to both the pathogenesis and the treatment of the 2 main forms of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, make connexins an essential part of the chain of events that leads to metabolic diseases. Here, we review the present state of knowledge about the molecular and cell biology of the connexin genes and proteins, their general mechanisms of action, the roles specific connexin species play in the endocrine pancreas and the major insulin-targeted organs, under physiological and patho-physiological conditions.

  1. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome

    Sonia María López C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been related with alterations of glucose metabolism, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity and dislipidemias, which constitute the metabolic syndrome (m s. Objective: to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms in patients with m s. Material and methods: an observational, descriptive, transverse study was carried out in 101 patients with m s(69 women and 32 men. The Beck inventory for depression was applied. Vasodilatation in the brachial artery and the thickness of the carotid intimae-media were evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurement. Abdominal perimeter, trygliceridemia, cholesterolemia and insulin resistance were calculated. The statistic treatment was performed by means of descriptive and inferential through mean, standard deviation, and correlation proofs. Insulin resistance was calculated by the h o m a method. Results:prevalence of depressive symptoms: 46.34% between patients with m s (correlation of 0.42 significative at p = 0.05. A higher number of components of the syndrome correlates with higher severity of the depression. Depressive symptoms were associated to a higher insulin resistance, low levels of c- h d l, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion: depression has a high prevalence in the m s and its associates with a higher number of metabolic and vascular disturbances

  2. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education ...

    The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions among urbanised black South Africans with established coronary artery disease.

  4. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    DM), there is a multiple set of risk factors that commonly appear together forming what is now known as the 'Metabolic Syndrome' (MS). This 'clustering' of metabolic abnormalities that occur in the same individual appear to confer substantial ...

  6. Neurobiology of the metabolic syndrome : An allostatic perspective

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of more or less related metabolic and cardiovascular derangements including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, blood and tissue dislipidemia, high blood pressure and it is often associated with neuroendocrine and immunological dysregulations. The aetiology of

  7. Metabolic Syndrome: Systems Thinking in Heart Disease.

    Dommermuth, Ron; Ewing, Kristine

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. MetS is associated with approximately 4-fold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a 2-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease complications. MetS is a progressive, proinflammatory, prothrombotic condition that manifests itself along a broad spectrum of disease. It is associated with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, gout, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Intervening in and reversing the pathologic process become more difficult as the disease progresses, highlighting the needs for increased individual and community surveillance and primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project

    Jeffrey J. VanWormer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN. The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p < 0.001. This association was primarily driven by changes in obesity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake. As compared to improving poor lifestyle habits, maintaining a healthy lifestyle seemed to be most helpful in avoiding metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  9. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  10. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  11. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  12. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  13. Coping, affect, and the metabolic syndrome in older men: how does coping get under the skin?

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Levenson, Michael R; Spiro, Avron

    2006-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex construct with interrelated factors of obesity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. It is a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases in late life. This study tested a model in which the relationship between stress and the metabolic syndrome was mediated by appraisal, coping, and affect. Data were collected from 518 male participants in the Normative Aging Study (X(age) = 68.17 years). The model was partially confirmed. Relationships among stress, appraisal, coping, and affect were valenced along positive and negative pathways. However, affect was not directly related to the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome was related to positive coping as operationalized by self-regulatory strategies. The results of this study suggest that the influence of coping on physical health may occur through emotional regulation.

  14. Androgenic Hormones In Relation To Parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome in male patients

    Shousha, M. A.; Soliman, S. E.; Semna, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Back ground and aim of the work :The numerous deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome are being investigated throughout the medical community. Hypo-androgenomes in men is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, even it may predict the metabolic syndrome, but the association with the metabolic syndrome it self using an accepted definition has not been described. A group 40 men defined as metabolic syndrome were assessed to investigate the relationship between androgenic hormones and parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (Author)

  15. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients. ... Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. ... Results: By using the NCEP-ATP III criteria 26 out of 91 patients (28.6%) had the metabolic syndrome. MS was ...

  16. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  17. An association between diet, metabolic syndrome and lower urinary ...

    Diet is a key factor in the aetiology of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract disorders. Metabolic syndrome is a growing and increasingly expensive health problem in both the developed and the developing world, with an associated rise in morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, lower ...

  18. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  19. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular ...

  20. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  1. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment.

    Sarti, Cinzia; Gallagher, John

    2006-01-01

    An increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by the concomitant presence of several abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes), microalbuminuria, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory states. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome indicate that this condition is now common and likely to increase dramatically over the coming decades, in parallel with greater rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are already present in obese children and adolescents. Thus, identifying and treating all affected individuals promptly and optimally are critical to ensure that this potentially challenging healthcare burden is minimized. Here, we review the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, and CHD risk. Although changes in lifestyle are fundamental to reducing many of the CHD risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, pharmacologic interventions also play an important role. Retrospective subanalyses of the effects of statins on coronary event rates and lipid levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome included in clinical trials indicate that these agents are beneficial in correcting the extensive lipid abnormalities that are frequently present in these individuals. However, the optimal management of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia will depend on the outcomes of future prospective clinical trials. This review examines the underlying causes and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its impact on CHD morbidity and mortality and discusses the role of statins in optimizing its management.

  2. [Features of the periodontal pathology at patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Ermolaeva, L A; Shishkin, A N; Sheveleva, N A; Penkovoi, E A; Sheveleva, M A; Sokolovich, N A; Khabarova, O V; Mihailova, E S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis, as well as common pathogenetic processes underlying these diseases. The data of modern researches, devoted to the correlation of lesions of periodontal and systemic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. In the article analyzed also the data of the original study of the interaction of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome, which also used special methods of examination like Doppler ultrasound microcirculatory vasculature of the periodontal tissues and ultrasound densitometry. The possible methods of diagnostics of a condition of periodontal tissues in patients with metabolic syndrome are considered. Conclusions about the relationship of each component of metabolic syndrome with periodontitis are made.

  3. Walking in old age and development of metabolic syndrome : the health, aging, and body composition study

    Peterson, Matthew J; Morey, Miriam C; Giuliani, Carol; Pieper, Carl F; Evenson, Kelly R; Mercer, Vicki; Visser, Marjolein; Brach, Jennifer S; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Rubin, Susan; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    BACKGROUND: The specific health benefits of meeting physical activity guidelines are unclear in older adults. We examined the association between meeting, not meeting, or change in status of meeting physical activity guidelines through walking and the 5-year incidence of metabolic syndrome in older

  4. [Correlation of metabolic syndrome components in older Mexican women].

    Ramírez-Arriola, Maria Cleofas; Mendoza-Romo, Margarita Paz; González-Rubio, Marco Vinicio; López-Esqueda, Francisco Javier; Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In woman aged over 60 years, body changes occur and might cause insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. To determine the relationship between the components of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and body mass index in women over 60 years, attended at the Geriatric Services in the Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto Hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. We performed an observational, descriptive and transversal study with non-probability sampling, selecting 61 women aged 60 years attended from 2006 to 2008, who have measured the body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance and homeostasis model (HOMA2), and identifying the components of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We used descriptive and inferential statistics with r Pearson and Chi Square. The mean age was 68 years. The average HOMA2 were 1.4 and 75 percentile 1.9. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was present in 23%. The association test with a p metabolic syndrome dysglucemia and obesity, but not for other components of metabolic syndrome. The triglycerides level correlated with insulin resistance (r = 0.325, p = 0.011), insulin resistance with glucose (r = 0.535, p = 0.000) and insulin resistance with BMI (r = 0.282, p = 0.28). It is important to properly define the components for the presence of metabolic syndrome in older women due to not all who qualify as obese have metabolic syndrome, and neither all the metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance. The single alteration of one of the components of metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to cause insulin resistance.

  5. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Design National health survey. Setting Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. Participants 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18–64 representative of the general population. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Results Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group ‘30–39’, ‘40–49’, ‘50–59’, ‘60–64’ vs ‘18–29’; pQatar. Approximately 28% of adult Qatari citizens satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increased significantly with age. Education and physical activity were inversely associated with this syndrome. PMID:27601485

  7. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  8. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  9. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  10. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  11. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  12. Exercise induced adipokine changes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  13. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  14. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Kang, Yeong Han; Kam, Shin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov

    2014-01-01

    ,predominantly female, and more often smokers compared with the non-HS group.EXPOSURE Hidradenitis suppurativa.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Metabolic syndrome and its components of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.RESULTS When compared with the non-HS group, the odds ratios (ORs.......62 (95%CI, 1.73-7.60) and 2.24 (95%CI, 1.78-2.82), respectively, for abdominal obesity. With regard to dyslipidemia, significant results were found for decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with ORs of 2.97 (95%CI, 1.45-6.08) and 1.94(95%CI, 1.52-2.48) for the hospital HS and general...

  19. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, S.O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  20. Hormonal Contraception in obestiy, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, Sven O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  1. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

    Hui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to simplify the complexity of this detection. In this paper, an artificial intelligence model was developed to identify adults at risk of metabolic syndrome based on physical signs; this artificial intelligence model achieved more powerful capacity for classification compared to the PCLR (principal component logistic regression model. A case study was performed based on the physical signs data, without using a biochemical index, that was collected from the staff of Lanzhou Grid Company in Gansu province of China. The results show that the developed artificial intelligence model is an effective classification system for identifying individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome.

  2. 1C.10: METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A POPULATION OF EMPLOYEES WORKING FOR COMPANIES IN MEXICO.

    Perez-Cuadra, A; Limon, F; Rozycka, M; Marques, J; Delgado, J; Meaney, E; Guerra, M

    2015-06-01

    In Mexico, cardiovascular diseases represent the second cause of death, after Diabetes. This is the first trial to describe the metabolic syndrome in a population of Mexican urban employees, working for private companies.To analyze the presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican employees working for private companies. Study of a consecutive series of evaluated cases between 2010 and 2014. Each participant was subject to the following: comprehensive physical examination, blood pressure, heart rate, height, weight, body mass index, waist/hip index, body fat index, abdominal girth, and lab profile, including lipid profile and glycemia. Publication criteria on harmonization for metabolic syndrome were considered: 3 of the following 5 criteria: presence of central obesity (abdominal girth > 90 cm for men and > 80 cm for women),TA 130/85, Triglycerides > 150 mg%, Glycemia > 100 mg% and HDL metabolic syndrome prevalence by gender, Table 2 presents data by age and gender.(Figure is included in full-text article.) : The population of Mexican employees working for private companies analyzed presents a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, that increases with age, placing it at a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Men present a higher metabolic syndrome prevalence (p < 0.0001) compared to women analyzed in the group under 65 years. From 65 years and on, both groups present a high prevalence.

  3. Refeeding and metabolic syndromes: two sides of the same coin

    Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion following high carbohydrate intake. In the past few decades, increased consumption of processed food (refined cereals, oils, sugar and sweeteners, and so on) lowered the intake of several macrominerals (mainly phosphorus, potassium and magnesium). This seems to have compromised the postprandial status of these macrominerals, in a manner that mimics low grade refeeding syndrome status. At the pathophysiological level, this condition favored the development of the different components of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that metabolic syndrome is the result of long term exposure to a mild refeeding syndrome. PMID:24979149

  4. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in antisynthetase syndrome.

    Araujo, Paula A O; Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Shinjo, Samuel K

    2018-01-01

    A high frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recently described in different idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but not in antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in ASS and also its possible association with cardiovascular the risk factors and ASS-related disease characteristics. A cross-sectional single centre study of 42 consecutive ASS patients was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and compared to 84 healthy individuals matched for gender, age, ethnicity and body mass index-matched (control group). MetS was defined according to the 2009 Join Interim Statement. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed according to a standardised protocol. ASS patients had a median age of 41.1 years with a predominance of female gender and white race. ASS patients had a higher frequency of MetS (42.9% vs. 13.1%; pASS patients had higher resistin, lower leptin and similar adiponectin levels in serum than controls. Further analysis of ASS patients with (n=18) and without (n=24) MetS revealed that older age at disease onset (48.7 vs. 35.4 years; pASS patients that also had serum resistin and low leptin levels. As also identified in other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, MetS in ASS is more prevalent in older patients.

  5. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk profile according to polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Bil, Enes; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya Akdag; Ozelci, Runa; Ozkaya, Enis; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown which phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a greater metabolic risk and how to detect this risk. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk profile (MRP) for different phenotypes. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed PCOS women in a tertiary referral hospital were recruited. Patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria, on the presence of at least two of the three criteria hyperandrogenism (H), oligo/anovulation (O) and PCO appearance (P): phenotype A, H + O + P; phenotype B, H + O; phenotype C, H + P; phenotype D, O + P. Prevalence of MetS and MRP were compared among the four groups. Based on Natural Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria, MetS prevalence was higher in phenotypes A and B (29.6% and 34.5%) compared with the other phenotypes (10.0% and 8.3%; P 3.8 was significantly higher in androgenic PCOS phenotypes. After logistic regression analysis, visceral adiposity index (VAI) was the only independent predictor of MetS in PCOS (P = 0.002). VAI was also significantly higher in phenotype B, when compared with the others (P risk of MetS among the four phenotypes, and VAI may be a predictor of metabolic risk in PCOS women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  8. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  9. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Shahpoor Maddah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002. The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001. In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI, however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.

  10. Radiology of syndromes and metabolic disorders

    Taybi, H.; Lachman, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe both the clinical and radiologic manifestations of 700 syndromes. They provide illustrations describing each syndrome and descriptions of those syndromes discovered since publication of a previous edition

  11. [Clinical analysis of metabolic syndrome in vertiginous diseases].

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Sawai, Yachiyo; Shirota, Shiho; Shimizu, Naoki; Murai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome and vertigo, we measured waist circumference, plasma glucose, triglycerides and blood pressure in 333 subjects aged 20-79 years with vertigo. We found overall metabolic syndrome prevalence defined by Japanese diagnostic criteria to be 13.2%, similar to that in other national surveys by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The 6-fold higher prevalence in men over women exceeded that of other reports, however. The highest frequency was in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) disorders, suggesting that conditions such as VBI in men with vertigo could involve metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for vertigo incidence.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  14. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  15. Structural changes in the liver in metabolic syndrome

    D. V. Vasendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically proven close relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with development of metabolic syndrome and its individual components involves the conclusion that the target organ in metabolic symptom, even regardless of the severity of obesity, the liver occupies a dominant position, as the body undergoes the first characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease changes, involving violation of metabolism in the body. Dislipoproteinemia plays an important role in the formation of metabolic syndrome in obesity and other obesity-associated diseases. Altered liver function are the root cause of violations of processes of lipid metabolism and, consequently, abnormal functioning of the liver may be a separate, additional and independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia and obesity as the main component of the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome in Nepal

    Sanjib Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of cardiovascular risks such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes in Eastern Nepal. This study also establishes the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its relationships to these cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle. Methods. 14,425 subjects aged 20–100 (mean 41.4 ± 15.1 were screened with a physical examination and blood tests. Both the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Programme’s (NCEP definitions for MS were used and compared. Results. 34% of the participants had hypertension, and 6.3% were diabetic. 28% were overweight, and 32% were obese. 22.5% of the participants had metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and 20.7% according to the NCEP definition. Prevalence was higher in the less educated, people working at home, and females. There was no significant correlation between the participants’ lifestyle factors and the prevalence of MS. Conclusion. The high incidence of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity could be the major contributors to MS in Nepal. Education also appears to be related to the prevalence of MS. This study confirms the need to initiate appropriate treatment options for a condition which is highly prevalent in Eastern Nepal.

  18. Diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in horses.

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K; Messer, Nat T

    2012-05-01

    Analogous to the situation in human medicine, contemporary practices in horse management, which incorporate lengthy periods of physical inactivity coupled with provision of nutritional rations characterized by inappropriately high sugar and starch, have led to obesity being more commonly recognized by practitioners of equine veterinary practice. In many of these cases, obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. An equine metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described that is similar to the human MS in that both IR and aspects of obesity represent cornerstones of its definition. Unlike its human counterpart, identification of the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) portends greater risk for development of laminitis, a chronic, crippling affliction of the equine hoof. When severe, laminitis sometimes necessitates euthanasia. Unlike the human condition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and many other chronic conditions, for which the risk is recognized as increased in the face of MS, is less likely in horses. The equine veterinary literature has been replete with reports of scientific investigations regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EMS. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. [Types of dislipidemia in children with metabolic syndrome].

    Hromnats'ka, N M

    2014-01-01

    To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  1. Association Between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Psychotic Disorders.

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Choi, Wonsuk; Hong, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Soo Jin; Amminger, Paul; Berk, Michael; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychotic disorders. The study enrolled 302 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary habit were gathered. Laboratory examinations included vitamin D, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, liver function, and renal function. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as vitamin D insufficiency were identified. Among the 302 participants, 236 patients (78.1%) had a vitamin D insufficiency and 97 (32.1%) had metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (p=0.006) and hypertension (p=0.017). Significant increases in triglycerides and alanine transaminase were observed in the group with a vitamin D insufficiency (p=0.002 and 0.011, respectively). After adjusting for physical activity and dietary habit scores, vitamin D insufficiency remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome and was particularly associated with high blood pressure, although the nature, direction and implications of this association are unclear.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome in elderly users of the Unified Health System

    Edna Cunha Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 133 individuals randomly selected in the Unified Health System in Goiania, Goiás. The following variables were researched: anthropometric (BMI, waist circumference, fat percentage by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, sociodemographic (gender, age, color, income, marital status and years of schooling, lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and risk alcohol consumption and food intake (risk and protective foods. The metabolic syndrome was assessed according to harmonized criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. The combinations were tested by Poisson regression for confounding factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 58.65% (95%CI 49.8 - 67.1, with 60.5% (95%CI 49.01 - 71.18 for females and 55.7% (95%CI 41.33 - 69.53 for males. Hypertension was the most prevalent component of the syndrome in both men, with 80.8% (95%CI 64.5 - 90.4, and women, with 85.2% (95%CI 75.5 - 92.1. After the multivariate analysis, only the excess of weight measured by body mass index (prevalence ratio = 1.66; p < 0.01 remained associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high, indicating the need for systematic actions by health workers in the control of risk factors through prevention strategies and comprehensive care to the elderly.

  3. Metabolic syndrome after laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Nugent, Clare; Bai, Chunhong; Elariny, Hazem; Gopalakrishnan, Priya; Quigley, Caitlin; Garone, Michael; Afendy, Mariam; Chan, Oscar; Wheeler, Angela; Afendy, Arian; Younossi, Zobair M

    2008-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is common among morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the impact and predictors of bariatric surgery on the resolution of MS. Subjects included 286 patients [age 44.0 +/- 11.5, female 78.2%, BMI 48.7 +/- 9.4, waist circumference 139 +/- 20 cm, AST 23.5 +/- 14.9, ALT 30.0 +/- 20.1, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) 30.1% and MS 39.2%] who underwent bariatric surgery. Of the entire cohort, 27.3% underwent malabsorptive surgery, 55.9% underwent restrictive surgery, and 16.8% had combination restrictive-malabsorptive surgery. Mean weight loss was 33.7 +/- 20.1 kg after restrictive surgery (follow up period 298 +/- 271 days), 39.4 +/- 22.9 kg after malabsorptive surgery (follow-up period 306 +/- 290 days), and 28.3 +/- 14.1 kg after combination surgery (follow-up period 281 +/- 239 days). Regardless of the type of bariatric surgery, significant improvements were noted in MS (p values from <0.0001-0.01) as well as its components such as DM (p values from <0.0001-0.0005), waist circumference (p values <0.0001), BMI (p values <0.0001), fasting serum triglycerides (p values <0.0001 to 0.001), and fasting serum glucose (p values <0.0001). Additionally, a significant improvement in AST/ALT ratio (p value = 0.0002) was noted in those undergoing restrictive surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who underwent malabsorptive bariatric procedures experienced a significantly greater percent excess weight loss than patients who underwent restrictive procedures (p value = 0.0451). Percent excess weight loss increased with longer postoperative follow-up (p value <0.0001). Weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with a significant improvement in MS and other metabolic factors.

  4. Metabolic syndrome: nature, therapeutic solutions and options.

    Onat, Altan

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) defines the clustering in an individual of multiple metabolic abnormalities, based on central obesity and insulin resistance. In addition to its five components, prothrombotic and proinflammatory states are essential features. The significance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This field being an evolving one necessitated the current review. The areas covered in this review include the so far unproven concept that enhanced low-grade inflammation often leads to dysfunction of the anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particles, which further increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. It was emphasized that lifestyle modification is essential in the prevention and management of MetS, which includes maintenance of optimal weight by caloric restriction, adherence to a diet that minimizes postprandial glucose and triglyceride fluctuations, restricting alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and engaging in regular exercise. Drug therapy should target the dyslipoproteinemia and the often associated hypertension or dysglycemia.Statins are the drugs of first choice, to be initiated in patients with MetS at high 10-year cardiovascular risk. Such treatment is inadequate if fasting serum triglycerides remain at > 150 mg/dl, when niacin should be combined. Fibrates, omega 3 fatty acids, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and pioglitazone are additional options in drug therapy. Research on MetS in subpopulations prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance has indicated that proinflammatory state and oxidative stress are often prominently involved in MetS, to the extent that evidence of impaired function of HDL and apo A-I particles is discernible by biological evidence of functional defectiveness via outcomes studies and/or correlations with inflammatory and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. A sex difference

  5. Enterovirus related metabolic myopathy: a postviral fatigue syndrome

    Lane, R; Soteriou, B; Zhang, H; Archard, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect and characterise enterovirus RNA in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare efficiency of muscle energy metabolism in enterovirus positive and negative CFS patients.

  6. Benefits of dark chocolate in treating metabolic syndrome.

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-08-31

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The risk of developing it is significantly increased by the metabolic syndrome cluster of risk factors: waist measurement and other factors, such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

  7. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    patients with metabolic syndrome,[9] this is a serious adverse effect of which the .... and Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS).[15] The presence ..... Positive and negative symptoms in affected sib pairs with schizophrenia: ...

  8. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  9. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP...

  10. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults.

    Oh, Jung Eun

    2018-04-01

    Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iran

    Ziba Zahiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS has been studied in different populations, but their results were so controversial regarding Iranian women. These controversial data indicated the need for more investigation of MetS characteristics in PCOS patients in our population. So this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics and metabolic features of patients with PCOS in Rasht. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on 215 PCOS women who lived in Rasht, north of Iran, from March 2010 to July 2012. The participants were then divided into two groups of women with MetS (n=62 and women without MetS (n=153. The diagnosis of PCOS and MetS were based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria, respectively. Demographic characteristics, fertility characteristics, family history and laboratory findings were assessed. Results: The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 28.8%. In PCOS women of both groups, the waist circumference (WC exceeded 88cm in 72.6%, hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥130/85mm Hg] was prevalent in 9.3%, fasting blood sugar (FBS level was ≥110 mg/dl in 6%, triglycerides (Tg level were ≥150 mg/dl in 47%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was <50 mg/dl in 86%. The values of WC, SBP, DBP, body mass index (BMI, ovarian size, Tg, cholesterol, FBS, 2-hour blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were significantly greater in PCOS women with MetS than women without MetS. Also HDL and luteinizing hormone (LH levels in women with MetS were significantly lower than women without MetS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in PCOS women was 28.8%, indicating that this value is higher than other studies conducted on PCOS women in Iran and other studies conducted on general population in Iran. PCOS women

  12. Metabolic syndrome among non-obese adults in the teaching profession in Melaka, Malaysia

    Soo Cheng Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-obese individuals could have metabolic disorders that are typically associated with elevated body mass index (BMI, placing them at elevated risk for chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of metabolically obese, non-obese (MONO individuals in Malaysia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5–29.9 kg/m2 and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results: A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3–20.4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–11.8 and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3–33.7, respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0–24.9 kg/m2 to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5–29.9 kg/m2 compared to those with BMI 18.5–22.9 kg/m2 after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen nonobese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention.

  13. The Association between Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults

    Chung, So-Won; Kang, Sung-Goo; Rho, Jun-Seung; Kim, Ha-Na; Song, In-Sun; Lee, Yun-Ah; Heo, Soo-Jeong; Song, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background In this Study, we investigated the effects of lifestyle and metabolic syndrome on free oxygen radical levels in men and women in Korea. Methods A total of 254 adults were included in this study from February 2011 to June 2012 at a health promotion center. Information of the lifestyles and presence of metabolic syndrome factors was obtained. Biochemical markers were measured and free oxygen radicals test (FORT) was performed on the blood. Results Of the 254 subjects, 86 (33.9%) had ...

  14. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia as a component of metabolic syndrome

    I. D. Bespalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of uric acid in the blood serum of 103 patients with coronary heart disease was researched in clinical conditions. The interrelation with the components of the metabolic syndrome in patients on the background of individually selected pathogenetic therapy was studied. It was shown that the abdominal obesity has the highest correlation with the level of uric acid in a cluster of metabolic syndrome components.

  15. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Metabolic syndrome 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass.

    Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome.

    Lee, Sangjin; Ko, Young; Kwak, Chanyeong; Yim, Eun-Shil

    2016-01-23

    Gender is thought to be an important factor in metabolic syndrome and its outcomes. Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated differences in metabolism and its components that are dependent on gender, limited information about gender differences on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components is available regarding the Korean old adult population. This study aimed to identify gender differences in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Secondary analysis of data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey for health examination at the time of transitioning from midlife to old age was performed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gender differences among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components that contributed to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were identified. In males, the most common component was high blood sugar levels (87.5%), followed by elevated triglyceride levels (83.5%) and high blood pressure (83.1%). In females, the most commonly identified component was elevated triglyceride levels (79.0%), followed by high blood sugar levels (78.6%) and high blood pressure (78.5%). Gender differences for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including family history, health habits, and body mass index were observed. Gender-specific public health policies and management strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease among the older adult population should be developed for Koreans undergoing the physiological transition to old age.

  18. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  19. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in asthmatic patients of hazara division

    Ahmed, N.; Kazim, S.M.; Gillani, S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease and most asthmatics are obese. Both asthma and obesity are showing parallel trends in their increasing prevalence. Obesity is also the main component of metabolic syndrome and several studies have shown metabolic syndrome to be associated with bronchial asthma. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with chronic asthma in our setup. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from May to November, 2014. One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic patients were enrolled in this study. Samples for blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL Cholesterol were taken after an overnight fast. Sitting blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the midpoint between the high point of the iliac crest and the last rib. Results: Out of 154 patients, 80 were males and 74 were females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 46 (29.87 percent) patients. When metabolic syndrome was stratified according to age, sex and duration of asthma, the results were found to be insignificant (p-0.89, 0.30 and 0.85). Conclusion: This study showed that metabolic syndrome was present in almost one third of study population. (author)

  1. Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?

    Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome among Type-2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi ...

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three out of five conditions that are due to hyperinsulinemia: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL), elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. The syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus ...

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A component of metabolic syndrome?

    Vignesh J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1935, Stein and Leventhal first described the polycystic ovary (PCO as a frequent cause of irregular ovulation in women seeking treatment for subfertility. Although the initial management was surgical with wedge resection of ovary, the availability of radioimmunoassay and increased clinical use of ultrasound made it clear that many women had the ultrasound characteristics of PCO with or without the biochemical or clinical features of PCOS and therefore that PCO were not associated with a single syndrome. The association between increased insulin resistance and PCOS is a consistent finding in all ethnic groups. Obesity is a common factor in the majority of women with PCOS. It is postulated that a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS but it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances. Weight loss, altered diet and exercise have been shown to be effective in the management of PCOS. Importance of early recognition, proper intervention, long-term monitoring and health implications needs more concern.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in an urban population of adults living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Kiama, Catherine Nduku; Wamicwe, Joyce Njeri; Oyugi, Elvis Omondi; Obonyo, Mark Odhiambo; Mungai, Jane Githuku; Roka, Zeinab Gura; Mwangi, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome affects 20-25% of the adult population globally. It predisposes to cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Studies in other countries suggest a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients but no studies have been reported in Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in adult HIV-infected patients in an urban population in Nairobi, Kenya. In a cross-sectional study design, conducted at Riruta Health Centre in 2016, 360 adults infected with HIV were recruited. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography. Blood was collected by finger prick for fasting glucose and venous sampling for lipid profile. Using the harmonized Joint Scientific Statement criteria, metabolic syndrome was present in 19.2%. The prevalence was higher among females than males (20.7% vs. 16.0%). Obesity (AOR = 5.37, P metabolic syndrome while physical activity (AOR = 0.28, P = 0.001) was associated with decreased odds. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this study population. Obesity, lack of formal education, family history of hypertension, and physical inactivity are associated with metabolic syndrome. Screening for risk factors, promotion of healthy lifestyle, and nutrition counselling should be offered routinely in HIV care and treatment clinics.

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children With Type 1 Diabetes in South of Iran

    Saki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, in children with type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM for the first time in a population in the Middle East, and assess the influence of type of insulin therapy, daily dosage of insulin, family history of type 2 diabetes, gender and level of HbA1c on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on children with T1DM aged 2 years during years 2013 to 2014. Waist circumference, blood pressure, height and weight of children with diabetes, for calculation of body mass index (BMI, were measured by one physician. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were also measured. According to the age-modified standards of the ATPIII, metabolic syndrome was defined. All data were analyzed using the SPSS 18 software. Results In this study, 87 children with diabetes (48 females and 39 males aged 12.38 ± 4.2 were enrolled. Overall, 40.9% of our patients had hypertension, 55.2% had hypertriglyceridemia, 36.8% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL and 6.9% of patients had abdominal obesity. Furthermore, 29.9% of these children had metabolic syndrome, which did not have a significant association with the type of insulin regimen (P = 0.97, nor the daily dosage of insulin (P = 0.234, however the serum concentration of HbA1c had a significant correlation with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.027. Conclusions This study provides evidence indicating high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children with T1DM in southern Iran. Preventive programs aimed towards decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and interpretation of a healthier diet and physical activity for children with T1DM should be considered in our country.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and prediabetes in an urban population of Guayaquil, Ecuador.

    Duarte, María C; Peñaherrera, Carlos A; Moreno-Zambrano, Daniel; Santibáñez, Rocío; Tamariz, Leonardo; Palacio, Ana

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and prediabetes in a population of the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, aged 55-65 years; to observe if there are differences in prevalence between males and females, and to describe the frequency with which each component of the metabolic syndrome is found in this population. population-based cross-sectional study in Guayaquil. We recruited people of both genders, with ages ranging from 55 to 65 years. Through clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests, we obtained necessary data to diagnose metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS(®) 22. we obtained a sample of 213 patients, 64.5% were females and 35.5% were males. Mean age was 60.3 years (±3.1). A total 65.8% of patients had increased waist circumference, and 45% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Hypertriglyceridemia was the most prevalent condition in males, while women more commonly had low HDL. Prediabetes was diagnosed in 45.9% of our patients, and 19.5% had both disorders. There was no significant difference on metabolic syndrome prevalence between genders, but prediabetes was significantly more common in women. we found a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and prediabetes in Guayaquil, higher than what was reported in other areas. Abdominal obesity is even more prevalent. Women have prediabetes more frequently than men. Our patients, given their age, are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline by having metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  9. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome ...

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid ...

  10. [Severe metabolic alkalosis following hypokalemia from a paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome].

    Dubé, L; Daenen, S; Kouatchet, A; Soltner, C; Alquier, P

    2001-12-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is frequently observed in critically ill patients. Etiologies are numerous but endocrinal causes are rare. We report a case of a patient with severe respiratory insufficiency, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. The evolution was fatal. Further explorations revealed an ectopic Adrenocorticotropine Hormone syndrome. The initial tumor was probably a small cell lung carcinoma.

  11. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components Among Midwestern University Students.

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Snyder, Ericka; Cumper, Stephanie; Langolf, Andrea; Trayer, Chelsey; Green, Chelsea

    2017-08-01

    Michigan has the 17th highest adult obesity rate in the United States. Among college-aged adults between 18 and 25 years old, the rate of obesity was 11.6%. Obesity is a key precedent for the development of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among a sample of students at Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 462 students, aged 18-25 years, in Spring 2015 and Fall/Spring 2016 semesters. Students were recruited throughout the campus via flyers, in-class, and Blackboard announcements. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were taken for all students. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk components. To explore the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors, students filled out a validated online questionnaire related to their eating habits, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Metabolic syndrome was not prevalent in our sample. However, about one-third of the students had at least one metabolic abnormality, and 6.0% had two metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormalities were low HDL-cholesterol levels (22.0%) and high waist circumference (12.6%), and elevated serum triglyceride (5.8%). Adjusting for other factors, excess adiposity and high visceral fat scores were associated with increased risk of metabolic risk factors, whereas healthy lifestyle practices such as daily breakfast consumption, eating three meals a day, being active, and not smoking were associated with lower risks for MetS. Given the adverse consequences of undiagnosed metabolic abnormalities, efforts to identify and manage MetS among asymptomatic college students, particularly women, is essential and warrants further

  12. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

    Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India.

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  15. The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18 might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome and to precede the development of type 2 diabetes. IL-18 is found in the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue, and is subject to several regulatory steps including cleavage by caspase-1, inactivation by IL-18 binding protein and the influence of other cytokines in modulating its interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of IL-18 in the metabolic syndrome, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk and the potential effect of life style interventions.

  16. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  17. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO 2 were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author)

  18. Involvement of astrocyte metabolic coupling in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

  19. Observation of the long-term effects of lifestyle intervention during balneotherapy in metabolic syndrome.

    Gin, Henri; Demeaux, Jean-Louis; Grelaud, Angela; Grolleau, Adeline; Droz-Perroteau, Cécile; Robinson, Philip; Lassalle, Régis; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Boisseau, Michel; Toussaint, Christian; Moore, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Estimate the effect of lifestyle adjustment activities in patients with metabolic syndrome treated by prescribed balneotherapy. Observational pilot cohort study with 12-month follow-up after multidimensional lifestyle training (physical, dietary, educational) during 3-week standard stay in the spa town of Eugénie-les-Bains. Of 145 eligible patients, 97 were included; 63 were followed and analysable. At inclusion all had ≥3 National cholesterol education program-Adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria defining metabolic syndrome, 76.2% were female, mean age was 61.2 years. At the end of follow-up (median:10.4 months, Inter-Quartile Range: [6.7;11.4]), 48 of these 63 patients (76.2%) no longer had metabolic syndrome (95%CI [65.7;86.7]). These 48 patients without metabolic syndrome at the end of follow-up represented 49.5% of the 97 included (95%CI [39.5;59.4]). Future studies of lifestyle interventions taking advantage of the spa environment can be expected to find least one third of patients free of metabolic syndrome at the end of 12-month follow-up in the intervention group. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Nutritional Approach to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Robert H. Lerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS; addressing both is crucial for its management. A diet featuring the Mediterranean dietary pattern or low glycemic load has been shown to prevent and ameliorate MetS. Plant compounds, including soy protein and phytosterols, have been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Recently, phytochemicals from hops and acacia were identified as lipogenic, antiinflammatory compounds that reduced serum insulin and glucose levels in animals. A 12-week, randomized lifestyle intervention study in overweight and obese women with LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL compared a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and soy/phytosterol-based medical food to an AHA low-fat diet. The modified Mediterranean diet with medical food was superior in reducing markers of MetS and CVD risk. A subsequent,randomized 12-week study in men and women with MetS and LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL showed that supplementation with soy/phytosterol-based medical food plus phytochemicalsenhanced the benefits of a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and aerobic exercise. At the completion of the study, 43% of participants receiving medical food and phytochemicalsexhibited net resolution of MetS compared with only 22% of those on diet and exercise alone. A subanalysis of participants at high risk (MetS + LDL ≥4.14 mmol/L [160 mg/dL] indicated minimal benefit from lifestyle change alone but marked benefits with the addition of medical food and phytochemicals. Case studies illustrate long-term benefits of this supplemented lifestyle change program. In conclusion, institution of a phytochemical-enhanced lifestyle intervention promises to be a clinically useful approach in MetS management.

  2. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  4. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  5. Prune belly syndrome. A focused physical assessment.

    Woods, Amanda G; Brandon, Debra H

    2007-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly, exists almost exclusively in males and consists of genital and urinary abnormalities with partial or complete absence of abdominal wall musculature. The syndrome, caused by urethral obstruction early in development, is the result of massive bladder distention and urinary ascites, leading to degeneration of the abdominal wall musculature and failure of testicular descent. The impaired elimination of urine from the bladder leads to oligohydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and Potter's facies. The syndrome has a broad spectrum of affected anatomy with different levels of severity. The exact etiology of prune belly syndrome is unknown, although several embryologic theories attempt to explain the anomaly. With advances in prenatal screening techniques, the diagnosis and possible treatment of prune belly syndrome can occur before birth, although controversy exists on the proper management of prune belly syndrome. This article explores the theories behind the pathophysiology and embryology of prune belly syndrome and its multisystemic effects on the newborn infant. Specific attention is paid to presentation, clinical features, head-to-toe physical assessment, family support, and nursing care of infants with prune belly syndrome.

  6. Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suárez, Erick; Beauchamp, Giovanna; Romaguera, Josefina; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is an interaction of risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods Given the need for data in Puerto Rico, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between demographic, lifestyles, and reproductive characteristics and the metabolic syndrome among a sample of women (N = 564) in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results In multivariate logistic regression models, women aged 40–59 and 60–79 years were 3.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70, 5.40] and 7.05 (95% CI, 3.69, 13.49) times more likely, respectively, to have the metabolic syndrome as compared to those aged 21–39 years. A dose–response relationship was also observed between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity reduced the odds for metabolic syndrome [prevalence odds ratios (POR) = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.01]; however, this association was marginally significant (P = 0.05). Among reproductive characteristics, only women who had a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) were 2.14 (95% CI, 1.02, 4.51) times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, increased age and BMI, physical inactivity, and GDM are associated with the metabolic syndrome in this population. This information is relevant for the development of preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20156074

  7. [Chronic fatigue syndrome--exercise and physical activity].

    Greenberg, Shai; Frid, Mordechai

    2006-04-01

    One of the major symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reduced exercise and functional capacity and increased fatigue symptoms following physical effort. A review of the literature indicates that patients that suffer from CFS are characterized by: low aerobic capacity, higher heart rate during sub-maximal exercise, higher subjective effort prescription, reduced muscle strength, and prolonged recovery period. Although several symptoms are a result of lack of physical activity, several mechanisms were suggested to explain those symptoms: pathological heart rate control, reduced aerobic metabolic capacity, reduced blood supply to the working muscles and nerve system dysfunction. Participating in guided exercise programs was found to be the most effective treatment in improving exercise and functional capacity, reducing fatigue syndromes and improving patients' daily function.

  8. Role of nutrients in metabolic syndrome: a 2017 update

    Kern HJ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hua J Kern, Susan Hazels Mitmesser The Nature’s Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its associated chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are public health concerns in the USA and worldwide. “Good health is an investment in economic growth,” and nutrition is one of the recommended preventive measures to manage these chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent nutrients could be beneficial to the improvement of MetS. To help answer this question, we performed a literature review of the emerging human data on single nutrients and MetS: PubMed was searched from January 1, 2005 to June 12, 2017, using a combination of the following keywords: “nutrient” OR “vitamin” OR “mineral” OR “nutraceutical” AND “metabolic syndrome.” The summary of literature comprises macronutrients (proteins/amino acids, fatty acids, fibers, and sugar, micronutrients (antioxidant vitamins, vitamin D, folate, magnesium, and chromium, polyphenols (flavonoids, resveratrol, isoflavones, and chlorogenic acid, and other compounds (α-lipoic acid, benfotiamine, fucoxanthin, policosanol, and stanols. Bearing a holistic approach in mind, we also highlighted select lifestyle factors that may contribute to MetS (such as circadian rhythm and nutrition in early life. Observational studies have generated positive evidence supporting the beneficial role of numerous nutrients in MetS. Although the results of some clinical trials are consistent with the observational data, causality is not always clear or consistent across trials. Both nutrition and health are complex and dynamic systems with a hierarchical nature. When we design confirmatory trials to investigate nutrient(s and MetS, instead of the traditional “single-nutrient” concept, it is worth considering a holistic approach to integrate groups or classes of nutrients, lifestyle influencers (ie, diet and physical

  9. Intranasal Insulin Restores Metabolic Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Derkach, K V; Ivantsov, A O; Chistyakova, O V; Sukhov, I B; Buzanakov, D M; Kulikova, A A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-06-01

    We studied the effect of 10-week treatment with intranasal insulin (0.5 IU/day) on glucose tolerance, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, functions of pancreatic β cells, and insulin system in the liver of rats with cafeteria diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The therapy reduced body weight and blood levels of insulin, triglycerides, and atherogenic cholesterol that are typically increased in metabolic syndrome, normalized glucose tolerance and its utilization, and increased activity of insulin signaling system in the liver, thus reducing insulin resistance. The therapy did not affect the number of pancreatic islets and β cells. The study demonstrates prospects of using intranasal insulin for correction of metabolic parameters and reduction of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  10. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndr...

  11. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  12. The metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Isfahan, Iran

    Nahid Reisi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Isfahan, Iran.
    • METHODS: During a 4-year period (2003 to 2007, 55 children (33 male and 22 female diagnosed with ALL at Unit of Hematology/ Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, were enrolled in this crosssectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified version of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III criteria. Insulin resistance was defined based on the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR.
    • RESULTS: The mean age of participates was 10.4 years (range 6-19 years and the mean interval since completion of chemotherapy was 35 months. Twenty percent (11/55 of survivors (10 male, 1 female met criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was observed in one forth of patients and nearly 3/4 of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. High serum insulin levels were found in 16% of participants and in 63% of obese survivors. The mean insulin levels in survivors with metabolic syndrome was three-times more than those without (28.3 mu/l vs. 9.57 mu/l, p = 0.004. Insulin resistance was detected in 72.7% of survivors with metabolic syndrome and it was  ositively correlated with serum triglycerides (0.543, p < 0.001, systolic and diastolic BP (0.348, p = 0.01 and 0.368, p = 006 respectively, insulin levels (0.914, p < 0.001 and blood sugar (0.398, p = 003.
    • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Iran is higher than developed countries. Nearly all of the obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Weight control and regular physical exercise are recommended to the survivors.
    • KEYWORDS: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, children.

  13. Specifics of mental disorders of patients with metabolic syndrome

    K. I. Kleban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the general-somatic network there is a steady increase in the number of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Problems of providing adequate psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to this category of patients are related to the motivation of patients to participate in psychological measures and the readiness of the medical system to provide comprehensive care on the basis of the biopsychosocial approach. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. So mental disorders of metabolic syndrome are manifested in the form of psychosocial maladaptation, neurotic, affective, personality, and organic disorders. Desynchronosis which is a factor of the development of a metabolic syndrome and characterizes the complex chronobiological component of the regulation of psychophysiological functions in norm and under the influence of stress, deserves special attention. Addressing the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with metabolic syndrome is precisely aimed at determining chronobiological disorders of psychosomatic integrated areas and is supposed to improve diagnostic and treatment process and to shorten the treatment of these disorders.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review

    Patrícia Pozas Saboya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor.

  15. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome

    Zhou Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.

  16. Justice at work and metabolic syndrome: the Whitehall II study.

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Adám G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-04-01

    Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35-55 years without prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 to 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organisational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men.

  17. [Obesity or overweight and metabolic syndrome in Mexico City teenagers].

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p metabolic syndrome components was similar between males and females. The high prevalence of biochemical and physiological factors of metabolic syndrome, associated with overweight and obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.

  18. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with type-2 diabetes

    Ahmed, N.; Ahmad, T.; Hussain, S.J.; Javed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity and Ischaemic Heart Disease have become a problem of public health magnitude with substantial economic burden both in the developed as well as the developing countries. Obesity is quite frequent in Type 2 diabetics and also plays a central role in causing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Metabolic Syndrome significantly increases the incidence of cardiovascular complications. This study was done to determine the frequency of MetS in our Type 2 diabetic patients as most of the components of MetS can be modified and identifying/managing these at an early stage might be of considerable help in reducing cardiovascular complications. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Medical B and Medical A wards of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Nov, 08 to April, 09. Type 2 Diabetic patients aged above 40 years who gave informed consent were included in the study. Data was collected through a structured proforma. Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome was estimated according to the IDF consensus worldwide definition of the MetS. Results: Of the 100 patients enrolled in this study 56 were females and 44 were males with a mean age of 59.9 years. Out of these 100 participants seventy six (76%) were diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Of the 56 females, forty eight (85.71%) were having metabolic syndrome while twenty eight (63.63%) of the 44 male participants were having the syndrome. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Frequency of MetS was found to be significantly high in this study with female preponderance. All the components, except Hypertension were more frequent in females. Diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome need more aggressive approach in management so as to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular complications. (author)

  20. Adipokines resistin and lipokalin-2 and its role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome

    Voronenko N.Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues hormones resistin and lipocalin -2 play an important role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation and immune disorders, fertility and reproductive mechanisms. Obesity and overweight are significantly involved in the process of fertility decline. Women with obesity and metabolic syndrome have abnormal adypokine plasma levels. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the women’s of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and energy metabolism. Methods: basal levels of resistin, lipocalin-2, follicular stimulating, luteinizing hormones, estradiol, total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dihydroepiandrosteron sulfate, androstenedione, cortisol, anti-mullerian hormone, prolactin, insulin, folistatin, homocysteine, interleukin-6 and sex-binding globulin were determined in the serum of 35 women of reproductive age with metabolic syndrome (MS, 33 patients of reproductive age with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and in 54 healthy contols. It is found that despite the normal values of hormones lipocalin-2 and resistin even in patients with obesity, their concentrations significantly correlated with anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. We established statistically significant stimulatory effects of lipocalin-2 and resistin on the synthesis of ovarian steroids and the significant inhibitory effect of lipocalin-2 and resistin on ovarian and adrenal androgens synthesis in normal physical condition and reproductive health. In MS and PCOS these relationships are not established. The results obtained allow us to propose the assumption of the existence of metabolic changes of the sensitivity of the reproductive system and the adrenal gland to the effects of lipocalin -2 and resistin in women with PCOS and metabolic syndrome.

  1. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    Carlos G. Musso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Renal Disease

    Vaia D. Raikou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS on kidneys is related to many complications. We aimed to assess the association between MetS and chronic renal disease defined by a poor estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or the presence of microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. Methods: 149 patients (77 males/72 females were enrolled in the study. Chronic renal disease was defined according to KDIGO 2012 criteria based on eGFR category and classified albuminuria. MetS was studied as a dichotomous variable (0 to 5 components including hypertension, waist circumference, low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high glucose. Results: The association between clustering MetS and both classified eGFR and classified albuminuria (x2 = 50.3, p = 0.001 and x2 = 26.9, p = 0.003 respectively was found to be significant. The MetS presence showed an odds 5.3-fold (1.6–17.8 higher for low eGFR and 3.2-fold (1.2–8.8 higher for albuminuria in combination with the presence of diabetes mellitus, which also increased the risk for albuminuria by 3.5-fold (1.1–11.3. Albuminuria was significantly associated with high triglycerides, hypertension, high glucose (x2 = 11.8, p = 0.003, x2 = 11.4, p = 0.003 and x2 = 9.1, p = 0.01 respectively, and it was mildly associated with a low HDL-C (x2 = 5.7, p = 0.06. A significant association between classified eGFR and both high triglycerides and hypertension (x2 = 9.7, p = 0.04 and x2 = 16.1, p = 0.003 respectively was found. Conclusion: The clustering of MetS was significantly associated with chronic renal disease defined by both classified eGFR and albuminuria. The definition of impaired renal function by classified albuminuria was associated with more MetS components rather than the evaluation of eGFR category. MetS may contribute to the manifestation of albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on CRP levels].

    Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M

    2006-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.

  4. Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project.

    Hidalgo-Santamaria, María; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Barrio-Lopez, María T; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008-2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome

    Milde, K.; Tomaszewski, P.K.; Stupnicki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280)

  6. Metabolic syndrome in mental health and addiction treatment: a quantitative study.

    Flynn, M; Houtjes, W; Merks, A; van Mierlo, A; van de Wetering, B

    2015-02-01

    Patients with mental illnesses have been found to shorter life expectancy due to an increased risk of heart disease. Some medication used to treat mental illnesses have been linked to weight gain and other physical change that make patients susceptible to heart disease. In order to reduce this risk it is important that health professionals regularly measure and monitor signs of these physical changes. This research has found that measuring both waist circumference and blood pressure of patients is a safe and reliable way to way to monitor patients. To identify if combined blood pressure and waist circumference measurements are reliable predictor of metabolic syndrome, a descriptive correlational design was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of screening techniques used to detect metabolic syndrome. Data were collected regarding waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins. Blood pressure and waist circumference measurements demonstrated high significance, sensitivity and specificity as screening instruments for metabolic syndrome. Combined waist circumference and blood pressure measurements may be clinically useful for a quick and reliable detection of metabolic syndrome in patients with addiction and comorbid mental health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Corn Silk on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Wang, Bing; Xiao, Tiegang; Ruan, Jun; Liu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of corn silk in different components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  10. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  12. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  13. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  14. Transcriptional changes in blood after aerobic interval training in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Bye, Anja; Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild E N; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-02-01

    Regular physical activity has beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome. Eleven metabolic syndrome patients performing 16 weeks of aerobic interval training, significantly reduced their risk of cardiovascular disease, in terms of improved VO2max, endothelial function, blood pressure, insulin signaling, and plasma lipid composition. The knowledge on underlying mechanism of exercise-induced improvements is sparse, and a broad spectrum of methods is needed to gain more insight. The aim was, for the first time, to determine whether transcriptional changes occur in blood cells of metabolic syndrome patients after participating in an exercise program. Blood was collected in PAXgene and EDTA tubes before and after 16 weeks of exercise. RNA was extracted and run on microarrays. Eleven biological processes and molecular functions were upregulated after exercise, whereas seven were downregulated. Blood clotting, cell adhesion, and steroid metabolism were among the downregulated processes, whereas steroid hormone-mediated signaling was upregulated. Downregulated protein levels of arginase 1 and von Willebrand factor confirmed microarray results. Increased transcription of genes involved in steroid hormone-mediated signaling, decreased levels of arginase 1, and reduced transcription of genes involved in cell adhesion, and blood clotting are likely to be involved in exercise-induced improvements of endothelial function, and improved cardiovascular risk profile of metabolic syndrome patients. These findings have provided new insights on exercise-induced improvement of cardiovascular health.

  15. Exercise-induced hypertension in men with metabolic syndrome: anthropometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic features.

    Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (Pmetabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.

  16. Association of Family Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults Aged over 45 Years Old.

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender in Korean adults aged 45 years and older. The sample consisted of 11,291 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. We used complex sample analyses, including strata, cluster, and sample weighting, to allow generalization to the Korean population. Complex samples crosstabs and chi-square tests were conducted to compare the percentage of sociodemographic characteristics to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by gender and family composition. Next, a complex sample logistic regression was performed to examine the association between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender. The percentage of adults living alone was 5.6% for men and 13.9% for women. Slightly more women (14.0%) than men (10.1%) reported living with three generations. The percentage of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults aged 45 years and older was 53.2% for men and 35.7% for women. For women, we found that living with one or three generations was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, and triglyceride abnormality after adjusting for age, education, household income, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, when compared to living alone. No significant relationships were found for men. A national strategy, tailored on gender and family composition, needs to be developed in order to prevent the increase of metabolic syndrome in Korean women over middle age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of psychosocial factors on metabolic syndrome in male and female blue-collar workers.

    Hwang, Won Ju; Lee, Chung Yul

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers, and which factors influence their metabolic syndrome by sex. A cross-sectional study was completed of 154 men and 80 women working at small companies in Korea. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire, blood test, and anthropometric and blood pressure measure. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the results of blood test and the measurements of waist circumference and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers was 24.0% and 7.5%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors of metabolic syndrome associated with sex. After controlling for age, marital status, smoking, alcohol drinking, shift work, overtime work, and physical exercise, job stress (odds ratio [OR] = 3.10, P = 0.005) and risk perception (OR = 1.12, P = 0.016) were influencing factors for men, and low job stress (OR = 0.05, P = 0.04), low social support (OR = 1.51, P = 0.009), and risk perception (OR = 1.27, P = 0.023) for women. Metabolic syndrome among blue-collar workers is closely related to psychosocial factors, such as job stress, social support, and risk perception, with the effect of job stress a point of difference between men and women. Occupational health nurses should be cognizant of the importance of assessing the effect of psychosocial factors on cardiovascular risk for blue-collar workers. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  18. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  19. Association between television viewing and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a community-based population

    Liu Chiu-Shong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of metabolic syndrome becoming an important issue during recent decades, many studies have explored the risk factors contributing to its development. However, less attention has been paid to the risk associated with sedentary behavior, especially television viewing. This study examined the association between television viewing time and the risk of having metabolic syndrome in a population of Taiwanese subjects. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study included 2,353 subjects (1,144 men and 1,209 women aged 40 and over from October, 2004 to September, 2005. Information about the time spent watching TV was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The definition of metabolic syndrome was according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel modified for Asians. Results Compared to subjects who viewed TV 20 hr/week had a 1.50-fold (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.10, 2.03 risk for men and a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.37, 2.71 risk for women of having metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for physical activity and other covariates. Stratifying by the three categories of total activity levels, TV viewing time > 20 hr/week was found to still hold a significant risk for having metabolic syndrome in the lowest of the three categories of total activity level for men and in all three categories of total activity level for women. Conclusion The findings suggest that TV viewing is an independent risk factor associated with metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese people.

  20. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine?

    Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies.Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue (adiposopathy). It describes the relationship of adiposopathy to metabolic syndrome and how exercise may mediate these processes, and evaluates current evidence on the clinical efficacy of exercise in the management of abdominal obesity. The review also discusses the type and dose of exercise needed for optimal improvements in health status in relation to the available evidence and considers the difficulty in achieving adherence to exercise programmes. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of programmes of exercise to reverse metabolic syndrome although at present the optimal dose and type of exercise is unknown. The main challenge for health care professionals is how to motivate individuals to participate and adherence to programmes of exercise used prophylactically and as a treatment for metabolic syndrome.

  1. [Association between metabolic syndrome and its components with presbycusis].

    Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jiarui; Wang, Ningning; Yang, Xiaoshan

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on presbycusis. Total of 165 cases and 202 controls were continuously collected in Harbin Ninth Hospital from June 2013 to August 2014, these subjects were investigated and received anthropometry and received biochemical test in hospital laboratory. Statistics analysis was adopted by χ2 test, t test and logistic regression model. Only triglyceride abnormal proportion of case group was higher than that of control group among components of metabolic syndrome, and it were associated with age-related hearing loss whether before adjustment or not after adjustment, OR (95% CI) were 1.69 (1.09-2.63) and 1.96 (1.08-3.54) respectively, and others were not associated with presbycusis. In addition, among all of the various combinations of the components of the metabolic syndrome, combination of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein, combination of triglycerides and blood glucose, combination of triglycerides and blood pressure were associated with age-related hearing loss before adjustment and after adjustment, OR were 5.31 (95% CI 1.63-17.27), 2.66 (95% CI 1.04-6.85) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.04-4.18) respectively. Further more, the metabolic syndrome was not statistically associated with presbycusis, OR were 1.27 (95% CI 0.83-1.94) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.54-1.57) respectively before adjustment and after adjustment. In addition, stratified by age, the metabolic syndrome was still not statistically associated with presbycusis in each stratification, OR were 0.89 (95% CI 0.44-1.82) and 1.49 (95% CI 0.67-3.30) respectively. The triglyceride was associated with presbycusis. Among all of combinations of the components of the metabolic syndrome, combination of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein, combination of triglycerides and blood glucose, combination of triglycerides and blood pressure were associated with age-related hearing loss.

  2. Reduced apolipoprotein glycosylation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Olga V Savinova

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls.Very low density (VLDL, intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL, and high density lipoproteins (HDL fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays.Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1 total plasma--apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2 VLDL--apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3 LDL--apoC3 was increased, (4 HDL--associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4 was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all. In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001.Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

  3. Comparison of metabolic syndrome with growing epidemic syndrome Z in terms of risk factors and gender differences.

    Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe

  4. Severity of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome: is there an association?

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Mercês, Magno Conceição; Soares, Johelle de Santana Passos; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Causal factors for MetS are not well defined or yet unidentified. Preliminary investigations suggest that infections and inflammation may be involved in the etiology of this syndrome. This study aims to estimate the association between the severity of periodontitis (exposure) and MetS (outcome). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 419 participants recruited from the Di...

  5. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Castillo, C.A.; Jaramillo, C.; Loaiza, M.J.; Blanco, R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses) have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adi...

  6. HPLC-MS-Based Metabonomics Reveals Disordered Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Xinjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry-based metabonomics platform was employed to profile the plasma metabolites of patients with metabolic syndrome and the healthy controls. Data analysis revealed lots of differential metabolites between the two groups, and most of them were identified as lipids. Several fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines were of higher plasma levels in the patient group, indicating the occurrence of insulin resistance and inflammation. The identified ether phospholipids were decreased in the patient group, reflecting the oxidative stress and some metabolic disorders. These identified metabolites can also be used to aid diagnosis of patients with metabolic syndrome. These results showed that metabonomics was a promising and powerful method to study metabolic syndrome.

  7. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  8. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  10. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  11. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  12. The metabolic syndrome and severity of diabetic retinopathy

    Chen JJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available John J Chen,1,2,* Lucas J Wendel,1,3,* Emily S Birkholz,1 John G Vallone,4 Anne L Coleman,5,6 Fei Yu,7 Vinit B Mahajan1,3,8 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Vitreoretinal Service, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, 5Department of Ophthalmology, 6Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 7Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 8Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: While metabolic syndrome has been strongly implicated as a risk factor for macrovascular diseases, such as stroke and cardiovascular disease, its relationship with microvascular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, has been less defined. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy.Methods: A retrospective case–control chart review at the University of Iowa ophthalmology and primary care clinics included 100 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, 100 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR, 100 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, and 100 nondiabetic patients who were randomly selected. Using the International Diabetes Foundation definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the number of components of metabolic syndrome were compared among these groups.Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes was 69.3%, which was significantly higher than that in patients without diabetes (27%; P<0.0001 (odds ratio [OR] =6.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.76–10.49; P=0.0004. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between diabetics with and without diabetic retinopathy, with rates

  13. Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.

    Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the Wolfram syndrome.

    Boutzios, Georgios; Livadas, Sarantis; Marinakis, Evangelos; Opie, Nicole; Economou, Frangiskos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2011-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance with incomplete penetrance. DIDMOAD is a very rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 770,000 and it is believed to occur in 1 of 150 patients with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Additionally, WS may also present with different endocrine and metabolic abnormalities such as anterior and posterior pituitary gland dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the variable presentation of WS and the need of screening for other metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, coexisting in this rare syndrome.

  15. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students: Differences by gender

    María Araceli Álvarez Gasca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.

  16. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in COPD: Is exercise the answer?

    James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A

    2018-05-01

    Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.

  17. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners.

  18. Epigenetics and a new look on metabolic syndrome

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, Ivana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Behuliak, Michal; Maletínská, L.; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 611-620 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25396A; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * epigenetic s * transgenerational inheritance * gene-environmental interactions * obesity * hypertension Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  19. Epigenetics and a new look on metabolic syndrome

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, I.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Behuliak, M.; Maletínská, Lenka; Zicha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 611-620 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * epigenetic s * transgenerational inheritance * gene-environmental interactions * obesity * hypertension Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_611.pdf

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identificat...

  1. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  2. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  3. Oxidative status and lipid profile in metabolic syndrome: gender differences.

    Kaya, Aysem; Uzunhasan, Isil; Baskurt, Murat; Ozkan, Alev; Ataoglu, Esra; Okcun, Baris; Yigit, Zerrin

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of novel oxidative stress parameters and lipid profiles in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The study population included 88 patients with metabolic syndrome, consisting of 48 postmenauposal women (group I) and 40 men (group II). Premenauposal women were excluded. Plasma levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) were determined by using the Erel automated measurement method, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. To perform the calculation, the resulting unit of TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L, was converted to micromol equivalent/L and the OSI value was calculated as: OSI = [(TOS, micromol/L)/(TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L) x 100]. The Student t-test, Mann-Whitney-U test, and chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis; the Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman rank test were used for correlation analysis. P women and men had similar properties regarding demographic characteristics and biochemical work up. Group II had significantly lower levels of antioxidant levels of TAS and lower levels of TOS and OSI compared with group I (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0035, and P = 0,0001). Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) levels were significantly higher in group I compared with group II. Our findings indicate that women with metabolic syndrome have a better antioxidant status and higher ApoA levels compared with men. Our findings suggest the existence of a higher oxidative stress index in men with metabolic syndrome. Considering the higher risk of atherosclerosis associated with men, these novel oxidative stress parameters may be valuable in the evaluation of patients with metabolic sydrome.

  4. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: diagnostic issues, comorbidity and side effects of antipsychotics

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in people with schizophrenia. Metabolic syndrome can contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality and should be accounted for in the treatment of mental disorders. Along with results of numerous investigations regarding metabolic syndrome, different issues have occurred. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding diagnostic and treatment of metabolic syndrome and po...

  5. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  6. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  7. Inherited lipodystrophies and the metabolic syndrome

    Monajemi, Houshang; Stroes, Erik; Hegele, Robert A.; Fliers, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an abnormal subcutaneous fat distribution, the extent of which can vary from localized, to partial, to generalized lipoatrophy. Whereas partial and generalized lipodystrophies are each associated with metabolic

  8. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis

    Paul B. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities. PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline databases were searched to find papers presenting MetSyn and MetSyn component data for 18–30 year olds who were apparently healthy, free of disease, and MetSyn was assessed using either the harmonized, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII, American Heart Association/National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (AHA/NHBLI, or International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetSyn. After reviewing returned articles, 26,609 participants' data from 34 studies were included in the analysis and the data were pooled. MetSyn was present in 4.8–7% of young adults. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent MetSyn component (26.9–41.2%, followed by elevated blood pressure (16.6–26.6%, abdominal obesity (6.8–23.6%, atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as raised triglycerides (8.6–15.6%, and raised fasting glucose (2.8–15.4%. These findings highlight that MetSyn is prevalent in young adults. Establishing the reason why low HDL is the most prevalent component may represent an important step in promoting primary prevention of MetSyn and reducing the incidence of subsequent clinical disease.

  10. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    interval (with Bazett's correction). Conclusion. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in this sample points to a need to monitor glucose levels and BMI on a regular basis. A larger study should be done to ...

  11. The metabolic syndrome: targeting dyslipidaemia to reduce coronary risk.

    Ginsberg, H.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex constellation of disorders, each one a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increasing prevalence of this condition is a major concern for healthcare providers both in Europe and North America. The concern surrounding

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using NCEP-ATPIII and ...

    To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using ınternational dietetics federation (IDF) versus National cholesterol education program; adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions in Turkish adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 1531 (male 758 and female 773) Turkish adults, aged ...

  13. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  15. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  16. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome as defined by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria [modified the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria] and cigarette smoking in Thai subjects. Methods: This study was carried out among 254 ...

  17. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... high‑density lipoprotein (TG/HDL), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL, and atherogenic index of ... Key words: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, women ... been reported that a TG/HDL ratio of >3.0 is predictive of.

  18. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  19. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among ...

    Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is rapidly increasing in developing countries. However, the epidemiology of MetS is not well reported in the pediatric and young adult population. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese Nigerian adolescents and ...

  20. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.

  1. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes ...

    Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Decreases in circulating adiponectin and ghrelin have been associated with MetS. Our primary aim was to evaluate the relationship of MetS with adiponectin and ghrelin for Cuban Americans with ...

  4. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women waist ...

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without known diabetes ...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients attending the Staff Clinic of a ...

    Background/objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors. It contributes to morbidity and mortality in adults. The objective of the study was to identify new cases and associated factors of MetS in patients attending a tertiary hospital staff clinic. Materials and methods: The ...

  6. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese, ob...

  7. Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Nigerian Community: Is Central ...

    Alasia Datonye

    ABSTRACT. Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is primarily the consequence of excess central adiposity but can also result from low grade systemic inflammation inducing insulin resistance. There is a global increase in the prevalence of MS; it is on this background that evaluation of the prevalence of MS in a poor rural ...

  8. Altered carbon dioxide metabolism and creatine abnormalities in rett syndrome

    Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical

  9. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  10. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  11. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women ...

    HDL, and atherogenic index of plasma; log (TG/HDL) were calculated and compared with IR. Metabolic syndrome was sought for using both the WHO and the harmonized joint criteria. Results: The mean age was 44.4 (13.1) years. Hypertension ...

  12. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  14. Rett syndrome: Neurologic and metabolic aspects

    Hagebeuk, E.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It was described in 1954 by Andreas Rett, an Australian neuropediatrician. After a period of apparently normal development, affected patients experience loss of speech and purposeful handuse, stereotypic

  15. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  16. Targeting SREBPs for treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    Soyal, Selma M; Nofziger, Charity; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few decades, mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease (CVD) steadily decreased in western countries; however, in recent years, the decline has become offset by the increase in obesity. Obesity is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome and its atherogenic dyslipidemia resulting from insulin resistance. While lifestyle treatment would be effective, drugs targeting individual risk factors are often required. Such treatment may result in polypharmacy. Novel approaches are directed towards the treatment of several risk factors with one drug. Studies in animal models and humans suggest a central role for sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Four recent studies targeting the maturation or transcriptional activities of SREBPs provide proof of concept for the efficacy of SREBP inhibition in this syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Asociación entre la aptitud física y los factores de riesgo de síndrome metabólico en trabajadores de una institución universitaria Association between physical aptitude and metabolic syndrome risk factors in workers of an university institution

    Viviana A Dosman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar la asociación entre la aptitud física y los factores de riesgo del síndrome metabólico en trabajadores de una institución universitaria. Diseño: estudio transversal que incluyó 147 trabajadores, divididos en dos grupos: baja aptitud física (menores a 9 MET y alta aptitud física (mayores a 9,1 MET. Para evaluar síndrome metabólico se tuvieron en cuenta los criterios de la International Diabetes Federation (IDF y para aptitud física el cuestionario PF-A/PA-R, como indicadores del estado de salud. Resultados: de la población evaluada, 47,3% (69 sujetos son hombres y 52,7% (78 sujetos mujeres. La edad promedio de los grupos fue de 35,0 ± 9,7 años (rango 19,0-60,0 años. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables: tensión arterial sistólica, glicemia, colesterol, triglicéridos e índice arterial, en ambos grupos y por género, p=Objective: identify the association between physical aptitude and the metabolic syndrome risk factors in workers of an university institution. Design: this cross-sectional study included 147 workers, divided in two groups: low physical fitness ( 9,1 MET. Criteria from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for metabolic syndrome evaluation and from the PF-A/PA-R questionnaire for the physical aptitude were taken in consideration as health indicators. Results: in the evaluated cohort, 47,3% (69 subjects were men and 52,7% (78 subjects women. Mean age was 35 ± 9,7 years (range 19 to 60 years in the groups. Significant differences were found in the variables: systolic blood pressure, glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides and arterial index in both groups and by gender, p=<0.05. Furthermore, in the higher physical fitness groups there was an inverse correlation with the metabolic syndrome risk factors such as BMI, waist cicumference, glycemia, triglycerides and arterial index in both genders. In men, correlations with the variable glycemia in the low physical fitness

  18. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  19. Construct validity of a continuous metabolic syndrome score in children

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS in children. The secondary purpose was to identify a cutpoint value(s for an adverse cMetS based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Methods 378 children aged 7 to 9 years were assessed for the metabolic syndrome which was determined by age-modified cutpoints. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, the homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance, mean arterial pressure, and waist circumference were used to create a cMetS for each subject. Results About half of the subjects did not possess any risk factors while about 5% possessed the metabolic syndrome. There was a graded relationship between the cMetS and the number of adverse risk factors. The cMetS was lowest in the group with no adverse risk factors (-1.59 ± 1.76 and highest in those possessing the metabolic syndrome (≥3 risk factors (7.05 ± 2.73. The cutoff level yielding the maximal sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of the metabolic syndrome was a cMetS of 3.72 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 93.9%, and the area of the curve = 0.978 (0.957-0.990, 95% confidence intervals. Conclusion The results demonstrate the construct validity for the cMetS in children. Since there are several drawbacks to identifying a single cut-point value for the cMetS based on this sample, we urge researchers to use the approach herein to validate and create a cMetS that is specific to their study population.

  20. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  1. The metabolic syndrome in thyroid disease: A report from Nigeria

    Anthonia O Ogbera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in people with thyroid disorders. Materials and Methods: 112 subjects with a history of thyroid disorders were consecutively enrolled for the study. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their case folders and prescriptions. The subjects were categorized into three: thyrotoxic, those with hypothyroidism and those with nontoxic goiters, based on clinical parameters and or thyroid function tests. The study subjects were weighed and their anthropometric indices were documented. The laboratory parameters that were analyzed included total cholesterol, high-density and low-density cholesterol and triglyceride. Statistical analysis was performed using Student′s t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and chi-square test. Results: The study subjects were aged between 14 and 76 years, with a mean age of 44.5 years, and the female:male ratio was 97:15. The mean age and anthropometric indices were comparable in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 28% and the frequency of occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and nontoxic goiter was 24%, 40% and 42%, respectively. The commonest occurring metabolic syndrome defining criterion was dysglycemia, while hypertension and elevated triglyceride were the least documented of the criteria. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome occurs in 1 in every 4 persons with thyroid disorders, and as such, routine screening for this cardiovascular risk factor may be of benefit in this group of people, especially in those with hypothyroidism.

  2. Predicting metabolic syndrome using decision tree and support vector machine methods

    Farzaneh Karimi-Alavijeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This study aims to employ decision tree and support vector machine (SVM to predict the 7-year incidence of metabolic syndrome. This research is a practical one in which data from 2107 participants of Isfahan Cohort Study has been utilized. The subjects without metabolic syndrome according to the ATPIII criteria were selected. The features that have been used in this data set include: gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, fasting blood sugar, 2-hour blood glucose, triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on ATPIII criteria and two methods of decision tree and SVM were selected to predict the metabolic syndrome. The criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used for validation. RESULTS: SVM and decision tree methods were examined according to the criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.774 (0.758, 0.74 (0.72 and 0.757 (0.739 in SVM (decision tree method. CONCLUSION: The results show that SVM method sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is more efficient than decision tree. The results of decision tree method show that the TG is the most

  3. Predicting metabolic syndrome using decision tree and support vector machine methods.

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Farzaneh; Jalili, Saeed; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome. This study aims to employ decision tree and support vector machine (SVM) to predict the 7-year incidence of metabolic syndrome. This research is a practical one in which data from 2107 participants of Isfahan Cohort Study has been utilized. The subjects without metabolic syndrome according to the ATPIII criteria were selected. The features that have been used in this data set include: gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, fasting blood sugar, 2-hour blood glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on ATPIII criteria and two methods of decision tree and SVM were selected to predict the metabolic syndrome. The criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used for validation. SVM and decision tree methods were examined according to the criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.774 (0.758), 0.74 (0.72) and 0.757 (0.739) in SVM (decision tree) method. The results show that SVM method sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is more efficient than decision tree. The results of decision tree method show that the TG is the most important feature in predicting metabolic syndrome. According

  4. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  5. Metabolic syndrome: a common problem among office workers.

    Alavi, S S; Makarem, J; Mehrdad, R; Abbasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%), higher in men (37.2%) than in women (20.6%), and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9%) and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%). Office workers with MSx had a significantly (pMSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003), and low intake of fruits (p=0.02) were associated with MSx. The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome: A Common Problem among Office Workers

    SS Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MSx is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results: The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%, higher in men (37.2% than in women (20.6%, and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9% and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%. Office workers with MSx had a significantly (p<0.001 higher body mass index than those without MSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003, and low intake of fruits (p=0.02 were associated with MSx. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  7. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  8. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    Lone, S.W.; Ibrahim, M.N.; Leghari, T.M.; Khan, Y.N.; Raza, J.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  9. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  10. Klinefelter syndrome, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Salzano, Andrea; D'Assante, Roberta; Heaney, Liam M; Monaco, Federica; Rengo, Giuseppe; Valente, Pietro; Pasquali, Daniela; Bossone, Eduardo; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Cittadini, Antonio; Marra, Alberto M; Napoli, Raffaele

    2018-03-23

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the most frequent chromosomic abnormality in males, is associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The mechanisms involved in increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not completely understood. This review summarises the current understandings of the complex relationship between KS, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in order to plan future studies and improve current strategies to reduce mortality in this high-risk population. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for manuscripts published prior to November 2017 using key words "Klinefelter syndrome" AND "insulin resistance" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "diabetes mellitus" OR "cardiovascular disease" OR "testosterone". Manuscripts were collated, studied and carried forward for discussion where appropriate. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are more frequently diagnosed in KS than in the general population; however, the contribution of hypogonadism to metabolic derangement is highly controversial. Whether this dangerous combination of risk factors fully explains the CVD burden of KS patients remains unclear. In addition, testosterone replacement therapy only exerts a marginal action on the CVD system. Since fat accumulation and distribution seem to play a relevant role in triggering metabolic abnormalities, an early diagnosis and a tailored intervention strategy with drugs aimed at targeting excessive visceral fat deposition appear necessary in patients with KS.

  11. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...... to important biologic mechanisms operating between a sedentary lifestyle and an increased breast cancer risk....

  12. Association of sleep quality components and wake time with metabolic syndrome: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (QMDS), Iran.

    Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Iftikhar, S.; Javed, M. A.; Kasuri, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Study Design: Case-series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2012. Methodology: Seventy-five (64 females and 11 males) patients with clinically diagnosed and electrodiagnostically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome were inducted. Their waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were recorded. Patients were categorized having metabolic syndrome according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, if any 3 were present out of hypertension, elevated fasting triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose, and elevated waist circumference. Result: Mean age of the patients was 42.04±9.31 years, mean waist circumference was 95.32±9.03 cm, mean systolic blood pressure was 134.13±13.72 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure was 89.13±8.83 mmHg, mean fasting blood glucose was 94.35±21.81 mg/dl, mean fasting triglycerides was 177.48±48.69 mg/dl, and mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol was 41.95±11.17 mg/dl. Metabolic syndrome was found in 54 (72 percentage) patients including 9 (16.7 percentage) males and 45 (83.3 percentage) females. Out of 75 patients, 54 (72 percentage) had elevated waist circumference, 52 (69.3 percentage) had elevated blood pressure, 19 (25.3 percentage) had elevated fasting blood glucose, 53 (70.6 percentage) had elevated fasting triglycerides and 54 (72 percentage) had reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Highest frequency of metabolic syndrome was found in age range of 40 - 49 years in both genders. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is frequently found in the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)

  14. Metabolic syndrome among non-obese adults in the teaching profession in Melaka, Malaysia.

    Lee, Soo Cheng; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Moy, Foong Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-obese individuals could have metabolic disorders that are typically associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), placing them at elevated risk for chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of metabolically obese, non-obese (MONO) individuals in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m 2 and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-20.4). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8-11.8) and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3-33.7), respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m 2 ) to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5-29.9 kg/m 2 ) compared to those with BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m 2 after adjustment for confounders. The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m 2 had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen non-obese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034

  16. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    Davies MJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Davies,1 Katherine W Merton,1 Ujjwala Vijapurkar,2 Dainius A Balis,2 Mehul Desai2 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA Objective: Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Methods: This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1 and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2. Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L (men or <1.3 mmol/L (women; waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men, ≥88 cm (non-Asian women, >90 cm (Asian men, or >80 cm (Asian women; diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports.Results: In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus

  17. Metabolic Syndrome After HIV Acquisition in South African Women.

    Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.

  18. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Martin, Kathleen A; Mani, Mitra V; Mani, Arya

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster ofassociated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemic of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency protects from metabolic syndrome.

    Choe, Chi-un; Nabuurs, Christine; Stockebrand, Malte C; Neu, Axel; Nunes, Patricia; Morellini, Fabio; Sauter, Kathrin; Schillemeit, Stefan; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marescau, Bart; Heerschap, Arend; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated creatine (Cr) serves as an energy buffer for ATP replenishment in organs with highly fluctuating energy demand. The central role of Cr in the brain and muscle is emphasized by severe neurometabolic disorders caused by Cr deficiency. Common symptoms of inborn errors of creatine synthesis or distribution include mental retardation and muscular weakness. Human mutations in l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of Cr synthesis, lead to severely reduced Cr and guanidinoacetate (GuA) levels. Here, we report the generation and metabolic characterization of AGAT-deficient mice that are devoid of Cr and its precursor GuA. AGAT-deficient mice exhibited decreased fat deposition, attenuated gluconeogenesis, reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Cr deficiency completely protected from the development of metabolic syndrome caused by diet-induced obesity. Biochemical analyses revealed the chronic Cr-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which stimulates catabolic pathways in metabolically relevant tissues such as the brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the metabolic phenotype. In summary, our results show marked metabolic effects of Cr deficiency via the chronic activation of AMPK in a first animal model of AGAT deficiency. In addition to insights into metabolic changes in Cr deficiency syndromes, our genetic model reveals a novel mechanism as a potential treatment option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism

  1. MicroRNAs in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in development of diseases. Several studies have provided evidences showing that miRNAs affect pathways that are fundamental for metabolic control in adipocyte and skeletal muscle differentiations. Some miRNAs have been implicated in lipid, amino acid, and glucose homeostasis. This leads to the possibility that miRNAs may contribute to common metabolic diseases and point to novel therapeutic opportunities based on targeting of miRNAs. CONTENT: miRNAs have been recognized as a class of epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis, primarily because the simultaneous regulation of a large number of target genes can be accomplished by a single miRNA. Emerging evidences suggest that miRNAs play a key role in the pathological development of obesity by affecting adipocyte differentiation. miRNAs have been implicated as novel protagonists in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM, regulation of insulin production, secretion and action. They also appear to play a role in the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy and cardiac hypertrophy. SUMMARY: Involvement of miRNAs in glucose and lipid metabolism has provided strong evidences to confirm their roles as key players in regulation of complex metabolic pathways. Additionally, it indicates potential outlook for novel therapeutic strategies in the management of obesity, metabolic syndrome and DM. Further research in this field is needed to ascertain the full potential of miRNAs as novel metabolic biomarkers and potent therapeutic agents against obesity and its metabolic disorders. KEYWORDS: obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, miRNAs, adipogenesis, insulin, pancreatic cells.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in an Hispanic population–cardiovascular complications

    Pablo I. Altieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is presently one of the main medical problems in developing countries. This syndrome was studied in Puerto Rico at the Cardiovascular Center of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean with emphasis on understanding the cardiovascular complications. The medical records of patients admitted between 1999 to 2005 were evaluated for three or more MetS diagnostic criteria. One hundred and seventy-three patients met the consensus criteria of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The mean age of those diagnosed with MetS was 60 years of age. Fifty-seven percent were males and 42 percent females. The mean body mass was 30 kg/m. The ejection fraction was found to be subnormal (49±8% and the end systolic dimension of the left atrium was increased ( 45±10 mm in comparison to a group of diabetic patients without MetS used for comparison. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was found to be 16% higher in the MetS group than in the comparison group. The number of cases of metabolic syndrome recorded within the Hispanic population of Puerto Rico showed a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation without ventricular tachycardia. This is thought to be as a result of the abnormal left ventricular and atrial function.

  3. Metabolic syndrome criteria as predictors of insulin resistance, inflammation and mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Souza, Priscilla L; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Barretti, Pasqual; Caramori, Jacqueline Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic syndrome are characterized by overlapping disorders, including glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and, in some cases, obesity. However, there are no specific criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in CKD. Metabolic syndrome can also be associated with increased risk of mortality. Some traditional risk factors may protect dialysis patients from mortality, known as "reverse epidemiology." Metabolic syndrome might undergo reverse epidemiology. The objectives were to detect differences in frequency and metabolic characteristics associated with three sets of diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, to evaluate the accuracy of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation to identify patients with metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the effects of metabolic syndrome by three sets of diagnostic criteria on mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. An observational study was conducted. Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome (HMetS) statement were applied to 98 hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 51%, 66.3%, and 75.3% according to NCEP ATP III, IDF, and HMetS criteria, respectively. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome by HMetS was simultaneously capable of revealing both inflammation and IR, whereas NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria were only able to identify IR. Mortality risk increased in the presence of metabolic syndrome regardless of the criteria used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis varies according to the diagnostic criteria used. IR and inflammation predict metabolic syndrome only when diagnosed by HMetS criteria. HMetS was the diagnostic criteria that can predict the highest risk of mortality.

  4. Fetal programming of the metabolic syndrome

    Aleksandra Marciniak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal development is currently recognized as a critical period in the etiology of human diseases. This is particularly so when an unfavorable environment interacts with a genetic predisposition. The fetal programming concept suggests that maternal nutritional imbalance and metabolic disturbances may have a persistent and intergenerational effect on the health of offspring and on the risk of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome: Roles of inflammation and abdominal obesity

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Hansen, Åse Marie; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lund, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Objective Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR-fitness), counteracts accumulation of visceral fat, decreases inflammation and lowers risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Method The study sample included 1,293 Danes (age 49–52 years) who from 2009 to 2011 participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank, including a questionnaire, physical tests, and blood samples. Multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and plasma levels of cytokines and high sensitive C-reactive protein as outcomes and measures of abdominal obesity were added to test if they explained the potential association. Similarly, multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and factors of the metabolic syndrome as outcomes and the potential explanation by inflammatory biomarkers were tested. All models were adjusted for the effect of age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, socio-economic status, and acute inflammatory events within the preceding two weeks. Results CR-fitness was inversely associated with high sensitive C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18, and directly associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but not associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma or IL-1β. Abdominal obesity could partly explain the significant associations. Moreover, CR-fitness was inversely associated with an overall metabolic syndrome score, as well as triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and directly associated with high-density lipoprotein. Single inflammatory biomarkers and a combined inflammatory score partly explained these associations. Conclusion Data suggest that CR-fitness has anti-inflammatory effects that are partly explained by a reduction in abdominal obesity and a decrease in the

  6. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  7. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  9. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Han, Yejin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile. Results Hemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%. Conclusion PCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents. PMID:26512349

  10. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Yejin Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS.MethodsAnthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile.ResultsHemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%.ConclusionPCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents.

  11. Adiposity rebound and the development of metabolic syndrome.

    Koyama, Satomi; Ichikawa, Go; Kojima, Megumi; Shimura, Naoto; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    The age of adiposity rebound (AR) is defined as the time at which BMI starts to rise after infancy and is thought to be a marker of later obesity. To determine whether this age is related to future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, we investigated the relationship of the timing of AR with metabolic consequences at 12 years of age. A total of 271 children (147 boys and 124 girls) born in 1995 and 1996 were enrolled in the study. Serial measurements of BMI were conducted at the ages of 4 and 8 months and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years, based on which age of AR was calculated. Plasma lipids and blood pressure were measured at 12 years of age. An earlier AR (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and elevated apolipoprotein B in girls at 12 years of age. The earlier AR was also related to elevated blood pressure in boys. This longitudinal population-based study indicates that children who exhibit AR at a younger age are predisposed to future development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, monitoring of AR may be an effective method for the early identification of children at risk for metabolic syndrome.

  12. Effects of canrenone in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a common disease due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. The aim was to evaluate the effects of canrenone compared to placebo on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients affected by metabolic syndrome. A total of 145 patients were treated with placebo or canrenone, 50 mg/day, for 3 months and then 50 mg b.i.d. till the end of the study. Blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, plasma aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and M value were evaluated. A decrease of blood pressure was observed in canrenone group compared to baseline; moreover, systolic blood pressure value recorded after 6 months of canrenone therapy was lower than the one recorded with placebo. Canrenone gave a significant decrease of FPI and HOMA index, and an increase of M value both compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone also decreased triglycerides and FPG was not observed with placebo. Canrenone also decreased plasma aldosterone, Hs-CRP and TNF-α compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone seems to be effective in reducing some factors involved in metabolic syndrome and in improving insulin-resistance and the inflammatory state observed in these patients.

  13. Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among food suppliers

    Pasdar Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. As a risk factor for chronic diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS is increasing at an alarming rate. The prevalence of MS varies according to lifestyle and occupation in different populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in food suppliers. Methods. A total of 112 food suppliers were randomly selected from all around the city. Data collection tools included demographic, physical activity, and food frequency questionnaires. Body composition was measured using Bio-Electrical Body Analyzer. A sample of 5 ml of fasting blood was taken from participants to assess lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin, and liver enzymes. The data were analyzed using χ2, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and ANOVA tests. Results. Participants’ mean BMI was 27.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, 43.6% were overweight, and 26.4% were obese. Consumption of vegetables was less and of meats more than recommended amounts. The prevalence of MS was 45.5% (51 people, which increased with aging (p =