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Sample records for metabolic syndrome development

  1. Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Matthews, Karen A; Kip, Kevin E; Strollo, Patrick J; Hall, Martica; Drumheller, Oliver; Reis, Steven E

    2010-12-01

    Sleep complaints are highly prevalent and associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. This is the first prospective study to report the association between commonly reported sleep symptoms and the development of the metabolic syndrome, a key CVD risk factor. Participants were from the community-based Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation study. The sample was comprised of 812 participants (36% African American; 67% female) who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline, had completed a baseline sleep questionnaire, and had metabolic syndrome evaluated 3 years after baseline. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured cross-sectionally using a portable monitor in a subset of 290 participants. Logistic regression examined the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components according to individual sleep symptoms and insomnia syndrome. Specific symptoms of insomnia (difficulty falling asleep [DFA] and "unrefreshing" sleep), but not a syndromal definition of insomnia, were significant predictors of the development of metabolic syndrome. Loud snoring more than doubled the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and also predicted specific metabolic abnormalities (hyperglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). With further adjustment for AHI or the number of metabolic abnormalities at baseline, loud snoring remained a significant predictor of metabolic syndrome, whereas DFA and unrefreshing sleep were reduced to marginal significance. Difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep, and, particularly, loud snoring, predicted the development of metabolic syndrome in community adults. Evaluating sleep symptoms can help identify individuals at risk for developing metabolic syndrome.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  3. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

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    ... Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome What Is Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk ... three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A large waistline. This also is called abdominal ...

  4. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/26718656 . Ruderman NB, Shulman GI. Metabolic syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 43. Review ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  5. Development of a Dietary Management Care Map for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Dawna; Brauer, Paula; Bjorklund, Laura; O'Young, Olivia; Tremblay, Angelo; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Heyland, Daren; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Klein, Doug; Mutch, David M

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a particular cluster of metabolic abnormalities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and visceral fat deposition) that can lead to a 1.5- to 2-fold increased relative risk of cardiovascular disease. Various combinations of healthier eating patterns and increased physical activity have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and reduce MetS prevalence. Dietitians who counsel MetS patients are challenged to integrate guidance from various medical management guidelines and research studies with effective behavioural change strategies and specific advice on what food and eating pattern changes will be most effective, feasible, and acceptable to clients. As part of a demonstration project that is currently underway, we developed a care map (decision aid) that represents the key decision processes involved in diet counselling for MetS. The care map is based on evidence from both clinical and health behaviour change studies and expert consensus and has undergone limited dietitian review. It is being used to help project dietitians clearly articulate their specific food intake change goals. Additional studies to directly compare counselling strategies could inform future development of the map. In the meantime, dietitians may find this care map helpful in clarifying counselling goals and strategies in this client group.

  6. The underlying mechanisms for development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome

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    Yoshida Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High blood pressure is an important constituent of the metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms for development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome are very complicated and remain still obscure. Visceral/central obesity, insulin resistance, sympathetic overactivity, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, activated renin-angiotensin system, increased inflammatory mediators, and obstructive sleep apnea have been suggested to be possible factors to develop hypertension in the metabolic syndrome. Here, we will discuss how these factors influence on development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Trajectories of metabolic syndrome development in young adults.

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    Vivian T W Poon

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk.Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study (n = 3 804; 18-30 y was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample; Low (33.5%; Moderate (35.3%; and High MetS (7.4%]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14-1.66, have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31-1.97 and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20-2.39 when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS. Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65-0.89 and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47-0.64 was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership.Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk.

  8. The influence of parental metabolic state on development of psy-chovegetative syndrome in children

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    Yu V Naugol'nih

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of parental metabolic state on development of psychovegetative syndrome in children. The data from the present study which involved neuropsychological assessment shows significant deteriorations in immediate audio vocal, visial memory and attention in children with metabolic syndrome which have parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  9. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

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    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state is associated with the development of preeclampsia.

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    Cho, Geum Joon; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong Seog

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state and the development of preeclampsia. We enrolled 212,463 Korean women who had their first delivery between January, 2011 and December, 2012 and had undergone a national health screening examination through the National Health Insurance during the 1-2 years before their first delivery. Women who had hypertension in the non-pregnant state were excluded. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant state was 1.2%. Preeclampsia developed in 3.1% and its prevalence among women with and without metabolic syndrome was 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. The pre-pregnancy prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women who developed preeclampsia compared to that in those who had a normal pregnancy (1.1% vs. 2.8%; ppreeclampsia (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.74) compared to that in those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The risk of preeclampsia increased with a rise in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state was associated with the development of preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether early intervention for metabolic syndrome before pregnancy can decrease the risk of developing preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  12. Risk of development of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes having metabolic syndrome.

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    Moin, Shaheen; Gondal, Ghulam Murtaza; Bano, Uzma

    2008-08-01

    To measure the relation of creatinine clearance in type-2 diabetic patients with different components of metabolic syndrome and to quantify the relationship of frequency of incident CKD with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components while controlling for age, gender and duration of diabetes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Diabetes Clinic, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January to August 2006. Patients having type-2 Diabetes for more than 5 years were enrolled. Information regarding age, gender, duration of diabetes , type of diabetes, treatment taking, complete fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, Body Mass Index (BMI), 24 hours urinary proteins and creatinine clearance, co-existent risk factors like hypertension and ischemic heart disease was taken. Patients were divided into groups having one to all five metabolic syndrome traits. Progressive increase in the metabolic syndrome traits was compared with decline in creatinine clearance. Pearson correlation test and multiple logistic regression were applied to determine correlation with significance at 'r' and 'p' creatinine clearance, 37% had a creatinine clearance between 60-90 ml/min, 19% had a creatinine clearance of 30-59 ml/min, 18% had a creatinine clearance of less than 30 ml/min and 10% were already in stage 5 CKD. The decline in renal function was more severe in subjects evaluated who had a higher number of features of the metabolic syndrome. Age was the only significant determinant of development of CKD (p=0.05). The renal function progressively declined with 3 or more features of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Clinical update on metabolic syndrome

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    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.

  14. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in a developing country, Malaysia.

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    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, F M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent health problem within the adult population in developing countries. We aimed to study the association of physical activity levels and metabolic risk factors among Malay adults in Malaysia. Cross-sectional. Body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured in 686 Malay participants (aged 35-74 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Malay version) and categorized into low, moderate or high activity levels. Individuals who were classified as overweight and obese predominated (65.6%). On the basis of the modified NCEP ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 31.9% of all participants, of whom 46.1% were men and 53.9% were women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among participants with low, moderate or high activity levels was 13.3%, 11.7% and 7.0%, respectively (pactivity categories (pactivity categories were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27-0.65) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), respectively, adjusted for gender. Moderate and high activity levels were each associated with reduced odds for metabolic syndrome independent of gender. Although a slightly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with high activity than with moderate activity, potential health benefits were observed when moderate activity was performed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug treatment of metabolic syndrome.

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    Altabas, Velimir

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

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    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  17. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  19. Risk of development of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes having metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin, S.; Gondal, G.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    To measure the relation of creatinine clearance in type-2 diabetic patients with different components of metabolic syndrome and to quantify the relationship of frequency of incident CKD with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components while controlling for age, gender and duration of diabetes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients having type-2 Diabetes for more than 5 years were enrolled. Information regarding age, gender, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, treatment taking, complete fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, Body Mass Index (BMI), 24 hours urinary proteins and creatinine clearance, co-existent risk factors like hypertension and ischemic heart disease was taken. Patients were divided into groups having one to all five metabolic syndrome traits. Progressive increase in the metabolic syndrome traits was compared with decline in creatinine clearance. Pearson correlation test and multiple logistic regression were applied to determine correlation with significance at r and p <0.05. Out of 104 evaluated female and male patients, 70% had hypertension, ischemic heart disease and a family history of diabetes. While 20% had normal creatinine clearance, 37% had a creatinine clearance between 60-90 ml/min, 19% had a creatinine clearance of 30-59 ml/min, 18% had a creatinine clearance of less than 30 ml/min and 10% were already in stage 5 CKD. The decline in renal function was more severe in subjects evaluated who had a higher number of features of the metabolic syndrome. Age was the only significant determinant of development of CKD (p=0.05). The renal function progressively declined with 3 or more features of the metabolic syndrome. (author)

  20. [Microbiota and metabolic syndrome].

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    Altuntaş, Yüksel; Batman, Adnan

    2017-04-01

    The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation. As a result, insulin resistance pathways are activated, which initiate the processes of obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Healthy diet recommendations, including prebiotic and probiotic foods and the use of probiotic agents, look promising for future treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The Role of Maternal Dietary Proteins in Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring

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    Alireza Jahan-Mihan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

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    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and the development of vascular disease and type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and its associated insulin resistance play a key role in the clustering of vascular risk factors, known as Metabolic Syndrome. Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome are at increased risk for the development of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes and

  4. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Context: Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is found to associate with the metabolic syndrome and its dysregulations, no longitudinal study has been performed to date to examine the

  5. Risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents.

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    Folić, Nevena; Folić, Marko; Marković, Slavica; Andjelković, Marija; Janković, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents is a great concern of the modern society. bjective: Our aim was to determine the influence of previously investigated, but also and potentially novel risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Observational case-control clinical study was conducted involving children and adolescents with obesity/metabolic syndrome, treated on inpatient basis from January 2008 to January 2012 at the Pediatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia. The group of"cases"(n=28) included patients aged 10-16 years with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, while the control group included twice as many obese patients (n=56) matched to the compared group. Presence of maternal gestational diabates (ORadjusted: 39.426; 95% Cl: 1.822-853.271; p=0.019), and/or lack of breastfeeding in the first six months of life (ORadjusted: 0.079; 95% CI: 0.009-0.716; p=0.024) were significant predictors for developing MetS. Also, microalbuminuria is associated with MetS in obese children and adolescants (ORadjusted: 1.686; 95% Cl: 1.188-2.393; p=0.003) CONCLUSION: Presence of maternal gestational diabetes and/or lack of infant breastfeeding are considered as relevant factors that may contribute to the increased risk of developing MetS syndrome, while microalbuminuria is frequently associated with MetS in obese children and adolescents.

  6. Human-Centered Development of an Online Social Network for Metabolic Syndrome Management.

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    Núñez-Nava, Jefersson; Orozco-Sánchez, Paola A; López, Diego M; Ceron, Jesus D; Alvarez-Rosero, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a quarter of the world's population has Metabolic Syndrome (MS). To develop (and assess the users' degree of satisfaction of) an online social network for patients who suffer from Metabolic Syndrome, based on the recommendations and requirements of the Human-Centered Design. Following the recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 for Human-Centered Design (HCD), an online social network was designed to promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. In order to guarantee the active participation of the users during the development of the social network, a survey, an in-depth interview, a focal group, and usability tests were carried out with people suffering from MS. The study demonstrated how the different activities, recommendations, and requirements of the ISO 9241-210 are integrated into a traditional software development process. Early usability tests demonstrated that the user's acceptance and the effectiveness and efficiency of the social network are satisfactory.

  7. Visceral Fat Area and Serum Adiponectin Level Predict the Development of Metabolic Syndrome in a Community-Based Asymptomatic Population.

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    Sang-A Cho

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that visceral adipose tissue content and serum levels of adiponectin are associated with metabolic syndrome, their predictive potential for the development of metabolic syndrome remains to be elucidated.We studied 1,130 participants of the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort. A total of 337 subjects without metabolic syndrome underwent the follow-up evaluation and finally analyzed. Visceral fat area (VFA was measured using dual bioelectrical impedance analysis. We compared the 1-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome among four different groups: Group 1 (high adiponectin level and low VFA, Group 2 (low adiponectin level and low VFA, Group 3 (high adiponectin level and high VFA and Group 4 (low adiponectin level and high VFA.Median follow-up duration was 17 months. Cut-off points of adiponectin level and VFA for metabolic syndrome were 7.34 ng/ml and 84 cm2 for men, and 12.55 and 58 cm2 ng/ml for women, respectively. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was the highest in Group 4 (Group 1; 16.47%, Group 2; 22.08%, Group 3; 25%, and Group 4; 46.15%, p<0.001. Adjusted logistic regression analyses for metabolic syndrome prediction demonstrated that Group 4 exhibited the highest odds ratio compared with Group 1 (4.918 [2.05-11.795], which was predominantly affected by waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels. Notably, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL ratio was significantly higher in Group 4 (p = 0.017.Incidence rate of metabolic syndrome was the highest in subjects with low serum adiponectin levels and high visceral fat area. Higher TG/HDL ratio in these subjects suggested insulin resistance may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz López, Raúl; Pérez Rodrigo, Iciar

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activ...

  9. [Metabolic syndrome after kidney transplantation].

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    Nedbálková, Marta; Svojanovský, Jan; Trnavský, Karel; Kuman, Milan; Jarkovský, Jiří; Karpíšek, Michal; Souček, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    had no impact on graft function nor on albuminuria, the influence of the new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation was not significant independently on other factors. We confirmed the correlation of the presence of the metabolic syndrome with increased levels of AFABP (adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) and leptin. Increased level of AFABP predicted allograft dysfunction 3 years after kidney transplantation. The influence of imunosuppressive treatment on new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation is well documented. However, we conclude that age is an important additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus in kidney transplant recipients group and it is recommended to follow mainly older patients. Early detection of metabolic abnormalities and dietary and therapeutic intervention in kidney transplant recipients may help to prevent chronic allograft dysfunction.

  10. Influence of prior nutritional status on the development of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

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    Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2009-02-01

    The increase in the prevalence of excess weight among people of increasingly younger age groups may lead to the early development of cardiovascular risks. To investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among young adults and the impact of birth conditions and nutritional status during adolescence on this disorder. One hundred individuals were evaluated at three different stages of life. By consulting the database of people enlisted in the army reserve military service, data were collected on weight, height, and waist circumference of all draftees of 1996, 1997, and 1999 in order to analyze their nutritional status during adolescence. Using the same database, information was sought at the maternity on their birth conditions and the adult individuals were identified. Anthropometric and biochemical data were obtained from these adults. The Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was classified according to ATP III NCEP. Body fat percentage was assessed with bioelectrical impedance and the statistical analysis was performed using the Sigma Stat 2.0 software. Prevalence of the MS was detected in 13% of the individuals. The birth conditions showed no relationship with the syndrome. In adolescence, those individuals diagnosed with MS had greater values for weight (11 kg; p =<0.001), WC (8 cm; p < 0.001), and BMI (2.5 kg/m(2); p= 0.002). A significant part of the risk factors for cardiovascular conditions starts during childhood and adolescence, and is likely to persist throughout life; therefore, primary prevention measures are critical in the context of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

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    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  12. [Nutrition and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matía Martín, Pilar; Lecumberri Pascual, Edurne; Calle Pascual, Alfonso L

    2007-01-01

    Sufficient evidence exists in relation to the association in clinical practice between disorders in the metabolism of glucose, lipoproteins, insulin action, arterial hypertension and centrally-distributed obesity. This association is named Metabolic Syndrome. Despite the existence thereof had been questioned by the ADA and EASD, it is a useful tool affording the possibility of identifying individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome and/or its individual components are associated with a high incidence rate of cardiovascular disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are underlying risk factors along this syndrome's pathway to disease, changes in living habits therefore being a first-line intervention in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, aterogenic dyslipemia and arterial hypertension. Weight loss and exercise are the keys to the overall plan, one of the most important non-pharmacological cardiovascular risk reduction strategies however still being diet. Epidemiological studies have found a high intake of simple sugars, of foods having a glycemic index and of diets with a high glycemic load to be associated to insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol figures. Los saturated fat intake in favor of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has been implied in a reduction of the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus and dyslipemia, although the debate is ongoing. Unrefined grain fiber in the diet has been beneficial in reducing the risk of diabetes. Among the diet patterns, the Mediterranean diet has been related to a lower incidence of diabetes and a reduction in the risk of death. Studies for intervention in the prevention of type II diabetes have suggested low-fat diets (reducing saturated and trans-fats), with a high degree of fiber and low glycemic index. Clinical trials have shown diets with small amounts of carbohydrates, low glycemic

  13. Metabolic Syndrome, Androgens, and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and met...

  14. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  15. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  16. Clinical biomarkers in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzoni, Rocco; Silva, Veronica; Singer, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    A biomarker can be defined as a measurable variable that may be used as an indicator of a given biological state or condition. Biomarkers have been used in health and disease for diagnostic purposes, as tools to assess effectiveness of nutritional or drug intervention, or as risk markers to predict the development of certain diseases. In nutrition studies, selecting appropriate biomarkers is important to assess compliance, or incidence of a particular dietary component in the biochemistry of the organism, and in the diagnosis and prognosis of nutrition-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that occur simultaneously in the same individual, and it is associated with systemic alterations that may involve several organs and tissues. Given its close association with obesity and the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, identifying obese individuals at risk for metabolic syndrome is a major clinical priority. Biomarkers for metabolic syndrome are therefore potential important tools to maximize the effectiveness of treatment in subjects who would likely benefit the most. Choice of biomarkers may be challenging due to the complexity of the syndrome, and this article will mainly focus on nutrition biomarkers related to the diagnosis and prognosis of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  18. The immunity-diet-microbiota axis in the development of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Eelke; Houben, Tom; Fu, Jingyuan; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Hofker, Marten H

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the gut-microbiota can be considered as one of the major factors causing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Pattern recognition receptors as well as antimicrobial peptides are a key factor in controlling the intestinal microbiota composition. Deficiencies in these genes lead to changes in the composition of the gut-microbiota, causing leakage of endotoxins into the circulation, and the development of low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Dietary composition can also affect the microbiota: a diet rich in saturated fats allows the expansion of pathobionts that damage the intestinal epithelial cell layer and compromise its barrier function. In contrast, a diet high in fiber supports the microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids, thereby promoting energy expenditure and protecting against inflammation and insulin resistance. The interactions between the microbiota, innate immunity, and diet play an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis. A properly functioning innate immune system, combined with a low-fat and high-fiber diet, is important in preventing dysbiosis and reducing the susceptibility to developing the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular diseases.

  19. [Syndrome X vs metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Villegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Himsworth in 1939 postulated that Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) was not only an insulin deficiency state but also a cellular insulin insensitivity disease. Thirty years later, DeFronzo and Reaven demonstrated that insulin resistance (IR) preceded and predisposed for DM2 and atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease (ACVD). Reaven was the first to point out the relationship between IR and with hyperglycemia, dyslipidosis, and hypertension as mediators for ACVD, creating the concept of Syndrome X (SX) in 1988. WHO and, thereafter, other medical societies and medical groups, mainly ATP-III, in 2002, based on the difficulty of diagnosing IR in a simple, reliable, and inexpensive way, proposed and published the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) concept, as a group of five variables, i.e., obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and hypertension, as an easy clinical approximation to suspect and treat an increased cardiometabolic risk. Nowadays, there are deep and extensive controversies on this issue; however, these controversies do not really exist since all discordant points of view are rather quantitative and not qualitative in nature. This article is aimed at differentiating and harmonizing the complementary concepts of SX and MS, at analyzing why MS is a good "clinical window" to look for IR and its underlying manifestations, and finally to accept that the MS concept complements, but does not substitute or antagonize, traditional scales used to asses cardiovascular risk, such as the Framingham scale.

  20. Equine metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  1. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  2. [Epidemiological significance of the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, D; Azeem, K; Dumbrovská, L; Vlčková, J; Horák, V; Kollárová, H

    From an epidemiological point of view, the metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors causally, rather than coincidentally, related to insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome is a condition with relatively high prevalence rates in both the Czech Republic and in other developed countries. There is a clear trend of increasing prevalence in both sexes depending on age. In the Czech Republic, the syndrome is less common in females (25.5%) than in males (37.6%). Epidemiological studies found white (Europoid race) males to be at higher risk due to abdominal obesity. The definition of the metabolic syndrome has evolved over time and helps to identify individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, hence the use of the term cardiometabolic syndrome. Early detection of metabolic syndrome symptoms including insulin resistance should be performed mainly by general practitioners as part of regular check-ups.

  3. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  4. Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T. Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data ...

  5. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. Method: A c...

  6. Walking in old age and development of metabolic syndrome : the health, aging, and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Matthew J; Morey, Miriam C; Giuliani, Carol; Pieper, Carl F; Evenson, Kelly R; Mercer, Vicki; Visser, Marjolein; Brach, Jennifer S; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Rubin, Susan; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    BACKGROUND: The specific health benefits of meeting physical activity guidelines are unclear in older adults. We examined the association between meeting, not meeting, or change in status of meeting physical activity guidelines through walking and the 5-year incidence of metabolic syndrome in older

  7. Diacylglycerol oil for the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Excess adiposity has been shown to play a crucial role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. The elevated fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels is the central lipid abnormality observed in the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have indicated that diacylglycerol (DAG is effective for fasting and postprandial hyperlipidemia and preventing excess adiposity by increasing postprandial energy expenditure. We will here discuss the mechanisms of DAG-mediated improvements in hyperlipidemia and in postprandial energy expenditure, and effects of DAG oil on lipid/glucose metabolism and on body fat. Further, the therapeutic application of DAG for the metabolic syndrome will be considered.

  8. The metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSy) is increasingly common in Australia. It is associated with the rise in obesity and lifestyle risk behaviours. It is also controversial - its value in predicting cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk and in guiding therapy has been challenged. This article aims to provide advice on the diagnosis of the MetSy and the principles for its prevention and management in the context of primary care, taking into consideration aetiological factors and the complexity of managing its constituent risk factors. Diagnosis of the MetSy is useful in focusing attention on central adiposity and insulin resistance as risk factors both for the syndrome, and cardiovascular and diabetes morbidity and mortality. Its assessment requires measurement of waist circumference - a simple but seldom performed procedure in general practice. The most essential components for the prevention and management of the MetSy are measures to change diet and physical activity in order to achieve and sustain weight loss.

  9. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  10. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  11. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  12. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  13. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics.

  14. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and obesity as one of the main predictors of metabolic syndrome development in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Belousova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the importance of isolating the metabolic syndrome in pediatric gastroenterological practice, since almost all the major components of the metabolic syndrome are already found in childhood. In addition, this condition diagnosed at early stages of the disease development is theoretically reversible, that is with the prescription of an adequate treatment, it is possible to reduce the severity of its main manifestations and to prevent diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. The main predictors of the development of this pathology are obesity, whose growth tends to increase constantly, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, often manifested in adolescence. The advisability of using drugs that affect hepatic metabolism and are able to exert a lipid-regulating effects, in particular, essential phospholipids, is discussed.

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among People Living with HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sivaraj; Ponnampalvanar, Sasheela; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search. Articles were restricted to English language studies reporting on the prevalence of MS among PLWH in developing countries. Eighteen articles were included in the review. The studies were divided into Africa, South America, and Asia regions. The most frequent criterion used in the review was the National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Program III 2001 definition. The prevalence of MS among PLWH ranged from 8.4% to 47% across the developing regions and comparable to the overall prevalence across the developed regions (7.8-52.2%). The mean prevalence was 30.5%, 21.5%, and 21.4% in Africa, Asia, and South America, respectively. The most frequent component observed was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (50.1%). This systematic review provides an essential overview on the distribution of MS in the HIV population across the developing regions. As these prevalences were comparably high in the developed regions, this review highlights the need for more robust research in developing countries.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Milic, S; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Franjic, N; Klanac, A; Kristo, N; Stimac, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on the course of acute pancreatitis determined by disease severity, the presence of local and systemic complications and survival rate. 609 patients admitted to our hospital in the period from January 1, 2008 up to June 31, 2015 with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were analyzed. The diagnosis and the severity of acute pancreatitis were made according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. Of 609 patients with acute pancreatitis, 110 fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had statistically significantly higher incidence of moderately severe (38.2% vs. 28.5%; p=0.05) and severe (22.7% vs. 12.8%; p=0.01) acute pancreatitis in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome, while patients without metabolic syndrome had higher incidence of mild acute pancreatitis in comparison to those patients with metabolic syndrome (58.7% vs. 39.1%; pacute pancreatitis. Comparing survival rates, patients suffering from metabolic syndrome had a higher death rate compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (16% vs. 4.5%; pacute pancreatitis, as well as higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Lu; Yao, Xiang; Liu, Ju-Fen; Li, Zi-An; Yang, Jian-Yong; Pang, Rong-Qing; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and demonstrate the utility of MSCs in treating metabolic syndrome. We used tree shrew umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (TS-UC-MSC) transplantation for the treatment of metabolic syndrome to demonstrate the clinical application of these stem cells and to provide a theoretical basis and reference methods for this treatment. Tree shrew metabolic syndrome model showed significant insulin resistance, high blood sugar, lipid metabolism disorders, and hypertension, consistent with the diagnostic criteria. TS-UC-MSC transplantation at 16 weeks significantly reduced blood sugar and lipid levels, improved insulin resistance and the regulation of insulin secretion, and reduced the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 (P metabolic syndrome model and showed that MSC migrate in diseased organs and can attenuate metabolic syndrome severity in a tree shrew model.

  18. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  1. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  2. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  3. Preventive role of exercise training in autonomic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters in rats under high risk of metabolic syndrome development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Silva, Ivana Cinthya; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson Dias; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; dos Santos, Fernando; de Angelis, Kátia; Farah, Vera de Moura Azevedo; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2013-03-15

    High fructose consumption contributes to metabolic syndrome incidence, whereas exercise training promotes several beneficial adaptations. In this study, we demonstrated the preventive role of exercise training in the metabolic syndrome derangements in a rat model. Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) or kept sedentary (F) for 10 wk. Control rats treated with normal water were also submitted to exercise training (CT) or sedentarism (C). Metabolic evaluations consisted of the Lee index and glycemia and insulin tolerance test (kITT). Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured, whereas heart rate (HR) and BP variabilities were evaluated in time and frequency domains. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was also recorded. F rats presented significant alterations compared with all the other groups in insulin resistance (in mg · dl(-1) · min(-1): F: 3.4 ± 0.2; C: 4.7 ± 0.2; CT: 5.0 ± 0.5 FT: 4.6 ± 0.4), mean BP (in mmHG: F: 117 ± 2; C: 100 ± 2; CT: 98 ± 2; FT: 105 ± 2), and Lee index (in g/mm: F = 0.31 ± 0.001; C = 0.29 ± 0.001; CT = 0.27 ± 0.002; FT = 0.28 ± 0.002), confirming the metabolic syndrome diagnosis. Exercise training blunted all these derangements. Additionally, FS group presented autonomic dysfunction in relation to the others, as seen by an ≈ 50% decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and 24% in HR variability, and increases in sympathovagal balance (140%) and in renal sympathetic nerve activity (45%). These impairments were not observed in FT group, as well as in C and CT. Correlation analysis showed that both Lee index and kITT were associated with vagal impairment caused by fructose. Therefore, exercise training plays a preventive role in both autonomic and hemodynamic alterations related to the excessive fructose consumption.

  4. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons aged 18 years of age or older. Ten-year risk was calculated using the ATPIII/Framingham criteria. Subjects with risk score 20% at high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the MetS. Of the 211 subjects, mean age was 51.3±17.3 years. Average risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years was 3.7±5.3%. Prevalence of low, moderate and high risk of developing CVD among study participants was 86.3% (95% CI 82.0-91.3%), 11.8% (95% CI 6.9-16.1%) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.0-3.8%), respectively. Prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (95% CI 21.0-33.3%). There was poor agreement between MetS and the CVD risk scores (kappa=0.209, p=0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk score is imperative, as there is indication of risk in individuals without MetS. Also a large proportion of the study population requires lifestyle intervention. These findings provide the evidence necessary to tailor public health interventions in this population, especially towards younger age groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Hima; Upadya, Gatha M

    2016-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.00. Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4%) patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4%) controls (P = 0.021). Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.

  7. C-reactive protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Saisho

    Full Text Available AIMS: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP and high-molecular-weight (HMW adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria and 53 (7.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.

  8. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Paul L

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to the co-occurrence of several known cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. These conditions are interrelated and share underlying mediators, mechanisms and pathways. There has been recent controversy about its definition and its utility. In this article, I review the current definitions for the metabolic syndrome and why the concept is important. It identifies a subgroup of patients with shared pathophysiology who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. By considering the central features of the metabolic syndrome and how they are related, we may better understand the underlying pathophysiology and disease pathogenesis. A comprehensive definition for the metabolic syndrome and its key features would facilitate research into its causes and hopefully lead to new insights into pharmacologic and lifestyle treatment approaches.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalli, M.A.; Aamir, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  10. The metabolic syndrome in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a term used to describe the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including elevated triglyceride (TG), low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), hypertension, hyperglycemia/ insulin resistance and intra-abdominal obesity. This paper...

  11. Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Laboratory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Victoria; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric overweight and obesity is an emerging public health priority as rates have rapidly increased worldwide. Obesity is often clustered with other metabolic abnormalities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This cluster of risk factors, termed the metabolic syndrome, has traditionally been reported in adults. However, with the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity, the metabolic syndrome is now evident in children and adolescents. This complex cluster of risk factors is the result of the pathological interplay between several organs including adipose tissue, muscle, liver, and intestine with a common antecedent - insulin resistance. The association of the metabolic syndrome with several systemic alterations that involve numerous organs and tissues adds to the complexity and challenge of diagnosing the metabolic syndrome and identifying useful clinical indicators of the disease. The complex physiology of growing and developing children and adolescents further adds to the difficulties in standardizing laboratory assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis for the diverse pediatric population. However, establishing a consensus definition is critical to identifying and managing children and adolescents at high risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. As a result, the examination of novel metabolic syndrome biomarkers which can detect these metabolic abnormalities early with high specificity and sensitivity in the pediatric population has been of interest. Understanding this complex cluster of risk factors in the pediatric population is critical to ensure that this is not the first generation where children have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. This review will discuss the pathophysiology, consensus definitions and laboratory assessment of pediatric metabolic syndrome as well as potential novel biomarkers.

  12. Association between serum zinc and later development of metabolic syndrome in middle aged and older men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yary, Teymoor; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Ruusunen, Anu; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Voutilainen, Sari

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of serum zinc with incident metabolic syndrome and its components in middle-aged and older Finnish men. An 11-y prospective follow-up study conducted among 683 men from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study who were 42 to 60 y old at baseline in 1984 to 1989. The main outcome was incident metabolic syndrome, defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Other outcomes were the individual components of the NCEP metabolic syndrome: Fasting blood glucose, serum triacylglycerols, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and waist circumference. During the average follow-up of 11 y, 139 men (20.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. Those in the highest tertile of serum zinc had 84% higher risk (95% confidence interval 12 to 201%, P trend across tertiles = 0.015) to develop metabolic syndrome compared with those in the lowest tertile, after adjustment for several potential confounders. The association between serum zinc and incident metabolic syndrome was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference, serum HDL cholesterol, or hypertension. Serum zinc was also directly associated with higher waist circumference and hypertension and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol at the 11 y examinations. We found a direct association between serum zinc and incidence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older eastern Finnish men. Further studies are warranted to explore the mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Revisiting the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Gerard T; Gan, Seng Khee; Watts, Gerald F

    2006-10-16

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors - including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure - that are thought to be linked to insulin resistance. MS is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. MS is common, affecting a quarter to a third of adults, and its prevalence is rising, in parallel with increasing obesity and population ageing. Operational definitions of MS have been proposed by the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program. Recently, the International Diabetes Federation proposed a global definition that emphasised the importance of central adiposity. In cardiovascular risk assessment, MS encapsulates the contribution of non-traditional risk factors and provides a clinically useful framework for early identification of people at increased long-term risk. It should be used in conjunction with standard algorithms based on conventional risk factors, which better predict short-term risk. Management of MS should emphasise lifestyle interventions (eg, physical activity, healthy diet and weight reduction) to reduce long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Those at increased short-term risk should also have individual risk factors treated according to established guidelines.

  14. Metabolic syndrome--neurotrophic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, M; Aloe, L

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers of the metabolic syndrome assume that many mechanisms are involved in its complex pathophysiology such as an increased sympathetic activity, disorders of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the action of chronic subclinical infections, proinflammatory cytokines, and the effect of adipocytokines or psychoemotional stress. An increasing body of scientific research in this field confirms the role of the neurotrophins and mastocytes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune diseases. Recently it has been proved that neurotrophins and mastocytes have metabotrophic effects and take part in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In the early stage of the metabolic syndrome we established a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of the nerve growth factor. In the generalized stage the plasma levels of the neutrophines were statistically decreased in comparison to those in the healthy controls. We consider that the neurotrophin deficit is likely to play a significant pathogenic role in the development of the metabolic anthropometric and vascular manifestations of the generalized stage of MetSyn. We suggest a hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome based on the neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions. The specific pathogenic pathways of MetSyn development include: (1) increased tissue and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1(IL-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6 ) and tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-alpha) caused by inflammatory and/or emotional distress; (2) increased plasma levels of neurotrophin - nerve growth factor (NGF) caused by the high IL-1, IL-6 and TNFalpha levels; (3) high plasma levels of NGF which enhance activation of: the autonomous nerve system--vegetodystonia (disbalance of neurotransmitters); Neuropeptide Y (NPY)--enhanced feeding, obesity and increased leptin plasma levels; hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis--increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and

  15. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

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    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  17. Neuroinflammatory basis of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-10-05

    Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  18. Impact of the Heart WATCH Program on Patients at Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome, Prediabetes or Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fink

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is a set of metabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program (Heart WATCH geared toward reducing development of chronic disease in women deemed at risk for metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Methods: Our institution’s Heart WATCH program consists of screening sessions with a multidisciplinary team (physician/nurse, nutritionist and psychologist, a minimum of three visits with a nurse practitioner and weekly follow-up phone calls for a 14-week period. Sociodemographic variables were obtained at initial visit. Biometric testing indices and self-reported clinical and behavioral health measures were recorded pre- and postintervention, and compared using paired t-tests or McNemar’s test as appropriate. Results: Heart WATCH enrolled 242 women from November 2006 to April 2014, and 193 (80% completed all phases of the 14-week lifestyle intervention. Postintervention, participants demonstrated improved health status in all areas and improved significantly in the following areas: diet/nutrition (P=0.014, exercise (P<0.001, stress (P<0.0001, quality of life (P=0.003, weight (P<0.0001, waist circumference (P=0.01 and total cholesterol (P=0.019. Clinically meaningful improvements were realized by participants who moved to a healthier classification in a number of vital signs and blood panel indices. Conclusions: These findings suggest the “elevated risk profile” for women with components of metabolic syndrome can be reversed through a lifestyle program focused on reducing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and prediabetes. Future research is needed to determine mechanisms of risk reduction as well as optimal patient-centered and culturally appropriate approaches to weight management.

  19. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  20. Association between the HTR2C rs1414334 C/G gene polymorphism and the development of the metabolic syndrome in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Rico-Gomis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the association between the rs1414334 C/G polymorphism in the HTR2C gene and the development of the metabolic syndrome in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. To provide further evidence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain between 2012 and 2013 in 166 patients with these characteristics. In these patients, the association between the polymorphism and the presence of the metabolic syndrome was determined by implementing binary logistic regression models adjusted for variables associated with the metabolic syndrome. We did not confirm previous claims that the C allele of the polymorphism was linked to the metabolic syndrome: the association was in the opposite direction and non-significant. This conclusion held after taking gender and lifestyle variables into account.

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  2. Nutritional epigenetics with a focus on amino acids: implications for the development and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from human and animal studies indicate that maternal undernutrition or overnutrition affects covalent modifications of the fetal genome and its associated histones that can be carried forward to subsequent generations. An adverse outcome of maternal malnutrition is the development of metabolic syndrome, which is defined as a cluster of disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance. The transgenerational impacts of maternal nutrition are known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The underlying mechanisms include chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation (occurring at the 5'-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides), histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation) and expression and activity of small noncoding RNAs. The enzymes catalyzing these reactions include S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA and protein methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, histone acetylase (lysine acetyltransferase), general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (a superfamily of acetyltransferase) and histone deacetylase. Amino acids (e.g., glycine, histidine, methionine and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12 and folate) play key roles in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients and related metabolic pathways are of interest in dietary treatment of metabolic syndrome. Intervention strategies include targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways through dietary supplementation with nutrients (particularly functional amino acids and vitamins) to regulate one-carbon-unit metabolism, antioxidative reactions and gene expression, as well as protein methylation and acetylation. These mechanism-based approaches may

  3. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folić Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is serious problem of modern society. In order to prevent development of possible complications (cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2 later in life, early recognition of children at risk for developing metabolic syndrome is of great importance. Previous differences in criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents have been significantly decreased by new criteria issued by the International Diabetes Federation. From the aspect of prevention, key elements are proper nutrition and regular physical activity. In a view of treatment recommendations, initial steps should be regulation of energy balance in the diet and increase in physical activity; the drug treatment is reserved for patients with high risk of complications. .

  4. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  5. Association of Glu298Asp Polymorphism of Endothelial NO Synthase Gene with Metabolic Syndrome Development: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhov, N S; Skuratovskaya, D A; Vasilenko, M A; Kirienkova, E V; Zatolokin, P A; Mironyuk, N I; Litvinova, L S

    2017-03-01

    We studied association of single nucleotide polymorphism Glu298Asp (rs1799983) of the NOS3 gene with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the Slavic population. Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with metabolic syndrome and 100 healthy individuals. Polymorphism Glu298Asp of the NOS3 gene was genotyped by allele-specific PCR. Allele Asp (OR=1.95, 95%CI 1.29-2.95, p=0.007) and genotype Asp/Asp (OR=2.56, 95%CI 0.98-6.72, p=0.04) were associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in Slavic population. Patients with metabolic syndrome carrying genotype Asp/Asp had higher serum endothelin-1 level in comparison with Glu/Asp and Glu/Glu carriers.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Sattar, Naveed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Our objective was to perform a quantitative review of prospective studies examining the association between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Using the title terms ?diabetes? and ?metabolic syndrome? in PubMed, we searched for articles published since 1998. RESULTS?Based on the results from 16 cohorts, we performed a meta-analysis of estimates of relative risk (RR) and incident diabetes. The random-effects summary RRs were 5.17 (95% CI 3.99?6....

  7. The relationship between circadian disruption and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatsoreos IN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilia N Karatsoreos Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA Abstract: Circadian (daily rhythms are pervasive in nature, and expressed in nearly every behavioral and physiological process. In mammals, circadian rhythms are regulated by the master brain clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that coordinates the activity of “peripheral” oscillators throughout the brain and body. While much progress has been made in understanding the basic functioning of the circadian clock at the level of genes, molecules, and cells, our understanding of how these clocks interact with complex systems is still in its infancy. Much recent work has focused on the role of circadian clocks in the etiology of disorders as diverse as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Given the rapid rise in obesity, and the economic costs involved in treating its associated cardiometabolic disorders such as heart disease and diabetes mellitus, understanding the development of obesity and metabolic dysregulation is crucial. Significant epidemiological data indicate a role for circadian rhythms in metabolic disorders. Shift workers have a higher incidence of obesity and diabetes, and laboratory studies in humans show misaligning sleep and the circadian clock leads to hyperinsulinemia. In animal models, body-wide “clock gene” knockout mice are prone to obesity. Further, disrupting the circadian clock by manipulating the light–dark cycle can result in metabolic dysregulation and development of obesity. At the molecular level, elegant studies have shown that targeted disruption of the genetic circadian clock in the pancreas leads to diabetes, highlighting the fact that the circadian clock is directly coupled to metabolism at the cellular level. Keywords: glucose, metabolism, sleep, rhythms, obesity

  8. Glycaemic Control, Dyslipidaemia and Metabolic Syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome and their relative incidence among recently diagnosed diabetic patients in Tamale ...

  9. Glycaemic Control, Dyslipidaemia and Metabolic Syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycaemic Control, Dyslipidaemia and Metabolic Syndrome among Recently Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana. ... West African Journal of Medicine ... BACKGROUND: Poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. a family doctor look for metabolic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Maria Banaś

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asymptomatic course, early genesis, multifactorial onset, and the lack of a single definition of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents make it difficult to assess its prevalence. Metabolic syndrome developed in childhood increases cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Objectives. The evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on age, sex, weight and abdominal obesity in a population of children and adolescents in a family doctor’s practice. Material and methods. The study group comprised 325 children and adolescents (177♀, 148♂ aged 7, 13 and 16 years. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference were made, along with the determination of blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels. Overweight states and obesity were assessed according to the IOTF criteria. Abdominal obesity and hypertension were evaluated using growth charts appropriate for the age, gender and height of the children of Lodz. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the NCEP/AT P III criteria. Results . Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 6.5% of the subjects. In children aged 13 and 16 years – 7.6% (p > 0.05 vs. 7 years, aged 7 years – 3.9% (p > 0.05 vs. 13, 16 years, boys (8.8%; p > 0.05, girls (4.5%; p > 0.05. Among children with excessive body weight, metabolic syndrome was observed in every fourth child (25.4%, more often in those with obesity (44.1% than with abdominal obesity (32% and those who were overweight (19.2%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. metabolic syndrome. The number of components of metabolic syndrome elevated with increasing body weight (p < 0.001. Abdominal obesity was observed in 17.5% of the subjects. Children with abdominal obesity had higher levels of triglycerides (p < 0.05 and lower HDL cholesterol (p 110 mg/dl in 85 (26.1% and excessive body weight in 71 subjects (21.8%. Conclusions . The presence of metabolic syndrome correlated with overweight state, obesity and abdominal obesity

  11. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  12. Ghrelin in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pulkkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease. Obesity, which has become a global public health problem, is one of the major risk factors for development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a complex disease, caused by the interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Ghrelin is one of the circulating peptides, which stimulates appetite and regulates energy balance, and thus is one of the candidate genes for obesity and T2DM. During the last years both basic research and genetic association studies have revealed association between the ghrelin gene and obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes

  13. Cortisol in hair and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalder, T.; Kirschbaum, C.; Alexander, N.; Bornstein, S.R.; Gao, W.; Miller, R.; Stark, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids is known to contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis,

  14. Hyperuricemia as a Potential Determinant of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Eunhee; Chung, Choon Hee

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on hyperuricemia as a modulator for metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia has reported in many studies as a causal marker in a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. In fact, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension, each of these variables of metabolic syndrome gets influenced by the serum uric acid level. High level of uric acid has been associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperuricemia has attributed to hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome and decreased excretion of uric acid causing endothelial dysfunction in kidney leads to renal disease and cardiovascular disorders. This review focus on the role of uric acid in the development of metabolic syndrome and onthe possible pathophysiology. PMID:26064845

  15. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

  16. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  17. An association between diet, metabolic syndrome and lower urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet is a key factor in the aetiology of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract disorders. Metabolic syndrome is a growing and increasingly expensive health problem in both the developed and the developing world, with an associated rise in morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, lower ...

  18. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  19. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  20. [Maternal nutrition during pregnancy conditions the fetal pancreas development, hormonal status and diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome biomarkers at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Gesteiro, E; Espárrago Rodilla, M; Rodríguez Bernal, B; Bastida, S

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital period where several hyperplasic, hypertrophic processes together with metabolic adaptation and preparation for extra-uterine life take place. Present review accounts for central aspects of nutrition throughout gestation on the embryonic and fetal periods. It is centered in the major changes occurring in fetal pancreas, with special mention to the susceptibility of this main glucose homeostasis organ to support nutritional changes during maturation and development. Studies performed in animal models as human are commented considering the role of maternal nutrition on β-cell mass size, insulin and other pancreatic hormones production, and insulin sensitivity. Details of both the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis are given, indicating that hypo/subnutrition causes metabolic adaptations that permit the future body to grow and develop itself in limited environmental and energetic conditions. The Barker hypothesis is considered suggesting that this metabolic hypothesis is a double-edged sword in the actual abundance World. Lastly the review, taking into account our own research and other papers, analyses less known aspects that relate maternal diet with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers at delivery. Particularly the role of the saturated fatty acid/carbohydrate and omega-6/omega-3 ratios in the frame of maternal diet is reviewed considering the quality of those diets under the Healthy Eating Index and the Adherence to Mediterranean Diet scores and the relationship with insulin resistance profile at birth. Present review ends indicating that nutritional habits should be strongly stated before gestation in order to assure a proper nutrition since the first moment of pregnancy. This will support an adequate fetal and pancreatic growth and development, and in turn, adequate glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and later in life, slowing down or preventing from degenerative diseases related with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  1. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  2. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Ahn, Jiyeon; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Jee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2018-02-05

    Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study. A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed. During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes  1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters. An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.

  4. Cortisol: the villain in Metabolic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Paredes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This article reviews the state of the art regarding the association between glucocorticoid actions and both obesity and insulin resistance, two main features of the metabolic syndrome. Methods A methodological assessment of the literature on PubMed and SciELO databases was conducted by using the following terms: stress, metabolic syndrome, glucocorticoids, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Results Chronic stress, mainly through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, promotes the accumulation of visceral fat. Reciprocally, obesity promotes a systemic low-grade inflammation state, mediated by increased adipokine secretion, which can chronically stimulate and disturb stress system. This vicious cycle, probably initiated by visceral adipose tissue dysfunction, might be the trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Given the strong evidences linking glucocorticoid release, obesity and type 2 diabetes, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this connection might be useful for prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and obesity among workers at Kanye Seventh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Metabolic syndrome and obesity are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular disease, especially stroke. There is evidence worldwide of the high prevalence of these pathologies in health care providers. Objectives. To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome, overweight, ...

  6. Metabolic syndrome: the danger signal in atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mathieu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Mathieu1, Philippe Pibarot2, Jean-Pierre Després31Department of Surgery, Centre de Recherche de l’Hôpital Laval/Institut de Cardiologie de Québec, Québec, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, Centre de Recherche de l’Hôpital Laval/Institut de Cardiologie de Québec, Québec, Canada; 3Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre de Recherche de l’Hôpital Laval/Institut de Cardiologie de Québec, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by infiltration of blood vessels by lipids and leukocytes. There is a growing body of evidence that among risk factors that promote atherosclerosis, the metabolic syndrome is a powerful and prevalent predictor of cardiovascular events. The systemic inflammatory process associated with the metabolic syndrome has numerous deleterious effects that promote plaque activation, which is responsible for clinical events. Interactions between the innate immune system with lipidderived products seem to play a major role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in relation with the metabolic syndrome. The multiple links among adipose tissue, the vascular wall, and the immune system are the topics of this review, which examines the roles of oxidized low density lipoprotein, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in triggering and perpetuating a danger signal response that promotes the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, therapeutic options that specifically target the metabolic syndrome components are reviewed in light of recent developments. Keywords: atherosclerosis, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, innate immune system, danger signal theory

  7. The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Sicińska; Edyta Pytel; Aneta Maćczak; Maria Koter-Michalak

    2015-01-01

    Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic s...

  8. Deleted in Breast Cancer 1 Limits Adipose Tissue Fat Accumulation and Plays a Key Role in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escande, Carlos; Nin, Veronica; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Chini, Claudia C. S.; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L.; Chini, Eduardo N.

    Obesity is often regarded as the primary cause of metabolic syndrome. However, many lines of evidence suggest that obesity may develop as a protective mechanism against tissue damage during caloric surplus and that it is only when the maximum fat accumulation capacity is reached and fatty acid

  9. Fish consumption and its possible preventive role on the development and prevalence of metabolic syndrome - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørris, Christine; Molin, Marianne; Cvancarova Småstuen, Milada

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a huge impact on public health, and today lifestyle interventions remain the primary mode for MetS therapy. It is therefore important to elucidate the possible preventive effects of diet and foods, and their MetS-related health implications. To examine how fish consumption affects the development and prevalence of MetS, we systematically reviewed cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and intervention studies conducted among adults (humans) and, reporting consumption of fish or seafood as being related to MetS (prevalence or incidence), where MetS was defined via an established definition. The literature search in PubMed identified 502 citations, and after screening, 49 full-text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. After excluding duplicates and those not meeting the inclusion criteria, seven studies from Croatia, Finland, France, Iceland, Iran, Korea, and US were included. Four studies (one follow-up and three cross-sectional) found associations between fish consumption and MetS (three among men, and one among women), suggesting that fish consumption may prevent or improve metabolic health and have a protective role in MetS prevention. This protective role might be related to gender, and men may benefit more from the consumption of fish. However, lack of controlling for potential confounders may also inflict the results. Additional research is required to further explore fish consumption and its potential role in improving or reversing MetS and its components.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  11. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  12. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome ...

  13. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome’s definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.

  14. RESISTANT HYPERTENSION IN A PATIENT WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Drapkina; J. S. Sibgatullina

    2016-01-01

    Clinical case of resistant hypertension in a patient with metabolic syndrome is presented. Features of hypertension in metabolic syndrome and features of metabolic syndrome in women of pre- and postmenopausal age are also considered. Understanding the features of metabolic syndrome in women, as well as features of hypertension and metabolic syndrome will improve the results of treatment in patients with resistant hypertension.

  15. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  16. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES. Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prospective studies supported etiological roles for relationship stress, perceived stress, and distress, while the studies on work-related stress (WS) showed conflicting results; ii) dyslipidemi: too few studies on psychosocial stress as a risk factor for dyslipidemia were available to draw a conclusion; however, a trend toward a positive association was present; iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): prospective studies supported perceived stress and distress as risk factors for the development of DM2 among men, but not among women, while WS was generally not supported as a risk factor among neither men nor women; iv) hypertension: marital stress and perceived stress might have an influence on blood pressure (BP), while no association was found regarding distress. Evaluating WS the results were equivocal and indicated that different types of WS affected the BP differently between men and women. In conclusion, a longitudinal association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES seems present. However, the number of studies with sufficient quality is limited and the design of the studies is substantially heterogeneous. PMID:24743684

  17. The immunity-diet-microbiota axis in the development of metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Eelke; Houben, Tom; Fu, Jingyuan; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Hofker, Marten H.

    Purpose of review Recent evidence demonstrates that the gut-microbiota can be considered as one of the major factors causing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent findings Pattern recognition receptors as well as antimicrobial peptides are a key factor in controlling the intestinal

  18. [Nutrition, metabolic syndrome and morbid obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano Gil, M; Silvestre Teruel, V; Aguirregoicoa García, E; Criado Gómez, L; Duque López, Y; García-Blanch, G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, and specifically morbid obesity (MO), is a chronic disease with serious health consequences related to the associated comorbidities and constitutes a leading risk factor for the metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the present study we analyze the abnormalities related to MO in the plasmatic levels of nutrients (both macro and micronutrients). We retrospectively evaluated data of 497 patients, 369 women and 128 men diagnosed of MO. The average age of the patients was 40.07 (rank: 16-62). Previous to the study anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP) and plasma levels of insulin and macronutrients and micronutrients were measured. The higher body mass index (BMI) in women and the waist circumference (WC) in both sexes demonstrates the existence of visceral obesity. Hypertensive disease (HD) was found in 18.6% of men and 33.5% of women. 55.1% of the men and 42.3% of the women had three or more criteria defining the risk of developing MetS. We found hyperglycemia, insulinemia and dyslipemia. We did not find protein malnutrition, but there were elevated values of reactive C-protein. Biochemical indicators of macro and micronutrients were not altered. The high incidence of patients with HD, carriers of three or more criteria that defines the metabolic syndrome (SM), suggests that a very significant part of our patients suffered the metabolic syndrome (MS). The term metabolic syndrome defines the group of factors of metabolic risk of CVD, which is confirmed by the elevated levels of reactive C-protein. We did not find abnormalities in the plasmatic levels of biochemical markers of nutrients.

  19. Symposium introduction: metabolic syndrome and the onset of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin-Rong; Blackburn, George L; Walker, W Allan

    2007-09-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic disorders are among the most pressing of today's health care concerns. Recent evidence from epidemiologic and basic research studies, as well as translational, clinical, and intervention studies, supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be an important etiologic factor for the onset of cancer. On March 15-16, 2006, The Harvard Medical School Division of Nutrition hosted the symposium "Metabolic Syndrome and the Onset of Cancer" as a platform to systematically evaluate the evidence in support of this hypothesis. This symposium, which gathered leaders in the fields of metabolism, nutrition, and cancer, will stimulate further research investigating the etiologic role of metabolic syndrome in cancer. Furthermore, it will help to guide the development of effective cancer prevention strategies via nutritional and lifestyle modifications to alleviate metabolic syndrome.

  20. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  1. Development of a standardized job description for healthcare managers of metabolic syndrome management programs in Korean community health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjin; Choo, Jina; Cho, Jeonghyun; Kim, So-Nam; Lee, Hye-Eun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Seomun, GyeongAe

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a job description for healthcare managers of metabolic syndrome management programs using task analysis. Exploratory research was performed by using the Developing a Curriculum method, the Intervention Wheel model, and focus group discussions. Subsequently, we conducted a survey of 215 healthcare workers from 25 community health centers to verify that the job description we created was accurate. We defined the role of healthcare managers. Next, we elucidated the tasks of healthcare managers and performed needs analysis to examine the frequency, importance, and difficulty of each of their duties. Finally, we verified that our job description was accurate. Based on the 8 duties, 30 tasks, and 44 task elements assigned to healthcare managers, we found that the healthcare managers functioned both as team coordinators responsible for providing multidisciplinary health services and nurse specialists providing health promotion services. In terms of importance and difficulty of tasks performed by the healthcare managers, which were measured using a determinant coefficient, the highest-ranked task was planning social marketing (15.4), while the lowest-ranked task was managing human resources (9.9). A job description for healthcare managers may provide basic data essential for the development of a job training program for healthcare managers working in community health promotion programs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  3. Equine metabolic syndrome: Etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Dragiša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS is a term adopted in 2002 in aim to define the complex pathology involving obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis in horses and ponies. The EMS was terminologically derived upon similar condition in humans. The metabolic disturbance in equines is developed sequentially to the primary chronic overfeeding, i.e. intake of surplus food to individual needs combined with insufficient activity of animal. The syndrome has been reported more frequently in ponies than in other breeds although genetic background of EMS has not been confirmed. The characteristic symptoms include regional collection of adipose tissue under the skin often distributed regionally i.e. in crest (neck from pool to withers, behind the shoulders, at the dock of the tail and in prepuce in males or in the udder in mares; as well as impaired locomotion and/or lameness in all four limbs and cycling disturbance in mares.

  4. Development of a bread delivery vehicle for dietary prebiotics to enhance food functionality targeted at those with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that favourably modulate the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to develop a functional prebiotic bread using Bimuno®, (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture), for modulation of the gut microbiota in vitro in individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome. A control bread, (no added prebiotic) and positive control bread (containing equivalent carbohydrate to B-GOS bread) were also developed. A 3-stage continuous in vitro colonic model was used to assess prebiotic functionality of the breads. Bacteria were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography was used to determine GOS concentration after bread production. Following B-GOS bread fermentation numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher compared to controls. There was no significant degradation of B-GOS during bread manufacture, indicating GOS withstood the manufacturing process. Furthermore, based on previous research, increased bifidobacteria and butyrate levels could be of benefit to those with obesity related conditions. Our findings support utilization of prebiotic enriched bread for improving gastrointestinal health.

  5. Development of a bread delivery vehicle for dietary prebiotics to enhance food functionality targeted at those with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that favourably modulate the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to develop a functional prebiotic bread using Bimuno®, (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture), for modulation of the gut microbiota in vitro in individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome. A control bread, (no added prebiotic) and positive control bread (containing equivalent carbohydrate to B-GOS bread) were also developed. A 3-stage continuous in vitro colonic model was used to assess prebiotic functionality of the breads. Bacteria were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography was used to determine GOS concentration after bread production. Following B-GOS bread fermentation numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher compared to controls. There was no significant degradation of B-GOS during bread manufacture, indicating GOS withstood the manufacturing process. Furthermore, based on previous research, increased bifidobacteria and butyrate levels could be of benefit to those with obesity related conditions. Our findings support utilization of prebiotic enriched bread for improving gastrointestinal health. PMID:26099034

  6. Definition of the metabolic syndrome: current proposals and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Efrain; Alpert, Martin A

    2005-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome includes a clustering of metabolic derangements that cause affected subjects to have an increased risk for developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and, according to recent epidemiologic studies, chronic kidney disease. The present review discusses four definitions of metabolic syndrome published by different national and international committees. In an effort to bridge the differences existent in those classifications, a unified definition that recognizes the increased biologic activity of the upper visceral fatty tissue and the strong association of abdominal obesity as a leading part of metabolic syndrome is proposed herein. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is reserved for pre-diabetic patients who share the risk of becoming diabetic or developing cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease.

  7. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-19

    Mar 19, 2013 ... 2005; 112: e297 and Circulation. 2005; 112: e298). Circulation. 2005; 112: 2735Б52. 19. Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1781Б5. 20. Al-Qahtani DA, Imtiaz ML. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  9. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press.

  10. The metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Esther C.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Gietema, Jourik A.

    The metabolic syndrome, as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, may represent an important connection between cancer treatment and its common late effect of cardiovascular disease. Insight into the aetiology of the metabolic syndrome after cancer treatment might help to identify and treat

  11. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  12. Evidence of Reduced CBG Cleavage in Abdominal Obesity: A Potential Factor in Development of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenke, M A; Lewis, J G; Rankin, W; Torpy, D J

    2016-08-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is involved in the regulation of cortisol delivery. Neutrophil elastase-mediated cleavage of high to low affinity CBG (haCBG to laCBG) induces cortisol release at inflammatory sites. Past studies have shown reduced CBG in obesity, an inflammatory state, particularly in central adiposity/metabolic syndrome. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study of the effects of obesity, age and sex on ha/laCBG in 100 healthy volunteers. Total and haCBG levels were 11% higher in women but did not vary with age or menopausal status. Total CBG levels were lower with increased body weight and waist circumference; laCBG levels were lower with increased body weight, waist circumference, body mass index and body fat; higher haCBG levels were seen with increased body fat. The relation between CBG and adiposity appeared to be driven predominantly by the metabolic syndrome group. The results suggest reduced CBG cleavage in central obesity, possibly contributing to the characteristic inflammatory phenotype of the central obesity and metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of gender differences in CBG levels is unclear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklayen, Mohammad G

    2018-02-26

    Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts. The two basic forces spreading this malady are the increase in consumption of high calorie-low fiber fast food and the decrease in physical activity due to mechanized transportations and sedentary form of leisure time activities. The syndrome feeds into the spread of the diseases like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke, and other disabilities. The total cost of the malady including the cost of health care and loss of potential economic activity is in trillions. The present trend is not sustainable unless a magic cure is found (unlikely) or concerted global/governmental/societal efforts are made to change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban planning to encourage active lifestyle, subsidizing consumption of whole grains and possible taxing high calorie snacks, restricting media advertisement of unhealthy food, etc. Revitalizing old fashion healthier lifestyle, promoting old-fashioned foods using healthy herbs rather than oil and sugar, and educating people about choosing healthy/wholesome food over junks

  14. Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vendrame

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden.

  15. Metabolic syndrome: definition and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Hari; Ryan, Debra A; Celzo, Ma Florence; Stapleton, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The collection of impaired glucose metabolism, central obesity, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia is identified as metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is estimated that approximately 25% of the world's population has MetS. In the United States, MetS is more common in men and Hispanics, and its incidence increases with age. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying risk factors include insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Confusion about MetS exists in part due to the lack of a consensus definition and treatment protocol. Treatment of MetS begins with therapeutic lifestyle changes and then pharmacologic treatment of the syndrome's individual components. Effective interventions include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents to treat risk factors. Weight loss and increasing physical activity significantly improve all aspects of MetS. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with MetS. Physicians can be most effective in advising patients by customizing specific lifestyle recommendations after assessing patients for the presence of risk factors.

  16. Dietary intake, eating habits, and metabolic syndrome in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lim, Sun-Young; Sung, Joohon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kim, Jeongseon

    2009-04-01

    Dietary factors contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a disorder associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake frequencies of certain food groups, eating habits, and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study of Korean men. Study participants were recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea. A total of 7,081 men aged 30 years and older were recruited between August 2002 and May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following conditions: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, and high fasting blood glucose level. The association of metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics, food intake frequencies, and eating habits assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was examined. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome for men aged 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and 60+ years was 18.2%, 19.8%, 21.9%, and 20.5%, respectively. The study participants with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.6% vs 21.6%, Peat quickly (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.12 for fast vs slow) and to overeat frequently (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.05 for more than 4 times a week vs less than once a week). The results suggest that high intake of seaweed and oily foods as well as eating habits such as eating faster and frequent overeating, are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, high fruit intake may be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. The importance of dietary habits in metabolic syndrome development needs to be pursued in further studies.

  17. Structural changes in the liver in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vasendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically proven close relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with development of metabolic syndrome and its individual components involves the conclusion that the target organ in metabolic symptom, even regardless of the severity of obesity, the liver occupies a dominant position, as the body undergoes the first characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease changes, involving violation of metabolism in the body. Dislipoproteinemia plays an important role in the formation of metabolic syndrome in obesity and other obesity-associated diseases. Altered liver function are the root cause of violations of processes of lipid metabolism and, consequently, abnormal functioning of the liver may be a separate, additional and independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia and obesity as the main component of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  1. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  2. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  3. Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of >=7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

  4. Cortisol in tissue and systemic level as a contributing factor to the development of metabolic syndrome in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinopoulos, Petros; Michalaki, Marina; Kottorou, Anastasia; Habeos, Ioannis; Psyrogiannis, Agathoklis; Kalfarentzos, Fotios; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). To investigate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the expression of HSD11B1, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptors) α (NR3C1α) and β (NR3C1β) in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese patients with and without MetS. The study included 37 severely obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), 19 with MetS (MetS+ group) and 18 without (MetS- group), studied before and during bariatric surgery. Before the day of surgery, urinary free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol were estimated. During surgery, biopsies of the liver, VAT and SAT were obtained. The expression of HSD11B1, NR3C1α and NR3C1β was evaluated by RT-PCR. UFC and area under the curve for 24-h profiles of serum and salivary cortisol were lower in the MetS- group. In the MetS- group, mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in liver exhibited a negative correlation with liver NR3C1α (LNR3C1α) and VAT expression of HSD11B1 was lower than the MetS+ group. We observed a downregulation of the NR3C1α expression and lower VAT mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in the MetS- group, indicating a lower selective tissue cortisol production and action that could protect these patients from the metabolic consequences of obesity. In the MetS- group, a lower activity of the HPA axis was also detected. Taken together, cortisol in tissue and systematic level might play a role in the development of MetS in severely obese patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  7. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    studies supported perceived stress and distress as risk factors for the development of DM2 among men, but not among women, while WS was generally not supported as a risk factor among neither men nor women; iv) hypertension: marital stress and perceived stress might have an influence on blood pressure (BP...... the studies on work-related stress (WS) showed conflicting results; ii) dyslipidemi: too few studies on psychosocial stress as a risk factor for dyslipidemia were available to draw a conclusion; however, a trend toward a positive association was present; iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): prospective......), while no association was found regarding distress. Evaluating WS the results were equivocal and indicated that different types of WS affected the BP differently between men and women. In conclusion, a longitudinal association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES seems present...

  8. Dietary methyl-consuming compounds and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Da; Lun, Yong-Zhi

    2011-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Although systemic oxidative stress and aberrant methylation status are known to have important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome, how they occur remains unclear. The metabolism of methyl-consuming compounds generates reactive oxygen species and consumes labile methyl groups; therefore, a chronic increase in the levels of methyl-consuming compounds in the body can induce not only oxidative stress and subsequent tissue injury, but also methyl-group pool depletion and subsequent aberrant methylation status. In the past few decades, the intake amount of methyl-consuming compounds has substantially increased primarily due to pollution, food additives, niacin fortification and high meat consumption. Thus, increased methyl consumers might have a causal role in the development and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related diseases. Moreover, factors that decrease the elimination/metabolism of methyl-consuming compounds and other xenobiotics (for example, sweat gland inactivity and decreased liver function) or increase the generation of endogenous methyl-consuming compounds (for example, mental stress-induced increase in catecholamine release) may accelerate the progression of metabolic syndrome. Based on current nutrition knowledge and the available evidence from epidemiological, ecological, clinical and laboratory studies on metabolic syndrome and its related diseases, this review outlines the relationship between methyl supply-consumption imbalance and metabolic syndrome, and proposes a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related diseases.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and its components among university students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Samuel Mungai; Kimani, Samuel Thuo; Munyoki, Gilbert

    2017-11-28

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus. Stratified sampling was used to select participants. Self-administered questionnaires were issued to participants after a signed consent had been obtained following which clinical assessments and biochemical measures were performed. They included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, anthropometric measurements; height, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Pearson's chi-square tests and non-parametric independent t-test were used to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per gender, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI and prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI category. The study established that 1.9% of the participants met the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to HJSS criteria. Among the elements, there was statistical difference in gender BMI and waist circumference. 11.8% of subjects had two metabolic syndrome components while 3.1% had three components while none of the subjects had all six components. Elevated triglycerides was the most prevalent defining component for metabolic syndrome. There is a statistically significant relationship between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits as risk factors to metabolic syndrome. Young adults in university have begun developing metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing the syndrome continues to increase with the

  10. [Types of dislipidemia in children with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromnats'ka, N M

    2014-01-01

    To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.

  11. KUDESAN EFFICACY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Kolesnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities in metabolic syndrome affect the functioning of practically all organs and systems, and most seriously — cardio-vascular system. Cardio-vascular abnormalities in metabolic syndrome manifest as arterial hypertension, Riley-Day syndrome and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to decrease of adaptive and reserve capabilities. Co-enzyme Q10 possesses cardioprotective,  stress-protective and anti-ischaemic activity. Clinical study performed on 40 children aged 10 to 17 years with constitutive obesity, complicated metabolic syndrome, has proven validity of co-enzyme Q10 treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. The use of co-enzyme Q10 15 mg/day during 30 days has lead to improvement of psycho-emotional condition, decrease in anxiety complaints, sleep improvement, decrease in asthenic syndrome symptoms, improvement in electrophysiological heart indices Key words: metabolic syndrome, co-enzyme Q10. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 102–106.

  12. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mohorko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR. Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances.

  13. Metabolic syndrome among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Das, Kausik; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    To prevent an increasing level of mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among the rural Indian population, a management strategy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be devised. This study aims to estimate the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Data from the Birbhum Population Project covering 9886 individuals (4810 male and 5076 female population) aged ≥18 years were used. The burden of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, was determined. Bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were used to attain the study objective. Over 10.7% of the males and 20.3% of the females were diagnosed with MetS. Irrespective of sex, older individuals, being overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m 2 ) had higher probability of developing MetS, whereas being underweight is deemed a protective factor against MetS. Low physical activity among women appeared to be a risk factor for MetS. The prevalence of MetS is concerning even in rural India. Any intervention designed to address the issue could emphasize on weight loss, and physical activity, focusing on women and people at an advanced stage of life. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome: Systems Thinking in Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommermuth, Ron; Ewing, Kristine

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. MetS is associated with approximately 4-fold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a 2-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease complications. MetS is a progressive, proinflammatory, prothrombotic condition that manifests itself along a broad spectrum of disease. It is associated with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, gout, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Intervening in and reversing the pathologic process become more difficult as the disease progresses, highlighting the needs for increased individual and community surveillance and primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is raising worldwide; however, the role of diet in the origin of metabolic syndrome is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without metabolic syndrome; and its association with metabolic syndrome ...

  16. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  17. Association of pre-eclampsia with metabolic syndrome and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preeclampsia has been linked to increased risk of developing heart disease later in life. The best approach for the prevention of CVD after preeclampsia is yet unclear. Studies assessing CVD risk post preeclampsia have included metabolic risk factors that define the metabolic syndrome (MS). This review quantifies the ...

  18. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to the co-occurrence of several known cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. These conditions are interrelated and share underlying mediators, mechanisms and pathways. There has been recent controversy about its definition and its utility. In this article, I review the current definitions for the metabolic syndrome and why the concept is important. It identifies a subgroup of patients with sh...

  20. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p metabolic syndrome score ( p metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome in Children: Clinical Picture, Features of Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Bobrykovych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study included 225 children aged from 14 to 18 years with various manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in neighborhoods, different by iodine provision. The physical development (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences has been examined. Biochemical investigations are focused on the study of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in children. It is found that children who live in mountains have more severe obesity. In parallel with the increase of the degree of obesity, disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism aggravate in children with sings of metabolic syndrome.

  2. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. ... They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS. Results: ...

  3. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  5. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  6. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Fujihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and is defined as the presence of three or more of the following factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Obesity, which is accompanied by metabolic dysregulation often manifested in the metabolic syndrome, is an established risk factor for many cancers. Adipose tissue, particularly visceral fat, is an important metabolic tissue as it secretes systemic factors that alter the immunologic, metabolic, and endocrine milieu and also promotes insulin resistance. Within the growth-promoting, proinflammatory environment of the obese state, cross-talk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via obesity-associated hormones, adipocytokines, and other mediators that may enhance cancer risk and progression. This paper synthesizes the evidence on key molecular mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link.

  8. Gout and Metabolic Syndrome: a Tangled Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-08-26

    The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.

  9. Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2006-01-01

    (HAART) may encounter the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), which attenuates patient compliance to this treatment. HALS is characterised by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This review depicts the metabolic abnormalities associated...... with HAART by describing the key cell and organ systems that are involved, emphasising the role of insulin resistance. An opinion on the remedies available to treat the metabolic abnormalities and phenotype of HALS is provided....

  10. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  12. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  13. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

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    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun

    2018-01-04

    The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  16. The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18 might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome and to precede the development of type 2 diabetes. IL-18 is found in the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue, and is subject to several regulatory steps including cleavage by caspase-1, inactivation by IL-18 binding protein and the influence of other cytokines in modulating its interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of IL-18 in the metabolic syndrome, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk and the potential effect of life style interventions.

  17. Correlation of uric acid levels and parameters of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibičková, Ľ; Langová, K; Vaverková, H; Kubíčková, V; Karásek, D

    2017-07-18

    Hyperuricemia has been described as associated with the risk of development metabolic syndrome; however the relationship between the uric acid level and particular parameters of metabolic syndrome remained unclear. We performed a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 833 dyslipidemic patients and correlated their levels of uric acid with parameters of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein, anthropometric parameters. We also defined patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and compered their uric acid levels with those without this phenotype. We found that levels of uric acid are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dyslipidemia characteristic for metabolic syndrome (low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides) correlates better with uric acid levels than parameters of insulin resistance. Also waist circumference correlates better with uric acid levels than body mass index. Patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype had higher levels of uric acid when compared with patients without this phenotype. Serum uric acid levels are even in low levels linearly correlated with parameters of metabolic syndrome (better with typical lipid characteristics than with parameters of insulin resistance) and could be associated with higher cardiovascular risk.

  18. Nutritional intervention in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingjing; Zhu, Wenhua; Dai, Honglei; Chen, Zhouwen; Chen, Leiqian; Fang, Lizheng

    2007-01-01

    Through an interventional study in the metabolic syndrome, evaluate the feasibility of the standard nutritional intervention. Select metabolic syndrome patients from people who received a health check in our hospital and randomly allocate them into four groups. The standard interventional group received both the nutritional intervention and health education; the simple interventional group only received the nutritional intervention; the simple health educational group only received health education; the control group did not receive any intervention measure. Examine the related index of the metabolic syndrome of each group before and half a year after the intervention: waistline, blood pressure, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose etc. K-W test and Chi-square test, Bonferroni correction was used in our study. The index of the metabolic syndrome was significantly different for each of the four groups before and after intervention (pnutritional interventional group and for, the simple health education group was significantly different, but there was no difference for the other indices (p>0.05) between the standard nutritional interventional group and simple nutritional interventional group, except that the waistline difference (pnutritional intervention is an effective strategy for patients with the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Personality as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Pouwer, Francois

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Personality can be defined as a stable set of behavioral characteristics of a person. In this review we systematically reviewed whether different personality...... characteristics are associated with the risk of having or developing the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: In total 18 studies were included. Thirteen cross-sectional analyses, and ten longitudinal analyses were grouped according to personality constructs: hostility, anger, and Type...... A behavior, temperament, neuroticism, and Type D personality. Conflicting evidence was reported on persons with high hostility, neuroticism, or Type D personality scores to be associated with an increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and development. All significant findings do point in the same direction...

  20. [Metabolic syndrome and aortic stiffness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simková, A; Bulas, J; Murín, J; Kozlíková, K; Janiga, I

    2010-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that move the patient into higher level of risk category of cardiovascular disease and the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus manifestation. Definition of MS is s based on the presence of selected risk factors as: abdominal obesity (lager waist circumpherence), atherogenic dyslipidemia (low value of HDL-cholesterol and increased level of triglycerides), increased fasting blood glucose (or type 2 DM diagnosis), higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy. In 2009 there were created harmonizing criteria for MS definition; the condition for assignment of MS is the presence of any 3 criteria of 5 mentioned above. The underlying disorder of MS is an insulin resistance or prediabetes. The patients with MS more frequently have subclinical (preclinical) target organ disease (TOD) which is the early sings of atherosclerosis. Increased aortic stiffness is one of the preclinical diseases and is defined by pathologically increased carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao). With the aim to assess the influence of MS on aortic stiffness we examined the group of women with arterial hypertension and MS and compare them with the group of women without MS. The aortic stiffness was examined by Arteriograph--Tensiomed, the equipment working on the oscillometric principle in detection of pulsations of brachial artery. This method determines the global aortic stiffness based on the analysis of the shape of pulse curve of brachial artery. From the cohort of 49 pts 31 had MS, the subgroups did not differ in age or blood pressure level. The mean number of risk factors per person in MS was 3.7 comparing with 1.7 in those without MS. In the MS group there was more frequently abdominal obesity present (87% vs 44%), increased fasting blood glucose (81% vs 22%) and low HDL-cholesterol level. The pulse wave velocity in aorta, PWV Ao, was significantly higher in patients with MS (mean value 10,19 m/s vs 8,96 m

  1. Pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome and its lipid complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Binesh Marvasti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity epidemic has been spread all over the world in the past few decades and has caused a major public health concern due to its increasing global prevalence. Obese individuals are at higher risks of developing dyslipidemic characteristics resulting in increased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol content and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels. This disorder has profound implications as afflicted individuals have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Today, this phenotype is designated as metabolic syndrome. According to the criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, for a patient to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the person must have central obesity plus any two of the following conditions: raised TG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and increased fasting plasma glucose. Current National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III guidelines for the treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome encourage therapies that lower LDL cholesterol and TG and raise HDL-cholesterol. Primary intervention often involves treatment with statins to improve the lipid profiles of these patients. However, recent studies suggest the potential of newly identified drugs including thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors that seem to be promising in reducing the level of progression of metabolic syndrome related disorders. This review discusses the current pharmacological treatments of the metabolic syndrome with the above mentioned drugs.

  2. [The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Maćczak, Aneta; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-09

    Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  3. The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sicińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  4. The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sicińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  5. Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Gitte Lindved

    2018-01-01

    -fitness was inversely associated with an overall metabolic syndrome score, as well as triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and directly associated with high-density lipoprotein. Single inflammatory biomarkers and a combined inflammatory score partly explained......OBJECTIVE: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR-fitness), counteracts accumulation of visceral fat, decreases inflammation and lowers risk factors...... of the metabolic syndrome. METHOD: The study sample included 1,293 Danes (age 49-52 years) who from 2009 to 2011 participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank, including a questionnaire, physical tests, and blood samples. Multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure...

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  8. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with type-2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Ahmad, T.; Hussain, S.J.; Javed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity and Ischaemic Heart Disease have become a problem of public health magnitude with substantial economic burden both in the developed as well as the developing countries. Obesity is quite frequent in Type 2 diabetics and also plays a central role in causing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Metabolic Syndrome significantly increases the incidence of cardiovascular complications. This study was done to determine the frequency of MetS in our Type 2 diabetic patients as most of the components of MetS can be modified and identifying/managing these at an early stage might be of considerable help in reducing cardiovascular complications. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Medical B and Medical A wards of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Nov, 08 to April, 09. Type 2 Diabetic patients aged above 40 years who gave informed consent were included in the study. Data was collected through a structured proforma. Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome was estimated according to the IDF consensus worldwide definition of the MetS. Results: Of the 100 patients enrolled in this study 56 were females and 44 were males with a mean age of 59.9 years. Out of these 100 participants seventy six (76%) were diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Of the 56 females, forty eight (85.71%) were having metabolic syndrome while twenty eight (63.63%) of the 44 male participants were having the syndrome. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Frequency of MetS was found to be significantly high in this study with female preponderance. All the components, except Hypertension were more frequent in females. Diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome need more aggressive approach in management so as to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular complications. (author)

  9. Coexistence of Metabolic Syndrome and Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Çelik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is one of the chronic inflammatory systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Crohn's disease, in which the inflammation is responsible for the pathogenesis. Recently, some studies reported the importance of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an association of chronic inflammatory systemic diseases with atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine coexistence of psoriasis vulgaris with various severity and metabolic syndrome.Material and Method: One hundred psoriasis vulgaris patients and one hundred sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI was used for evaluating the disease severity in psoriasis patients. A PASI score below 7 was accepted as mild, between 7-12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe. We evaluated metabolic syndrome in both patient and control groups by using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria. SPSS 10.0 for Windows was used in analyzing data. For comparison, the student’s-t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test were used. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, high waist circumference and lower high-density lipoprotein levels were more common in patients with psoriasis than in controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference in these parameters between these two groups (p>0.05. We found that the mean value of triglyceride levels was statistically higher in the psoriasis group (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between patients with mild, moderate, severe psoriasis and controls for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, the mean value of triglyceride levels in psoriasis patients was higher and the mean value

  10. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE An association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis, has been suggested.Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a more localized chronic inflammation of the skin, has been speculated to have a similar association......,predominantly female, and more often smokers compared with the non-HS group.EXPOSURE Hidradenitis suppurativa.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Metabolic syndrome and its components of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.RESULTS When compared with the non-HS group, the odds ratios (ORs...

  11. Incidence and Major Metabolic Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved 300 (92 males and 208 females) type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted at the Tamale Teaching/Regional Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) criteria. The incidence of the ...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  13. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  14. Understanding cachexia as a cancer metabolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, P E

    2016-02-22

    Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization - both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis - that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of life.

  15. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil.

  16. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.

  17. Justice at Work and Metabolic Syndrome: the Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Ádám G.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Shipley, Martin J.; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. Methods A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35 to 55 years without prevalent CHD at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 through 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Results Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organizational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (hazard ratio 0.88; 95%CI: 0.67-1.17). Conclusions Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men. PMID:19819861

  18. Fat-soluble micronutrients and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. MetS prevalence has been associated with diet inadequacy. Conversely, the cumulative incidence of MetS has been inversely associated with a Mediterranean-style diet that includes many different health-beneficial nutrients. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet could reduce or at least stabilize metabolic risk factors. Recent findings Low serum level...

  19. Role of galectin 3 and epicardial fat thickness in the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ionin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the epicardial fat thickness (EFT in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, including paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF. To relate EFT to the fibroid heart marker, i.e. galectin 3. Materials and methods. We examined 100 patients with MS (50 with AF, and 50 healthy persons made the control group. Serum galectin 3 was measured by ELISA method. The EFT was measured with echocardiography. Results. EFT in patients with MS was twofold higher than in healthy persons. EFT in patients with MS and AF didn't differ significantly from that in patients with MS without AF. Positive correlation between the levels of EFT and galectin 3 in serum was revealed. Serum galectin 3 and EFT were associated with atrial fibrillation in patients with MS (OR:1,27, 95% CI 1,02-1,58 and OR:1,73, 95% CI 1,37-2,19, correspondingly.Conclusion. Definition of EFT at echocardiography can be used in the assessment of risk AF in patients with MS.

  20. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  2. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  3. Metabolic Syndrome after Kidney Transplantation - Are You at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of serious complications that may result from having metabolic syndrome. Treatment recommendations mirror those mentioned above for prevention of ... achieve these goals, as well as others for treatment of metabolic syndrome. If these strategies are not sufficient, your physician ...

  4. [Obesity or overweight and metabolic syndrome in Mexico City teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.

  5. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  6. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  7. Hyperuricemia as a Potential Determinant of Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Eunhee; Chung, Choon Hee

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on hyperuricemia as a modulator for metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia has reported in many studies as a causal marker in a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. In fact, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension, each of these variables of metabolic syndrome gets influenced by the serum uric acid level. High level of uric acid has been associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperuricemia has attributed t...

  8. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  9. Metabolic syndrome in Tunisian bipolar I patients | Ezzaher | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, age, illness episode and treatment were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, while patients under lithium had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those under valproic acid, carbamazepine or antipsychotics. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significant higher levels of HOMA-IR and ...

  10. Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... elevated (49.8%). Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is common in residents of North- Western Nigeria, commoner in the females than males. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome should be detected in normal individuals for implementing effective preventive measures. Key words: Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, obesity ...

  11. Background and treatment of metabolic syndrome: a therapeutic challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Pieter A.; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognized as a distinct pathologic entity. It is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature and also in the lay press. People with metabolic syndrome have

  12. Hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome: Vascular Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizábal, Yolanda; Llorens, Silvia; Nava, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB). This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy. PMID:23573411

  13. Metabolic syndrome among Ghanaian patients presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a general risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Western populations. This study assessed the relationship between MetS and its compo-nents in Ghanaian patients presenting with CKD. The study population comprised of 146 non-dialysed individuals with CKD with ...

  14. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee V. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.

  15. THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG PATIENTS WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of occurrence of the Metabolic Syndrome among patients presenting with cardiovascular disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods: This was a case-control study of 100 con-secutive cardiovascular disease patients and 100 age- and sex- matched controls who ...

  16. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee V.; Cook, Paul; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall's plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures. PMID:25873954

  17. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Laboratory Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Community Medicine - College of Medicine, ... undergraduate students in three Sudanese universities. Methods: A total of 384 first-year ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Anthropometric. Tropical ...

  18. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  19. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  20. Hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome: Vascular Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Mendizábal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR, obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB. This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy.

  1. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Xiong, Shenghua; Ren, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to s...

  2. The Development and Implementation of an Electronic Health Record Tool for Monitoring Metabolic Syndrome Indices in Patients with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ken; Ghinassi, Frank; Brar, Jaspreet S; Alam, Abdulkader; Bohan, Mary Catherine; Gopalan, Kalyani; Carter, Amie; Chengappa, K N Roy

    1. A quality performance improvement (QI) project to implement an electronic screening and monitoring tool to record components of the metabolic syndrome (e-MSD) during clinic visits by persons with serious mental illness (SMI). 2. To encourage psychiatrists to use this tool in their documentation. Working with the information technology staff, five psychiatrists developed, tested, revised and embedded the e-MSD tool into the medication management document within the electronic health record. A continuing medical education program on metabolic syndrome was developed and released to psychiatrists and mental health clinicians. Psychiatrist offices at one clinic were equipped with weighing scales, sphygmomanometers, waist circumference tapes, and a QI project was initiated. At one month, 9 to 12% of the anthropometric measures (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure) were recorded in 974 unique patient encounters, and one year later the numbers moved upward from 15 to 41%. Toward the end of Year 1, a Patient Care Associate was hired to measure the anthropometric measures and, one year later, the documented rates increased to 75-80%. Laboratory recordings (glucose and lipids) remained ≤8% throughout the first year, but moved upward to 25% in Year 2. Notwithstanding significant administrative and technical support for this QI project, changing clinician practice to screen, monitor and document metabolic indices in persons with SMI in the ambulatory setting changed significantly after the hiring of a Patient Care Associate. Efforts to obtain laboratory measures in real time remain a challenge. Next steps include interventions to promote weight loss and smoking cessation in SMI patients, and effective communication with their primary care doctors.

  3. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  4. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Babio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. METHODS: Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377 and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637 were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. RESULTS: Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trend<0.001. This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Total WBC counts, and some subtypes

  5. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  6. Historical perspectives of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009. WHO warned the next year that MetS has limited practical utility as a management tool. Adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements, associated with ectopic lipid deposit and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical......-for-duty examination by seamen’s doctors at baseline, 141 seafarers (mean age 41.3 years) were tracked and re-examined after 2 years. At baseline all participants received general advice regarding lifestyle issues. Seafarers with MS were additionally given specific advice regarding treatment. The seafarers provided...... questionnaire information about their workplace on board, about treatment of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and about previously diagnosed type 2-diabetes. In order to define MS, we collected data about waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. Results: Out...

  8. Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Decreases in circulating adiponectin and ghrelin have been associated with MetS. Our primary aim was to evaluate the relationship of MetS with adiponectin and ghrelin for Cuban Americans with ...

  9. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is rapidly increasing in developing countries. However, the epidemiology of MetS is not well reported in the pediatric and young adult population. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese Nigerian adolescents and ...

  10. Relation between usual daily walking time and metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are several studies about the positive relation between physical inactivity or low cardio respiratory fitness with development of metabolic syndrome (MS). In contrast, physical activity had favourable effects on all components of MS but the quantity and the frequency of physical activity necessary to produce ...

  11. The metabolic syndrome: targeting dyslipidaemia to reduce coronary risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsberg, H.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex constellation of disorders, each one a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increasing prevalence of this condition is a major concern for healthcare providers both in Europe and North America. The concern surrounding

  12. Metabolic syndrome and nutrition in a Granada's tropical coast population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, S; Samaniego-Sánchez, C; Romero, A; Quesada-Granados, J J; López-García de la Serrana, H

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is described as an association of health problems that a given person may simultaneously or successively develop, and it is considered a serious condition because it is related to a significantly increased risk of suffering diabetes, coronary disease and brain damage. Nutrition, along with other factors such as physical activity and genetic inheritance, has an influence on preventing MS. The aim of this research is to demonstrate important aspects concerning the diagnosis, the prevalence, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome among the population of the tropical coast of Granada. 119 individuals from the tropical coast of Granada were studied to collect personal data such as their body mass index, body fat percentage, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and food intake (through nutritional survey). As a result of this research, a metabolic syndrome prevalence of 20,2% was obtained, 58,3% of which was related to women. The results obtained show significant statistical differences between individuals having metabolic syndrome and the control group. Particularly, these differences can be noted in parameters such as the BMI or the % of body fat. Nevertheless, there are no significant differences between the two groups concerning parameters related to nutrition such as % of fat, carbohydrates, proteins and kcal/day. As a conclusion from the research, we can state that the metabolic syndrome prevalence among the population of the tropical coast of Granada is similar to the figure obtained for the population in the US and in other areas of Spain. In addition, this research shows that metabolic syndrome is more frequent among individuals whose BMI and % of body fat is higher than 30. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of metabolic syndrome in patients with osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Salim, B.; Khalil, Z.; Nasim, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine association of osteoarthritis (OA) with metabolic syndrome in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients were randomly interviewed in the Female Rheumatology department and a total of 240 patients with single rheumatologic disease and age >35 years were selected. Informed consent was taken and patients were interviewed using a self-made questionnaire to evaluate their medical history, physical and laboratory examination. SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 240 subjects, 81 patients had OA and another 81 patients were randomly selected from the age and gender matched control (non-OA) group. The mean age of patients in OA and non-OA group was 56.68 ± 09.76 and 53.57 ± 11.01 years, respectively. In OA group, 48.1% and in non-OA group 22.2% of patients were falling in category of being obese/morbidly obese. According to AHA criteria for Metabolic Syndrome, percentage of OA patients labeled to have metabolic syndrome was 58.8% as compared to 19.5% in non-OA group. Conclusion: There was a strong association of metabolic syndrome with OA and would surely make a foreground for future studies to be conducted on developing preventive strategies and ultimately reducing the morbidities and mortalities associated with Metabolic Osteoarthritis. (author)

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  15. Metabolic syndrome: what is it and what are the implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D I; Hall, W L; Williams, C M

    2005-08-01

    Obesity and overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. Although there is not yet a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that the syndrome is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia (elevated blood triacyglycerols with depressed HDL-cholesterol), abdominal obesity and hypertension. Based on existing published criteria estimates suggest that the syndrome affects a substantial percentage of the middle-aged and elderly populations of most European countries (10-20%) and confers increased risk of type 2 diabetes (2-8.8-fold) and CVD (1.5-6-fold), as well as having a marked effect on morbidity. Although the pathophysiology is incompletely understood, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are central to subsequent abnormalities in circulating glucose and lipoproteins, and vascular function that lead to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and CVD. The link between metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD, as well as inability to reverse the present rising rates of obesity, will lead to economically-unsustainable costs of health care in the next 10-20 years. Preventative strategies for metabolic syndrome are required to slow rates of progression and to reduce dependence on costly medical management. A notable development is recent evidence that shows that diet and exercise are more effective than drug treatment in preventing the development of type-2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. The LIPGENE project will investigate dietary fat quality as a strategy for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and identify food chain approaches that can support consumer attempts to alter their dietary patterns.

  16. Dietary Exercise as a Novel Strategy for the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome: Effects on Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle can cause metabolic syndrome to develop. Metabolic syndrome is associated with metabolic function in the skeletal muscle, a major consumer of nutrients. Dietary exercise, along with an adequate diet, is reported to be one of the major preventive therapies for metabolic syndrome; exercise improves the metabolic capacity of muscles and prevents the loss of muscle mass. Epidemiological studies have shown that physical activity reduces the risk of various common diseases suc...

  17. Diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Homayounfar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Risk for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke increases with the number of the metabolic risk factors. In general, a person who has the metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop heart disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone who does not have the metabolic syndrome. High-calorie-diet rodent models have contributed significantly to the analysis of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, but their phenotype varies distinctly between different studies and maybe is not very similar to a model of the metabolic syndrome in humans. We sought to create a model in this study close to the disease in humans.   Materials & Methods: Twenty male, Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the high-calorie diet group with 416 calories per 100 grams (researcher made or the control diet group for 12 weeks. Weight changes, lipid profile, glucose, insulin levels, and QUICKI index (an indicator of insulin sensitivity were measured. Weight changes were compared using the repeated measures and the independent t-test, and serum factors were compared using the independent t-test.   Results: There was a significant change in weight, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile except for HDL at the end of the study. The QUICKI index (0.34 ± 0.02 vs. 0.40 ± 0.01; p value <0.0001 suggested that insulin resistance had been created in the high-calorie diet group.   Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the ability to make diet-induced metabolic syndrome domestically.

  18. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  19. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  20. Review of Hyperuricemia as New Marker for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doaty, Sarah; Katz, James D.; Velasquez, Manuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. In recent years, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that hyperuricemia may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of a number of metabolic, hemodynamic, and systemic pathologic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiologic studies have linked hyperuricemia with each of these disorders. In some studies, therapies that lower uric acid may prevent or improve certain components of the metabolic syndrome. There is an association between uric acid and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus; the connection between other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is less clear. The mechanism for the role of uric acid in disorders other than gout is not well established but recent investigations point towards systemic inflammation induced by urate, as the major pathophysiological event common to systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:24693449

  1. Metabolic syndrome and Cancer: Do they share common molecular pathways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniou E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors including obesity, has emerged as a global health plague. A lot of epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that the metabolic syndrome is linked not only to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2 but also to cancer development and progression. In this review the potential mechanisms tying the metabolic syndrome with cancer are presented. The role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, the activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 pathway, and the induction of cytotoxic products are highlighted. Subsequent effects leading to oxidative stress, release of lipokines with signaling properties by adipocytes, development of a sustained systemic inflammation, production of inflammatory cytokines, and establishment of a tumorigenic environment are also discussed. The importance of the metabolic syndrome and obesity coupled with the deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms has trigger intensive clinical research with an aim to prevent the risk of cancer and improve outcomes. Moreover, the need for lifestyle changes with increased physical activity and improved dietary quality has been emerged as urgent health priority.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  3. Serum uric acid and appropriate cutoff value for prediction of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Lin; Gao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Xuan; Chang, Hong; Huang, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current "normal" range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or prediction of metabolic syndrome. A total of 7399 Chinese adults (2957 men and 4442 women; ≥20 years) free of metabolic syndrome were followed for 3 years. During the 3-year follow-up, 1190 normouricemic individuals developed metabolic syndrome (16.1%). After adjusting the associated variables, the top quartile of serum uric acid levels was associated with higher metabolic syndrome development compared with the bottom quartile in men (hazard ratio (HR), 1.29; puric acid to identify metabolic syndrome were 6.3 mg/dl in men and 4.9 mg/dl in women. Our results suggested that high baseline serum uric acid levels within the normal range predict future development of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up.

  4. EFFECT OF MODERATE RED WINE CONSUMPTION ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF METABOLIC SYNDROME AS A COMPLEX RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a set of clinical symptoms that are related to the development of cardiovascular disease. These abdominal obesity, which is the strongest associate with the metabolic syndrome and clinically manifested increasing waist circumference and ratio of waist to hip, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, which is reflected in the routine diagnosis of increased levels of triglycerides and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure, insulin resistance and/or various forms of glucose intolerance, proinflammatory and prothrombotic state. Epidemiological, experimental and clinical investigations have shown that diets supplemented with moderate quantities of alcoholic beverages lead to biochemical changes, that are widely regarded to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Red wine contains a naturally rich sources of antioxidants which may protect the body from oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between red wine intake and lipide profile, glucose, blood pressure and WHR index changes. Participants consumed 200 ml of red wine Frankovka modra (VÍNO-MASARYK, s.r.o., Skalica each day during supper for six weeks and were encouraged to maintain their usual diet and exercise habits. Daily intake of Frankovka modra during six weeks was associated with lower plasma levels of total cholesterol (5.66±1.12 vs 5.36±1.04, triglycerides (1.68±0.23 vs 1.47±0.66, LDL-cholesterol (3.46±0.81 vs 3.26±0.76 and glucose (5.35±0.82 vs 5.26±0.78. On the contrary we recorded higher level of „good“ HDL cholesterol (1.42±0.63 vs 1.80±0.58. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also decreased and diastolic blood pressure after six weeks of consumption of red wine decreased statistically significantly. Research results have shown that moderate consumption of red wine have a positive impact on changes waist and ultimately to the Waist to Hip Ratio. Our study demonstrates a positive association between moderate wine

  5. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

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    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelin, Ana-Mari; Mătăsaru, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents. Investigation conducted in the interval October 2010 - June 2011 in 3103 school children aged 7-18 years. After body weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured, 262 school children were found to be obese, of which 120 agreed to testing for defining the metabolic syndrome: triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, insulinemia, OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test), SGOT, SGPT, urea, creatinine, and ESR. Using IDF 2009 modified criteria, the prevalence of MS in the study series was 55.8%. The most common criteria for defining MS were: TG > or = 95th percentile, BP > or = 95th percentile, and blood glucose > or = 100mg/dl. Applying IDF 2009 criteria, 55.8% of the obese subjects presented 3-5 criteria, thus meeting the diagnostic criteria for MS in children.

  8. AMPK, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Neil B; Carling, David; Prentki, Marc; Cacicedo, José M

    2013-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, as are central adiposity, dyslipidemia, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain cancers. Regular exercise and calorie restriction have long been known to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease the prevalence of these disorders. The subsequent identification of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its activation by exercise and fuel deprivation have led to studies of the effects of AMPK on both IR and metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In this review, we evaluate this body of literature, with special emphasis on the hypothesis that dysregulation of AMPK is both a pathogenic factor for these disorders in humans and a target for their prevention and therapy.

  9. Deleted in breast cancer 1 limits adipose tissue fat accumulation and plays a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Carlos; Nin, Veronica; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Chini, Claudia C S; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L; Chini, Eduardo N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is often regarded as the primary cause of metabolic syndrome. However, many lines of evidence suggest that obesity may develop as a protective mechanism against tissue damage during caloric surplus and that it is only when the maximum fat accumulation capacity is reached and fatty acid spillover occurs into to peripheral tissues that metabolic diseases develop. In this regard, identifying the molecular mechanisms that modulate adipocyte fat accumulation and fatty acid spillover is imperative. Here we identify the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) protein as a key regulator of fat storage capacity of adipocytes. We found that knockout (KO) of DBC1 facilitated fat cell differentiation and lipid accumulation and increased fat storage capacity of adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. This effect resulted in a "healthy obesity" phenotype. DBC1 KO mice fed a high-fat diet, although obese, remained insulin sensitive, had lower free fatty acid in plasma, were protected against atherosclerosis and liver steatosis, and lived longer. We propose that DBC1 is part of the molecular machinery that regulates fat storage capacity in adipocytes and participates in the "turn-off" switch that limits adipocyte fat accumulation and leads to fat spillover into peripheral tissues, leading to the deleterious effects of caloric surplus. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Prevalence of Hypertension within the Metabolic Syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Marušiaková, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30 (2007), s. 371-372 ISSN 1420-4096. [Central European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  11. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football linemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.

  12. AMPK, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ruderman, Neil B.; Carling, David; Prentki, Marc; Cacicedo, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, as are central adiposity, dyslipidemia, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain cancers. Regular exercise and calorie restriction have long been known to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease the prevalence of these disorders. The subsequent identification of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its activation by exercise and fuel depr...

  13. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen A; Mani, Mitra V; Mani, Arya

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster ofassociated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemic of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

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    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  15. Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria

    2014-11-16

    The nutritional approach in the treatment of metabolic syndrome is a fundamental factor. It is important to raise awareness to patients about the benefits of following the treatments when you want to promote changes in lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome according to the dietary recommendations prescribed. Quasi-experimental research with 72 subjects with metabolic syndrome, held in southern Brazil. A nutritional orientation was conducted, related or not with physical exercise for three months. A 24-hour recall and two-day food record, were the reference method of dietary intake assessment. Nutritional adequacy was determined by the energy and nutrient intakes as defined by the Brazilian Food Guide Pyramid groups. Volunteers reached on average 80% of the energy consumption recommended. Protein and lipid intake was higher, and carbohydrate consumption was lower than recommended levels. There was a low intake of cereals, vegetables, dairy product and beans (pnutritional adequacy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in the survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ouf, Noran M; Jan, Mohammed M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a common complication encountered in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Affected patients develop obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is a consequence of multiple factors, particularly hormonal imbalance induced by various ALL treatments. This review aims to evaluate the risk factors and mechanisms leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms leading to insulin resistance and the associated endothelial and adipose tissue dysfunction. Future studies should also examine other possible contributing factors, such as environmental and genetic factors. Understanding these factors will help in guiding modifications of the current ALL treatment protocols in order to prevent the development of this syndrome and hence improve the quality of life of ALL survivors. Until this is achieved, clinicians should continue to identify patients at risk early and use a therapeutic approach that combines dietary restrictions and enhanced physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Plasma testosterone, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Gaëtan; Eas, Florence; Kuhn, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    The frequency of diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome rises concurrently with that of body mass index (BMI). In adult men, plasma testosterone level changes evolve inversely to that of BMI. Plasma total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone are significantly lower in adult men with a clinical and biological pattern of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than in those without such a pattern. After adjustment for confounding factors, diabetes type 2 (DT2) remains associated with a significant decrease of plasma testosterone level. The androgenic blockade, used as a treatment for disseminated prostate cancer, induces a metabolic pattern similar to MetS. In men older than 65 years, a decrease of plasma testosterone level is associated with an increased risk of stroke or of death linked to a cardiovascular event. After exclusion of contraindications, the substitution with androgens of a demonstrated hypogonadism in a obese patient, notably when obesity is associated with a pattern of MetS and/or a DT2, could have some metabolic and cardiovascular advantages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A component of metabolic syndrome?

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    Vignesh J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1935, Stein and Leventhal first described the polycystic ovary (PCO as a frequent cause of irregular ovulation in women seeking treatment for subfertility. Although the initial management was surgical with wedge resection of ovary, the availability of radioimmunoassay and increased clinical use of ultrasound made it clear that many women had the ultrasound characteristics of PCO with or without the biochemical or clinical features of PCOS and therefore that PCO were not associated with a single syndrome. The association between increased insulin resistance and PCOS is a consistent finding in all ethnic groups. Obesity is a common factor in the majority of women with PCOS. It is postulated that a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS but it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances. Weight loss, altered diet and exercise have been shown to be effective in the management of PCOS. Importance of early recognition, proper intervention, long-term monitoring and health implications needs more concern.

  20. MicroRNAs in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in development of diseases. Several studies have provided evidences showing that miRNAs affect pathways that are fundamental for metabolic control in adipocyte and skeletal muscle differentiations. Some miRNAs have been implicated in lipid, amino acid, and glucose homeostasis. This leads to the possibility that miRNAs may contribute to common metabolic diseases and point to novel therapeutic opportunities based on targeting of miRNAs. CONTENT: miRNAs have been recognized as a class of epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis, primarily because the simultaneous regulation of a large number of target genes can be accomplished by a single miRNA. Emerging evidences suggest that miRNAs play a key role in the pathological development of obesity by affecting adipocyte differentiation. miRNAs have been implicated as novel protagonists in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM, regulation of insulin production, secretion and action. They also appear to play a role in the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy and cardiac hypertrophy. SUMMARY: Involvement of miRNAs in glucose and lipid metabolism has provided strong evidences to confirm their roles as key players in regulation of complex metabolic pathways. Additionally, it indicates potential outlook for novel therapeutic strategies in the management of obesity, metabolic syndrome and DM. Further research in this field is needed to ascertain the full potential of miRNAs as novel metabolic biomarkers and potent therapeutic agents against obesity and its metabolic disorders. KEYWORDS: obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, miRNAs, adipogenesis, insulin, pancreatic cells.

  1. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, Z.; Margalef, M.; Bravo, F.I.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Muguerza, B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard

  2. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS. Melatonin levels are reduced in diseases associated with insulin resistance like MS. Melatonin improves sleep efficiency and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, partly for its role as a metabolic regulator and mitochondrial protector. We discuss in the present review the several cytoprotective melatonin actions that attenuate inflammatory responses in MS. The clinical data that support the potential therapeutical value of melatonin in human MS are reviewed.

  3. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  4. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods:

  5. Thyroid function in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: metabolic syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are two common disorders encountered in the metabolic clinic. Recently, there has been increased interest in the association between the two disorders because of the similarities between symptoms of hypothyroidism and components of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies MJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Davies,1 Katherine W Merton,1 Ujjwala Vijapurkar,2 Dainius A Balis,2 Mehul Desai2 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA Objective: Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Methods: This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1 and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2. Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L (men or <1.3 mmol/L (women; waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men, ≥88 cm (non-Asian women, >90 cm (Asian men, or >80 cm (Asian women; diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports.Results: In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus

  7. The association of metabolic syndrome markers with adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel C; Gans, Itai; Park, Min Jung; Carey, James L; Kelly, John D

    2014-07-01

    Research has associated adhesive capsulitis with diabetes mellitus but suggests that glucose-mediated injury may begin before diabetes is diagnosed. The period preceding diabetes is often marked by metabolic syndrome. We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome components (insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and the development of adhesive capsulitis using a case-control study. We retrospectively reviewed 150 consecutive adhesive capsulitis patient charts to determine the prevalence of obesity and of medications used for treating metabolic syndrome elements and compared these with previously reported nationwide values. The prevalence of anti-hyperglycemia medications in the adhesive capsulitis cohort was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-25.7%), twice the national rate of diagnosed diabetes of 7.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-8.5%). In the 20- to 39-year-old group, the prevalence of anti-hyperglycemic medications, 26.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-48.8%), was over 10 times the nationwide rate. The overall prevalence of hypertensive medication use in the adhesive capsulitis group, 33.1% (95% CI, 25.9%-41.2%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate, 21.6% (95% CI, 19.8%-23.4%). In the 40- to 64-year-old group, the prevalence of hypertensive medication use, 36.8% (95% CI, 28.6%-46.0%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate of 24.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-27.0%). The prevalence of anti-lipid medications and obesity was similar between the groups. The relationship between adhesive capsulitis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Our results confirm previous work associating hyperglycemia with adhesive capsulitis. We have also shown a possible association of hypertension, part of metabolic syndrome and a proinflammatory condition, with adhesive capsulitis, which has not been previously described. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  9. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency protects from metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chi-un; Nabuurs, Christine; Stockebrand, Malte C; Neu, Axel; Nunes, Patricia; Morellini, Fabio; Sauter, Kathrin; Schillemeit, Stefan; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marescau, Bart; Heerschap, Arend; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated creatine (Cr) serves as an energy buffer for ATP replenishment in organs with highly fluctuating energy demand. The central role of Cr in the brain and muscle is emphasized by severe neurometabolic disorders caused by Cr deficiency. Common symptoms of inborn errors of creatine synthesis or distribution include mental retardation and muscular weakness. Human mutations in l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of Cr synthesis, lead to severely reduced Cr and guanidinoacetate (GuA) levels. Here, we report the generation and metabolic characterization of AGAT-deficient mice that are devoid of Cr and its precursor GuA. AGAT-deficient mice exhibited decreased fat deposition, attenuated gluconeogenesis, reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Cr deficiency completely protected from the development of metabolic syndrome caused by diet-induced obesity. Biochemical analyses revealed the chronic Cr-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which stimulates catabolic pathways in metabolically relevant tissues such as the brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the metabolic phenotype. In summary, our results show marked metabolic effects of Cr deficiency via the chronic activation of AMPK in a first animal model of AGAT deficiency. In addition to insights into metabolic changes in Cr deficiency syndromes, our genetic model reveals a novel mechanism as a potential treatment option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Line Buch; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2018-01-01

    syndrome after liver transplantation. METHODS: The databases Medline and Scopus were searched for observational studies evaluating prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. Meta-analyses were performed based on odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable analyses...

  11. Personality as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Pouwer, François

    2012-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Personality can be defined as a stable set of behavioral characteristics of a person. In this review we systematically reviewed whether different personality characteristics are associated with the risk of having or developing the metabolic syndrome. Systematic review. In total 18 studies were included. Thirteen cross-sectional analyses, and ten longitudinal analyses were grouped according to personality constructs: hostility, anger, and Type A behavior, temperament, neuroticism, and Type D personality. Conflicting evidence was reported on persons with high hostility, neuroticism, or Type D personality scores to be associated with an increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and development. All significant findings do point in the same direction: a more negative, or hostile personality type is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its development over time. There was no clear association between personality measures and the occurrence and development of the metabolic syndrome. There is, however, a cluster of risk factors that include the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as well as a more negative prone personality style, that both predispose to the development of coronary heart disease and diabetes. Future studies should investigate the role of personality measures in the development of these conditions, while taking into account metabolic syndrome, lifestyle and socio-demographic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic syndrome: clinical concept and molecular basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia and is a common basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, a practical definition is needed. A worldwide definition that considers increased waist circumference as an essential component has been settled. Visceral fat locates upstream of the liver. Free fatty acids and glycerol derived from visceral fat reach the liver and stimulate lipoprotein synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively. The adipose tissue produces a variety of bioactive substances conceptualized as 'adipocytokines'. Overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor- seems to relate to the thrombotic and inflammatory tendency. On the other hand, adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities, is reduced in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the waist circumference criterion based on visceral fat accumulation has been adopted. The concept of this syndrome has been widely publicized, and health promotion programs based on the concept have commenced in various areas of the country. Such 'Adipo-Do-It' movement is an incentive to encourage physical exercise to reduce visceral fat and is a big challenge to prevent life-style-related diseases and CVD.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Severe Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (Hurler Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Steinberger, Julia; DeFor, Todd; Orchard, Paul; Kelly, Aaron S

    2018-02-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is a life-saving procedure, but one associated with increasing long-term cardiovascular risk requiring frequent long-term follow-up. This therapy has significantly lengthened survival in mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome), a disease with known coronary artery involvement. Metabolic syndrome-a constellation of central obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose-is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and occurs when any 3 or more of these 5 components is present within a single individual. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components is poorly defined after transplantation for Hurler syndrome. Chart review of all long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome ≥9 years of age for factors comprising the metabolic syndrome: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Sixty-three patients were evaluated, 20 of whom had components of the metabolic syndrome available for review. There was no significant difference in age at transplantation, sex, number of transplants, pretransplant radiation, or percent engraftment between those with and without these data. Median follow-up after transplantation for the 20 patients with data was 14.3 years. Only 1 (5%) patient of this group fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Fifty-three percent of the patients had 1 or more components of metabolic syndrome: the most common was high blood pressure occurring in 40%. Metabolic syndrome is uncommon in this cohort of long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome but almost half of the patients had 1 or more components of the syndrome, with high blood pressure being the most common. Further studies are needed to develop guidelines in this diagnosis as well as other nonmalignant diseases of children

  14. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend metabolic syndrome components (p for trend metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  15. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  16. Connexins, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Romain; Allagnat, Florent; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes and the related metabolic syndrome are multi system disorders that result from improper interactions between various cell types. Even though the underlying mechanism remains to be fully understood, it is most likely that both the long and the short distance range cell interactions, which normally ensure the physiologic functioning of the pancreas, and its relationships with the insulin-targeted organs, are altered. This review focuses on the short-range type of interactions that depend on the contact between adjacent cells and, specifically, on the interactions that are dependent on connexins. The widespread distribution of these membrane proteins, their multiple modes of action, and their interactions with conditions/molecules associated to both the pathogenesis and the treatment of the 2 main forms of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, make connexins an essential part of the chain of events that leads to metabolic diseases. Here, we review the present state of knowledge about the molecular and cell biology of the connexin genes and proteins, their general mechanisms of action, the roles specific connexin species play in the endocrine pancreas and the major insulin-targeted organs, under physiological and patho-physiological conditions.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: Genetic Insights into Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziki, Maen D. Abou; Mani, Arya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of inter-related and heritable metabolic traits, which collectively impart unsurpassed risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Considerable work has been done to understand the underlying disease mechanisms by elucidating its genetic etiology. Recent findings Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely utilized albeit with modest success in identifying variants that are associated with more than two metabolic traits. Another limitation of this approach is the inherent small effect of the common variants, a major barrier for dissecting their cognate pathways. Modest advances in this venue have been also made by genetic studies of kindreds at the extreme ends of quantitative distributions. These efforts have led to the discovery of a number of disease genes with large effects that underlie the association of diverse traits of this syndrome. Summary Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in identification of genetic risk factors associated with the various traits of MetS. The heterogeneity and multifactorial heritability of MetS, however, has been a challenge towards understanding the factors underlying the association of these traits. Genetic investigations of outlier kindreds or homogenous populations with high prevalence for the disease can potentially improve our knowledge of the disease pathophysiology. PMID:26825138

  18. Life-threatening metabolic alkalosis in Pendred syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Fugazzola, Laura; Evans, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna; Karet, Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Pendred syndrome, a combination of sensorineural deafness, impaired organification of iodide in the thyroid and goitre, results from biallelic defects in pendrin (encoded by SLC26A4), which transports chloride and iodide in the inner ear and thyroid respectively. Recently, pendrin has also been identified in the kidneys, where it is found in the apical plasma membrane of non-α-type intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct. Here, it functions as a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger, capable of secreting bicarbonate into the urine. Despite this function, patients with Pendred syndrome have not been reported to develop any significant acid-base disturbances, except a single previous reported case of metabolic alkalosis in the context of Pendred syndrome in a child started on a diuretic. We describe a 46-year-old female with sensorineural deafness and hypothyroidism, who presented with severe hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis during inter-current illnesses on two occasions, and who was found to be homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation (V138F) in SLC26A4. Her acid-base status and electrolytes were unremarkable when she was well. This case illustrates that, although pendrin is not usually required to maintain acid-base homeostasis under ambient condition, loss of renal bicarbonate excretion by pendrin during a metabolic alkalotic challenge may contribute to life-threatening acid-base disturbances in patients with Pendred syndrome.

  19. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic profiling of visceral adipose tissue from obese subjects with or without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candi, Eleonora; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine; Lena, Anna Maria; Schinzari, Francesca; Rodia, Giuseppe; Sica, Giuseppe; Gentileschi, Paolo; Rovella, Valentina; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry

    2018-02-08

    Obesity represents one of the most complex public health challenges and has recently reached epidemic proportions.  Obesity is also considered to be primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined as the coexistence in the same individual of several risk factors for atherosclerosis, including dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, as well as for cancer. Additionally, the presence of three of the five risk factors (abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, high fasting glucose and high blood pressure) characterizes metabolic syndrome, which has serious clinical consequences.  The current study was conducted in order to identify metabolic differences in visceral adipose tissue collected from obese (BMI 43-48) human subjects who were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, obese individuals who were metabolically healthy and non-obese healthy controls. Extensive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analyses were used to obtain the untargeted visceral adipose tissue metabolomics profiles of 481 metabolites belonging to all biochemical pathways. Our results indicated consistent increases in oxidative stress markers from the pathologically obese samples in addition to subtle markers of elevated glucose levels that may be consistent with metabolic syndrome. In the tissue derived from the pathologically obese subjects, there were significantly elevated levels of plasmalogens, which may be increased in response to oxidative changes in addition to changes in glycerol-phosphorylcholine, glycerol-phosphorylethanolamine glycerol-phosphorylserine, ceramides and sphingolipids. These data could be potentially helpful for recognizing new pathways that underlie the metabolic-vascular complications of obesity and may lead to the development of innovative targeted therapies. ©2018 The Author(s).

  1. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Won Chueh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  2. The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions among urbanised black South Africans with established coronary artery disease.

  3. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and the genesis of uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Naim M

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid stones are significantly more common among nephrolithiasis patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and/or the metabolic syndrome. The principal metabolic feature responsible for this association is an overly acidic urine, which leads to the precipitation of sparingly soluble uric acid crystals in urine and subsequent development of stones. The unduly acidic urine in uric acid stone formers is caused by a combination of excessive dietary intake of animal proteins and a defect in renal ammoniagenesis and/or excretion that leads to impaired buffering and amplifies the acidic urine caused by an increased acid excretion. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fructokinase, Fructans, Intestinal Permeability, and Metabolic Syndrome: An Equine Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Otabachian-Smith, Silvia; Ishimoto, Takuji; Cicerchi, Christina; Cheeke, Peter R.; MacIntosh, Bridgett; Hess, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Fructose is a simple sugar present in honey and fruit, but can also exist as a polymer (fructans) in pasture grasses. Mammals are unable to metabolize fructans, but certain gram positive bacteria contain fructanases and can convert fructans to fructose in the gut. Recent studies suggest that fructose generated from bacteria, or directly obtained from the diet, can induce both increased intestinal permeability and features of metabolic syndrome, especially the development of insulin resistance. The development of insulin resistance is driven in part by the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C in the liver, which results in oxidative stress in the hepatocyte. Similarly, the metabolism of fructose in the small bowel by intestinal fructokinase may lead to increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. While speculative, these observations raise the possibility that the mechanism by which fructans induce laminitis could involve intestinal and hepatic fructokinase. Further studies are indicated to determine the role of fructanases, fructose and fructokinase in equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. PMID:23439477

  6. A survey on relative frequency of metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Madani, Ali; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Akbari Parsa, Niloofar; Khosravi Darestani, Fatemeh; Hamidi Madani, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual dysfunction and affects the individual's physical and psychological well-being. It has been classified as organic and psychogenic. Men with low testosterone levels have an increased risk of ED. On the other hand, direct detrimental effect of metabolic syndrome on the endothelium, smooth muscle and nerves of the vascular system of the penis is what causes ED to develop in men with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is supposed that a large number of men with erectile dysfunction are patients who have ED, metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency as a triad. The aim of this study is determining relative frequencies of metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in a group of men with ED. Men suffering from ED who were referred to a certain private urology clinic between 22.11.2009 and 22.9.2010 were evaluated for metabolic syndrome criteria; their morning free testosterone levels were measured, and then the related questionnaires were filled out. Of 241 men with ED, the relative frequency of metabolic syndrome was 41.5%, of testosterone deficiency was 36.5% and of metabolic syndrome in combination with testosterone deficiency was 19.5%. The relative frequencies of metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men with ED seem to be significant, and it is the time that we should evaluate ED not as a disease but as a presentation of multiple underlying pathologies which needs medical attention to general health.

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM), there is a multiple set of risk factors that commonly appear together forming what is now known as the 'Metabolic Syndrome' (MS). This 'clustering' of metabolic abnormalities that occur in the same individual appear to confer substantial ...

  8. Neurobiology of the metabolic syndrome : An allostatic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of more or less related metabolic and cardiovascular derangements including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, blood and tissue dislipidemia, high blood pressure and it is often associated with neuroendocrine and immunological dysregulations. The aetiology of

  9. Uric Acid as a Cause of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jensen, Thomas; Tolan, Dean R; Sánchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. For many years, hyperuricemia was attributed to the effects of insulin resistance to reduce urinary excretion of uric acid, and it was believed that uric acid may not have any causal role in the metabolic syndrome. However, in recent years, hyperuricemia has been found to independently predict the development of diabetes. Experimental studies have also shown that hyperuricemia may mediate insulin resistance, fatty liver, and dyslipidemia in both fructose-dependent and fructose-independent models of metabolic syndrome. The mechanism for uric acid-induced insulin resistance appears to be mediated by the development of mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of insulin-dependent stimulation of nitric oxide in endothelial cells. Pilot studies in humans have reported a potential benefit of lowering serum uric acid on insulin resistance. Large clinical trials are recommended. If uric acid is shown to be a mediator of incident type 2 diabetes in humans, then lowering serum uric acid would represent a simple and inexpensive way to help prevent the development of diabetes and to slow the epidemic. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A Nutritional Approach to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Lerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS; addressing both is crucial for its management. A diet featuring the Mediterranean dietary pattern or low glycemic load has been shown to prevent and ameliorate MetS. Plant compounds, including soy protein and phytosterols, have been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Recently, phytochemicals from hops and acacia were identified as lipogenic, antiinflammatory compounds that reduced serum insulin and glucose levels in animals. A 12-week, randomized lifestyle intervention study in overweight and obese women with LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL compared a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and soy/phytosterol-based medical food to an AHA low-fat diet. The modified Mediterranean diet with medical food was superior in reducing markers of MetS and CVD risk. A subsequent,randomized 12-week study in men and women with MetS and LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL showed that supplementation with soy/phytosterol-based medical food plus phytochemicalsenhanced the benefits of a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and aerobic exercise. At the completion of the study, 43% of participants receiving medical food and phytochemicalsexhibited net resolution of MetS compared with only 22% of those on diet and exercise alone. A subanalysis of participants at high risk (MetS + LDL ≥4.14 mmol/L [160 mg/dL] indicated minimal benefit from lifestyle change alone but marked benefits with the addition of medical food and phytochemicals. Case studies illustrate long-term benefits of this supplemented lifestyle change program. In conclusion, institution of a phytochemical-enhanced lifestyle intervention promises to be a clinically useful approach in MetS management.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri Amorim de Santana

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer among men in Brazil. Recently, several studies have hypothesized a relationship between PCa and metabolic syndrome (MS. The aim here was to identify an association between MS and PCa. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, Fundação de Beneficência Hospital de Cirurgia (FBHC and Universidade Federal de Sergipe. METHODS: Laboratory and anthropometric parameters were compared between PCa patients (n = 16 and controls (n = 16. RESULTS: The PCa patients showed significantly greater frequency of MS than did the controls (p = 0.034. Serum glucose was higher and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was lower than in the controls, although without significant differences. There were significant differences in blood pressure (p = 0.029 and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.004. Pearson linear correlation showed a positive association between waist-to-hip ratio and prostate specific antigen (r = 0.584 and p = 0.028. Comparing subgroups with and without MS among the PCa patients, significant differences (p < 0.05 in weight, height, body mass index, hip circumference and lean body mass were observed, thus showing higher central obesity in those with MS. The serum glucose values were also higher in MS patients (p = 0.006, thus demonstrating that insulin resistance has a role in MS physiopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that MS may exert an influence on the development of PCa. However, it would be necessary to expand the investigation field with larger sample sizes and cohorts studied, to test the hypothesis generated in this study.

  12. Targeted High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics differentiates metabolic syndrome from obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fanyi; Xu, Mengyang; Bruno, Richard S; Ballard, Kevin D; Zhu, Jiangjiang

    2017-04-01

    Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i.e. elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in plasma samples from obese men ( n = 29; BMI = 35.5 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 ) and women ( n = 40; 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m 2 ), of which 26 met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (17 men and 9 women). Compared to obese individuals without metabolic syndrome, univariate statistical analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that a specific group of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (i.e. purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism) were associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on the PLS-DA models showed excellent areas under the curve (0.85 and 0.96, for metabolites only model and enhanced metabolites model, respectively), high specificities (0.86 and 0.93), and good sensitivities (0.71 and 0.91). Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that metabolic profiles can be used to further differentiate metabolic syndrome with 3 versus 4-5 metabolic syndrome criteria. Collectively, these findings support targeted metabolomics approaches to distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity alone, and to stratify metabolic syndrome status based on the number of criteria met. Impact statement We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Aggressive Prostate Cancer at Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Simona; Tenaglia, Raffaele L

    2017-07-01

    Links between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy are emerging. The aim of the research was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and aggressive prostate malignancy, at initial diagnosis, without the influence of hormonal treatment. Retrospective analysis of 133 patients with prostate tumor diagnosis between 2007 and 2009 was conducted. Patients with prostate cancer were subdivided in 2 groups according to Gleason score: Gleason score≥7 as high-grade prostate tumor (Group 1) and Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer (OR 1.87, pmetabolic syndrome were more likely to present with more aggressive prostate carcinoma vs. patients without metabolic syndrome. Further research should elucidate these relations in larger samples to confirm these associations and to stabilize future prevention and therapeutic strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.......This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  15. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of key oxysterols, endocannabinoids, and ceramides: variations in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutemberezi, Valentin; Masquelier, Julien; Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids are three families of bioactive lipids suggested to be involved in obesity and metabolic syndrome. To facilitate the quantification of these potentially interconnected lipids, we have developed and validated a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method allowing for their simultaneous quantification from tissues. Sample purification is of great importance when quantifying oxysterols due to the potential artifactual conversion of cholesterol into oxysterols. Therefore, we developed a novel solid-phase extraction procedure and demonstrated that it allowed for good recoveries of the three families of analytes without artifactual oxidation of cholesterol. The oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids and their respective internal standards were chromatographically separated by HPLC and ionized using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source of an LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The repeatability and bias were within the acceptance limits for all 23 lipids of interest. The sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ)) and specificity of the method allowed us to quantify all the analytes in the liver and adipose tissue of control and high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. We found that 16 weeks of high-fat diet strongly impacted the hepatic levels of several oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on the variations of the hepatic levels of these 23 bioactive lipids allowed differentiating the lean mice from the obese mice.

  16. [ASSOCIATION OF AGE OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, B B; Selyatitskaya, V G; Karapetyan, A R; Lutov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 253 men aged 22 to 74 years. Was shown that at the end of the first period of middle age the accumulation of adipose tissue was enhanced that was associated with the change of dominance from the gynoid to the android type of obesity. The most pronounced increase in the frequency of occurrence of individual components and the overall metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in men in the second period of middle age with a following decrease in the frequency such components as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia in elderly age. In the all three age groups the value of the index of visceral obesity was significantly higher in men with android type of obesity compared with gynoid. Thus, the men with gynoid compared with android type of obesity have a lower risk of development metabolic syndrome in all age groups.

  17. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP......) canonical (TRPC), vanilloid (TRPV), and melastatin (TRPM) channels, have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, disruption of TRP channel expression or function may account for the observed increased cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome patients. TRPV1 regulates...... adipogenesis and inflammation in adipose tissues, whereas TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPV1, and TRPM7 are involved in vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. Other members of the TRP family are involved in regulation of insulin secretion, lipid composition, and atherosclerosis. Although...

  18. Increased Plasma Citrulline in Mice Marks Diet-Induced Obesity and May Predict the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Manuela; Dahlhoff, Christoph; Giesbertz, Pieter; Eidens, Mena K.; de Wit, Nicole; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Müller, Michael; Daniel, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF) feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline) is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the “diabetic fingerprint” of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic impairments. PMID

  19. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: Cardiovascular Protection in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C Deedwania

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that the metabolic syndrome, a constellation of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and the development of Type 2 diabetes. Consequently, timely identification and management of all components of the metabolic syndrome is warranted. In particular, guidelines have emphasised the importance of targeting elevated blood pressure (BP and dyslipidaemia as a method of reducing global cardiovascular risk.Findings from the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE trial show that the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan, reduces cardiovascular events and the development of Type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. This profile is being further explored in the ongoing Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR trial.Given the potential advantages to patients and physicians of tackling more than one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, antihypertensive agents such as valsartan would appear to be an important addition to the management of vulnerable patients at high risk of cardiovascular events.

  20. Worksite health screening programs for predicting the development of Metabolic Syndrome in middle-aged employees: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jong-Dar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS management programs conventionally focus on the adults having MetS. However, risk assessment for MetS development is also important for many adults potentially at risk but do not yet fulfill MetS criteria at screening. Therefore, we conducted this follow-up study to explore whether initial screening records can be efficiently applied on the prediction of the MetS occurrence in healthy middle-aged employees. Methods Utilizing health examination data, a five-year follow-up observational study was conducted for 1384 middle-aged Taiwanese employees not fulfilling MetS criteria. Data analyzed included: gender, age, MetS components, uric acid, insulin, liver enzymes, sonographic fatty liver, hepatovirus infections and lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of risk for MetS development. The synergistic index (SI values and their confidence intervals of risk factor combinations were calculated; and were used to estimate the interacting effects of coupling MetS components on MetS development. Results Within five years, 13% (175 out of 1384 participants fulfilled MetS criteria. The ORs for MetS development among adults initially having one or two MetS components were 2.8 and 7.3, respectively (both p Conclusion MetS component count and combination can be used in predicting MetS development for participants potentially at risk. Worksite MetS screening programs simultaneously allow for finding out cases and for assessing risk of MetS development.

  1. Relationship of tooth brushing to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Kenji; Furuta, Michiko; Takeshita, Toru; Suma, Shino; Shinagawa, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2018-02-08

    To examine the effect of tooth brushing on the development of metabolic syndrome, including assessment of periodontal status, in middle-aged adults. This 5-year follow-up retrospective study was performed in 3722 participants (2897 males and 825 females) aged 35-64 years who underwent both medical check-ups and dental examinations. Metabolic components included obesity, elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and reduced high-density lipoprotein. Tooth brushing frequency was assessed using a questionnaire. Periodontal disease was defined as having at least one site with a pocket depth of ≥4 mm. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between tooth brushing frequency at the baseline examination and the development of metabolic syndrome (≥3 components). During follow-up, 11.1% of participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for potential confounders including periodontal disease, participants with more frequent daily tooth brushing tended to have significantly lower odds of developing metabolic syndrome (P for trend = 0.01). The risk of development of metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in participants brushing teeth ≥3 times/day than in those brushing teeth ≤1 time/day (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.45-0.92). Frequent daily tooth brushing was associated with lower risk of development of metabolic syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG...... months the participants' BMI had increased from 0.5 to 1.57 standard deviation (SD) above the 50th percentile for age and gender (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to include all the aspects of MetS in a sample of drug-naive adolescents followed over the first 12 months...... after starting SGA treatment. A significant shift in all parameters (except BP) toward MetS was found, presumably due to SGA use. Therefore, these adolescents will need proper follow-up, consisting of not only monitoring but also preventive measures to diminish these effects of SGA use....

  3. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. Keywords: epigenetics, metabolic syndrome, fetal programming, maternal, pregnancy complications

  4. Metabolic syndrome in HIV infected adults in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska-Płońska, Magdalena; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Rogalski, Paweł; Łucejko, Mariusz; Flisiak, Robert

    2018-01-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is usually diagnosed based on presence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). Whether HIV is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than general population remains unclear. Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the population of HIV infected adults and its association with clinical, virological and biochemical features. Two hundred and seventy HIV infected Caucasian adult patients were enrolled in the study and evaluated based on clinical records in years 2013-2015. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 60 out of 270 (22%) patients, 47 (24%) males and 13 (17%) females, mostly (72%) aged above 40 years. Percentage of patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome in specific age groups in comparison to general Polish population for females aged metabolic syndrome in MS population were found as follows: BMI > 30 kg/m2 in 29%, waist circumference exceeding 94cm in men and 80cm in woman - 87.5%, TG ≥ 150 mg/dL - 82%, HDL 100 mg/dL - 42%. In the stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR: 1.052, 95% CI: 1.018 - 1.088, p=0.003) and nadir CD4 metabolic syndrome in HIV infected population is higher than in general Polish population. Age and low nadir CD4 were found to be associated with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Pilz, S.; Koopman, A.D.; Rauh, S.P.; Pouwer, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Elders, P.J.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices in an apparently healthy Nigerian ... ABSTRACT. Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may ..... from The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination. Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine ...

  7. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... and HOMA‑IR. The HDL‑C was found to be lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome but not statistically significant (P = 0.48). Antioxidant levels. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidant levels of the research participants are shown in Table 3. The subjects with metabolic syndrome had significantly ...

  8. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  9. Consequences of metabolic syndrome on postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban; Fuks, David; Chopinet, Sophie; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Cesaretti, Manuela; Costi, Renato; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Smadja, Claude; Gayet, Brice

    2017-05-07

    To analyze immediate postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy regarding metabolic syndrome. In two academic centers, postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2002 to 2014 were prospectively recorded. Patients presenting with metabolic syndrome [defined as at least three criteria among overweight (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m²), diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia] were compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. Among 270 consecutive patients, 29 (11%) presented with metabolic syndrome. In univariable analysis, patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (69.4 years vs 62.5 years, P = 0.003) and presented more frequently with soft pancreas (72% vs 22%, P = 0.0001). In-hospital morbidity (83% vs 71%) and mortality (7% vs 6%) did not differ in the two groups so as pancreatic fistula rate (45% vs 30%, P = 0.079) and severity of pancreatic fistula ( P = 0.257). In multivariable analysis, soft pancreas texture ( P = 0.001), pancreatic duct diameter 30 kg/m² ( P = 0.041) were identified as independent risk factors of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy, but not metabolic syndrome. In spite of logical reasoning and appropriate methodology, present series suggests that metabolic syndrome does not jeopardize postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Therefore, definition of metabolic syndrome seems to be inappropriate and fatty pancreas needs to be assessed with an international consensual histopathological classification.

  10. Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were used. Microalbuminuria was determined using 24-hour urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g). Result: Group A (obese diabetics with the metabolic syndrome) had mean ALB: CR ratio of 48±3 mg/g. The difference between the mean ALB: CR ratio of Group A (48±3 ...

  11. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  12. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular ...

  13. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  14. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients. ... Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. ... Results: By using the NCEP-ATP III criteria 26 out of 91 patients (28.6%) had the metabolic syndrome. MS was ...

  15. Androgenic Hormones In Relation To Parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome in male patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M. A.; Soliman, S. E.; Semna, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Back ground and aim of the work :The numerous deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome are being investigated throughout the medical community. Hypo-androgenomes in men is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, even it may predict the metabolic syndrome, but the association with the metabolic syndrome it self using an accepted definition has not been described. A group 40 men defined as metabolic syndrome were assessed to investigate the relationship between androgenic hormones and parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (Author)

  16. Nutrient-Induced Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role in the Development of Metabolic Aberration and Ovarian Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank

    2015-07-01

    A pathophysiology paradigm shift has emerged with the discovery that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state. Despite the dogma that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia of insulin resistance is the promoter of hyperandrogenism, physiological insulin infusion has no effect on androgen levels in PCOS. The dogma also does not explain the cause of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction in the 30 to 50% of women with PCOS who are of normal weight and lack insulin resistance. Inflammation is the underpinning of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may also be the cause of insulin resistance when present in PCOS. The origin of inflammation in PCOS has been ascribed to excess abdominal adiposity or frank obesity. However, nutrients such as glucose and saturated fat can incite inflammation from circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS independent of excess adiposity and insulin resistance, and can also promote atherogenesis. Hyperandrogenism activates MNC in the fasting state to increase MNC sensitivity to nutrients, and is a potential mechanism for initiating inflammation in PCOS. However, chronic ovarian androgen suppression does not reduce inflammation in normal-weight women with PCOS. Direct exposure of ovarian theca cells to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro increases androgen production. These findings may be corroborated in vivo with anti-inflammatory therapy to normal-weight insulin-sensitive women with PCOS without abdominal adiposity to observe for amelioration of ovarian dysfunction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Fat-soluble micronutrients and metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. MetS prevalence has been associated with diet inadequacy. Conversely, the cumulative incidence of MetS has been inversely associated with a Mediterranean-style diet that includes many different health-beneficial nutrients. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet could reduce or at least stabilize metabolic risk factors. Recent findings Low serum level of fat-soluble micronutrients, such as carotenoids, vitamin (vit) A, D and E, has been linked to MetS. Fat-soluble micronutrients could contribute to prevent MetS thanks to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (vit E, carotenoids) or to their central role as hormone regulators (vit D) and/or lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis sensors (vit D and E). Summary This review summarizes recent epidemiological studies linking fat-soluble micronutrients to MetS and highlights new evidence on their mechanisms of actions. PMID:28858890

  18. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors...... metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait...... and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664...

  19. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  20. Rett syndrome: Neurologic and metabolic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagebeuk, E.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It was described in 1954 by Andreas Rett, an Australian neuropediatrician. After a period of apparently normal development, affected patients experience loss of speech and purposeful handuse, stereotypic

  1. Omega-3, Metabolic Syndrome, and Schizophrenia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Roudbaraki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, schizophrenia is associated with the components of metabolic syndrome. This mental disorder has such manifestations as visceral obesity, impaired lipid metabolism, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. The prevalence rate of schizophrenia varies in different countries. There is a body of evidence about the higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the schizophrenic patients with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the prevention or treatment of this condition in sthese patients is a matter of fundamental importance. Fish oils, commonly used by people, contain omega-3 fatty acid. Omega-3 has been demonstrated to be effective in the patients with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Dual probiotic strains suppress high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Young; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-01-14

    To investigate the effect of novel probiotics on the clinical characteristics of high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats aged 4 wk were fed a 70% w/w high-fructose diet (n = 27) or chow diet (n = 9) for 3 wk to induce metabolic syndrome, the rats were then randomized into groups and administered probiotic [Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032] at 10(9) cfu/d or 10(10) cfu/d or placebo by oral gavage for 3 wk. Food intake and body weight were measured once a week. After 6 wk, the rats were fasted for 12 h, then anesthetized with diethyl ether and sacrificed. Blood samples were taken from the inferior vena cava for plasma analysis of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total-cholesterol, triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using mouse-specific Taqman probe sets to assess genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Target gene expression was normalized to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Rodents fed a high-fructose diet developed clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome including increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels, as well as increased liver mass and liver lipids compared to chow fed controls. Probiotic treatment (L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032) at high (10(10) cfu/d) or low dosage (10(9) cfu/d) lowered plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and oxidative stress levels. Only high-dose probiotic treatment reduced liver mass and liver cholesterol. Probiotic treatment reduced lipogenesis via down-regulation of SREBP1, FAS and SCD1 mRNA levels and increased β-oxidation via up-regulation of PPARα and CPT2 mRNA levels. Probiotic L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032 combined suppressed the clinical characteristics of high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome

  3. Metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney, and cardiovascular diseases: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-03-07

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  5. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouby, Sven O

    2010-09-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as compared to women of normal weight. Modern types of hormonal contraceptives are safe and provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    inflammation and the development of the metabolic syndrome

  7. The role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Solak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis patients have increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is a metabolic marker associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Uric acid levels increase in psoriasis as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Chronic plaque psoriasis patients who presented to the dermatology outpatient clinics in a university-affiliated training and research hospital and age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were included in the study. Waist circumference, height and weight measurements in both groups were recorded, and body mass index was calculated. Serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels were determined. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance status were evaluated. The findings were compared statistically. Results: Seventy patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (37 females, 33 males and 60 healthy individuals (31 females, 29 males were included in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and uric acid levels were found to be higher in the psoriasis group than in control group (p=0.003 and p=0.008, respectively. Serum uric acid levels and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores were higher in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without metabolic syndrome when psoriasis patients were evaluated separately (p=0.041, p=0.024, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between abdominal circumference and serum uric acid levels in psoriasis patients (p=0.003, r=0.350 Conclusion: The results of this study show that uric acid levels are elevated in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was also significantly higher. Hence, patients should be followed up for development

  8. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  9. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  10. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  11. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yin Ngai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities related to central adiposity and insulin resistance. Its importance is increasingly recognized as it associates with increased risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. These metabolic aberrations of MetS may lead to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men. A 26.5%–55.6% prevalence of MetS in men with LUTS was reported in worldwide studies. Although the exact biological pathway is not clear yet, insulin resistance, increased visceral adiposity, sex hormone alterations and cellular inflammatory reactions played significant roles in the related pathophysiological processes. Clinician should recognize the cardiovascular and metabolic impacts of MetS in men with LUTS, early risk factors optimization and use of appropriate medical therapy may possibly alter or slower the progression of LUTS/BPH, and potentially avoid unnecessary morbidities and mortalities from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases for those men.

  14. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultink, I E M; Turkstra, F; Diamant, M; Dijkmans, B A C; Voskuyl, A E

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the relationship between metabolic syndrome score (MetS score) and disease characteristics and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in women with SLE. Demographic and clinical data were collected in 141 female SLE patients. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was defined by a modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP/ATP III) definition. Metabolic syndrome was defined as MetS score >or= 3. Twenty-three (16%) of the 141 SLE patients (mean age 39+/-12 years, mean disease duration 6.2+/-6.6 years) fulfilled the criteria of the metabolic syndrome. The mean MetS score was significantly higher in patients with SLE and a history of cardiovascular events (CVEs) than in those without a previous CVE. In linear multiple regression analysis, a high MetS score was significantly associated with previous intravenous methylprednisolone use, older age, higher ESR, higher C3 levels and higher serum creatinine levels. In our female SLE patients, a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was found as compared to healthy women in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Independent risk factors for high MetS score in patients with SLE are previous treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, renal insufficiency, older age, higher ESR and higher C3 levels. These results suggest that assessment of the metabolic syndrome in patients with SLE might be important to identify subgroups of patients that are at disproportional high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

  16. Development of a Standardized Job Description for Healthcare Managers of Metabolic Syndrome Management Programs in Korean Community Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjin Lee, RN, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: A job description for healthcare managers may provide basic data essential for the development of a job training program for healthcare managers working in community health promotion programs.

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities. PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline databases were searched to find papers presenting MetSyn and MetSyn component data for 18–30 year olds who were apparently healthy, free of disease, and MetSyn was assessed using either the harmonized, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII, American Heart Association/National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (AHA/NHBLI, or International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetSyn. After reviewing returned articles, 26,609 participants' data from 34 studies were included in the analysis and the data were pooled. MetSyn was present in 4.8–7% of young adults. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent MetSyn component (26.9–41.2%, followed by elevated blood pressure (16.6–26.6%, abdominal obesity (6.8–23.6%, atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as raised triglycerides (8.6–15.6%, and raised fasting glucose (2.8–15.4%. These findings highlight that MetSyn is prevalent in young adults. Establishing the reason why low HDL is the most prevalent component may represent an important step in promoting primary prevention of MetSyn and reducing the incidence of subsequent clinical disease.

  18. Prognostic value of metabolic syndrome for the development of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villegas, Elsy Aidé; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Flores-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Márquez González, Horacio; Villa-Romero, Antonio Rafael

    2015-04-08

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. In lupus patients there is an increased cardiovascular risk due to an accelerated atherogenesis. Furthermore, Metabolic Syndrome (MS) adds an independent risk for developing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in the population. Therefore, it is important to determine whether lupus patients have an increased risk of developing Cardiovascular Disease in the presence of MS. To estimate the prognostic value of MS in the incidence of cardiovascular events in a cohort of premenopausal patients with SLE. Cohort study in 238 patients was carried out. Clinical, biochemical, dietetic and anthropometric evaluations were performed. Patients were classified according to the prevalence of MS in 2001. There was a patient follow-up from 2001 to 2008. In 2008, after studying the records, we obtained the "cases" (patients with CVD) and the "no cases" (patients without CVD). The basal prevalence of MS in the cohort was of 21.8% (ATPIII). The MS component with the highest prevalence in the population studied in 2001 was low HDL-Cholesterol (<50mg/dL) with a prevalence of 55.0%. The cumulative incidence of CVD in the group with MS was 17.3% and in the group without MS it was 7.0% with a Relative Risk (RR) of 2.48 (1.12-5.46) and p<0.05. In the multivariable analysis it was noted that MS is a predictive factor of CVD. We observed the prognostic value of MS for an increased risk of cardiovascular damage in premenopausal patients with lupus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic syndrome components as markers to prognosticate the risk of developing chronic kidney disease: evidence-based study with 6492 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodian, Davoud; Khajavi-Rad, Abolfazl; Avan, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Nematy, Mohsen; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Emamian, Marzieh; Sadeghzade, Mahsa; Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Mohammadi, Maryam; Mousavi, Mina; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Moohebati, Mohsen; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2015-06-01

    The global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) appears to be increasing and the impact of this condition on potential comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease is high. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also a potential comorbidity of MetS but the method of screening for this is somewhat controversial. Thus, predictive markers that can predict the risk of developing CKD are warranted for identification of patients with MetS at an increased risk. We investigated the occurrence of CKD in 6492 individuals, either with or without MetS. Our results showed that the prevalence of CKD was markedly higher in those individuals with MetS, and increased progressively with the number of MetS components and age. Waist circumference, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly (pcreatinine, and were related to the increased risk of CKD (eg, OR 1.293 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.52; p=0.002)). The relative risk of CKD remained statistically significant for uric acid following multivariate analyses and adjusting for MetS-associated factors. Our data demonstrated the association of MetS components with CKD in our population and revealed that susceptibility to CKD was increased with the number of defining features of MetS. These findings prompt prospective studies to determine the impact of preventing and detecting MetS on the risk of developing CKD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Preventing the development of metabolic syndrome in people with psychotic disorders--difficult, but possible: experiences of staff working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Anette; Karlsson, Maria; Foldemo, Anniqa; Wärdig, Rikard; Hultsjö, Sally

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health staffs' experiences of assisting people with psychotic disorders to implement lifestyle changes in an effort to prevent metabolic syndrome. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 health care professionals working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The results illustrate that implementation of lifestyle changes among people with psychotic disorders was experienced as difficult, but possible. The greatest obstacles experienced in this work were difficulties due to the reduction of cognitive functions associated with the disease. Guidelines available to staff in order to help them identify and prevent physical health problems in the group were not always followed and the content was not always relevant. Staff further described feelings of uncertainty about having to motivate people to take anti-psychotic medication while simultaneously being aware of the risks of metabolic deviations. Nursing interventions focusing on organising daily routines before conducting a more active prevention of metabolic syndrome, including information and practical support, were experienced as necessary. The importance of healthy eating and physical activity needs to be communicated in such a way that it is adjusted to the person's cognitive ability, and should be repeated over time, both verbally and in writing. Such efforts, in combination with empathic and seriously committed community-based social support, were experienced as having the best effect over time. Permanent lifestyle changes were experienced as having to be carried out on the patient's terms and in his or her home environment.

  1. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  2. Metabolic syndrome: аrguments pro's and con's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Uchamprina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of impaired glucose metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite numerous studies on this subject, the terminology and the definition of MS as well as borderline values for its criteria are not defined. From the standpoint of public health and clinical practice, the early detection of MS is highly important in order to prevent the development of CVD and T2D. This review article reflects the stages of development of the concept of MS, expresses the opinion of the authors with respect to the modern view of the problem and analyzes of contemporary arguments "for" and "against" the use of MS diagnosis in clinical practice.

  3. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the metabolic syndrome: is the assessment of the metabolic syndrome stable over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Wright, Bruce R; Burns, G Leonard; Parks, Craig D; Strand, Paul S

    2011-02-01

    Without verification of longitudinal measurement invariance, researchers cannot be certain whether observed change in the metabolic syndrome reflects true change or changes in assessment or structure of the construct over time. This research tested longitudinal measurement invariance of a 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome during the course of 6 years. Tests of longitudinal measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar) were conducted on 604 men and women who participated in the Spokane Heart Study from 1996 to 2006. Metabolic syndrome indicators included body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose. Sequential configural and metric invariance models demonstrated adequate model fit, but the scalar invariance model led to a decrement in fit. Therefore, the theoretical framework of the syndrome and the relationships between the syndrome construct and the indicators appear to be equivalent over time. However, observed values of the metabolic syndrome indicators may differ across time when there is a constant level of the syndrome. Because longitudinal invariance was not fully demonstrated, interpretation of change in the metabolic syndrome over time may be misleading because change may be partly attributable to measurement properties of the indicators. However, a cross-sectional 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome is supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  5. Vascular affection in relation to oxidative DNA damage in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, Rokayaa; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Khalil, Noha; Abdel Atty, Sahar; Sabra, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has become an important issue affecting both males and females. Obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration has been used to express oxidation status. Twenty-seven obese patients with metabolic syndrome, 25 obese patients without metabolic syndrome and 31 healthy subjects were included in our study. They were subjected to full history and clinical examination; fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hour post prandial blood sugar (2HPP), lipid profile, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and carotid duplex, A/B index and tibial diameters were all assessed. There was a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.027) in diameter of the right anterior tibial artery among the studied groups, with decreased diameter of the right anterior tibial artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome; the ankle brachial index revealed a lower index in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. There was a statistically insignificant difference ( p = 0.668) in the 8-oxodG in the studied groups. In obese patients with metabolic syndrome there was a positive correlation between 8-oxodG and total cholesterol and LDL. Urinary 8-oxodG is correlated to total cholesterol and LDL in obese patients with metabolic syndrome; signifying its role in the mechanism of dyslipidemia in those patients. Our study highlights the importance of anterior tibial artery diameter measurement and ankle brachial index as an early marker of atherosclerosis, and how it may be an earlier marker than carotid intima-media thickness.

  6. Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients--either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.

  7. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  8. Early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the intestinal uric acid transporter SLC2A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBosch, Brian J; Kluth, Oliver; Fujiwara, Hideji; Schürmann, Annette; Moley, Kelle

    2014-08-07

    Excess circulating uric acid, a product of hepatic glycolysis and purine metabolism, often accompanies metabolic syndrome. However, whether hyperuricaemia contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome or is merely a by-product of other processes that cause this disorder has not been resolved. In addition, how uric acid is cleared from the circulation is incompletely understood. Here we present a genetic model of spontaneous, early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the enterocyte urate transporter Glut9 (encoded by the SLC2A9 gene). Glut9-deficient mice develop impaired enterocyte uric acid transport kinetics, hyperuricaemia, hyperuricosuria, spontaneous hypertension, dyslipidaemia and elevated body fat. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can reverse the hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. These data provide evidence that hyperuricaemia per se could have deleterious metabolic sequelae. Moreover, these findings suggest that enterocytes may regulate whole-body metabolism, and that enterocyte urate metabolism could potentially be targeted to modulate or prevent metabolic syndrome.

  9. [Metabolic syndrome in workers of a second level hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiew-Quirós, Alvaro; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Gallardo-Vela, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    People with metabolic syndrome (20-25 % of the world population) are three times more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke and twice as likely to die from this cause. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in workers of a second level hospital. This was a cross-sectional study with 160 healthcare workers in Monterrey, México. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were obtained to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were carried out in order to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic and occupational variables. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among workers was 38.1 %. Nurses were more affected with 32.8 %. Overweight and obesity were prevalent in 78 %. In the logistic regression there was a significant association between metabolic syndrome and not having partner (OR 3.98, 95 % CI [1.54-10.25]) and obesity (OR 4.69, 95 % CI [1.73-12.73]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity is alarming. Appropriate and prompt actions must be taken in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  10. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

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    Suruchi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002 and women (P for trend = 0.0001. In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24 after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines.

  11. High frequency of pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes and metabolic syndrome among overweight Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; Sabbah, Muhammad; Muati, Basel; Dakwar, Nachle; Kashkosh, Hesham; Minuchin, Oscar; Vardi, Pnina; Raz, Itamar

    2005-03-01

    Increased insulin resistance, which is associated with obesity, is believed to underlie the development of metabolic syndrome. It is also known to increase the risk for the development of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Both conditions are recognized as causing a high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and different glucose intolerance states in healthy, overweight Arab individuals attending a primary healthcare clinic in Israel. We randomly recruited 95 subjects attending a primary healthcare clinic who were healthy, overweight (body mass index > 27) and above the age of 40. Medical and family history was obtained and anthropometric parameters were measured. Blood chemistry and oral glucose tolerance test were performed after overnight fasting. Twenty-seven percent of the subjects tested had undiagnosed type 2 diabetes according to WHO criteria, 42% had impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and only 31% had a normal OGTT. Metabolic syndrome was found in 48% according to criteria of the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program, with direct correlation of this condition with BMI and insulin resistance calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk for abnormality in glucose metabolism, and the more metabolic syndrome components the subject had the higher was the risk for abnormal glucose metabolism. Metabolic syndrome predicted the result of OGTT with 0.67 sensitivity and 0.78 specificity. When combined with IFG, sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity 0.86 for predicting the OGTT result. According to our initial evaluation approximately 70% of the overweight Arab population in Israel has either metabolic syndrome or abnormal glucose metabolism, indicating that they are at high risk to develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This population is likely to benefit from an intervention program.

  12. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

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    Rinki Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1 severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2 pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3 severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  13. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ok; Bak, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of Korean adults to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria as a marker for early-stage chronic kidney disease. A total of 8,497 adults (3,625 men and 4,872 women) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012 were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to recommendation from a joint interim statement of international organizations published in 2009. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. The association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria was evaluated using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates while considering sampling weights and the complex survey design. The prevalence of microalbuminuriain subjects with metabolic syndrome was 11% for men and 14.4% for women, whereas the prevalence in subjects without metabolic syndrome was 3.1% for men and 6.7% for women. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuriain both women (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 3.88) and men (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 4.27). All components of the metabolic syndrome were associated with a significantly increased risk of microalbuminuria with the strongest association for high blood pressure. The risk of microalbuminuria increased in a dose-dependent manner (P-value for trend metabolic syndrome components observed for both sexes. These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease from an early stage.

  14. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Knee Osteoarthritis

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    Shahpoor Maddah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002. The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001. In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI, however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.

  15. The metabolic syndrome : does it exist in Africans in transition in the Northwest Province / Annamarie Kruger

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie

    2001-01-01

    Background: The term 'metabolic syndrome' is used to describe the clustering in a person of risk factors 'which is associated with the chronic diseases of lifestyle. Considerable evidence exists that insulin resistance is the underlying common factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome. At present, urbanisation occurs very rapidly in the South African population. According to the literature urbanisation is accompanied by the adoption of Western lifestyles and dietary habits. Ther...

  16. Trace element metabolism in children with Menkes' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Horn, N.; Mikkelsen, M.; Tygstrup, I.

    1976-04-01

    Menkes' syndrome, or the kinky hair syndrome, is a hereditary, progressive disease caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The basic defect has been attributed to an insufficient intestinal absorption of copper. Observation of typical signs of Menkes' syndrome in neonates, however, indicates the possible presence of a prenatal defect in the metabolism of copper. Very little reliable information is available on the distribution of copper and other trace elements in foetuses of different age. The sampling of tissue from a foetus suspected of Menkes' disease was therefore supplemented by sampling a number of controls of different gestational age. The analysis of samples from a total of 7 foetuses of 15-21 weeks' gestational age was carried out by neutron activation analysis with radio-chemical separation, so that simultaneous determination of Cu, As, Se, and Mn was achieved. The analytical procedure was investigated by the Analysis of Precision, and its performance characteristics was ascertained. Accuracy was checked by the analysis of Standard Reference Materials. As previously described elsewhere, the distribution of copper among the organs analyzed from the foetus expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, is entirely different from the distribution observed in the corresponding controls. In particular, the concentration in the liver was much lower, whereas all other tissues had concentrations above normal. Similar differences were not found for the concentrations of As, Se, and Mn in the foetuses investigated, and the distribution of these elements was not very different from that in adults. These observations do not support the hypothesis of defective intestinal transport of copper as the primary cause of Menkes' syndrome, nor do they indicate an inadequate placental transport of copper to the foetus. Clearly, a search must not be made for a metabolic defect that also affects the intrafoetal transport. (author)

  17. [Clinical analysis of metabolic syndrome in vertiginous diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Sawai, Yachiyo; Shirota, Shiho; Shimizu, Naoki; Murai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome and vertigo, we measured waist circumference, plasma glucose, triglycerides and blood pressure in 333 subjects aged 20-79 years with vertigo. We found overall metabolic syndrome prevalence defined by Japanese diagnostic criteria to be 13.2%, similar to that in other national surveys by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The 6-fold higher prevalence in men over women exceeded that of other reports, however. The highest frequency was in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) disorders, suggesting that conditions such as VBI in men with vertigo could involve metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for vertigo incidence.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components based on a harmonious definition among adults in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Brini O

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Otmane El Brini,1 Omar Akhouayri,1 Allal Gamal,2 Abdelhalem Mesfioui,1 Bouchra Benazzouz1 1Laboratory of Genetic, Neuroendocrinology and Biotechnology, University Ibn Tofail, Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra, Morocco; 2Diagnostic center, Rabat, Morocco Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases that includes central obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors in a representative sample of Morocco adults using the 2009 joint interim statement definition. Patients and methods: We analyzed data of 820 patients aged 19 years and older. For metabolic syndrome diagnosis, we used the criteria of the recently published joint interim statement (2009. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 35.73% among all adults, 18.56% among men, and 40.12% among women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 50–59 years. The most common abnormality highlights abdominal obesity (49.15%. Also, half of patients have one or two risk factors for developing this syndrome. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors is high among adults in Morocco, especially in women. The most prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in our population was abdominal obesity. Keywords: central obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, triglyceride, cholesterol

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components based on a harmonious definition among adults in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Brini, Otmane; Akhouayri, Omar; Gamal, Allal; Mesfioui, Abdelhalem; Benazzouz, Bouchra

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases that includes central obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors in a representative sample of Morocco adults using the 2009 joint interim statement definition. We analyzed data of 820 patients aged 19 years and older. For metabolic syndrome diagnosis, we used the criteria of the recently published joint interim statement (2009). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 35.73% among all adults, 18.56% among men, and 40.12% among women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 50-59 years. The most common abnormality highlights abdominal obesity (49.15%). Also, half of patients have one or two risk factors for developing this syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors is high among adults in Morocco, especially in women. The most prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in our population was abdominal obesity.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  1. Relation between Hormonal Disorders and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

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    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade plenty of the researches dedicated to the problem of hypothyroidism were published, that radically changed views to the value of thyroid pathology on the whole. Neurohumoral changes are considered as a nosotropic factor of hypothyroidism development in persons with metabolic syndrome (MS. Aim of the research is to study the features of hormonal disorders and their correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. The study involved 80 patients with primary hypothyroidism: 61 had metabolic syndrome and 19 did not have metabolic syndrome. Results. Statistically significant increased levels of leptin, insulin, cortisol, C-peptide were revealed in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome while the most marked changes were found in patients with multiple metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions. The interrelations between hyperleptinemia and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin levels, thyroid-stimulating hormone, index HOMA were determined indicating the modulating role of chronic hyperglycemia, hormonal disorders and insulin resistance in the expression and realization of the biological action of leptin in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Glycemic index in the management of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Juanola Falgarona, Martí

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) are one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. It has been proposed that high glycemic index (GI) and high glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS and cardiovascular disease. To date, evidence suggests possible benefits of the GI/GL for the prevention and management of obesity and MetS. We aimed to analyze the association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of to develop Met...

  3. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

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    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years: 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe, total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA and waist circumference assessed. RESULTS: No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanufre, Viviane C; Soares, Rosângelis D L; Alves, Michelle Rosa A; Aguiar, Marcos J B; Starling, Ana Lúcia P; Norton, Rocksane C

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years): 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe), total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and waist circumference assessed. No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic Inflammation in Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Rosário Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is disturbing. The activation of inflammatory pathways, used normally as host defence, reminds the seriousness of this condition. There is probably more than one cause for activation of inflammation. Apparently, metabolic overload evokes stress reactions, such as oxidative, inflammatory, organelle and cell hypertrophy, generating vicious cycles. Adipocyte hypertrophy, through physical reasons, facilitates cell rupture, what will evoke an inflammatory reaction. Inability of adipose tissue development to engulf incoming fat leads to deposition in other organs, mainly in the liver, with consequences on insulin resistance. The oxidative stress which accompanies feeding, particularly when there is excessive ingestion of fat and/or other macronutrients without concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich foods/beverages, may contribute to inflammation attributed to obesity. Moreover, data on the interaction of microbiota with food and obesity brought new hypothesis for the obesity/fat diet relationship with inflammation. Beyond these, other phenomena, for instance psychological and/or circadian rhythm disturbances, may likewise contribute to oxidative/inflammatory status. The difficulty in the management of obesity/metabolic syndrome is linked to their multifactorial nature where environmental, genetic and psychosocial factors interact through complex networks.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  7. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    . Participants were classified as physically active or inactive based on meeting the cut-off value of 600 MET-min/week. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome criteria. Results Overall prevalence of physically active individuals was 50.1% (CI......Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity...... with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian population. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons who are ≥18 years old. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect five domains of physical activity...

  8. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Danilewitz, Marlon; Liauw, Samantha S; Kemp, David E; Nguyen, Ha T T; Kahn, Linda S; Kucyi, Aaron; Soczynska, Joanna K; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Lachowski, Angela; Kim, Byungsu; Nathanson, Jay; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad; Taylor, Valerie H

    2010-11-01

    The ubiquity and hazards posed by abnormal body composition and metabolic parameters in the bipolar population are a priority research and clinical issue. Herein, we summarize and synthesize international studies describing the rate of US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III [ATP III])- and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined metabolic syndrome and its criterion components in individuals with bipolar disorder. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 2005 and July 2009 with the following search terms: metabolic syndrome and bipolar disorder, mania and manic-depression. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, the use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. The rate of metabolic syndrome in individuals with bipolar disorder is increased relative to the general population. Disparate estimates are reported ranging from comparability to approximately twofold greater than the general population. The increased hazard for metabolic syndrome amongst bipolar individuals is now documented in twelve countries from Europe, Australia, Asia, North and South America. The co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome in the bipolar population is associated with a more complex illness presentation, less favourable response to treatment, and adverse course and outcome. The association between metabolic syndrome and bipolar disorder is mediated/moderated by both iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic factors. The increased hazard for metabolic syndrome in bipolar populations is due to the clustering of traditional (and emerging) risk factors as well as iatrogenic and health systems factors. Extant data support recommendations for prioritizing, surveillance, prevention, diagnosis and management of metabolic syndrome as routine care

  9. Membrane lipid alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, Javier S

    2017-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathological conditions, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and low HDL levels that is of great concern worldwide, as individuals with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance, the key feature of the metabolic syndrome, might be at the same time cause and consequence of impaired lipid composition in plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Diet intervention has been proposed as a powerful tool to prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome, since healthy diets have been shown to have a protective role against the components of the metabolic syndrome. Particularly, dietary fatty acids are capable of modulating the deleterious effects of these conditions, among other mechanisms, by modifications of the lipid composition of the membranes in insulin-sensitive tissues. However, there is still scarce data based of high-level evidence on the effects of dietary oils on the effects of the metabolic syndrome and its components. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of dietary oils on improving alterations of the components of the metabolic syndrome. It also examines their influence in the modulation of plasma membrane lipid composition and in the functionality of membrane proteins involved in insulin activity, like the insulin receptor, GLUT-4, CD36/FAT and ABCA-1, and their effect in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids and cholesterol, and, in turn, the key features of the metabolic syndrome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-01-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p definition, only diabetes (adjHR 1.48, p metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: Its role in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakala, Rajbabu; Kuchulakanti, Pramod; Rha, Seung-Woon; Cheneau, Edouard; Baffour, Richard; Waksman, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Here we review PPARγ function in relation to human adipogenesis, insulin sensitization, lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation and prothrombotic state to perhaps provide justification for this nuclear receptor remaining a key therapeutic target for the continuing development of agents to treat human metabolic syndrome

  13. Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Dou Lin

    2006-11-01

    Conclusion: Serum UA level was elevated significantly as the number of metabolic components increased. Abnormal TG had the most influence on serum UA. A prospective study is warranted to determine if the prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia affects the development of metabolic syndrome.

  14. A survey of metabolic syndrome in first-degree relatives (fathers) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A blood sample was obtained to assay serum insulin, blood sugar, testosterone and lipoproteins. The data were analysed ... Conclusion: The fathers of the women with PCOS were at a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Keywords: metabolic ...

  15. Role of microRNAs in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, H M; Miller, N; Kerin, M J

    2010-05-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are major public health concerns, and present a formidable therapeutic challenge. Many patients remain recalcitrant to conventional lifestyle changes and medical therapies. Bariatric surgery has made laudable progress in the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disorders, yet carries inherent risks. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders is essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. Mi(cro)RNAs play important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including adipocyte differentiation, metabolic integration, insulin resistance and appetite regulation. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improving our understanding of metabolic disorders and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This review discusses the role of miRNAs in obesity and related components of the metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNAs as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for these diseases.

  16. Facial acanthosis nigricans: A morphological marker of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Panda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acanthosis nigricans (AN is a frequently encountered entity. Facial AN (FAN is a subset of AN which is being increasingly recognized. Recently, reports hypothesizing the association of FAN with features of metabolic syndrome have been published. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the clinicodemographic profile of patients with FAN, and to assess the correlation of hypertension, increased waist–hip ratio (WHR, increased body mass index (BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, deranged lipid profile, serum insulin, and impaired oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT (parameters of metabolic syndrome in these patients, as well as to determine the most significant predictor (highest relative risk of development of FAN. Methods: A multicentric case–control study was conducted (123 cases in each group over a period of 2 years. Data were obtained on the basis of history, examination, and relevant laboratory investigations. Statistical analysis was done using Statistica version 6 (StatSoft Inc., 2001, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, SPSS statistics version 17 (SPSS Inc., 2008, Illinois, Chicago, USA, and GraphPad Prism version 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., 2007, San Diego, California, USA. Results: Mean age of the patients with FAN was 38.83 ± 8.62 years. Mean age of onset of the disease was 30.93 ± 8.18 years. The most common site of face involved was the forehead and temporal region. The most common pigmentation was brown-black. Male sex, positive OGTT, increased WHR, and increased BMI were most significantly related to FAN. Smoking was found to have a protective effect against the development of FAN. Conclusion: Here, we document a significant association between male patients with positive OGTT, increased WHR, and BMI and FAN. Thus, we propose that FAN could be considered a morphological marker of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Fetal programming of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Marciniak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal development is currently recognized as a critical period in the etiology of human diseases. This is particularly so when an unfavorable environment interacts with a genetic predisposition. The fetal programming concept suggests that maternal nutritional imbalance and metabolic disturbances may have a persistent and intergenerational effect on the health of offspring and on the risk of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Does a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome have value in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Scott M

    2006-06-01

    "The metabolic syndrome" is the name for a clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that are of metabolic origin. These risk factors consist of atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, a prothrombotic state, and a proinflammatory state. There are 2 major, interacting causes of the metabolic syndrome-obesity and endogenous metabolic susceptibility. The latter typically is manifested by insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome is accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease and a 5-fold increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes. A clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is useful because it affects therapeutic strategy in patients at higher risk. However, there are 2 views about the best therapeutic strategy for patients with the metabolic syndrome. One view holds that each of the metabolic risk factors should be singled out and treated separately. The other view holds that greater emphasis should be given to implementing therapies that will reduce all of the risk factors simultaneously. The latter approach emphasizes lifestyle therapies (weight reduction and increased exercise), which target all of the risk factors. This approach is also the foundation of other therapies for targeting multiple risk factors together by striking at the underlying causes, as in the development of drugs to promote weight reduction and to reduce insulin resistance. Treating the underlying causes does not rule out the management of individual risk factors, but it will add strength to the control of multiple risk factors.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Diseases: From the Bench to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrick, Donna L; Diehl, Anna Mae; Topor, Lisa S; Dietert, Rodney R; Will, Yvonne; La Merrill, Michele A; Bouret, Sebastien; Varma, Vijayalaskshmi; Hastings, Kenneth L; Schug, Thaddeus T; Emeigh Hart, Susan G; Burleson, Florence G

    2017-11-02

    Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Diseases: From the Bench to the Clinic, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) workshop was held on March 11, 2017. The meeting was convened to raise awareness of metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases and serve as a melting pot with scientists of multiple disciplines (e.g., toxicologists, clinicians, regulators) so as to spur research and understanding of this condition. The criteria for metabolic syndrome include obesity, dyslipidemia (low HDL and/or elevated triglycerides), elevated blood pressure, and alterations in glucose metabolism. It can lead to a greater potential of type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis and other circulatory disorders. While there are no approved drugs specifically for this syndrome, many drugs target diseases associated with this syndrome thus potentially increasing the likelihood of drug-drug interactions. There is currently significant research focusing on understanding the key pathways that control metabolism, which would be likely targets of risk factors (e.g., exposure to xenobiotics, genetics) and lifestyle factors (e.g., microbiome, nutrition, and exercise) that contribute to metabolic syndrome. Understanding these pathways could also lead to the development of pharmaceutical interventions. As individuals with metabolic syndrome have signs similar to that of toxic responses (e.g., oxidative stress and inflammation) and organ dysfunction, these alterations should be taken into account in drug development. With the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the general population, the idea of a "normal" individual may need to be redefined. This paper reports on the substance and outcomes of this workshop. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Leptin Level in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Dreval, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the dynamics of leptin in the various types of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism could reveal its role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the Fasting Leptin Level (FLL and effect of acute hyperinsulinemia during the Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT on the leptin levels in women with Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS. Materials and Methods: In total, 59 obese women (54.0 [48.5-60.0] yrs; BMI – 33.2 [29.0-37.2] kg/m² with IRS (12 – obesity (NGT, 18 - ITG and 30 - T2DM were observed. The IVGTT test was done only in women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. The leptin level was investigated during fasting conditions and again 120 min post glucose loading. Then the Hepatic glucose production Index (H-index was calculated using the IVGTT data. Results: The FLL in women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT was almost two times greater than in women with IGT and T2DM. A negative relationship was found to exist between FLL and HbA1c in T2DM (r=0.3, p8%. The leptin level significantly decreased at 120 min of IVGTT in both the IGT and T2DM groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The FLL depended upon the degree of glucose metabolism impairment; postprandial leptin response to the glucose load was lower in the IGT group than in the T2DM subjects.

  1. Enterovirus related metabolic myopathy: a postviral fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, R; Soteriou, B; Zhang, H; Archard, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect and characterise enterovirus RNA in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare efficiency of muscle energy metabolism in enterovirus positive and negative CFS patients.

  2. Vascular risk factors and adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The cluster of vascular risk factors closely associated with obesity, consists of fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, also known as metabolic syndrome, is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, adipose tissue in

  3. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - criteria for diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marcio C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria. PMID:19840386

  4. Hormonal Contraception in obestiy, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O.

    2010-01-01

    resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as compared to women of normal weight. Modern types......The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... of hormonal contraceptives are safe and provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated...

  5. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, S.O.

    2010-01-01

    resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as compared to women of normal weight. Modern types......The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... of hormonal contraceptives are safe and provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated...

  6. Components of the metabolic syndrome, but not the metabolic syndrome per se, are associated with aortic distensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia; Liatis, Stavros; Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perrea, Despoina; Soldatos, Rigas-Philippos; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2007-12-01

    Reduction in aortic distensibility occurs early in the atherosclerosis process and carries a poor prognosis. Metabolic syndrome is common and it is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and aortic distensibility. A total of 135 subjects without diabetes were studied. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the NCEP-ATP-III criteria. Aortic distensibility was assessed non-invasively by ultrasonography. Multivariate analysis, after controlling for the components of the metabolic syndrome, and, additionally, for body mass index, pulse pressure, presence of coronary artery disease, use of statins and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, demonstrated an independent association between aortic distensibility and age (pmetabolic syndrome status. Moreover, there was a suggestive association with albumin-to-creatinine ratio (p=0.06). Metabolic syndrome per se is not associated with reduction in aortic distensibility. From the components of the metabolic syndrome, only blood pressure is a strong predictor of aortic distensibility. In addition, ageing and higher values of albumin-to-creatinine ratio are also associated with low aortic distensibility.

  7. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia as a component of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Bespalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of uric acid in the blood serum of 103 patients with coronary heart disease was researched in clinical conditions. The interrelation with the components of the metabolic syndrome in patients on the background of individually selected pathogenetic therapy was studied. It was shown that the abdominal obesity has the highest correlation with the level of uric acid in a cluster of metabolic syndrome components.

  8. Metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risk factors in Korean gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Ji, Jong Dae; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Sung Jae

    2016-10-12

    We performed this study to investigate associations between metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and gout. We reviewed the medical records of 151 patients with gout at the Department of Rheumatology in Korea University Ansan Hospital. The following measures were examined: waist circumference, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum glucose, serum uric acid (SUA), creatinine, insulin, and C-peptide. We assessed metabolic syndrome by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; patients were classified according to World Health Organization Asia-Pacific obesity criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in gout patients (50.8%) was higher than in non-gout patients. The mean SUA level was significantly higher in gout patients with metabolic syndrome (9.13 ± 3.15 mg/dL) than in gout patients without metabolic syndrome (8.14 ± 2.07 mg/dL). The mean SUA level was also significantly higher in patients with gout and CKD (9.55 ± 2.86 mg/dL) than in patients with gout but no CKD (7.74 ± 2.27 mg/dL). In gout patients, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.409, p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout was 50.8%, which is higher than the prevalence in the general Korean population. Hyperuricemia in gout patients was correlated with metabolic syndrome and CKD. Insulin resistance may provide clues to better understand the relationship between metabolic syndrome, CKD, and gout.

  9. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ok; Bak, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of Korean adults to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria as a marker for early-stage chronic kidney disease. Methods A total of 8,497 adults (3,625 men and 4,872 women) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012 were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to recommendation from a joint interim statement of international orga...

  10. Metabolic syndrome 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    Full Text Available The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study.The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods.During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4% developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853. The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004. The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, P<0.001, and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046-0.0143, P<0.001.The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome.

  12. Insulin resistance in Saudi postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome and its association with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: These observations suggest that hypovitaminosis D may be associated with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Interrelationships between IR, metabolic syndrome, and hypovitaminosis D are of particular interest in Saudi population, given the high prevalence of these conditions in this region.

  13. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  14. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  15. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Vilela, María Elena; Quílez Pina, Raquel María; Bonafonte Marteles, José Luis; Morlanes Navarro, Teresa; Calvo Gracia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hospitalized elderly patients. This descriptive and prospective study (February-March 2011) included 200 consecutive patients hospitalized in a Geriatric Department. Sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical data was collected. The prevalence of MS was 65% (NCEP-ATP III) and 67.5% (IDF) and was greater in women (NCEP-ATP III=72.8%, IDF=73.6%) than in men (NCEP-ATP III=50.7%; IDF=56.3%). The mean age of patients diagnosed with MS by both diagnostic criteria were similar: 84.7 years. MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. MS is highly prevalent in elderly hospitalized patients, being higher in women, with both diagnostic criteria (NCEP- ATP III and IDF). In our population the MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  17. Dysfunctional Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and confers an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key early event in atherosclerosis is endothelial dysfunction. Numerous groups have reported endothelial dysfunction in MetS. However, the measurement of endothelial function is far from optimum. There has been much interest recently in a subtype of progenitor cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), that can circulate, proliferate, and dfferentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs can be characterized by the assessment of surface markers, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, VEGFR-2 (KDR). The CD34+KDR+ phenotype has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. MetS patients without diabetes or cardiovascular diseases have decreased EPC number and functionality as evidenced by decreased numbers of colony forming units, decreased adhesion and migration, and decreased tubule formation. Strategies that have been shown to upregulate and enhance EPC number and functionality include statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and peroxisome-proliferator-activating-receptor gamma agonists. Mechanisms by which they affect EPC number and functionality need to be studied. Thus, EPC number and/or functionality could emerge as novel cellular biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk in MetS. PMID:21941528

  18. Effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Brain volume progressively decreases with an increase in atrophy, and the brain becomes more susceptible to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic syndrome has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline. This study was part of a longitudinal study conducted on Koreans aged 60 years or older. We analyzed a final sample of 596 Korean participants with complete baseline and 2-year follow-up data. The cognitive function of the subjects was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Head circumference was measured from the glabella to the occipital protuberance using a measuring tape. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III standards. Central obesity was assessed on the basis of waist-circumference values, in accordance with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region report on Asians. We used a longitudinal factorial design in which the MMSE score was the dependent variable, and head circumference and metabolic syndrome were considered as factors. After adjusting the results for age, gender, education, height, weight, baseline MMSE, and number of follow-up years, we observed that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome were independently associated with rapid cognitive decline. All these findings suggest that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome have additive effects on cognitive decline. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  20. Metabolic syndrome in asthmatic patients of hazara division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Kazim, S.M.; Gillani, S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease and most asthmatics are obese. Both asthma and obesity are showing parallel trends in their increasing prevalence. Obesity is also the main component of metabolic syndrome and several studies have shown metabolic syndrome to be associated with bronchial asthma. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with chronic asthma in our setup. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from May to November, 2014. One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic patients were enrolled in this study. Samples for blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL Cholesterol were taken after an overnight fast. Sitting blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the midpoint between the high point of the iliac crest and the last rib. Results: Out of 154 patients, 80 were males and 74 were females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 46 (29.87 percent) patients. When metabolic syndrome was stratified according to age, sex and duration of asthma, the results were found to be insignificant (p-0.89, 0.30 and 0.85). Conclusion: This study showed that metabolic syndrome was present in almost one third of study population. (author)

  1. PREVALENCE OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME AND ITS CORRELATION WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Drechmer ROMANOWSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women at childbearing age. Metabolic syndrome is present from 28% to 46% of patients with PCOS. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome. There are few published studies that correlate PCOS and NAFLD. Objective To determine the prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in patients with PCOS, and to verify if there is a correlation between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in this population. Methods Study developed at Gynecology Department of Clinical Hospital of Federal University of Parana (UFPR. The sessions were conducted from April 2008 to January 2009. One hundred and thirty-one patients joined the analysis; 101 were diagnosed with PCOS and 30 formed the control group. We subdivided the PCOS patients into two subgroups: PCOS+NAFLD and PCOS. All the patients were submitted to hepatic sonography. For hepatoestheatosis screening, hepatic ecotexture was compared do spleen’s. For diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, we adopted the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III criteria, as well as the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation. Statistical analysis were performed with t of student and U of Mann-Whitney test for means and chi square for proportions. Results At PCOS group, NAFLD was present in 23.8% of the population. At control group, it represented 3.3%, with statistical significance (P=0.01. Metabolic syndrome, by NCEP/ATP III criteria, was diagnosed in 32.7% of the women with PCOS and in 26.6% of the women at control group (no statistical difference, P=0.5. At PCOS+DHGNA subgroup, age, weight, BMI, abdominal circumference and glucose tolerance test results were higher when compared to PCOS group (P<0.01. Metabolic syndrome by NCEP/ATPIII criteria was present in 75% and by International Diabetes Federation criteria in 95.8% of women with

  2. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its correlation with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Mariana Drechmer; Parolin, Monica Beatriz; Freitas, Alexandre C T; Piazza, Mauri J; Basso, Jorgete; Urbanetz, Almir A

    2015-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women at childbearing age. Metabolic syndrome is present from 28% to 46% of patients with PCOS. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome. There are few published studies that correlate PCOS and NAFLD. To determine the prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in patients with PCOS, and to verify if there is a correlation between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in this population. Study developed at Gynecology Department of Clinical Hospital of Federal University of Parana (UFPR). The sessions were conducted from April 2008 to January 2009. One hundred and thirty-one patients joined the analysis; 101 were diagnosed with PCOS and 30 formed the control group. We subdivided the PCOS patients into two subgroups: PCOS+NAFLD and PCOS. All the patients were submitted to hepatic sonography. For hepatoestheatosis screening, hepatic ecotexture was compared do spleen's. For diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, we adopted the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, as well as the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation. Statistical analysis were performed with t of student and U of Mann-Whitney test for means and chi square for proportions. At PCOS group, NAFLD was present in 23.8% of the population. At control group, it represented 3.3%, with statistical significance (P=0.01). Metabolic syndrome, by NCEP/ATP III criteria, was diagnosed in 32.7% of the women with PCOS and in 26.6% of the women at control group (no statistical difference, P=0.5). At PCOS+DHGNA subgroup, age, weight, BMI, abdominal circumference and glucose tolerance test results were higher when compared to PCOS group (P<0.01). Metabolic syndrome by NCEP/ATPIII criteria was present in 75% and by International Diabetes Federation criteria in 95.8% of women with PCOS+NAFLD with P<0.01. Insulin levels at SOP

  3. Hormone-metabolic parameters of blood serum at revealing the metabolic syndrome at liquidators on Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkin, A.A.; Stepanova, N.A.; Danchenko, E.O.; Orekhova, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of research was the definition of the maintenance leptin, other hormones and some metabolic parameters in liquidators blood serum of group 1.1. Under supervision was 30 healthy persons who were not treat to action of radiation-ecological factors, and 154 liquidators. It is established, that in blood serum of liquidators with body mass index > 25 kg/m 2 leptin concentration is authentically raised and cortisol concentration is lowered. Following most important results are received: 1) hyperleptinemia and hypo-alpha-cholesterolemia can be markers of a radiating influence available in the past; 2) the strict algorithm of revealing of metabolic syndrome X allows to generate adequate groups of risk of the diseases interfaced with an insulin resistance and an atherosclerosis development; 3) the strict algorithm of metabolic syndrome X revealing allows to define concrete directions of metabolic preventive maintenance and therapy at the persons who have entered into risk-groups of diseases development. (authors)

  4. Metabolic Syndrome among Type-2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three out of five conditions that are due to hyperinsulinemia: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL), elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. The syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus ...

  5. A complex web of risks for metabolic syndrome: race/ethnicity, economics, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsberry, Pamela J; Corwin, Elizabeth; Reagan, Patricia B

    2007-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a recognizable clinical cluster of risks known to be associated in combination and independently with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying and treating metabolic syndrome is one promising strategy to reduce CVD. The intersection of race/ethnicity, gender, and economic status complicates our understanding of who is at risk for metabolic syndrome, but understanding this social patterning is important for the development of targeted interventions. This study examines the relationship between metabolic syndrome (and the underlying contributing risk factors) and race/ethnicity, economic status, and gender. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1999 through 2002 were used; analysis was completed in 2006-2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Economic status was measured using income as a percentage of the poverty level. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and each of its contributing risk factors were determined by race/ethnicity and economic group. Logistic regressions were estimated. All analyses were stratified by gender. Economic effects were seen for women, but not men. Women in the lowest economic group were more likely to be at risk in four of the five risk categories when compared with women in the highest economic group. Differences in the contributing risk profiles for metabolic syndrome were seen by race/ethnicity. Strategies to reduce CVD must be built on a clear understanding of the differences in contributing risk factors for metabolic syndrome across subgroups. The findings from this study provide further information to guide the targeting of these strategies.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in antipsychotic naive African patients with severe mental illness in usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, Shamima; Burns, Jonathan K; Motala, Ayesha A

    2017-04-12

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with a first episode of severe mental illness from South Africa. Antipsychotic naïve study subjects with a first episode of severe mental illness and control subjects were recruited at baseline for a prospective study. Individuals without metabolic syndrome at baseline were followed up for 12 months after antipsychotic medication was initiated. Metabolic syndrome was determined at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up using the Joint Interim Statement criteria. At baseline, the 67 study (M:F; 48:19) and 67 control subjects (M:F; 48:19) had a mean age of 22.8 (±3.7) and 23.3 (±2.6) years (P = .4), respectively. The majority were of black African ethnicity (97%) and 82% were diagnosed with schizophrenia. There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (4.5%) or any of the individual components between the study and control group prior to the initiation of antipsychotics. Of the 64 study subjects without metabolic syndrome at baseline, only 36 (M:F; 25:11) completed the 12-month follow-up (response rate 56.3%) and 2 subjects developed metabolic syndrome .The incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5.5% with a significant increase in the elevated waist circumference criterion after 1 year of antipsychotic treatment (P = .02). There was a low prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in this group of patients with a first episode of severe mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Combination of Captopril and Allopurinol Retards Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Carlos A.; Reungjui, Sirirat; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Mu, Wei; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Both ACE inhibitors and allopurinol have been shown to partially prevent metabolic syndrome induced by fructose. We tested the hypothesis that combined therapy might be more effective at blocking the metabolic syndrome induced with fructose. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose diet with or without allopurinol, captopril, or the combination for 20 weeks. A control group received a normal diet. All groups were pair-fed to assure equivalent caloric intake. Results Despite reduced energy intake, the fructose-fed rats developed features of metabolic syndrome including elevated blood pressure, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and hyperinsulinemia. While both allopurinol and captopril alone tended to reduce features of the metabolic syndrome, the combined therapy was synergistic, with significant reduction in blood pressure, less accumulation of abdominal fat, an improvement in the dyslipidemia and a complete prevention of insulin resistance. Conclusion A high fructose diet can induce metabolic syndrome even in the setting of caloric restriction. Captopril and allopurinol synergistically reduce features of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Combination allopurinol and ACE inhibitor therapy might provide a superior means to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19696478

  8. Risks of Metabolic Syndrome in Students of the Faculty of Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Öğüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the adult population worldwide. Education may play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome in young adults, especially those who are attending university. Such adults are at a critical point in their lives and make their own lifestyle choices that can affect their future health. Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the metabolic syndrome risk levels of students from the Faculty of Health Sciences. Study Design: Survey design study. Methods: In a questionnaire developed by the researchers to collect data in accordance with the relevant literature, the scale of the risk of metabolic syndrome was assessed. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risks. Results: Important risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found to be gender, weight gain, “stress eating” excessive amounts of food, sleeping for more than 8 hours a day, feeling tired after sleep, belonging to a divided family, and eating whilst working on the computer. Conclusion: The students from the Faculty of Health Sciences, particularly because they are trained in the health sector, are expected to have more information about the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, and take necessary precautions to prevent it.

  9. Nutrition-based interventions to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Lorenzo T; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Arviso, Karen P; Brochetti, Denise; Becker, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to identify nutrition-based interventions that may be effective for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in the Navajo. Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects almost half of the Navajo population. The diet of the Navajo, heavy in fat and refined carbohydrates, has been identified as an important contributing factor to the high rates of metabolic syndrome in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies published before October, 2013, involving nutrition-based interventions in adult populations similar to the Navajo targeting at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Data on efficacy and participation were gathered and synthesised qualitatively. Out of 19 studies included in this systematic review, 11 interventions were identified to be effective at improving at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Level of exposure to the intervention, frequency of intervention activities, family and social support, cultural adaptation and case management were identified as factors that may improve the efficacy of an intervention. Multiple nutrition-based interventions have been found to be effective in populations similar to the Navajo. Development of a strategy to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo may involve aspects from multiple interventions to increase efficacy and maximise participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, Environment, and Cardiovascular Disease: The Great Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Rocic, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22829804

  12. The concept of metabolic syndrome: contribution of visceral fat accumulation and its molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Yuji; Funahashi, Tohru; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although abdominal obesity or visceral obesity is considered to be one of the components of metabolic syndrome and to have an important role in a cluster of cardiovascular risks, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, probably because there is considerable disagreement about the location and definition of abdominal obesity or visceral obesity.In this review article, the important role of visceral fat accumulation in the development of a variety of lifestyle-related diseases is shown, including cardiovascular disease based on our clinical studies using CT scans, and the mechanism of these disorders is discussed, focusing on adipocytokines, especially adiponectin.The importance of diagnosing metabolic syndrome, in which visceral fat accumulation plays an essential role in the development of multiple risk factors, should be emphasized because lifestyle modification for the reduction of visceral fat may be very effective for the reduction of risks of this type, namely metabolic syndrome in the narrow sense.

  13. Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J.; Wiedmeyer, Charles E.; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V. K. (Seshu); Messer, Nat T.

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to the situation in human medicine, contemporary practices in horse management, which incorporate lengthy periods of physical inactivity coupled with provision of nutritional rations characterized by inappropriately high sugar and starch, have led to obesity being more commonly recognized by practitioners of equine veterinary practice. In many of these cases, obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. An equine metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described that is similar to the human MS in that both IR and aspects of obesity represent cornerstones of its definition. Unlike its human counterpart, identification of the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) portends greater risk for development of laminitis, a chronic, crippling affliction of the equine hoof. When severe, laminitis sometimes necessitates euthanasia. Unlike the human condition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and many other chronic conditions, for which the risk is recognized as increased in the face of MS, is less likely in horses. The equine veterinary literature has been replete with reports of scientific investigations regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EMS. PMID:22768883

  14. Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Study from Bursa Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Orhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Obesity is one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and obesity among women aged 20 years and older. METHOD: This is a cross- sectional study, undergone in a primary health care setting in Bursa /Turkey in the year 2008. A total of 807 women were included in the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Metabolic Syndrome definition was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.713.2 years, 96.4% were married, 50.7% had education of less than 8 years, 93.7% were housewives and 85.3% had a monthly family income of $650 or less. The prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity were 17.5 % and 87.7% respectively. Those with diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma lipids had increased risk of developing MetS 11.3 and 4.5 times more than those without these situations respectively. The risk of MetS increases with age and increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an alarming risk factor for the development of MetS in our study group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 421-432

  15. Uric Acid, Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis: The Chicken or the Egg, Which Comes First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pergola, Giovanni; Cortese, Francesca; Termine, Gaetano; Meliota, Giovanni; Carbonara, Rossella; Masiello, Michele; Cortese, Anna M; Silvestris, Francesco; Caccavo, Domenico; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2018-01-01

    A great debate in literature exists nowadays on the role of uric acid as a marker of cardiovascular and metabolic organ damage or a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The study aimed to determine the relationship among serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, by means of carotid intima media-thickness, in a cohort of 811 otherwise healthy overweight/obese subjects, without overt atherosclerosis not using any kind of drug. Uric acid levels were positively related to male gender, waist circumference, BMI, systolic and diastolic pressure levels, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, the presence of metabolic syndrome and the number of the components of metabolic syndrome and negatively related to HDL cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between uric acid and carotid intima media thickness. At the multiple regression analysis, only waist circumference and triglycerides (positively) and HDL-cholesterol (negatively) maintained an independent association with uric acid as dependent variable, while age, female gender and uric acid showed a significant independent association with metabolic syndrome as dependent variable. Moreover, the analysis of the odd ratios showed that the risk of developing metabolic syndrome was consistent with uric acid levels ranging from 3 mg/dl to 8 mg/dl. The presence of metabolic syndrome does not seem to provide hyperuricemia. By contrast, higher serum uric acid level may predict the risk of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, our results suggest that uric acid cannot be considered a risk factor for early atherosclerosis, at least when assessed using carotid ultrasound. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  17. Association between Metabolite Profiles, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Allam-Ndoul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1’s (long chain glycerophospholipids metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3’s (medium chain acylcarnitines metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile.

  18. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Checklists were used for reviewing charts about clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities and immunologic profile of patients. Data was cleaned, entered in and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 21.1% and HIV-lipodystrophy was detected 12.1% of ...

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among apparently healthy adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a resultant severe economic implication.This study assessed the burden of MetS in a Nigerian rural community setting. Method: This was a cross-sectional, community ...

  20. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid ...

  1. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Several metabolic pathways have been reported to be deregulated in the metabolic syndrome especially the immune system (Nieman et al, 1999). Lymphocyte numbers and proliferation responses were reported to be altered in obese subjects and genetically obese animals (Tanaka et al, 1998). Cytokine balance was also ...

  2. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - criteria for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Marcio C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the d...

  3. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  5. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome.

  6. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki (National Central Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author).

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Belarbia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients as well as its effects on the progression of CKD, we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study including 180 patients with chronic renal failure followed at the outpatient service of Nephrology at the Saloul′s University Hospital of Sousse (Tunisia over six months. Our study population consisted of 101 men and 79 women. Chronic glomerulonephritis (36.6% was the most frequent nephropathy. The mean serum creatinine was 249 ± 200 mmol/L and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 55.8 ± 49.2 mL/min. Cardiovascular (CV impairment was found in 27.2% of the patients. The prevalence of MS was 42.2%. Women had significantly more abdominal obesity than men. Subjects with MS were significantly older and predominantly females who had higher blood pressure and body mass index (BMI. CV complications were more frequent among the MS subjects than among the controls. Glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c were significantly higher in the group of CKD patients with MS. However, the occurrence of MS was not influenced by the nature of nephropathy, the degree of the CKD and the use of renin-angiotensin blockers or statins. In multivariate analysis, predictors of occurrence of MS in our series included older age, female gender and higher BMI and LDL-c levels. The prevalence of MS in patients with CKD is higher than the general population. These patients should receive special multidisciplinary care to limit CV complications.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

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    Belarbia, Anis; Nouira, Safa; Sahtout, Wissal; Guedri, Yosra; Achour, Abdellatif

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients as well as its effects on the progression of CKD, we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study including 180 patients with chronic renal failure followed at the outpatient service of Nephrology at the Saloul's University Hospital of Sousse (Tunisia) over six months. Our study population consisted of 101 men and 79 women. Chronic glomerulonephritis (36.6%) was the most frequent nephropathy. The mean serum creatinine was 249 ± 200 mmol/L and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 55.8 ± 49.2 mL/min. Cardiovascular (CV) impairment was found in 27.2% of the patients. The prevalence of MS was 42.2%. Women had significantly more abdominal obesity than men. Subjects with MS were significantly older and predominantly females who had higher blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). CV complications were more frequent among the MS subjects than among the controls. Glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) were significantly higher in the group of CKD patients with MS. However, the occurrence of MS was not influenced by the nature of nephropathy, the degree of the CKD and the use of renin-angiotensin blockers or statins. In multivariate analysis, predictors of occurrence of MS in our series included older age, female gender and higher BMI and LDL-c levels. The prevalence of MS in patients with CKD is higher than the general population. These patients should receive special multidisciplinary care to limit CV complications.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population: a short overview

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    Natasa Marcun Varda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS in adults is defined as a concurrence of obesity, disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Studies now indicate that many of its components are also present in children and adolescents. Moreover, the clustering of these risk factors has been documented in some children, who are at increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. The MS is highly prevalent among overweight children and adolescents. Identifying these children is important for early prevention and treatment of different components of the syndrome. The first-line treatment comprises lifestyle modification consisting of diet and exercise. The most effective tool for prevention of the MS is to stop the development of childhood obesity. The first attempt of consensus-based pediatric diagnostic criteria was published in 2007 by the International Diabetes Federation. Nevertheless, national prevalence data, based on uniform pediatric definition, protocols for prevention, early recognition and effective treatment of pediatric MS are still needed. The aim of this article is to provide a short overview of the diagnosis and treatment options of childhood MS, as well as to present the relationships between MS and its individual components.

  11. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

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    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  12. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

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    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  13. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study.

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    Yadav, Dhananjay; Choi, Eunhee; Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn Zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome.

  14. Association of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms with clinical and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Gustavo A.Rosa Maciel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with clinical and metabolic profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disease that affects 5-8% of women and may be associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cortisol action and dysregulation account for metabolic syndrome development in the general population. As glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1 polymorphisms regulate cortisol sensitivity, we hypothesized that variants of this gene may be involved in the adverse metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. METHOD: Clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles were evaluated in 97 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. The alleles of the glucocorticoid gene were genotyped. Association analyses were performed using the appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome were observed in 42.3% and 26.8% of patients, respectively. Body mass index was positively correlated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL-c, total cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels as well as HOMA-IR values and inversely correlated with HDL-c and SHBG levels. The BclI and A3669G variants were found in 24.7% and 13.4% of alleles, respectively. BclI carriers presented a lower frequency of insulin resistance compared with wild-type subjects. CONCLUSION: The BclI variant is associated with a lower frequency of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Glucocorticoid gene polymorphism screening during treatment of the syndrome may be useful for identifying subgroups of at-risk patients who would benefit the most from personalized treatment.

  15. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

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    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  17. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

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    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  18. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

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    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 46, XX Sry(+ Male Sexual Differentiation Disorder with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Report

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    Ramazan Coşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In disorders of sexual differentiation, sexual development may not be in accordance with chromosomal structure. 46,XX male syndrome is one of these kind of situations of which most of the patients are in normal male phenotype at birth. These patients are diagnosed while investigating for gynecomastia during puberty or infertility at older ages. One of the comorbidities of testosterone deficiency is metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome. A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of gynecomastia. Based on laboratory tests results, he was diagnosed with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism accompanied by metabolic syndrome. Chromosomal analysis showed 46,XX SRY (+ genotype. Turk Jem 2014; 1: 28-30

  20. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

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    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  1. ADIPOQ + 45T≥G Polymorphism, Food Ingestion, and Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly Persons.

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    Retamoso, Vanessa R; Maurer, Patrícia; Feijóo, Lyana B; Tavares, Graziela M S; Manfredini, Vanusa; Piccoli, Jacqueline C E

    2018-01-01

    The current nutritional transition process contributes further to accelerate the onset of metabolic disorders, as do a number of environmental factors that lead to the diagnosis of chronic diseases, as a diet of low nutritional value, is possibly related to the incidence of metabolic syndrome. In addition to these factors, metabolic syndrome may also be related to genetic factors, the ADIPOQ + 45T> G polymorphism has been associated with serum adiponectin levels, insulin sensitivity, and obesity, which affects adiponectin levels act as protective factor for cardiovascular disease. In this way, the present study aimed to analyze the possible association between the ADIPOQ + 45T> G gene polymorphism, usual diet and metabolic syndrome in the elderly. We evaluated inflammatory and biochemical markers compared with older age groups (age 60 years) with and without metabolic syndrome. In addition to the anthropometric measurements of weight, height and waist circumference, the ADIPOQ + 45T> G gene polymorphism was determined by PCR- RFLP, and food consumption was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. The study included 111 elderly individuals. Our main results show that there was a significant relationship between the habitual consumption of milk for the group that had metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome. There was an association between habitual dietary intake of white meat with haplotypes TG and GG. We conclude that the relationship between the habitual consumption of certain food groups and ADIPOQ indicates the need for further studies to develop a better understanding of this relationship; however, there was no association between the ADIPOQ + 45T> G gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in the group of elderly studied.

  2. Plasma proteome profiles associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model.

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    Marinus F W te Pas

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (pathophysiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA and diabetes (Glucose and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome is positively related to metabolic syndrome: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Yinting Guo

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder that may affect dietary pattern, food digestion, and nutrient absorption. The nutrition-related factors are closely related to metabolic syndrome, implying that irritable bowel syndrome may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few epidemiological studies are available which are related to this potential link. The purpose of this study is to determine whether irritable bowel syndrome is related to metabolic syndrome among middle-aged people. We designed a cross-sectional study of 1,096 subjects to evaluate the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome and its components. Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was based on the Japanese version of the Rome III Questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statements of 2009. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal-components analysis was used to derive 3 major dietary patterns: "Japanese", "sweets-fruits", and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub "from 39 food groups. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome were 19.4% and 14.6%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the dietary pattern factor score tertiles and irritable bowel syndrome. After adjustment for potential confounders (including dietary pattern, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of having metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides for subjects with irritable bowel syndrome as compared with non-irritable bowel syndrome are 2.01(1.13-3.55 and 1.50(1.03-2.18, respectively. Irritable bowel syndrome is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and it components. This study is the first to show that irritable bowel syndrome was significantly related to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides among an adult population. The findings suggest that

  4. Intranasal Insulin Restores Metabolic Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome.

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    Derkach, K V; Ivantsov, A O; Chistyakova, O V; Sukhov, I B; Buzanakov, D M; Kulikova, A A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-06-01

    We studied the effect of 10-week treatment with intranasal insulin (0.5 IU/day) on glucose tolerance, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, functions of pancreatic β cells, and insulin system in the liver of rats with cafeteria diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The therapy reduced body weight and blood levels of insulin, triglycerides, and atherogenic cholesterol that are typically increased in metabolic syndrome, normalized glucose tolerance and its utilization, and increased activity of insulin signaling system in the liver, thus reducing insulin resistance. The therapy did not affect the number of pancreatic islets and β cells. The study demonstrates prospects of using intranasal insulin for correction of metabolic parameters and reduction of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  5. Metabolic syndrome in an island population of the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia.

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    Deka, Ranjan; Narancić, Nina Smolej; Xip, Huifeng; Turek, Stjepan; Cubrilo-Turek, Mirjana; Vrhovski-Hebrang, Danijela; Janićijević, Branka; Tomljenović, Andrea; Szirovicza, Lajos; Jin, Li; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Rudan, Pavao

    2008-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome, an assemblage of risk factors, viz., obesity, dyslipidemia, carbohydrate intolerance, and hypertension, associated with development of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, has become a major public health problem in the developed countries. However, data on its prevalence in worldwide populations, particularly in non-industrialized societies is sparse. We report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an island population of the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia, a distinctly homogenous population living in relative isolation with a traditional way of life style pattern. The participants consist of 381 unrelated individuals (136 males, 245 females) from the island of Hvar, age 19 and above. Hvar is among the most populated Croatian islands with a total population of 11,459 individuals according to the 1991 census. Metabolic syndrome was assessed following the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, with the exception of using body mass index and waist hip ratio as the predictors of obesity. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 26% (32% in males and 24% in females) with body mass index, and 42% (57% in males and 36% in females) with waist hip ratio as the measures of obesity. Pairwise correlations of the age and sex-adjusted individual components show that with the exception of fasting plasma glucose, the other components of metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with each other, suggesting their co-morbidity. In spite of adherence to a relatively traditional life-style pattern together with a "Mediterranean diet" and rural habitat, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is substantially high in the population of Hvar. It is likely that factors other than nutritional practices, that might include genetic susceptibility, could potentially be important in predisposition to metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in chronic hepatitis C infection: does it still matter in the era of directly acting antiviral therapy?

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    Lim TR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TR Lim Centre for Liver Research and NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Liver Disease, University of Birmingham and Liver and Hepatobiliary Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, UK Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Given the pandemic spread of HCV infection and metabolic syndrome, the burden of their interaction is a major public health issue. The presence of metabolic syndrome accelerates the progression of liver disease in patients with HCV infection. New drug development in HCV has seen an unprecedented rise in the last year, which resulted in better efficacy, better tolerance, and a shorter treatment duration. This review describes the underlying mechanisms and clinical effects of metabolic syndrome in HCV infection, as well as their importance in the era of new directly acting antiviral therapy. Keywords: HCV, genotype 3, metabolic syndrome, steatosis, directly acting antiviral agents

  7. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

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    Gul Sagun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance, hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95, and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53, respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist

  8. Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB

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    Cai, Dongsheng; Liu, Tiewen

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity. This type of nutrition-related molecular inflammation in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus, can form a common pathogenic basis for the induction of various metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Proinflammatory NF-κB pathway has been revealed as a key molecular system for pathologic induction of brain inflammation, which translates overnutrition and resulting intracellular stresses into central neuroendocrine and neural dysregulations of energy, glucose, and cardiovascular homeostasis, collectively leading to metabolic syndrome. This article reviews recent research advances in the neural mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and related diseases from the perspective of pathogenic induction by intracellular stresses and NF-κB pathway of the brain. PMID:22328600

  9. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

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    Hui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to simplify the complexity of this detection. In this paper, an artificial intelligence model was developed to identify adults at risk of metabolic syndrome based on physical signs; this artificial intelligence model achieved more powerful capacity for classification compared to the PCLR (principal component logistic regression model. A case study was performed based on the physical signs data, without using a biochemical index, that was collected from the staff of Lanzhou Grid Company in Gansu province of China. The results show that the developed artificial intelligence model is an effective classification system for identifying individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Mental illness and metabolic syndrome – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula J Łopuszańska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Researchers’ opinions are divided on whether metabolic syndrome is a separate clinical entity. Undoubtedly, the components of the syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia, adversely affect metabolism, bringi