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Sample records for metabolic studies

  1. Profiling metabolic networks to study cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M

    2013-02-01

    Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth and survival, and tumors reprogram biochemical pathways to aid these processes. New capabilities in the computational and bioanalytical characterization of metabolism have now emerged, facilitating the identification of unique metabolic dependencies that arise in specific cancers. By understanding the metabolic phenotype of cancers as a function of their oncogenic profiles, metabolic engineering may be applied to design synthetically lethal therapies for some tumors. This process begins with accurate measurement of metabolic fluxes. Here we review advanced methods of quantifying pathway activity and highlight specific examples where these approaches have uncovered potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apolipoprotein B metabolism: tracer kinetics, models, and metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John R; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2002-04-01

    The study of apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism is central to our understanding of lipoprotein metabolism. However, the assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins is a complex process. Specialized techniques, developed and applied to in vitro and in vivo studies of apoB metabolism, have provided insights into the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this process. Moreover, these studies have important implications for understanding both the pathophysiology as well as the therapeutic options for the dyslipidemias. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of apoB in lipoprotein metabolism and to explore the applications of kinetic analysis and multicompartmental modeling to the study of apoB metabolism. New developments and significant advances over the last decade are discussed.

  3. Equine atypical myopathy: A metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlíková, R; Široká, J; Jahn, P; Friedecký, D; Gardlo, A; Janečková, H; Hrdinová, F; Drábková, Z; Adam, T

    2016-10-01

    Atypical myopathy (AM) is a potentially fatal disease of grazing horses. It is reportedly caused by the ingestion of sycamore seeds containing toxic hypoglycin A. In order to study metabolic changes, serum and urine samples from nine horses with atypical myopathy and 12 control samples from clinically healthy horses were collected and then analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry; serum metabolic profiles as the disease progressed were also studied. Metabolic data were evaluated using unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses. Significant differences were demonstrated in the concentrations of various glycine conjugates and acylcarnitines (C2-C26). Moreover, the concentrations of purine and pyrimidine metabolites, vitamins and their degradation products (riboflavin, trigonelline, pyridoxate, pantothenate), and selected organic and amino acids (aspartate, leucine, 2-oxoglutarate, etc.) were altered in horses with AM. These results represent a global view of altered metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Screening scale studies were performed with eight cultures for their ability to metabolize phenobarbital, an antiepileptic, sedative, hypnotic and substrate for CYP 2C9 and 2C19. Methods: The transformation of phenobarbital was confirmed and characterized by fermentation techniques, high performance liquid ...

  5. Study of Drug Metabolism by Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhou Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the studies of drug metabolism by xanthine oxidase (XOD with electrochemical techniques. Firstly, a pair of stable, well-defined and quasi-reversible oxidation/reduction peaks is obtained with the formal potential at −413.1 mV (vs. SCE after embedding XOD in salmon sperm DNA membrane on the surface of pyrolytic graphite electrode. Then, a new steady peak can be observed at −730 mV (vs. SCE upon the addition of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP to the electrochemical system, indicating the metabolism of 6-MP by XOD. Furthermore, the chronoamperometric response shows that the current of the catalytic peak located at −730 mV increases with addition of 6-MP in a concentration-dependent manner, and the increase of the chronoamperometric current can be inhibited by an XOD inhibitor, quercetin. Therefore, our results prove that XOD/DNA modified electrode can be efficiently used to study the metabolism of 6-MP, which may provide a convenient approach for in vitro studies on enzyme-catalyzed drug metabolism.

  6. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  7. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambron, Rajasree; Silajdžić, Edina; Kalliolia, Eirini; Ottolenghi, Chris; Hindmarsh, Peter; Hill, Nathan R; Costelloe, Seán J; Martin, Nicholas G; Positano, Vincenzo; Watt, Hilary C; Frost, Chris; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III) and controls. Control (n = 15), premanifest (n = 14) and stage II/III (n = 13) participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test. We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine) there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05) that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious. Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that the majority

  8. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Grady J.; Schwender J.; Shachar-Hill, Y.; Morgan, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on {sup 13}CO{sub 2} dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  9. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Grady, J; Schwender, J; Shachar-Hill, Y; Morgan, JA

    2012-03-26

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (CO2)-C-13 dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  10. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  11. Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James M; Choi, William T; Sreekumar, Arun; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana

    2015-04-01

    Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning. Rapid advances in the field of metabolomics now allow for in-depth profiling of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo , providing a systems perspective on key metabolic and molecular pathways which influence stem cell biology. Understanding the analytical platforms and techniques that are currently used to study stem cell metabolomics, as well as how new insights can be derived from this knowledge, will accelerate new research in the field and improve future efforts to expand our understanding of the interplay between metabolism and stem cell biology.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillerud, L.O.; Han, C.H.; Whaley, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for the detection of the metabolic transformations of biological compounds labeled with stable isotopes, particularly carbon-13 have been explored. We have studied adipose tissue in the intact rat, the exteriorized epididymal fat pad, and the isolated adipocyte. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue is regulated by lipogenic factors (insulin, corticosterone, thyroxine, and growth hormone) and lipolytic factors (glucagon and catecholamines). The synthesis of triglyceride from 5.5 mM glucose was stimulated by about 4-fold by 10 nM insulin. Triglyceride synthesis from glucose in the presence of insulin occurred at a rate of 330 nmol/hr/10 6 cells. Since the NMR signals from free and esterified fatty acids and glycerol are distinct, we could directly measure the rate of hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Epinephrine (10 μM) gave a lipolytic rate of 0.30 μmol/hr/10 6 cells as monitored by free-glycerol appearance in the medium. 13 C NMR provides a superior method for the measurement of triglyceride metabolism since it directly measures the changes in the substrates and products in situ

  13. Studies on metabolism of Prazepam, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihama, Hiroshi; Kabuto, Shigeo; Kimata, Hideki; Tamaki, Taro; Yonemitsu, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    The metabolic fate of Prazepam (PZ), (7-chloro-1-cyclopropylmethyl-1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) was studied in rats. After oral or intravenous administration of 5- 14 C-PZ, the radioactivity was detected in various tissues, indicating extensive uptake of this compound. A higher level of the radioactivity was seen in the liver, small intestine, stomach, adrenal, and kidneys. After oral administration, the radioactivity level in the brain was nearly comparable to that in the blood. In the case of intravenous administration, however, the level in the brain was several times higher than that in the blood. In each route of administration, fecal excretion mostly resulting from biliary excretion was the major elimination route of this drug. A major metabolite in the urine was 4'-hydroxydesalkylprazepam (4'-HDPZ) sulfate which was also found in the bile. Other major metabolites in the bile were 3-hydroxy-prazepam (HPZ) glucuronide and metabolite A which was present as free and conjugated forms. Most of the biliary metabolites were found in the feces as a free form with the unchanged drug. Metabolite A was isolated from the bile and identified as 3'-hydroxydesalkylprazepam (3'-HDPZ). Major metabolites in the plasma, liver, and kidneys were desalkylprazepam (DPZ), oxazepam (OX), 4'-HDPZ, and its sulfate. In the brain, DPZ and OX were the major metabolites, but a small amount of the unchanged drug and HPZ was also detected. These results suggest that the main reactions in the PZ metabolism are C 3 -hydroxylation to HPZ and N-dealkylation to DPZ followed by aromatic hydroxylation to 3'- and 4'-HDPZ or C 3 -hydroxylation to OX. These metabolic patterns were not altered after a repeated administration. The relationship between the pharmacological activity and metabolism of this drug is also discussed. (auth.)

  14. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  15. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, April S.Y.; Ho, Emmie N.M.; Wan, Terence S.M.; Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  16. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  17. In vitro methods to study intestinal drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of

  18. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  20. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  1. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Pilz, S.; Koopman, A.D.; Rauh, S.P.; Pouwer, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Elders, P.J.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the

  2. Protocols to Study Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburger, Katrin; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters. It then provides protocols for measuring tissue growth, cell size, and metabolic parameters such as stored lipids and glycogen, and circulating sugars.

  3. CardioNet: A human metabolic network suited for the study of cardiomyocyte metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstädt Anja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of oxygen and nutrients in the coronary circulation is a crucial determinant of cardiac performance. Nutrient composition of coronary blood may significantly vary in specific physiological and pathological conditions, for example, administration of special diets, long-term starvation, physical exercise or diabetes. Quantitative analysis of cardiac metabolism from a systems biology perspective may help to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrient supply and efficiency of metabolic processes required for an adequate cardiac output. Results Here we present CardioNet, the first large-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network of the human cardiomyocyte comprising 1793 metabolic reactions, including 560 transport processes in six compartments. We use flux-balance analysis to demonstrate the capability of the network to accomplish a set of 368 metabolic functions required for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the cell. Taking the maintenance of ATP, biosynthesis of ceramide, cardiolipin and further important phospholipids as examples, we analyse how a changed supply of glucose, lactate, fatty acids and ketone bodies may influence the efficiency of these essential processes. Conclusions CardioNet is a functionally validated metabolic network of the human cardiomyocyte that enables theorectical studies of cellular metabolic processes crucial for the accomplishment of an adequate cardiac output.

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions: Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It ... in infants and young children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue (tiredness), slow heart rate, excessive ...

  5. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  6. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies s...... on pig intestine in Ussing chambers showed a nearly total adsorption of chromium(III) by the chambers, resulting in unreliable data....

  7. Voriconazole metabolism is influenced by severe inflammation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veringa, Anette; Ter Avest, Mendy; Span, Lambert F R; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Touw, Daan J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-01-01

    During an infection or inflammation, several drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver are down-regulated, including cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes. Since voriconazole is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, the metabolism of voriconazole can be influenced during inflammation via reduced clearance of the drug, resulting in higher voriconazole trough concentrations. To investigate prospectively the influence of inflammation on voriconazole metabolism and voriconazole trough concentrations. A prospective observational study was performed at the University Medical Center Groningen. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were ≥18 years old and treated with voriconazole. Voriconazole and voriconazole-N-oxide concentrations were determined in discarded blood samples. To determine the degree of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were used. Subsequently, a longitudinal data analysis was performed to assess the effect of inflammation on the metabolic ratio and voriconazole trough concentration. Thirty-four patients were included. In total 489 voriconazole trough concentrations were included in the longitudinal data analysis. This analysis showed that inflammation, reflected by CRP concentrations, significantly influenced the metabolic ratio, voriconazole trough concentration and voriconazole-N-oxide concentration (all P voriconazole metabolism. The metabolic ratio was decreased by 0.99229 N and the voriconazole-N-oxide concentration by 0.99775 N , while the voriconazole trough concentration was increased by 1.005321 N , where N is the difference in CRP units (in mg/L). This study shows that voriconazole metabolism is decreased during inflammation, resulting in higher voriconazole trough concentrations. Therefore, frequent monitoring of voriconazole serum concentrations is recommended during and following severe inflammation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  8. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Glucose metabolism in injured tissue: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.M.; Shearer, J.D.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injured tissue is characterized by increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production as compared to normal tissue. These metabolic changes have been attributed to the presence of inflammatory cells in injured tissues. To correlate these metabolic changes with changes in the inflammatory cell population at various times after injury, we studied the lambda-carrageenan hindlimb wound model in anesthetized rats. Perfusion studies demonstrated that at 3 and 5 days after injury glucose uptake was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. At 3, 5, and 10 days after injury, lactate production from glucose was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. These metabolic changes were not related to differences in body weight or food intake. There was no difference in glucose oxidation or in oxygen consumption in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. The increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production from glucose was coincident with the presence of inflammatory cells--predominantly macrophages--at the site of injury. It is suggested that the glucose metabolism in injured tissue reflects the metabolism of the inflammatory cells at the site of injury

  10. Justice at Work and Metabolic Syndrome: the Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Ádám G.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Shipley, Martin J.; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. Methods A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35 to 55 years without prevalent CHD at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 through 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Results Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organizational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (hazard ratio 0.88; 95%CI: 0.67-1.17). Conclusions Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men. PMID:19819861

  11. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  12. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  13. New analytical strategies in studying drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, Roland F; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2007-08-01

    Identification and elucidation of the structures of metabolites play major roles in drug discovery and in the development of pharmaceutical compounds. These studies are also important in toxicology or doping control with either pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs. This review focuses on: new analytical strategies used to identify potential metabolites in biological matrices with and without radiolabeled drugs; use of software for metabolite profiling; interpretation of product spectra; profiling of reactive metabolites; development of new approaches for generation of metabolites; and detection of metabolites with increased sensitivity and simplicity. Most of the new strategies involve mass spectrometry (MS) combined with liquid chromatography (LC).

  14. Kinetic and metabolic studies in HPRT deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, L.M.

    1983-12-01

    The patient T.K. presented with the clinical features, typical of purine overproduction and a partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency; uric acid lithiasis and gout. The variant enzyme activity in haemolysates showed substrate inhibition by the purine base substrates. This was responsible for the low HPRT activity observed in vitro. The substrate inhibition of the variant enzyme resulted from the formation of a dead-end complex between hypoxanthine and an enzyme-PP i intermediate. The HPRT activities were assayed using radioactive substrates. This assays depend on the detection of labelled products for the determination of the enzyme activity. Carbon 14 and Tritium have been used for labelling the compounds. A low HPRT activity was shown in cultured cells from the patient. The double label technique demonstrated a reduced flux through the hypoxanthine/guanine salvage pathway, relative to that through the thymidine or leucine pathways. The rate of purine synthesis de novo was higher in the transformed lymphoblasts compared with that of control cells. This was shown by the double label approach, and by the release of labelled hypoxanthine and guanine into the medium. The APRT activity in the HPRT-cells was similar to that in the control cells. The behaviour of cultured cells and cells known to be defective in HPRT acitivity was similar in selective media. Although these studies have shown this HPRT variant an interesting and unique enzyme, the molecular defect still has to be defined

  15. Association of sleep quality components and wake time with metabolic syndrome: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (QMDS), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13 C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13 C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1 1 3 C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F TCA ) and neurotransmitter cycling (F cyc ). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F TCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F cyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  17. In vivo {sup 13}C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of {sup 13}C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1{sup 13}C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F{sub TCA}) and neurotransmitter cycling (F{sub cyc}). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F{sub TCA} upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F{sub cyc} due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  18. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data...... analysis employed. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the perfusion and metabolism literature in the field of PD research, including quantitative PET studies, normalized PET and SPECT studies, autoradiography studies in animal models of PD, and simulation studies of PD data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  19. Aluminum metabolism studied by 26Al tracer using AMS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Hotta, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Hideo.

    1992-01-01

    By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we studied aluminum metabolism using 26 Al as a tracer. To investigate the role of aluminum toxicity in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, aluminum incorporation into the rat cerebrum was studied. When healthy rats were injected intraperitoneally with 26 Al, a considerable amount of the tracer was incorporated into the brain within only 5 days after the injection. This 26 Al accumulation was apparently irreversible, since it persisted even after 75 days. (author)

  20. Metabolic and inflammatory profiles of biomarkers in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in a Mediterranean population. DARIOS Inflammatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Peñafiel, Judith; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Vila, Joan; Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Guembe, María Jesús; Vega, Tomás; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto; Díaz, Oscar; Marrugat, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the differences in the biomarker profiles of patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus as compared to a healthy, normal weight population. We aimed to study the biomarker profile of the metabolic risk continuum defined by the transition from normal weight to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. We performed a pooled analysis of data from 7 cross-sectional Spanish population-based surveys. An extensive panel comprising 20 biomarkers related to carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, inflammation, coagulation, oxidation, hemodynamics, and myocardial damage was analyzed. We employed age- and sex-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for the identification of those biomarkers associated with the metabolic risk continuum phenotypes: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 2851 subjects were included for analyses. The mean age was 57.4 (8.8) years, 1269 were men (44.5%), and 464 participants were obese, 443 had metabolic syndrome, 473 had diabetes mellitus, and 1471 had a normal weight (healthy individuals). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B100, leptin, and insulin were positively associated with at least one of the phenotypes of interest. Apolipoprotein A1 and adiponectin were negatively associated. There are differences between the population with normal weight and that having metabolic syndrome or diabetes with respect to certain biomarkers related to the metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid profiles. The results of this study support the relevance of these mechanisms in the metabolic risk continuum. When metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are compared, these differences are less marked. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of stable isotopes in drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, F P

    2001-06-01

    Although there is a long history of stable isotopes use in drug metabolism research, it is appropriate to evaluate them in pregnancy drug studies in which safety takes highest priority. It is well established through a number of human and animal experiments that stable isotopes themselves rarely generate additional toxicities beyond the molecules to which they are attached. For the analysis of stable isotopes involved in metabolism studies, mass spectrometry plays the predominant role. Several mass spectrometry-based techniques now exist that enable the selective quantitative detection of stable isotopes with better sensitivity and better retention of chromatographic resolution than do in-line radioactivity monitors for 14C. Even mass balance studies can be performed by using stable isotopes, a type of experiment that still predominantly uses radioisotopes. Some of the newest developments in the use of stable isotopes involve biopolymers, in which fully isotope-labeled species can be generated from cells grown in isotopically labeled growth media. Having shown safety, sensitivity, specificity, and versatility, stable isotopes should play an important role in drug metabolism studies in pregnancy.

  2. Studying Lipid Metabolism and Transport During Zebrafish Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeituni, Erin M; Farber, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish model facilitates the study of lipid metabolism and transport during development. Here, we outline methods to introduce traceable fluorescent or radiolabeled fatty acids into zebrafish embryos and larvae at various developmental stages. Labeled fatty acids can be injected into the large yolk cell prior to the development of digestive organs when the larvae is entirely dependent on the yolk for its nutrition (lecithotrophic state). Once zebrafish are able to consume exogenous food, labeled fatty acids can be incorporated into their food. Our group and others have demonstrated that the transport and processing of these injected or ingested fatty acid analogs can be followed through microscopy and/or biochemical analysis. These techniques can be easily combined with targeted antisense approaches, transgenics, or drug treatments (see Note 1 ), allowing studies of lipid cell biology and metabolism that are exceedingly difficult or impossible in mammals.

  3. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  4. Uses and limits of radiotracers in the study of drugs and xenobiotics metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with scientific papers issued in 1977-1978, on labelling of drugs and xenobiotics and their metabolism. It is divided in five parts: site of label; in vivo metabolism in animals and human beings; in vitro metabolism on tissue slices, cells culture, microsomes, membrane receptors; metabolism of xenobiotics: nutrients, food additives, detergents, plastics and fabrics; discussion. Metabolic studies, nowadays, associate radiotracers, stable isotopes with high performing procedures for analytical separation [fr

  5. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  6. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  7. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  8. Iron metabolism study in humans by means of stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.; Molho, N.; Pirola, L.; Gambarini, G.; Hansen, C.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of iron metabolism in a female patient volunteer by administration of stable iron isotopes as tracers was performed. The applied methodology had already been tested in rabbits in comparison with radioactive tracer technique. The subject under study was given 58 Fe solution intravenously and about 45 min later 57 Fe solution orally. Ten blood samples were drawn at different times within 522 min from injection. Single iron isotopes content in plasma samples was determined by proton nuclear activation. A Compton suppressor system was utilized to improve the detector limits. The characteristic parameters of iron plasma clearance and of iron intestinal absorption were determined

  9. Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Study from Bursa Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Orhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Obesity is one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and obesity among women aged 20 years and older. METHOD: This is a cross- sectional study, undergone in a primary health care setting in Bursa /Turkey in the year 2008. A total of 807 women were included in the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Metabolic Syndrome definition was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.713.2 years, 96.4% were married, 50.7% had education of less than 8 years, 93.7% were housewives and 85.3% had a monthly family income of $650 or less. The prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity were 17.5 % and 87.7% respectively. Those with diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma lipids had increased risk of developing MetS 11.3 and 4.5 times more than those without these situations respectively. The risk of MetS increases with age and increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an alarming risk factor for the development of MetS in our study group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 421-432

  10. Voriconazole metabolism is influenced by severe inflammation: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, A.; Avest, M. Ter; Span, L.F.; Heuvel, E.R. van den; Touw, D.J.; Zijlstra, J.G.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Werf, T.S. van der; Alffenaar, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During an infection or inflammation, several drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver are down-regulated, including cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes. Since voriconazole is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, the metabolism of voriconazole can be influenced during

  11. Voriconazole metabolism is influenced by severe inflammation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, Anette; ter Avest, Mendy; Span, Lambert F. R.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Touw, Daan J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Background: During an infection or inflammation, several drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver are downregulated, including cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes. Since voriconazole is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, the metabolism of voriconazole can be influenced during inflammation

  12. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1993-12-01

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. [14C]- and [3H]acetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from acetate appeared in 14- to 20-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated. No label was seen in the essential fatty acid 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4. Radiolabel from [9, 10-3H]palmitic acid (16:0) was detected in 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, and 18:1. [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) was converted to 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, and 20:4, demonstrating delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activity in keratinocytes. Label from acetate, 16:0, or 18:2 was found mostly in the cellular phospholipids while only one third of the label from [14C]arachidonic was found in the phospholipids. [14C]acetate and [14C]18:2 time course data were used to construct a model of the metabolism of these reactants, using coupled, first-order differential equations. The data show that EFA-deficient keratinocytes metabolize fatty acids using pathways previously found in liver; they suggest the positioning of 18:2 desaturase and 18:3 elongase near the plasma membrane; they indicate that for the synthesis of nonessential fatty acids the formation of 18:0 from 16:0 is the rate-determining step; and they show that the conversion of 18:2 to 20:3 is rapid. These experiments demonstrate a method to study lipid enzyme kinetics in living cells.

  13. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  14. In vitro and in vivo study of octacosanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Roberto; Marrero, David; Más, Rosa; Fernández, Ivon; González, Luis; González, Rosa Maria

    2005-01-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of very-long-chain aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax with cholesterol-lowering effects, whose main component is octacosanol. Scarce data about the metabolism of octacosanol and the other fatty alcohols composing policosanol have been published. Human fibroblasts were cultured in presence of (3)H-octacosanol during 0.5, 2 and 4 h. Lipid extracts were analyzed by thin layer chromatography, and the spots corresponding to octacosanol and octacosanoic acid were identified comparing with authentic standards. Spots were scraped, transferred to vials and radioactivity was measured. For corroborating the presence of octacosanol and octacosanoic acid, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The in vivo study of octacosanol metabolism was conducted in rats and Macaca arctoides monkeys. Rats were orally administered with policosanol (60 mg/kg) and free octacosanol and octacosanoic acid were identified in liver and plasma by GC-MS at various time intervals. Monkeys were orally and endovenously treated with policosanol (10 mg/kg) and the presence of free octacosanol, octacosanoic acid and some chain-shortened FA was investigated. When fibroblasts were cultured in presence of (3)H-octacosanol, three spots were found: a first one corresponded to octacosanoic acid, a second to octacosanol and a third one remained unidentified. The radioactivity on the spot of octacosanoic acid slightly decreased throughout the incubation but increased in the third spot. Octacosanol and free octacosanoic acids were also identified in plasma of monkeys orally administered with policosanol. In addition, plasma samples showed free saturated acids, palmitic acid being the most abundant, followed by oleic and mystiric acids. Unsaturated acids (oleic and palmitoleic) were also observed. The present study demonstrates that octacosanoic acid is formed after incubation of fibroblast cultures with (3)H-octacosanol and after oral dosing with

  15. Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Schizophrenia: An Egyptian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly El-Gabry, Dina M; Abdel Aziz, Karim; Okasha, Tarek; Azzam, Hanan; Okasha, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between antipsychotic polypharmacy and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. Some studies suggest that antipsychotic polypharmacy may be associated with greater metabolic risk, whereas other studies suggest that this is uncertain. To date, there have been no studies in Egypt or the Arab world that have investigated this relationship. We sought to compare subjects with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic polypharmacy and monotherapy as regards metabolic outcomes and to investigate medication-related factors associated with metabolic syndrome. We recruited 118 subjects with schizophrenia and compared between those receiving antipsychotic polypharmacy (86 subjects) and monotherapy (32 subjects) as regards demographic, clinical, metabolic, and antipsychotic medication characteristics. We examined the effect of antipsychotic-related factors an outcome of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 38.1%. Except for gender, there was no statistically significant difference as regards demographic and clinical characteristics, rates of metabolic syndrome, or for individual metabolic parameters. We found a statistically significant difference (P antipsychotics (oral and depot) and a number of individual antipsychotic medications. Using logistic regression, receiving haloperidol depot was the only antipsychotic-related factor predictive for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome does not differ in schizophrenia whether patients are receiving polypharmacy and monotherapy nor do they differ for individual metabolic parameters. Most antipsychotic-related characteristics did not predict for metabolic syndrome.

  16. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two...... of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome are related to greater initial ECG LVH in hypertensive patients with value of blood pressure similar to individuals without metabolic abnormalities, and are associated with less reduction of ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy......, potentially contributing to the reported adverse prognosis of metabolic syndrome....

  17. Nitrogen Metabolism During Hepatectomy and Hyperbaric Oxygenation: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine nitrogen metabolism in the organs of the portal system during liver resection (LR and hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO.Material and methods: Experiments were conducted on 65 female albino rats. LR was made under ether anesthesia, by removing a portion of the left hepatic lobe with an electric knife, which amounted to 15—20% of the organ’s mass. HBO was performed using medical oxygen at 3 ata for 50 min once daily within the first three days after LR. Lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract (GIT, spleen, and choledochal bile were the subject of the study. The tissue and blood levels of ammonia, glutamine, and urea were measured.Results: LR leads to pathological ammonia accumulation and decreases arterial glutamine consumption in GIT organs. Concurrently, the urea contained in the organs begins to come into portal blood flow, splenic glutamine deficiency develops, and hepatic ammonia-absorptive, glutamine- and urea-excretory functions diminish. Post-LR HBO prevents the accumulation of ammonia in the liver and GIT, restores the ammonia-absorptive, glutamine- and urea-excretory functions of the liver, and stimulates its glutamine and urea accumulation. Concomitantly, under HBO, there is an increase in glutamine entrance from the GIT into blood flow, but there is a decrease in GIT urea excretion and portal venous blood ammonia levels. HBO eliminates arterial hyperammonemia after LR and splenic glutamine deficiency.Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen eliminates nitrogen metabolic disturbances in the portal system, regulates compensatory-adaptive ammonia metabolic reactions triggered in the GIT and spleen during LR. 

  18. Arsenic metabolism and one-carbon metabolism at low-moderate arsenic exposure: Evidence from the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda Jones; Gamble, Mary V; Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Francesconi, Kevin; Goessler, Walter; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Hall, Meghan; Umans, Jason G; Fretts, Amanda; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-07-01

    B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) can affect arsenic metabolism efficiency in highly arsenic exposed, undernourished populations. We evaluated whether dietary intake of OCM nutrients (including vitamins B2, B6, folate (B9), and B12) was associated with arsenic metabolism in a more nourished population exposed to lower arsenic than previously studied. Dietary intake of OCM nutrients and urine arsenic was evaluated in 405 participants from the Strong Heart Study. Arsenic exposure was measured as the sum of iAs, monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) in urine. Arsenic metabolism was measured as the individual percentages of each metabolite over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, DMA%). In adjusted models, increasing intake of vitamins B2 and B6 was associated with modest but significant decreases in iAs% and MMA% and increases in DMA%. A significant interaction was found between high folate and B6 with enhanced arsenic metabolism efficiency. Our findings suggest OCM nutrients may influence arsenic metabolism in populations with moderate arsenic exposure. Stronger and independent associations were observed with B2 and B6, vitamins previously understudied in relation to arsenic. Research is needed to evaluate whether targeting B-vitamin intake can serve as a strategy for the prevention of arsenic-related health effects at low-moderate arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioisotope techniques in the study of protein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a panel meeting on June 1-5, 1964. The purpose of the panel was to discuss the present status of radioactive tracer techniques for the study of protein metabolism and to suggest ways of extending an co-ordinating the Agency's research programme in this field. The meeting was attended by 13 invited experts from ten different countries, and three representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO). Sessions of the panel were devoted to methods of preparation of labelled proteins and protein-like substances, to techniques of measurement of gastro-intestinal protein absorption and loss and to the clinical applications of these techniques. At each session, working papers were presented by various participants and then discussed in detail. This report gives the full texts of the working papers together with extensive summaries of the discussions and provides a detailed picture of the present situation and likely future developments in this field of work. It is hoped that its publication will be of interest to all concerned with problems of protein metabolism, whether in clinical medicine or the basic medical sciences. 349 refs, figs and tabs

  20. A prospective study of total sleep duration and incident metabolic syndrome: the ARIRANG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Young; Yadav, Dhananjay; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek; Park, Jong Taek; Yoon, Junghan; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is increasingly common in industrialized societies. Recent data have revealed that chronic sleep deprivation is associated with negative health outcome. While prospective studies lack the predictive value of sleep duration to identify individuals at high risk of new-onset metabolic syndrome, total sleep duration may play a role in the development of metabolic abnormalities. This study investigates the association between total sleep duration and the incidence of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. At baseline, a prospective cohort study was conducted with 2579 adults without metabolic syndrome aged between 40 and 70 years. Based on a self-reported questionnaire, the participants in this study were investigated between 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2011 (follow-up) and were categorized according to their total sleep duration (definition. During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 558 (21.6%) subjects developed metabolic syndrome. In multivariable adjusted models, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for incident metabolic syndrome comparing the 6 to 7.9 h to the sleep duration was 1.41 (1.06-1.88). The corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) for high waist circumference, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose were 1.30 (0.98-1.69), 0.75 (0.56-0.97), 0.82 (0.60-1.11), 1.56 (1.19-2.03), and 1.31 (0.96-1.79), respectively. Short sleep duration is an independent risk factor for incident metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of the calcium metabolism of subjects with renal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    In order to perform a detailed study of calcium metabolism, it is necessary to differentiate between intestinal absorption and its subsequent behaviour in terms of either uptake onto the bone or excretion. The measurement of calcium absorption involved two separate intakes of the tracer 47 Ca. Each subject ingested a known activity. Measurements on blood samples were made after 5 hours and a smoothed curve describing the appearance of the activity in the plasma was determined. About 4 weeks after oral ingestion a known activity was injected into the subject and the procedure repeated. A curve describing the differential transfer of calcium from the intestine to the blood stream was derived by performing a deconvolution procedure on the two curves

  2. Lipid Metabolic Versatility in Malassezia spp. Yeasts Studied through Metabolic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; de Cock, Hans; Ohm, Robin A.; Danies, Giovanna; Wösten, Han A. B.; Restrepo, Silvia; González Barrios, Andrés F.; Celis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and folliculitis. The genomes of Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, and Malassezia pachydermatis lack the genes related to fatty acid synthesis. Here, the lipid-synthesis pathways of these species, as well as of Malassezia furfur, and of an atypical M. furfur variant were reconstructed using genome data and Constraints Based Reconstruction and Analysis. To this end, the genomes of M. furfur CBS 1878 and the atypical M. furfur 4DS were sequenced and annotated. The resulting Enzyme Commission numbers and predicted reactions were similar to the other Malassezia strains despite the differences in their genome size. Proteomic profiling was utilized to validate flux distributions. Flux differences were observed in the production of steroids in M. furfur and in the metabolism of butanoate in M. pachydermatis. The predictions obtained via these metabolic reconstructions also suggested defects in the assimilation of palmitic acid in M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. pachydermatis, and the atypical variant of M. furfur, but not in M. furfur. These predictions were validated via physiological characterization, showing the predictive power of metabolic network reconstructions to provide new clues about the metabolic versatility of Malassezia. PMID:28959251

  3. Lipid Metabolic Versatility inMalasseziaspp. Yeasts Studied through Metabolic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; de Cock, Hans; Ohm, Robin A; Danies, Giovanna; Wösten, Han A B; Restrepo, Silvia; González Barrios, Andrés F; Celis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and folliculitis. The genomes of Malassezia globosa , Malassezia sympodialis , and Malassezia pachydermatis lack the genes related to fatty acid synthesis. Here, the lipid-synthesis pathways of these species, as well as of Malassezia furfur , and of an atypical M. furfur variant were reconstructed using genome data and Constraints Based Reconstruction and Analysis. To this end, the genomes of M. furfur CBS 1878 and the atypical M. furfur 4DS were sequenced and annotated. The resulting Enzyme Commission numbers and predicted reactions were similar to the other Malassezia strains despite the differences in their genome size. Proteomic profiling was utilized to validate flux distributions. Flux differences were observed in the production of steroids in M. furfur and in the metabolism of butanoate in M. pachydermatis . The predictions obtained via these metabolic reconstructions also suggested defects in the assimilation of palmitic acid in M. globosa , M. sympodialis , M. pachydermatis , and the atypical variant of M. furfur , but not in M. furfur. These predictions were validated via physiological characterization, showing the predictive power of metabolic network reconstructions to provide new clues about the metabolic versatility of Malassezia .

  4. Lipid Metabolic Versatility in Malassezia spp. Yeasts Studied through Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Triana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and folliculitis. The genomes of Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, and Malassezia pachydermatis lack the genes related to fatty acid synthesis. Here, the lipid-synthesis pathways of these species, as well as of Malassezia furfur, and of an atypical M. furfur variant were reconstructed using genome data and Constraints Based Reconstruction and Analysis. To this end, the genomes of M. furfur CBS 1878 and the atypical M. furfur 4DS were sequenced and annotated. The resulting Enzyme Commission numbers and predicted reactions were similar to the other Malassezia strains despite the differences in their genome size. Proteomic profiling was utilized to validate flux distributions. Flux differences were observed in the production of steroids in M. furfur and in the metabolism of butanoate in M. pachydermatis. The predictions obtained via these metabolic reconstructions also suggested defects in the assimilation of palmitic acid in M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. pachydermatis, and the atypical variant of M. furfur, but not in M. furfur. These predictions were validated via physiological characterization, showing the predictive power of metabolic network reconstructions to provide new clues about the metabolic versatility of Malassezia.

  5. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.; Pincetl, S.; Bunje, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. - This paper presents a chronological review of urban metabolism studies and highlights four areas of application.

  6. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  7. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R.M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Mulder, M.E.; Brink, R.H. van den; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. METHOD: A total of 285 older persons (60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up

  8. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R. M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Mulder, M.E.; van den Brink, R. H. S.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background. Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. Method. A total of 285 older persons (>= 60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up

  9. In situ coral reef oxygen metabolism: an eddy correlation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Long

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies of coral reefs are challenged by the three-dimensional hard structure of reefs and the high spatial variability and temporal dynamics of their metabolism. We used the non-invasive eddy correlation technique to examine respiration and photosynthesis rates, through O2 fluxes, from reef crests and reef slopes in the Florida Keys, USA. We assessed how the photosynthesis and respiration of different reef habitats is controlled by light and hydrodynamics. Numerous fluxes (over a 0.25 h period were as high as 4500 mmol O2 m(-2 d(-1, which can only be explained by efficient light utilization by the phototrophic community and the complex canopy structure of the reef, having a many-fold larger surface area than its horizontal projection. Over diel cycles, the reef crest was net autotrophic, whereas on the reef slope oxygen production and respiration were balanced. The autotrophic nature of the shallow reef crests implies that the export of organics is an important source of primary production for the larger area. Net oxygen production on the reef crest was proportional to the light intensity, up to 1750 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 and decreased thereafter as respiration was stimulated by high current velocities coincident with peak light levels. Nighttime respiration rates were also stimulated by the current velocity, through enhanced ventilation of the porous framework of the reef. Respiration rates were the highest directly after sunset, and then decreased during the night suggesting that highly labile photosynthates produced during the day fueled early-night respiration. The reef framework was also important to the acquisition of nutrients as the ambient nitrogen stock in the water had sufficient capacity to support these high production rates across the entire reef width. These direct measurements of complex reefs systems yielded high metabolic rates and dynamics that can only be determined through in situ, high temporal resolution

  10. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  11. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physiopathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-11-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developped in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolutions, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physiopathologic studies [fr

  12. 32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, G.; Pfueller, K.; Bier, H.; Mueller, D.; Rummel, G.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32 P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

  13. Study of bone metabolism in patients with chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaccioli, S; Del Giorno, R; Crapa, G; Sabatini, C; Panaccione, A; Di Cato, L; Lavagna, A; Fatati, G; Paladini, A; Frongillo, R; Puxeddu, A

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have confirmed the high incidence of skeletal homeostasis modifications in subjects who are carriers of chronic HIV infections, and specific pharmacological treatments, which modify the metabolism and condition both the weight loss and the reshaping of the bones. The presence of a reduction in body mass index seems to contribute to the progressive deterioration of the skeletal framework. The aim of this study was to see whether the presence of HIV-seropositivity could constitute a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis/osteopenia, even in the light of the fact that our group was composed of patients with a concentrated age span well under the limit for both post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis, and with a median age superimposable for both sexes. Our study involved 26 HIV+ patients with an average duration of infection equal to 6.7 +/- 4.8 years, and a range of seropositive duration between 6 months to 16 years. The prominent ultrasonometrical parameters are as follows: Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation, Speed of Sound, Stiffness Index or Quantitative Ultra-sound Index, Bone Mineral Density, and T-score. The biochemical study was carried out by assessing a marker of neoformation such as seric osteocalcine, and uninary pyridinoline and deoxipyridonoline as resorption markers. The results confirmed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in 46% of the samples (11%, and 35%, respectively), with a progressive reduction in bone mineral density in relation to the duration of HIV infection. Assessment of the marker for bone metabolism showed a significant increase in osteocalcine in the female population compared to the males, without any significant variations in the normal values. Extreme variability in the morphological appearance at bone level during the course of HIV infection would lead us to believe that in the genesis of various forms, depending on the mechanisms and the time involved only in the parts defined, other attributable factors

  14. Serum Antioxidant Associations with Metabolic Characteristics in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescents with Severe Obesity: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Stenzel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inadequacy of some antioxidant nutrients in severely obese adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between antioxidant micronutrients status and metabolic syndrome components in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO and unhealthy obesity (MUO. We performed an observational study in severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 99th percentile and they were classified into MHO or MUO, according to the criteria adapted for adolescents. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical variables were analyzed to characterize the sample of adolescents. The serum antioxidant nutrients assessed were retinol, β-carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, zinc and selenium. A total of 60 adolescents aged 17.31 ± 1.34 years were enrolled. MHO was identified in 23.3% of adolescents. The MHO group showed lower frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (14.3% vs. 78.3%, p < 0.001 when compared to MUO. A correlation was found between retinol and β-carotene concentrations with glycemia (r = −0.372; p = 0.011 and r = −0.314; p = 0.034, respectively and between Vitamin E with waist circumference (r = −0.306; p = 0.038 in the MUO group. The current study shows that some antioxidant nutrients status, specifically retinol, β-carotene, and Vitamin E, are negatively associated with metabolic alterations in MUO. Further studies are necessary to determine the existing differences in the serum antioxidant profile of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adolescents.

  15. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Metabolism of allylnitrile to cyanide: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, M Y; Ybarra, B; Piper, J

    1993-09-01

    In liver fractions from male Sprague-Dawley rats, the metabolism of allylnitrile (ALN) to cyanide (CN-) was localized in the microsomal fraction and required NADPH and oxygen for maximal activity. The biotransformation of ALN to CN- was characterized with respect to time, microsomal protein concentration, pH and temperature. Metabolism of ALN was increased in microsomes obtained from phenobarbital-treated rats (160% of control) and decreased with cobaltous chloride and beta-diethyl aminoethyl-2,2-diphenyl pentanoate (SKF 525-A) treatments (48% of control). Addition of SKF 525-A to the incubation mixtures inhibited ALN metabolism to CN-. Addition of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropane 2,3-oxide, decreased the formation of CN- from ALN. Addition of glutathione, cysteine, D-penicillamine, and 2-mercaptoethanol enhanced the release of CN- from ALN. These findings indicate that ALN is metabolized to CN- via a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system.

  17. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, R M; Vogelzangs, N; Mulder, M E; van den Brink, R H S; Comijs, H C; Oude Voshaar, R C

    2017-04-01

    Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. A total of 285 older persons (⩾60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up for 2 years. Severity of depression was assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) at 6-month intervals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP-ATP III). We applied logistic regression and linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, years of education, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, somatic co-morbidity, cognitive functioning and drug use (antidepressants, anti-inflammatory drugs) and severity of depression at baseline. MS predicted non-remission at 2 years (odds ratioper component = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.58), p = 0.047), which was driven by the waist circumference and HDL cholesterol. MS was not associated with IDS sum score. Subsequent analyses on its subscales, however, identified an association with the somatic symptom subscale score over time (interaction time × somatic subscale, p = 0.005), driven by higher waist circumference and elevated fasting glucose level. Metabolic dysregulation predicts a poor course of late-life depression. This finding supports the concept of 'metabolic depression', recently proposed on population-based findings of a protracted course of depressive symptoms in the presence of metabolic dysregulation. Our findings seem to be driven by abdominal obesity (as indicated by the waist circumference) and HDL cholesterol dysregulation.

  18. Comparative genomics and functional study of lipid metabolic genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal models are indispensable to understand the lipid metabolism and lipid metabolic diseases. Over the last decade, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become a popular animal model for exploring the regulation of lipid metabolism, obesity, and obese-related diseases. However, the genomic and functional conservation of lipid metabolism from C. elegans to humans remains unknown. In the present study, we systematically analyzed genes involved in lipid metabolism in the C. elegans genome using comparative genomics. Results We built a database containing 471 lipid genes from the C. elegans genome, and then assigned most of lipid genes into 16 different lipid metabolic pathways that were integrated into a network. Over 70% of C. elegans lipid genes have human orthologs, with 237 of 471 C. elegans lipid genes being conserved in humans, mice, rats, and Drosophila, of which 71 genes are specifically related to human metabolic diseases. Moreover, RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) was used to disrupt the expression of 356 of 471 lipid genes with available RNAi clones. We found that 21 genes strongly affect fat storage, development, reproduction, and other visible phenotypes, 6 of which have not previously been implicated in the regulation of fat metabolism and other phenotypes. Conclusions This study provides the first systematic genomic insight into lipid metabolism in C. elegans, supporting the use of C. elegans as an increasingly prominent model in the study of metabolic diseases. PMID:23496871

  19. Biochemical and biophysical methods for studying mitochondrial iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Hampton, Gregory P; Tong, Wing-Hang; Rouault, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a heavily utilized element in organisms and numerous mechanisms accordingly regulate the trafficking, metabolism, and storage of iron. Despite the high regulation of iron homeostasis, several diseases and mutations can lead to the misregulation and often accumulation of iron in the cytosol or mitochondria of tissues. To understand the genesis of iron overload, it is necessary to employ various techniques to quantify iron in organisms and mitochondria. This chapter discusses techniques for determining the total iron content of tissue samples, ranging from colorimetric determination of iron concentrations, atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In addition, we discuss in situ techniques for analyzing iron including electron microscopic nonheme iron histochemistry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging, and confocal Raman microscopy. Finally, we discuss biophysical methods for studying iron in isolated mitochondria, including ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorbance, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. This chapter should aid researchers to select and interpret mitochondrial iron quantifications.

  20. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  1. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H.; Santos, U.P.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  2. Thyroid function and the metabolic syndrome in older persons: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heima, N.E.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Oosterwerff, M.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Simsek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest an association between a high TSH and (individual components of) the metabolic syndrome. Only a few studies have been performed in the general older population. Objective: This study investigates the association between serum TSH and the metabolic syndrome in a

  3. Asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis and metabolic syndrome: the APAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated potential associations between MetS and asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS in a general population. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a Chinese population aged 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Asymptomatic ICAS was diagnosed by transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography. RESULTS: Out of 5393 study participants, asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 713 (13.2% participants, and MetS in 1323 (24.5% individuals. Prevalence of asymptomatic ICAS increased significantly from 7.5% to 24.2% with increasing number of MetS components. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MetS was significantly associated with asymptomatic ICAS (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.23,1.83. Compared with the subgroup without MetS, the ORs for asymptomatic ICAS increased (P<0.0001 for each of 5 components of MetS from 1.71 (95%CI: 1.27,2.30, to 2.20 (95%CI: 1.63,2.98, 2.79 (95CI: 2.01,3.88, 3.08 (95%CI: 2.11,4.51 and 4.27 (95%CI: 2.22,8.20. CONCLUSIONS: In multivariate analysis, MetS was an independent and additional factor associated with asymptomatic ICAS. Study participants with 5 MetS components had a 4 times higher risk of asymptomatic ICAS than participants with no MetS component.

  4. Asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis and metabolic syndrome: the APAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anxin; Li, Zhaoxia; Luo, Yanxia; Liu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Xiuhua; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated potential associations between MetS and asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) in a general population. The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a Chinese population aged 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Asymptomatic ICAS was diagnosed by transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography. Out of 5393 study participants, asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 713 (13.2%) participants, and MetS in 1323 (24.5%) individuals. Prevalence of asymptomatic ICAS increased significantly from 7.5% to 24.2% with increasing number of MetS components. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MetS was significantly associated with asymptomatic ICAS (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.23,1.83). Compared with the subgroup without MetS, the ORs for asymptomatic ICAS increased (P<0.0001) for each of 5 components of MetS from 1.71 (95%CI: 1.27,2.30), to 2.20 (95%CI: 1.63,2.98), 2.79 (95CI: 2.01,3.88), 3.08 (95%CI: 2.11,4.51) and 4.27 (95%CI: 2.22,8.20). In multivariate analysis, MetS was an independent and additional factor associated with asymptomatic ICAS. Study participants with 5 MetS components had a 4 times higher risk of asymptomatic ICAS than participants with no MetS component.

  5. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  6. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  7. Association of metabolically healthy obesity with depressive symptoms: pooled analysis of eight studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Hamer, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Batty, G D; Kivimäki, M

    2014-08-01

    The hypothesis of metabolically healthy obesity posits that adverse health effects of obesity are largely avoided when obesity is accompanied by a favorable metabolic profile. We tested this hypothesis with depressive symptoms as the outcome using cross-sectional data on obesity, metabolic health and depressive symptoms. Data were extracted from eight studies and pooled for individual-participant meta-analysis with 30,337 men and women aged 15-105 years (mean age=46.1). Clinic measures included height, weight and metabolic risk factors (high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high C-reactive protein and high glycated hemoglobin). Depressive symptoms were assessed using clinical interview or standardized rating scales. The pooled sample comprised 7673 (25%) obese participants (body mass index ⩾30 kg m(-2)). Compared to all non-obese individuals, the OR for depressive symptoms was higher in metabolically unhealthy obese individuals with two or more metabolic risk factors (1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.30, 1.61) and for metabolically healthy obese with ⩽1 metabolic risk factor (1.19; 95% CI=1.03, 1.37), adjusted for sex, age and race/ethnicity. Metabolically unhealthy obesity was associated with higher depression risk (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.05, 1.45) compared with metabolically healthy obesity. These associations were consistent across studies with no evidence for heterogeneity in estimates (all I(2)-valuesobese persons with a favorable metabolic profile have a slightly increased risk of depressive symptoms compared with non-obese, but the risk is greater when obesity is combined with an adverse metabolic profile. These findings suggest that metabolically healthy obesity is not a completely benign condition in relation to depression risk.

  8. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C; Pincetl, S; Bunje, P

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drosophila as a Model to Study the Link between Metabolism and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Hector; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular metabolism has recently been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Investigating the origin and effects of the reprogrammed metabolism of tumor cells, and identifying its genetic mediators, will improve our understanding of how these changes contribute to disease progression and may suggest...... new approaches to therapy. Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable model to study multiple aspects of tumor formation and malignant transformation. In this review, we discuss the use of Drosophila as model to study how changes in cellular metabolism, as well as metabolic disease, contribute...... to cancer....

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Syndrome in Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Won Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (METS is a disorder of energy utilization and storage and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To identify the genetic risk factors of METS, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for 2,657 cases and 5,917 controls in Korean populations. As a result, we could identify 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with genome-wide significance level p-values (<5 × 10-8, 8 SNPs with genome-wide suggestive p-values (5 × 10-8 ≤ p < 1 × 10-5, and 2 SNPs of more functional variants with borderline p-values (5 × 10-5 ≤ p < 1 × 10-4. On the other hand, the multiple correction criteria of conventional GWASs exclude false-positive loci, but simultaneously, they discard many true-positive loci. To reconsider the discarded true-positive loci, we attempted to include the functional variants (nonsynonymous SNPs [nsSNPs] and expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL] among the top 5,000 SNPs based on the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genotypic variance. In total, 159 eQTLs and 18 nsSNPs were presented in the top 5,000 SNPs. Although they should be replicated in other independent populations, 6 eQTLs and 2 nsSNP loci were located in the molecular pathways of LPL, APOA5, and CHRM2, which were the significant or suggestive loci in the METS GWAS. Conclusively, our approach using the conventional GWAS, reconsidering functional variants and pathway-based interpretation, suggests a useful method to understand the GWAS results of complex traits and can be expanded in other genomewide association studies.

  11. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF TELMISARTAN (ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKER ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesekhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is currently a major worldwide epidemic. It strongly associates with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are major pathologies contributing to mortality and morbidity worldwide. The effect of PPAR-y on metabolic syndrome is significant it is critical regulator of adipogenesis the gain in PPAR-y is resulted in obesity but loss of PPAR–y by mutation is associated with loss of weight and insulin resistance. Telmisartan is an orally active, long-acting, non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (ATI receptor blocker. In addition to this, it has been identified as partial agonist/selective modulator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-y. MATERIAL AND METHOD This is a prospective, randomised and open labelled 16 weeks study conducted in the Dept. of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Science, Amalapuram. Present study is designed to study the effect of telmisartan on various metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients who fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. RESULT There was statistically significant change in all parameters most important was lipid profile; LDL concentration was decreased from 139.2 mg/dL to 120.2 mg/dL. Baseline triglyceride concentration was 161.0 mg/dL which was changed 152.8 mg/dL Total cholesterol was decreased from 203.2 to 193.8 mg/dL. CONCLUSION In our study, we have also found that use of telmisartan is associated with decrease in lipid concentration in addition to its effect on blood pressure regulation. But a long term study with high dose required of this drug is required because safety profile of this drug is better than thiazolidinedione. Financial part of this study is our limitation.

  12. Using the reconstructed genome-scale human metabolic network to study physiology and pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism plays a key role in many major human diseases. Generation of high-throughput omics data has ushered in a new era of systems biology. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions provide a platform to interpret omics data in a biochemically meaningful manner. The release of the global human metabolic network, Recon 1, in 2007 has enabled new systems biology approaches to study human physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. There are currently over 20 publications that utilize Reco...

  13. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  14. Rationales and Approaches for Studying Metabolism in Eukaryotic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Veyel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of efficient production strains is essential for the use of eukaryotic microalgae for biofuel production. Systems biology approaches including metabolite profiling on promising microalgal strains, will provide a better understanding of their metabolic networks, which is crucial for metabolic engineering efforts. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii represents a suited model system for this purpose. We give an overview to genetically amenable microalgal strains with the potential for biofuel production and provide a critical review of currently used protocols for metabolite profiling on Chlamydomonas. We provide our own experimental data to underpin the validity of the conclusions drawn.

  15. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  16. Studies of Bone Metabolism with the Aid of Radioactive Strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.C.; Copp, D.H., M.D.

    1948-04-01

    The kinetics of skeletal uptake and urinary excretion of radiostrontium were studied during the critieal first hour following intraperitoneal injection of a carrier-free dose. These experiments not only provided valuable data con.cerning the metabolism and fixation of this important fission product, but, because of the close similarity of strontium and calcium, also gave basic information on the process of calcification. Three groups of rats were compared: normal mature adults, young growing normal animals, and young rachitic rats. In all groups, the blood radioactive strontium rose to a maximum in 10-15 minutes, and then declined as the strontium continued to deposit in the skeleton or to be excreted in the urine. Muscle and skin strontium curves followed those of blood quite closely, suggesting a rapid equilibrium between their extracellular fluid and blood plasma. In all groups there was a continous uptake of strontium by the skeleton. In the adults, this was almost constant, suggesting uptek e by absorption and exchange with the calcium of the bone mineral. In the young rats, both normal and rachitic, the very rapid initial rate of uptake of radio-strontium tapered off sharply with time, indicating that some of this radio-element was coming back from the bone into the blood stream. This suggested a rapid labile combination of strontiunl in these animals, which, since it also occured in the rachitic group in which normal calcification is inhibited, probably associated with the protein osteoid matrix present in both. A hypothetical calcification mechanism was suggested by these findings. Urinary excretion and renal clearance of strontium was constant in all three groups, but the clearance was almost ten times as great in the rachitic as in the normal young and adult rats. This would seem to indicate a direct effect of rickets on the renal mechanism of radiostrontium (and calcium) excretion.

  17. Use of density functional theory in drug metabolism studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize many drug compounds. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions, and potentially, a large number of different metabolites can be generated. Density functional theory (DFT) has, over the past decade, been shown to be a powerful tool...

  18. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  19. In Vitro Studies on the Metabolic Energy Requirements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krebs buffer, pH 7.3 free from zinc and whose metabolic energy requirement of absorption was to be investigated until slightly distended. Sacs were incubated for 30 minutes at 37oC with continuous aeration in media containing the buffer and ...

  20. Hyperpolarized C-13 MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Hartwig, V.; Frijia, F.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac metabolism assessment with hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models requires the design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work presents a comparison between a commercial 13C quadrature...

  1. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    nasal mucosa. An induction of 2a-testosterone hydroxylase (associated with the constitutive and hormone -dependent P450 2C11) was also noted in the... biotransformation of the solvent, even when metabolism was enhanced by P450 inducers. Induction of palmitoyl CoA- reductase, a marker of peroxisome

  2. Importance of metabolism in pharmacological studies: possible in vitro predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaforge, M

    1998-11-01

    Metabolic transformation of drug leads to the formation of a large number of secondary compounds. These metabolites may (a) participate to the elimination of the patent drug, (b) have similar or different therapeutic effects compared to the parent drug (c) exert toxic effects. Cytochromes P450 are the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of exogenous drugs, leading to oxidized, reduced or peroxidized metabolites. Different isozymes of P450 are present in already all the organs and differ by their affinity for substrate families. P450 3A is the most abundant P450 protein in the adult human liver and is able to transform hundreds of substrates into either drugs or endogenous compounds such as testosterone. Its catalytic activities are regulated either by induction or by inhibition. Attempts to predict metabolic transformation of a given drug are based on the amount of P450 expressed in heterologous systems, induction, and inhibition experiments and by comparison to classical P450 substrates. Erythromycin metabolism and its P450 effects are used to illustrate the complexity and the consequences of metabolic transformation of a given drug.

  3. Associations Between Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome Over Time: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the association between changes in adiposity traits including anthropometric and fat mass indicators and changes in metabolic syndrome traits including metabolic syndrome clustering and individual components over time. We also assessed the shared genetic and environmental correlations between the two traits. Participants were 284 South Korean twin individuals and 279 nontwin family members had complete data for changes in adiposity traits and metabolic syndrome traits of the Healthy Twin study. Mixed linear model and bivariate variance-component analysis were applied. Over a period of 3.1 ± 0.6 years of study, changes in adiposity traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass, and fat mass to lean mass ratio] had significant associations with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering [high blood pressure, high serum glucose, high triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] after adjusting for intra-familial and sibling correlations, age, sex, baseline metabolic syndrome clustering, and socioeconomic factors and health behaviors at follow-up. Change in BMI associated significantly with changes in individual metabolic syndrome components compared to other adiposity traits. Change in metabolic syndrome component TG was a better predictor of changes in adiposity traits compared to changes in other metabolic components. These associations were explained by significant environmental correlations but not by genetic correlations. Changes in anthropometric and fat mass indicators were positively associated with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering and those associations appeared to be regulated by environmental influences.

  4. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for

  5. Electrochemical and enzymatic synthesis of oxidative drug metabolites for metabolism studies : Exploring selectivity and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gül, Turan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism studies of drug molecules play a crucial role in drug discovery and development since the early detection of possibly toxic drug metabolites can save time and money. During the metabolic biotransformation process, oxidation of a drug molecule is catalyzed by specific enzymes which can

  6. In vivo NMR study of yeast fermentative metabolism in the presence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments on cellular cultures subject to increasing concentrations of ferric ions were conducted in order to study the effect of oxidative stress on the dynamics of the fermentative process. The developed mathematical model was able to simulate the cellular activity, the metabolic yield and the main metabolic fluxes ...

  7. Studies on carbon metabolism in wild type and mutants of Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitzetter, J.H.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with carbon metabolism in the lower eukaryote Aspergillus nidulans. This fungus is an attractive organism as a model to study genetics in relation to metabolism in lower eukaryotes.

    In chapter I the present state of affairs in this field is summarized

  8. Denervation of the renal arteries in metabolic syndrome : The DREAMS-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, WL; Spiering, Wilko; Vink, Eva E.; Beeftink, Martine M A; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic elevation of sympathetic nervous system is a key factor in metabolic syndrome. Because renal denervation (RDN) is thought to modulate sympathetic activity, we performed the Denervation of the Renal Arteries in Metabolic Syndrome (DREAMS)-study to investigate the effects of RDN on insulin

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  11. Metabolic depression: a chronic depressive subtype? Findings from the InCHIANTI study of older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Boelhouwer, Ingrid G; Bandinelli, Stefania; Milaneschi, Yuri; Ferrucci, Luigi; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-05-01

    Several studies report a cross-sectional association between metabolic syndrome and depression. Possibly, metabolic syndrome promotes onset or chronicity of depression. However, such a longitudinal link has not yet been confirmed. This study examines whether metabolic syndrome or its components are associated with onset and chronicity of depression. Secondary analyses were performed on data from 823 participants (≥ 65 years of age) in the InCHIANTI study, a prospective, population-based cohort study of older persons. From 1998 to 2000, the study sample was randomly selected from the population registry of 2 sites in Italy using a multistage stratified sampling method. Baseline data collection consisted of a home interview and a medical evaluation at the study clinic. Follow-up for each participant occurred after 3 years and 6 years. Metabolic syndrome at baseline was defined as ≥ 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 3 and 6 years. Sample characteristics were compared between persons with and without depression at baseline using χ² and t statistics. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately in persons with and without depression at baseline to test whether metabolic syndrome at baseline could predict onset and chronicity of depression at follow-up. At baseline, 235 persons had metabolic syndrome, and 168 were depressed (CES-D score ≥ 20). Among persons not depressed at baseline, 26.0% developed depression. Higher waist circumference increased the odds of depression onset (adjusted OR per SD increase = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), but there was no association between other metabolic syndrome components and onset of depression. Among persons depressed at baseline, depression had a chronic character in 69.0% of persons

  12. Practical approach for the study of metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Macedo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available First year students in Physical Education must understand metabolic regulation to comprehend thewhole integration of biochemical pathways in attempt to establish the relation with exercise. Thiswhole view is not easy to learn and the task becomes even harder with the lack of time at theend of course, when normally the students think about metabolic integration. Trying to get thestudents attention to this important issue, we developed practical works beginning in the middle ofthe course, in parallel with theory classes. Blood and urine were collected for metabolite analysis ineach practice. The students were divided in groups (10 students and they created the protocols in formthat they only have been guided and directed by the teacher and monitors. The practical activitiesand biochemical analysis were: six 30m sprints with dierent recovery times (blood lactate and meanvelocities, lactate removal from muscle to blood after high intensity exercise (blood lactate, anaerobicthreshold (blood lactate and heart rate, the eect of glycogen depletion after high and moderateintensity exercises (plasma glucose and urea concentrations and low carbohydrate diet vs. normaldiet (plasma glucose and urine ketone bodies. After data collection, discussion and interpretation, thestudents presented orally each work in the same order above. Each presentation had the focus on themetabolic pathways involved in each practice. Group 1: phosphocreatine utilization and resynthesis.Group 2: anaerobic glycolysis, lactate production and removal. Group 3: transition between anaerobicglycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In attempt to promote the integration between muscle and liver-Group 4: protein catabolism after high intensity exercise with low muscular glycogen concentration(transamination, Cori Cycle and gluconeogenesis. Group 5: liver ketogenesis in low carbohydratediet. This sequence was intended to promote the comprehension of integrated metabolism. As a nalactivity, the

  13. Metabolic studies of Hg-203 on chlamydomonas reinhardi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macka, W.; Stehlik, G.; Wihlidal, H.; Washuettl, J.; Bancher, E.

    1977-09-01

    Vegetative cultures of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardi WT + in the log-phase reduce mercury(II)-nitrate to elemental mercury which is removed from the cell suspension by the stream of gas bubbling through it. Monomethyl and dimethyl mercury as intermediate metabolic compounds are to be excluded, because none of them could be found in the algae, the nutrient medium or the gas phase. (author)

  14. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  15. [Dyuamical studies on metabolic chemistry of lignans from seeds of Arctium lappa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-min; Cai, Shao-xi; Xu, Xiu-ying; Fu, Shan-quan

    2005-08-01

    To study the metabolic chemistry and pharmaco-dynamics characters of ligan from seeds of Arctium lappa. HPLC method was used in the study. The analysis was carried out on C18 column. The mobile phase was CH3CN-0.05% H3PO4 (36:64) with flow-rate at 0.6 mL x min(-1) and wave-length of 210 nm. The column temperature was kept at 25 degrees C. The results indicated that the ligan was detected in plasma and the main organs 5 min after po. The main metabolic production in plasma was arctigenin. In addition, arctigenin and an unknown product were found in metabolic production in the organs. The method was stable,simple and reproducible. It can be used to determine the metabolic product of the ligan. The metabolic chemistry of ligan in plasma was obviously different from that in the main organs.

  16. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from 13C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sonnay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, 1H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. 1H-[13C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from 13C-coupled 1H, together with infusion of 13C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of 13C isotopomers, the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct 13C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here

  17. Testosterone: Relationships with Metabolic Disorders in Men—An Observational Study from SPECT-China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The strength of associations between total testosterone (TT and metabolic parameters may vary in different nature of population structure; however, no study has ever given this information in Chinese population, especially those without metabolic syndrome (MS. We aimed to analyze the association magnitudes between TT and multiple metabolic parameters in general Chinese men. Methods. 4309 men were recruited from SPECT-China study in 2014-2015, which was performed in 22 sites in East China. TT, weight status, and various metabolic parameters were measured. Linear and logistic regressions were used to analyze the associations. Results. Men in lower TT quartiles had worse metabolic parameters including body mass index, triglycerides, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR (all P for trend < 0.001. Body mass index (B −0.32, 95%CI −0.35 to −0.29 and obesity (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.35–0.45 had the largest association magnitude per one SD increment in TT, while blood pressure and hypertension (OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.98 had the smallest. These associations also persisted in individuals without metabolic syndrome. Conclusions. Obesity indices had closer relationships with TT than most other metabolic measures with blood pressure the least close. These associations remained robust after adjustment for adiposity and in subjects without metabolic syndrome.

  18. A Metabolic Study on Colon Cancer Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal carcinoma is the third cause of cancer deaths in the world. For diagnosis, invasive methods like colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are used, and noninvasive screening tests are not very accurate. We decided to study the potential of 1HNMR spectroscopy with metabolomics and chemometrics as a preliminary noninvasive test. We obtained a distinguishing pattern of metabolites and metabolic pathways between colon cancer patient and normal. Methods. Sera were obtained from confirmed colon cancer patients and the same number of healthy controls. Samples were sent for 1HNMR spectroscopy and analysis was carried out Chenomex and MATLAB software. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolic Data Base (HDMB and the main metabolic cycles were identified using Metaboanalyst software. Results. 15 metabolites were identified such as pyridoxine, orotidine, and taurocholic acid. Main metabolic cycles involved were the bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, methane metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Discussion. The main detected metabolic cycles were also reported earlier in different cancers. Our observations corroborated earlier studies that suggest the importance of lowering serum LCA/DCA and increasing vitamin B6 intake to help prevent colon cancer. This work can be looked upon as a preliminary step in using 1HNMR analysis as a screening test before invasive procedures.

  19. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  20. Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Sexual Minority Women: Results from the ESTHER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Stall, Ron; Hawk, Mary; Markovic, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority women (SMW) have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome risk factors (e.g., obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and depression). Yet, no published research has examined whether SMW have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual factors in a sample of heterosexuals and SMW, and identify whether SMW are at greater risk of having the metabolic syndrome. Data are from the Epidemiologic STudy of HEalth Risk in Women (ESTHER), a cross-sectional convenience sample of 479 SMW and 400 heterosexual women from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants provided self-report questionnaire data, clinical data, and blood work. Compared to heterosexuals, SMW had higher mean waist circumference, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nearly one-quarter (24.3%) of SMW had the metabolic syndrome compared to 15.6% of heterosexual women (p = 0.002). After controlling for demographic and risk factors, SMW had a 44% higher risk of having the metabolic syndrome than heterosexuals (p = 0.031). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify this health disparity in SMW. Future studies should explore differential risk of mortality and metabolic health between SMW and heterosexuals.

  1. Chimeric mice with humanized liver: Application in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritomi, Yoichi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2018-02-01

    Predicting human drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK) is key to drug discovery. In particular, it is important to predict human PK, metabolite profiles and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Various methods have been used for such predictions, including in vitro metabolic studies using human biological samples, such as hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes, and in vivo studies using experimental animals. However, prediction studies using these methods are often inconclusive due to discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results, and interspecies differences in drug metabolism. Further, the prediction methods have changed from qualitative to quantitative to solve these issues. Chimeric mice with humanized liver have been developed, in which mouse liver cells are mostly replaced with human hepatocytes. Since human drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the liver of these mice, they are regarded as suitable models for mimicking the drug metabolism and PK observed in humans; therefore, these mice are useful for predicting human drug metabolism and PK. In this review, we discuss the current state, issues, and future directions of predicting human drug metabolism and PK using chimeric mice with humanized liver in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Earwax metabolomics: An innovative pilot metabolic profiling study for assessing metabolic changes in ewes during periparturition period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy Shokry

    Full Text Available Important metabolic changes occur during transition period of late pregnancy and early lactation to meet increasing energy demands of the growing fetus and for milk production. The aim of this investigation is to present an innovative and non-invasive tool using ewe earwax sample analysis to assess the metabolic profile in ewes during late pregnancy and early lactation. In this work, earwax samples were collected from 28 healthy Brazilian Santa Inês ewes divided into 3 sub-groups: 9 non-pregnant ewes, 6 pregnant ewes in the last 30 days of gestation, and 13 lactating ewes ≤ 30 days postpartum. Then, a range of metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOC, amino acids (AA, and minerals were profiled and quantified in the samples by applying headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, respectively. As evident in our results, significant changes were observed in the metabolite profile of earwax between the studied groups where a remarkable elevation was detected in the levels of non-esterified fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, and hydroxy urea in the VOC profile of samples obtained from pregnant and lactating ewes. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was detected in the levels of 9 minerals and 14 AA including essential AA (leucine, phenyl alanine, lysine, isoleucine, threonine, valine, conditionally essential AA (arginine, glycine, tyrosine, proline, serine, and a non-essential AA (alanine. Multivariate analysis using robust principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was successfully applied to discriminate the three study groups using the variations of metabolites in the two stress states (pregnancy and lactation from the healthy non-stress condition. The innovative developed method was successful in evaluating pre- and post-parturient metabolic changes using earwax and can in the future be

  3. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyares, Rosa L; de Rezende, Vitor B; Farber, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  5. Associations between depression and unhealthy behaviours related to metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity. There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women. This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.

  6. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Technological Development of High-Performance MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Study of Metabolic Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, Adam D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    This thesis represents efforts made in technological developments for the study of metabolic biology in plants, specifically maize, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-mass spectrometry imaging.

  8. Altered metabolism of growth hormone receptor mutant mice: a combined NMR metabonomics and microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Joachim Schirra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone

  9. The Conduct of Drug Metabolism Studies Considered Good Practice (II): In Vitro Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lee; Liu, Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    In vitro drug metabolism studies, which are inexpensive and readily carried out, serve as an adequate screening mechanism to characterize drug metabolites, elucidate their pathways, and make suggestions for further in vivo testing. This publication is a sequel to part I in a series and aims at providing a general framework to guide designs and protocols of the in vitro drug metabolism studies considered good practice in an efficient manner such that it would help researchers avoid common pitf...

  10. Study of clinical parameters and laboratory evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide incidence of obesity is rising. Genetic predisposition, urbanization, sedentary lifestyle, television watching, food habits, and lack of exercise are contributing factors. They result in obesity-related morbidity like metabolic syndrome, stroke in young, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1000 adolescents of both genders, aged 12-19 years in three schools of Pimpri, Pune, after obtaining approval from Institutional Ethical Committee. The criterion used to diagnose metabolic syndrome was International Diabetes Federation definition. The Chi-square test was used to explore the association between metabolic syndrome and various predictors. A P value of 0.05 was accepted as the level of statistical significance. Results: In the study sample, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 16/1000. Females were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (male:female = 7:9. Factors associated were body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, birth weight, skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, faulty dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyles (P < 0.05. Among all, the components of metabolic syndrome, raised triglyceride (75%, and fasting blood sugar level (75% were more prevalent than high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (44% and hypertension (37.5%. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was found to be more prevalent in females of age group 16-19 years, among the obese population, associated with birth weight, BMI, and WHR.

  11. Application of isolated hepatocytes to studies of drug metabolism in large food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, L R; Kirsch, D G; Lohse, C L; Wisniewski, J A

    1987-03-01

    A definitive hazard assessment of xenobiotics translocated through food animals into edible products such as meat or milk requires a complete analysis of metabolism in food animals. However, large animal metabolism studies present many experimental difficulties. None of several in vitro alternatives such as subcellular fractions has been established as an acceptable predictor of in vivo metabolism. The feasibility of using isolated hepatocytes to predict the metabolism of xenobiotics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in large ruminant animals (e.g. cattle) is being studied in our laboratory. A procedure was developed for isolating hepatocytes aseptically from the caudate process of the liver which was obtained surgically from 100-125 kg calves. A modified two-step vascular perfusion procedure provides hepatocyte suspensions that are typically greater than or equal to 85% viable and greater than or equal to 1 X 10(7) viable hepatocytes/g of liver (wet wt). Xenobiotic metabolism has been evaluated in suspensions and primary cultures using aldrin epoxidation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation and sulfation. Metabolic activities are relatively short-lived in suspensions less than or equal to 4 h, but quite stable up to 10 h when cultured on collagen-coated plates in chemically defined medium. Bovine hepatocytes behave similarly in culture to rodent hepatocytes. Although primary culturing of hepatocytes is more difficult than suspensions, primarily due to the asepsis requirements, it is the method of choice for xenobiotic metabolism determinations in isolated hepatocytes of cattle.

  12. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  13. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  14. Radiorespirometric study of carbohydrate metabolism in childhood liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaCosta, H.; Shreeve, W.W.; Merchant, S.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a suitable parameter to evaluate patients with chronic liver disease has been felt for some time, especially in order to judge the response to surgical shunts and the influence of certain drugs and diets on the liver. Since the liver is a major organ for carbohydrate metabolism, it was decided to analyze the in vivo oxidation of such substrates as glucose and galactose labeled with 14 C. Moderately advanced ''Indian childhood cirrhosis'' and idiopathic fatty hepatic infiltration were selected to represent diffuse chronic liver disease. Oral administration of 14 C-U-glucose or 14 C-1-galactose was followed by analyses of 14 CO 2 in breath by liquid scintillation counting. Conversion of 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 was accelerated by both diseases. On the other hand, oxidation of 14 C-galactose was slowed in fatty infiltration and was markedly subnormal in Indian childhood cirrhosis

  15. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... volunteers underwent two dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans. One scan assessed conscious-baseline metabolism and the other scan assessed metabolism during 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane anaesthesia. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pmetabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...

  16. Metabolic screening and metabolomics analysis in the Intellectual Developmental Disorders Mexico Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ibarra-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are genetic conditions that are sometimes associated with intellectual  developmental disorders (IDD. The aim of this study is to contribute to the metabolic characterization of IDD of unknown etiology in Mexico. Materials and methods. Metabolic screening using tandem mass spectrometry and fluorometry will be performed to rule out IEM. In addition,target metabolomic analysis will be done to characterize the metabolomic profile of patients with IDD. Conclusion. Identification of new metabolomic profiles associated withIDD of unknown etiology and comorbidities will contribute to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic schemes for the prevention and treatment of IDD in Mexico.

  17. Metabolic changes associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: A nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyun; Chen, Minjian; Liu, Cuiping; Xia, Yankai; Xu, Bo; Hu, Yanhui; Chen, Ting; Shen, Meiping; Tang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‑based metabolomic technique is the gold standard in metabolite structural elucidation, and can provide different coverage of information compared with other metabolomic techniques. Here, we firstly conducted NMR based metabolomics study regarding detailed metabolic changes especially metabolic pathway changes related to PTC pathogenesis. 1H NMR-based metabolomic technique was adopted in conju-nction with multivariate analysis to analyze matched tumor and normal thyroid tissues obtained from 16 patients. The results were further annotated with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Human Metabolome Database, and then were analyzed using modules of pathway analysis and enrichment analysis of MetaboAnalyst 3.0. Based on the analytical techniques, we established the models of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS‑DA) which could discriminate PTC from normal thyroid tissue, and found 15 robust differentiated metabolites from two OPLS-DA models. We identified 8 KEGG pathways and 3 pathways of small molecular pathway database which were significantly related to PTC by using pathway analysis and enrichment analysis, respectively, through which we identified metabolisms related to PTC including branched chain amino acid metabolism (leucine and valine), other amino acid metabolism (glycine and taurine), glycolysis (lactate), tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate), choline metabolism (choline, ethanolamine and glycerolphosphocholine) and lipid metabolism (very-low‑density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein). In conclusion, the PTC was characterized with increased glycolysis and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle, increased oncogenic amino acids as well as abnormal choline and lipid metabolism. The findings in this study provide new

  18. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44-59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25-1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31-1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10-1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81-1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50-0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07-1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health.

  19. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  20. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  1. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  2. Sedentary behaviour and clustered metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-López, J P; Bel-Serrat, S; Santaliestra-Pasías, A; de Moraes, A C; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Ruiz, J R; Artero, E G; Martínez-Gómez, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; Polito, A; Molnar, D; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

    2013-10-01

    Although sedentary behaviours are linked with mortality for cardiovascular reasons, it is not clear whether they are negatively related with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim was to examine the association between time engaged in television (TV) viewing or playing with videogames and a clustered cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity were assessed in 769 adolescents (376 boys, aged 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA-CSS study. We measured systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO₂max and the sum of four skinfolds, and a clustered metabolic risk index was computed. A multilevel regression model (by Poisson) was performed to calculate the prevalence ratio of having a clustered metabolic risk. In boys, playing >4 h/day with videogames (weekend) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with cardio-metabolic risk after adjustment for age, maternal education and MVPA. In contrast, TV viewing was not associated with the presence of cardio-metabolic risk. In boys, playing with videogames may impair cardio-metabolic health during the adolescence. Adolescents should be encouraged to increase their participation in physical activity of at least moderate intensity to obtain a more favourable risk factor profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolism of Glutamine by the Intact Functioning Kidney of the Dog STUDIES IN METABOLIC ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, R. F.; Pilkington, L. A.; MacLeod, M. B.; Leal-Pinto, E.

    1972-01-01

    The renal conversion of glutamine to glucose and its oxidation to CO2 were compared in dogs in chronic metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. These studies were performed at normal endogenous levels of glutamine utilizing glutamine-34C (uniformly labeled) as a tracer. It was observed in five experiments in acidosis that mean renal extraction of glutamine by one kidney amounted to 27.7 μmoles/min. Of this quantity, 5.34 μmoles/min was converted to glucose, and 17.5 μmoles/min was oxidized to CO2. Acidotic animals excreted an average of 41 μmoles/min of ammonia in the urine formed by one kidney. In contrast, in five experiments in alkalosis, mean renal extraction of glutamine amounted to 8.04 μmoles/min. Of this quantity, 0.92 μmole/min was converted to glucose, and 4.99 μmoles/min was oxidized to CO2. Alkalotic animals excreted an average of 3.23 μmoles/min of ammonia in the urine. We conclude that renal gluconeogenesis is not rate limiting for the production and excretion of ammonia in either acidosis or alkalosis. Since 40% of total CO2 production is derived from oxidation of glutamine by the acidotic kidney and 14% by the alkalotic kidney, it is apparent that renal energy sources change with acid-base state and that glutamine constitutes a major metabolic fuel in acidosis. Images PMID:5011100

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patient with cerebral stroke studied by positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    After the CT-era, tomographic measurement has been required for regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism. This paper descrives results on the quontitative studies of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with cerebral stroke, studied using the 0 - 15 labelled gas steady-stete method and HEAD-TOME III by the PET-group of Akita. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Cerebral infarct with acute onset: 33 PET studies were carried out on the 16 subjects. Most of the lesions revealed considerable flow-metabolism mismatch: misery perfusion within the initial day, and then luxury perfusion up to 2 months. Threthold CBF causing tissue necrosis estimated at 17 ml/100 ml/min by PET. 2) Thrombosis of carotid artery with or without small infarct: Isodense tissues of the 31 patients were examined, Most of the subjects showed coupled decrease of flow/metabolism. Only 4 revealed critical reduction of flow and maintained metabolism with increased oxygen extraction. That would indicates that only a few of the patients could be indicated to EC/IC bypass surgery. 3) Hypertensive intracerbral hemorrhage: The 26 subjects were studied. A markedly ischemic zone was limitted just around a hematoma and luxury perfusion appeared only in 3 cases. Increased intracranial pressure seemes to affect flow and metabolism of the patients with a hematoma lager than 4.5 - 5 cm in max, diameter. That should be considered for indication of surgical evacuation of a hematoma. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patient with cerebral stroke studied by positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Kazuo

    1987-12-01

    After the CT-era, tomographic measurement has been required for regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism. This paper descrives results on the quontitative studies of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with cerebral stroke, studied using the 0 - 15 labelled gas steady-stete method and HEAD-TOME III by the PET-group of Akita. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Cerebral infarct with acute onset: 33 PET studies were carried out on the 16 subjects. Most of the lesions revealed considerable flow-metabolism mismatch: misery perfusion within the initial day, and then luxury perfusion up to 2 months. Threthold CBF causing tissue necrosis estimated at 17 ml/100 ml/min by PET. 2) Thrombosis of carotid artery with or without small infarct: Isodense tissues of the 31 patients were examined, Most of the subjects showed coupled decrease of flow/metabolism. Only 4 revealed critical reduction of flow and maintained metabolism with increased oxygen extraction. That would indicates that only a few of the patients could be indicated to EC/IC bypass surgery. 3) Hypertensive intracerbral hemorrhage: The 26 subjects were studied. A markedly ischemic zone was limitted just around a hematoma and luxury perfusion appeared only in 3 cases. Increased intracranial pressure seemes to affect flow and metabolism of the patients with a hematoma lager than 4.5 - 5 cm in max, diameter. That should be considered for indication of surgical evacuation of a hematoma.

  6. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  7. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  8. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and ...

  9. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kang, Young Han

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis

  10. Serum uric acid level as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichar, Satyendra; Choudhary, Shyama; Singh, Veer Bahadur; Tater, Priyanka; Arvinda, R V; Ujjawal, Vivek

    To determine whether elevations of uric acid levels are associated with the cluster of disorders described in metabolic syndrome and to evaluate whether hyperuricemia may be considered a component of this syndrome. One year case-control study was conducted in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India from January to December 2013. The study population consisted of 200 subjects, 100 with metabolic syndrome (case) and 100 without metabolic syndrome (control) aged between 18 and 80 years, attending OPD at PBM Hospital were studied. Controls were age and sex matched to the cases. Blood tests and all physical variables were examined using standard methods. Subjects were divided into 6 groups according to their possession of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, linear regression analysis and multivariate linear regression model. Mean serum UA level was significantly associated with all components of metabolic syndrome (pmetabolic factors increased showing a highly significant trend (pmetabolic syndrome. The current multivariate regression analysis clearly infers that uric acid can be considered as a marker and potential modifier of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University Hospital of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis.

  12. Magnitude and management of metabolic syndrome in Spain in 2008-2010: the ENRICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Pérez, Raúl Francisco; López García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Aguilera, M Teresa; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Few studies in Spain have reported the distribution of metabolic syndrome using the harmonized definition and that of premorbid metabolic syndrome, which consists of metabolic syndrome without diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Moreover, their regional distributions and clinical management are unknown. The present study examined the distributions and clinical management of both syndromes in Spain. This cross-sectional study was performed from 2008 to 2010 in 11 149 representative individuals of the Spanish population aged 18 years or older. Data were obtained through standardized physical examination, and analytical measurements were done in a central laboratory. The prevalences (95% confidence interval) of metabolic syndrome and premorbid metabolic syndrome were 22.7% (21.7%-23.7%) and 16.9% (16.0%-17.8%), respectively. The frequency of both syndromes increased with age and was higher in men than in women up to 65 years; above this age, the frequency was higher in women. The communities of the south of Spain and the Balearic and Canary islands had the highest prevalence of both syndromes, in some regions reaching double that of the community with the lowest prevalence. About one third of patients with premorbid metabolic syndrome reported that they had not received health recommendations to improve their lifestyles; of those that did receive advice, adherence was low, particularly for reducing weight (31.9%) and salt intake (38.3%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in Spain and considerable geographical differences exist in its distribution. There is substantial room for improvement in the clinical management of premorbid metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Methodological and metabolic considerations in the study of caffeine-containing energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks are popular and widely available beverages. Despite large increases in consumption, studies documenting the nutritional, metabolic, and health implications of these beverages are limited. This review provides some important methodological considerations in the examination of these drinks and highlights their potential impact on the gastrointestinal system, liver, and metabolic health. The gastrointestinal system is important as it comes into contact with the highest concentration of energy drink ingredients and initiates a chain of events to communicate with peripheral tissues. Although energy drinks have diverse compositions, including taurine, ginseng, and carnitine, the most metabolically deleterious ingredients appear to be simple sugars (such as glucose and fructose) and caffeine. In combination, these last two ingredients have the greatest metabolic impact and potential influence on overall health. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Cardiovascular metabolic risk factors and glomerular filtration rate: a rural Chinese population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Qian, Geng; Hao, Wenjun; Geng, Xiaodong; Hong, Quan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2016-10-12

    A total of 2426 study subjects from rural China aged 35 years and above (934 men and 1492 women) were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey. The eGFR calculation was based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The strength of the association between cardiovascular metabolic risk factors and eGFR was analyzed using a linear regression model. Cardiovascular metabolic risk factors, including age, body weight, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), creatinine (Cr), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure, were associated with eGFR. Additionally, the eGFR level gradually decreased and showed a linear trend with the increase in metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metabolic risk factors are correlated with a reduction in renal function and CKD.

  15. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  16. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  17. Lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome: pathophysiological and interventional studies employing stable isotopy and modelling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F

    2004-09-01

    The accompanying review in this issue of Clinical Science [Chan, Barrett and Watts (2004) Clin. Sci. 107, 221-232] presented an overview of lipoprotein physiology and the methodologies for stable isotope kinetic studies. The present review focuses on our understanding of the dysregulation and therapeutic regulation of lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome based on the application of stable isotope and modelling methods. Dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome may be due to a combination of overproduction of VLDL [very-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)]-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-containing particles and increased catabolism of HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I particles. These abnormalities may be consequent on a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance, partly mediated by depressed plasma adiponectin levels, that collectively increases the flux of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver, the accumulation of fat in the liver and skeletal muscle, the hepatic secretion of VLDL-triacylglycerols and the remodelling of both LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL particles in the circulation. These lipoprotein defects are also related to perturbations in both lipolytic enzymes and lipid transfer proteins. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome is well complemented by extensive cell biological data. Nutritional modifications may favourably alter lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB and the catabolism of HDL-apoA-I, as well as by potentially increasing the clearance of LDL-apoB. Several pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates or fish oils, can also correct the dyslipidaemia by diverse kinetic mechanisms of action, including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apoB, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apoA-I. The complementary

  18. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. System-level strategies for studying the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Dany J V; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2010-12-01

    Despite decades of research many aspects of the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain unclear and this is reflected in the antiquated tools available to treat and prevent tuberculosis and consequently this disease remains a serious public health problem. Important discoveries linking M. tuberculosis's metabolism and pathogenesis have renewed interest in this area of research. Previous experimental studies were limited to the analysis of individual genes or enzymes whereas recent advances in computational systems biology and high throughput experimental technologies now allow metabolism to be studied on a genome scale. Here we discuss the progress being made in applying system level approaches to studying the metabolism of this important pathogen. The information from these studies will fundamentally change our approach to tuberculosis research and lead to new targets for therapeutic drugs and vaccines.

  20. Secular change in 13 metabolic phenotypes: A Chinese longitudinal twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    Aims: The genetic and environmental influences on metabolic phenotypes have been intensively studied by twin modeling in different populations. However, twin studies on secular change in metabolic phenotypes have been rare due to high expenses, losses of follow up, and long waiting time in prospe......Aims: The genetic and environmental influences on metabolic phenotypes have been intensively studied by twin modeling in different populations. However, twin studies on secular change in metabolic phenotypes have been rare due to high expenses, losses of follow up, and long waiting time......; LDL), weight and blood pressure (SBP, DBP) have AE model as the best fitting model with low to moderate (a2: 0.25 - 0.46) genetic control. Variations in secular change in the rest of the phenotypes have CE model as the best fitting model with low to moderate (c2: 0.21 - 0.55) control by shared...... environmental factors. Secular changes in all phenotypes are under moderate to high (e2: 0.45 - 0.79) control by unique environmental factors. Conclusions: Variations in secular change in the 13 metabolic phenotypes show limited genetic control. Our results emphasize the special importance of unique environment...

  1. The conduct of drug metabolism studies considered good practice (II): in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Liu, Xiaodong

    2007-12-01

    In vitro drug metabolism studies, which are inexpensive and readily carried out, serve as an adequate screening mechanism to characterize drug metabolites, elucidate their pathways, and make suggestions for further in vivo testing. This publication is a sequel to part I in a series and aims at providing a general framework to guide designs and protocols of the in vitro drug metabolism studies considered good practice in an efficient manner such that it would help researchers avoid common pitfalls and misleading results. The in vitro models include hepatic and non-hepatic microsomes, cDNA-expressed recombinant human CYPs expressed in insect cells or human B lymphoblastoid, chemical P450 inhibitors, S9 fraction, hepatocytes and liver slices. Important conditions for conducting the in vitro drug metabolism studies using these models are stated, including relevant concentrations of enzymes, co-factors, inhibitors and test drugs; time of incubation and sampling in order to establish kinetics of reactions; appropriate control settings, buffer selection and method validation. Separate in vitro data should be logically integrated to explain results from animal and human studies and to provide insights into the nature and consequences of in vivo drug metabolism. This article offers technical information and data and addresses scientific rationales and practical skills related to in vitro evaluation of drug metabolism to meet regulatory requirements for drug development.

  2. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Portugal: the PORMETS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2017-06-08

    The PORMETS study was designed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants in the overall and administrative regions of the Portuguese mainland. A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of non-institutionalized Portuguese adults selected from primary health care centres lists including 1695 men and 2309 women was conducted from February 2007 to July 2009. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history and socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, and venous blood samples were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to three operational definitions. The prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binomial generalized linear regression, with the log link function. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in this sample of Portuguese adults were 36.5%, 49.6%, and 43.1%, using the Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation and Joint Interim Statement definitions, respectively. The most prevalent feature of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high blood pressure (64.3%) and the lowest was high fasting glucose (24.9%). After adjustment for age and gender, significant differences were observed for the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland. Additionally, metabolic syndrome was significantly more frequent in non-urban areas than in urban ones (p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women (p˂0.001) and older participants (p˂0.001), as well as in those who reported being housewives (p = 0.010), retired (p = 0.046) or unemployed (p = 0.024). This study showed that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the Portuguese adult population. Regional differences in the prevalence of this syndrome were observed, and this condition was more common in non-urban areas and less favoured socio-economic categories.

  3. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Portugal: the PORMETS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Raposo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PORMETS study was designed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants in the overall and administrative regions of the Portuguese mainland. Methods A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of non-institutionalized Portuguese adults selected from primary health care centres lists including 1695 men and 2309 women was conducted from February 2007 to July 2009. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history and socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, and venous blood samples were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to three operational definitions. The prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binomial generalized linear regression, with the log link function. Results The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in this sample of Portuguese adults were 36.5%, 49.6%, and 43.1%, using the Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation and Joint Interim Statement definitions, respectively. The most prevalent feature of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high blood pressure (64.3% and the lowest was high fasting glucose (24.9%. After adjustment for age and gender, significant differences were observed for the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland. Additionally, metabolic syndrome was significantly more frequent in non-urban areas than in urban ones (p = 0.001. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women (p˂0.001 and older participants (p˂0.001, as well as in those who reported being housewives (p = 0.010, retired (p = 0.046 or unemployed (p = 0.024. Conclusions This study showed that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the Portuguese adult population. Regional differences in the prevalence of this syndrome were observed, and this condition was more common in non-urban areas and less

  4. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Zirie, Mahmoud; Musallam, Manal; Khader, Yousef S; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adult Qatari population according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), assess which component contributed to the increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, and identify the characteristics of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. This was a cross-sectional study. The survey was carried out in urban and semiurban primary health-care centers. The survey was conducted from January, 2007, to July, 2008, among Qatari nationals above 20 years of age. Of the 1496 subjects who were approached to participate in the study, 1204 (80.5%) gave their consent. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the NCEP ATP III as well as IDF criteria. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in studied subjects was 26.5% and 33.7% according to ATP III and IDF criteria (P education and physical activity. Also, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was more common in women. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, central obesity was significantly higher in the studied subjects. The IDF definition of metabolic syndrome gave a higher prevalence in all age groups. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components according to IDF criteria was higher in the studied subjects than the estimates given by the ATP III. Multivariate logistics regression analysis (ATP III and IDF) showed that age and BMI were significant contributors for metabolic syndrome. Both definitions strongly supported age and obesity as associated factors for metabolic syndrome. The current study found a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Qataris. There was a steady increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome through the decades, independent of the definition. Age and BMI were important

  6. A pilot study of the Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet: an effective therapy for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) has been shown to promote potential therapeutic properties for the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties under free-living conditions of the SKMD in patients with metabolic syndrome (following the International Diabetes Federation consensus guidelines) over a 12-week period. A prospective study was carried out in 22 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (12 men and 10 women) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index of 36.58 ± 0.54 kg/m² and age was 41.18 ± 2.28 years. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the SKMD (week 0 and 12, respectively) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. There was an extremely significant (P diet all the subjects were free of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation definition, and 100% of them had normal triacylglycerols and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in spite of the fact that 77.27% of them still had a body mass index of > 30 kg/m². We conclude that the SKMD could be an effective and safe way to cure patients suffering from metabolic syndrome. Future research should include a larger sample size, a longer-term use, and a comparison with other ketogenic diets.

  7. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  8. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Vrijkotte

    Full Text Available In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5-6 years.Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study were collected at age 5-6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed.In analysis adjusted for child's physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01, higher SBP (p<0.001 and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01. Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05. Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5 adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001.This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5-6 years.

  9. Metabolic distress in lipid & one carbon metabolic pathway through low vitamin B-12: a population based study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Joshi, Shipra; Yadav, Suniti; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2018-04-25

    Dyslipidemia and hyper-homocysteinemia are the major independent risk factors of cardio vascular disease. Deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12 are associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship of homocysteine and its associated dietary determinant levels (Folate and Vitamin B-12) with lipids and obesity parameters (WC, BMI, WHR) in North Indian population. The participants were recruited under a major government funded project through household survey covering 15 villages of Haryana, India. Participants were both males and females, between age group 30-65 years, from a north Indian community. Initially 1634 individuals were recruited, of which 1374 were considered for analysis as they were not found to be on any kind of medication for high blood pressure, CAD, diabetes or any other disorder, and had no missing data. 5 mL of intravenous blood sample was collected after obtaining written informed consent from the participants. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were estimated through Immulite 1000 by chemi-luminescence technique. Triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-C were estimated by spectrophotometry technique using commercial kits. The values for LDL and VLDL were calculated using Friedwald's equation. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) was measured over light clothing. Statistical analysis for data was performed using SPSS 16.0 version. All the lipid indices, except HDL, showed a trend of negative correlation with homocysteine after controlling for confounders, though not significant. No association was found between obesity (WC, BMI, WHR) and homocysteine in the present study. Vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and low HDL. Folate was found to have significantly reduced risk for high TC & LDL. The "hcy-lipid" hypothesis does not seem to be complementing in the present studied population. The

  10. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid.......Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case...

  11. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry in aluminum metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirav, O.; Vetterli, D.; Johnson, R.R.; Sutton, R.A.L.; Walker, V.R.; Halabe, A.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Klein, J.

    1990-06-01

    The recent recognition that aluminum causes toxicity in uremic patients and may be associated with Alzheimer's disease has stimulated many studies of its biochemical effects. However, such studies were hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer. In a novel experiment, we have applied the new technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to investigate aluminum kinetics in rats, using as a marker the long-lived isotope 26 Al. We present the first aluminum kinetic model for a biological system. The results clearly demonstrate the advantage this technique holds for isotope tracer studies in animals as well as humans. (Author) (24 refs., 3 figs.)

  13. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  15. Study on the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiao Zhuang; Han, Kun Yuan; Zhu, Cai Zhong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in elderly patients. From January 2014 to January 2015, 54 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in this study as the observation group. During the same period, 46 healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study as the control group. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism (rs28502) was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The expression levels of mRNA in different genotypes were detected using FQ-PCR. ELISA was used to evaluate the KCNJ11 protein expression in different genotypes. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome was studied by measuring the blood pressure levels in patients with different genotypes. Three genotypes of KCNJ11 gene in rs28502 were CC, CT and TT. The CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in healthy population were 8.5, 9.2 and 82.2%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies in patients with metabolic syndrome were 42.4, 49.8 and 7.8%, respectively. There were significant differences between groups (P≤0.05). However, the genotype frequencies of C/T in healthy individuals and metabolic syndrome patients were 35.3 and 38.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). FQ-PCR results showed that the KCNJ11 mRNA expression levels in the control and observation groups had no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the results obtained from ELISA analysis revealed that KCNJ11 protein expression level in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (Pmetabolic syndrome in the elderly. Elderly patients with the CC and TT genotypes are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.

  16. In vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies on methylone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Just; Petersen, Trine Hedebrink; Linnet, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of the stimulant designer drug methylone (methylenedioxymethcathinone) has been documented in most parts of the world. As with many of the new designer drugs that continuously appear in the illicit drug market, little is known about the pharmacokinetics of methylone. Using in vitro studies...

  17. Insights into metabolic disease from studying genetics in isolated populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeggini, Ele; Gloyn, A L; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    variation on disease risk. Current efforts are now focused on extending this to genetic variants in the rare and low-frequency spectrum by capitalising on next-generation sequencing technologies. This review discusses the important contributions that studies in isolated populations are making to this effort...

  18. Studies of citric acid metabolism in heart muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meduski, J.W.

    1950-01-01

    1. The pentabromoacetone method for the determination of citric acid was studied; a modification of the procedure of Natelson, Lugovoy and Pincus was used. 2. Two tissue preparations were obtained. The first by washing with water, the second by washing with water and then with 0.5% sodium

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiqun; Xu, Huajun; Xia, Yunyan; Qian, Yingjun; Li, Xinyi; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Tang, Xulan; Zhu, Huaming; Zhou, Huiqun; Su, Kaiming; Yu, Dongzhen; Yi, Hongliang; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2017-10-03

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have showed that excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with some individual components of metabolic syndrome. We performed a large cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in male OSA patients. A total of 2241 suspected male OSA patients were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth sleepiness scale. Anthropometric, metabolic, and polysomnographic parameters were measured. Metabolic score was used to evaluate the severity of metabolic syndrome. Among the male OSA patients, most metabolic parameters varied by excessive daytime sleepiness. In the severe group, male OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness were more obese, with higher blood pressure, more severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia than non-sleepy patients. Patients with metabolic syndrome also had a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and scored higher on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio =1.242, 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.512). No substantial interaction was observed between excessive daytime sleepiness and OSA/ obesity. Excessive daytime sleepiness was related to metabolic disorders and independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in men with OSA. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be taken into consideration for OSA patients, as it may be a simple and useful clinical indicator for evaluating the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthr...

  1. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276

  2. A molecular genetic study of the variations in metabolic function during schistosome development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Skelly

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available During their complex life cycle schistosomes alternate between the use of stored glycogen and reliance on host glucose to provide for their energy needs. In addition, there is dramatic variation between the relative contribution of aerobic versus anaerobic glucose metabolism during development. We have cloned a set of representative cDNAs that encode proteins involved in glucose uptake, glycolysis, Kreb's cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The different cDNAs were used as probes to examine the expression of glucose metabolism genes during the schistosome life cycle. Steady state mRNA levels from whole cercariae, isolated cercarial tails, schistosomula and adult worms were analysed on Northern blots and dot blots which were quantified using storage phosphor technology. These studies reveal: (1 Transcripts encoding glycogen metabolic enzymes are expressed to much higher levels in cercarial tails than whole cercariae or schistosomula while the opposite pattern is found for glucose transporters and hexokinase transcripts; (2 Schistosomula contain low levels of transcripts encoding respiratory enzymes but regain the capacity for aerobic glucose metabolism as they mature to adulthood; (3 Male and female adults contain similar levels of the different transcripts involved in glucose metabolism.

  3. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p mood were fatter (r = -0.24, p mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relationship between SSRIs and Metabolic Syndrome Abnormalities in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazyüz, Murat; Albayrak, Yakup; Eğilmez, Oğuzhan Bekir; Albayrak, Neslihan; Beyazyüz, Elmas

    2013-06-01

    SSRIs are some of the most widely prescribed medications in the world. In addition to their effectiveness, SSRIs were reported to be associated with the side effects of weight gain, sexual dysfunction, drug interactions, extrapyramidal symptoms and discontinuation symptoms. However, the effects of SSRIs on metabolic parameters are poorly understood. This study aims to describe the effects of SSRIs on the metabolic parameters of drug-naive first episode patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Ninety-seven female patients aged 20-41 years without any metabolic or psychiatric comorbidity were included in the study. Fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram and escitalopram were randomly given to the patients. Metabolic parameters, including BMI, waist circumference and the levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and blood pressure, were measured before and after 16 weeks of treatment. In the paroxetine group, there was a significant increase in the parameters of weight, BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride after 16 weeks of treatment. There were significant increases in the levels of triglyceride in the citalopram and escitalopram groups. In the sertraline group, the total cholesterol level increased after treatment. In the fluoxetine group, there were significant reductions in the parameters of weight, total cholesterol and triglyceride. To our knowledge, this study is the first to prospectively describe metabolic syndrome abnormalities in patients with first episode generalized anxiety disorder. Although the effectiveness of the different SSRIs is similar, clinicians should be more careful when prescribing SSRIs to patients who have cardiac risk factors. Larger and lengthier controlled clinical trials are needed to explore the associations between SSRI use and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Study of metabolism of hydrazoic acid in the purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violet, A.

    1988-03-01

    The transfer of HN 3 between different phases has been studied - It has been found that the transfer of HN 3 from aqueous solution of the reprocessing to gaz phase is a physical mechanism of desorbtion. - The limiting phenomena of the transfer of HN 3 fromt the organic to the gaseous phase, is the decomplexation of this specy with tributyl phosphate (TBP). - Chemical reactions of hydrazoic acid occurring with nitrogen oxides in the gaseous flow has shown that it is rapidly destroyed in the presence of nitrogen dioxide [fr

  7. A PET study of cerebellar metabolism in normal and abnormal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.; Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Silver, F.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Reivich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied cerebellar metabolism under varying conditions of sensory stimulation. Cerebellar glucose consumption was measured by positron emission scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in 64 subjects. Cerebellar metabolism relative to the whole brain (CM), and the asymmetry of metabolism between the cerebellar hemispheres (CA) was determined. The lowest CM occurred with maximal sensory deprivation, eyes and ears closed, (CM=96%, n=6). CM increased nonsignificantly with visual stimulation (CM=99%,n=17) and was highest for auditory stimulation (CM=104%,n=10,p<.05). CA was unaffected by sensory input. Under ambient conditions the CM values were 101%, 113% and 135% respectively for young controls (n=9, age=22), old controls (n=8, age=61) and Alzheimer patients (SDAT, n=14, age=69). This difference was significant for SDAT vs young and old controls and was nearly significant for young vs old controls

  8. Synthesis and formulation studies of griseofulvin analogues with improved solubility and metabolic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Andersen, Nikolaj Sten; Konotop, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    potency in vitro. Analogue 2 was also shown to retard tumor growth through inhibition of centrosomal clustering in murine xenograft models of colon cancer and multiple myeloma. However, similar to griseofulvin, compound 2 exhibited poor metabolic stability and aqueous solubility. In order to improve...... the poor pharmacokinetic properties, 11 griseofulvin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for biological activity and physiological stabilities including SGF, plasma, and metabolic stability. Finally, the most promising compounds were investigated in respect to thermodynamic solubility and formulation...... studies. The 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 proved to be the most promising compound with low μM in vitro anticancer potency, a 200-fold increase in PBS solubility over compound 2, and with improved metabolic stability. Furthermore, this analogue proved compatible with formulations suitable for both oral...

  9. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  10. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; von der Trenck, T.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo [alpha] pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given 14 C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2 assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14 C O 2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs

  12. Olmesartan/amlodipine vs olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: the OLAS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, F J; Rodriguez-Rosas, H; Peiro-Martinez, I; Soriano-Perera, P; Pedrianes-Martin, P; Comi-Diaz, C

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of treatment with olmesartan/amlodipine and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide on inflammatory and metabolic parameters (including new-onset diabetes as a secondary endpoint) in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 patients with MetS and stage I and II hypertension were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/amlodipine 5 mg or olmesartan 20 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg. If target systolic blood pressure (hydrochlorothiazide combination. PMID:21107432

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bangladesh: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Ziaul Islam; Anik, Ataul Mustufa; Farhana, Zaki; Bristi, Piali Dey; Abu Al Mamun, B M; Uddin, Mohammad Jasim; Fatema, Jain; Akter, Tanjila; Tani, Tania Akhter; Rahman, Meshbahur; Turin, Tanvir C

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of health problems that set the stage for serious health conditions and places individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The worldwide prevalence of MS in the adult population is on the rise and Bangladesh is no exception. According to some epidemiological study, MS is highly prevalent in Bangladesh and has increased dramatically in last few decades. To provide a clear picture of the current situation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with an objective to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the Bangladeshi population using data already published in the scientific literature. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed and manually checked references of all identified relevant publications that described the prevalence of MS in Bangladesh. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the prevalence. Heterogeneity was explored using formal tests and subgroup analyses. Study quality and publication bias was also explored. Electronic and grey literature search retrieved 491 potentially relevant papers. After removing duplicates, reviewing titles and abstracts and screening full texts, 10 studies were finally selected. Most of the studies were conducted in rural populations and study participants were mostly females. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome regardless of gender and criteria used to define metabolic syndrome, was 30.0% with high heterogeneity observed. Weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in females (32%) compared to males (25%) though not statistically significant (p = 0.434). Prevalence was highest (37%) when Modified NCEP ATP III criteria was used to define MS, while it was lowest (20%) when WHO criteria was used. In most cases, geographical area (urban/rural) was identified as a source of heterogeneity between the studies. Most of the studies met study quality assessment criteria's except adequate sample size

  14. 131I metabolism in the study of antithyroid drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, R.P.; Santalla de Pirovano, M. del C.; Kramar de Valmaggia, E.P.; Valsecchi, R.; Pisarev, Mario; Altschuler, Noe

    1977-11-01

    The main purpose of the present report was to study the action of antithyroid drugs on different parameters of thyroid activity utilizing 131 I, in the offsprings of rats treated during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Both PTU and MMI caused alterations in growth and thyroid activity, but they were more dramatic with the former. A significative increase in 131 I thyroid uptake and in circulating radioactivity was observed. When % uptake was expressed as a function of thyroidal and body weights, a significative decrease was noticed. The ratio T/S and the percentage of labelled iodothyronines in pancreatin digests were also decreased. Neuromuscular maturation was evaluated, by means of the test of Schapiro. A group of animals treated with PTU plus T 4 had a significant delay, reaching normal developement later than the controls or those treated with MMI. (author) [es

  15. Studying disorders of vertebrate iron and heme metabolism using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vorm, Lisa N; Paw, Barry H

    2017-01-01

    Iron is a crucial component of heme- and iron-sulfur clusters, involved in vital cellular functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. Both excess and insufficient levels of iron and heme-precursors cause human disease, such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, and porphyrias. Hence, their levels must be tightly regulated, requiring a complex network of transporters and feedback mechanisms. The use of zebrafish to study these pathways and the underlying genetics offers many advantages, among others their optical transparency, ex-vivo development and high genetic and physiological conservations. This chapter first reviews well-established methods, such as large-scale mutagenesis screens that have led to the initial identification of a series of iron and heme transporters and the generation of a variety of mutant lines. Other widely used techniques are based on injection of RNA, including complementary morpholino knockdown and gene overexpression. In addition, we highlight several recently developed approaches, most notably endonuclease-based gene knockouts such as TALENs or the CRISPR/Cas9 system that have been used to study how loss of function can induce human disease phenocopies in zebrafish. Rescue by chemical complementation with iron-based compounds or small molecules can subsequently be used to confirm causality of the genetic defect for the observed phenotype. All together, zebrafish have proven to be - and will continue to serve as an ideal model to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of human iron and heme-related diseases and to develop novel therapies to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Instability of different adolescent metabolic syndrome definitions tracked into early adulthood metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Eftekharzadeh, Anita; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ghareh, Sahar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-02-01

    There are substantial controversies about the clinical utility of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study examined the stability of adolescent MetS by assessing the agreement and discriminative abilities of four different definitions of adolescent MetS and the adult MetS definition during a 10.4-yr follow up. For this study, 1424 adolescents (55.2% female), who participated in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were included. Kappa was calculated for agreement between adolescent MetS definitions [Cook, de Ferranti, pediatric National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and pediatric International Diabetes Federation (IDF)] and the adulthood MetS definition defined by the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. MetS persistence, instability, and incidence were assessed, and for each of the four adolescent definitions, sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) for the counting of categorical adulthood MetS components was evaluated. The agreement between the four adolescent MetS definitions and JIS was poor (κ = 0.094-0.255). All definitions showed low sensitivity and high specificity, except for de Ferranti's, which contrary to other definitions, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity. All four adolescent definitions revealed generally low AUCs (0.601-0.647). Compared with the pubertal group (11-14 yr), the predictive power was slightly higher in the late-pubertal group (15-18 yr). Cook's and de Ferranti's definitions showed fairly better predictive powers (0.647 and 0.644, respectively). Across all definitions, instability ranged between 5.4 and 19.6%. The adolescent definitions show considerable amount of instability defined as poor agreement and low discriminative abilities tracked into early adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in Thai schizophrenic patients: a naturalistic one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnsilp Chawanun

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only the prevalence, but also the progress of metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients is of importance for treatment planning and policy making. However, there have been very few prospective studies of metabolic disturbance in schizophrenic patients. This study aimed to assess the progress of metabolic abnormalities in Thai individuals with schizophrenia by estimating their one-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods We screened all schizophrenic patients who visited our psychiatric clinic. After the exclusion of participants with MetS at baseline, each subject was reassessed at 6 and 12 months to determine the occurrence of MetS. The definition of MetS, as proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, was applied. Results Fifty-seven participants (24 males and 33 females had a mean of age and duration of antipsychotic treatment of 37.5 years old and 8.4 years, respectively. At baseline, 13 subjects met the MetS definition. Of 44 subjects who had no MetS at baseline, 35 could be followed up. Seven of these 35 subjects (20.0% had developed MetS at the 6- or 12-month visit, after already having 2 MetS components at baseline. The demographic data and characteristics of those developing and not developing MetS were not different in any respect. Conclusion Thai schizophrenic patients are likely to develop MetS. Their metabolic abnormalities may progress rapidly and fulfill the MetS definition within a year of follow-up. These findings support the importance of assessing and monitoring metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.

  18. Low muscle strength is associated with metabolic risk factors in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dylan Cohen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In youth, poor cardiorespiratory and muscular strength are associated with elevated metabolic risk factors. However, studies examining associations between strength and risk factors have been done exclusively in high income countries, and largely in Caucasian cohorts. The aim of this study was to assess these interactions in schoolchildren in Colombia, a middle income Latin American country. METHODS: We measured body mass index, body composition, handgrip strength (HG, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and metabolic risk factors in 669 low-middle socioeconomic status Colombian schoolchildren (mean age 11.52±1.13, 47% female. Associations between HG, CRF and metabolic risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: HG and CRF were inversely associated with blood pressure, HOMA index and a composite metabolic risk score (p = 0.001, HOMA (β = -0.164; p = 0.005, triglycerides (β = -0.583; p = 0.026 and CRP (β = -0.183; p = 0.037 but not glucose (p = 0.698 or HDL cholesterol (p = 0.132. The odds ratios for having clustered risk in the weakest quartile compared with the strongest quartile were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.81-4.95. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombian schoolchildren both poorer handgrip strength/kg body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with a worse metabolic risk profile. Associations were stronger and more consistent between handgrip and risk factors than between cardiorespiratory fitness and these risk factors. Our findings indicate the addition of handgrip dynamometry to non-invasive youth health surveillance programs would improve the accuracy of the assessment of cardio-metabolic health.

  19. Studies on xylitol production by metabolic pathway engineered Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suksham; Choudhary, Vikas; Kumar, Anil; Biswas, Dipanwita; Mondal, Alok K; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2013-11-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most promising natural xylitol producers. As the conversion of xylitol to xylulose mediated by NAD(+) cofactor dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) reduces its xylitol yield, xylitol dehydrogenase gene (DhXDH)-disrupted mutant of D. hansenii having potential for xylose assimilating pathway stopping at xylitol, was used to study the effects of co-substrates, xylose and oxygen availability on xylitol production. Compared to low cell growth and xylitol production in cultivation medium containing xylose as the only substrate, XDH disrupted mutants grown on glycerol as co-substrate accumulated 2.5-fold increased xylitol concentration over those cells grown on glucose as co-substrate. The oxygen availability, in terms of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa (23.86-87.96 h(-1)), affected both xylitol productivity and yield, though the effect is more pronounced on the former. The addition of extra xylose at different phases of xylitol fermentation did not enhance xylitol productivity under experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. End organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus : biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was to evaluate biomarkers of cardiovascular end organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We performed cross-sectional studies with biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. We have demonstrated that insulin resistance is a strong

  1. Thyroid function and metabolic syndrome in the population-based LifeLines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wouters, Hanneke J C M; Slagter, Sandra N; van Waateringe, Robert P; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Links, Thera P; van der Klauw, Melanie M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of unfavourable health factors which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose. Earlier studies have reported a relationship between thyroid function and some MetS components or suggested

  2. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  3. Metabolic syndrome in a cohort of affectively ill patients, a naturalistic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Madsen, Maiken; Breum, Leif

    2012-01-01

    at a Mood Disorder Clinic. Methods: Patients were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) according to modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Results: Of the 143 patients eligible for participation, 100 patients participated in the study (32% male, mean age 43.6 ± 14.2); the prevalence of MeS was 26...

  4. An update on psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanminder Singh

    Full Text Available The relationship between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome is not well understood. Though multiple epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome, there is a lack of a comprehensive meta-analysis synthesizing the results of all available observational studies to date. In this meta-analysis, we examined global data on the relationship between psoriasis and odds of metabolic syndrome by searching for studies published between 1946-2016. Specifically, we analyzed the results from 35 observational studies from 20 countries with 1,450,188 total participants, of which 46,714 were psoriasis patients. The pooled odds ratio based on random effects analysis was 2.14 (95% CI 1.84-2.48. Publication bias was present, as evidenced by an Egger test and graphical visualization through a funnel plot (p = 0.001. Based on this comprehensive meta-analysis, psoriasis patients have higher odds of having metabolic syndrome when compared with the general population.

  5. A study on the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Materials andMethods: Through the establishment of an experimental mouse model of hyperlipidemia, the effect of resveratrol on change in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol ...

  6. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of soybean plants, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasumasa; Kitada, Subaru

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen that came from cotyledons and nitrogen ( 15 N) pulse-fed at 5 different times during the growth of young soybean plants were studied for 33-days after germination. Cotyledons furnished nitrogen to primary leaves, stems, and roots for the first 8 days, but thereafter principally to 1 st and 2 nd trifoliate leaves. Redistribution of the cotyledon-derived nitrogen from primary leaves commenced from the 14 th day after germination when their total nitrogen was still increasing. At the end of the experiment, the cotyledon-derived nitrogen was distributed approximately uniformly among 6 expanded leaves, and very small amount was found in 3 immature leaves. It was shown that soybean leaves took up 15 N (via roots) throughout the entire period of their life, and from their near-mature stage onwards, uptake and redistribution of nitrogen were observed simultaneously. Thus, the nitrogen in mature leaves was partially being renewed constantly. Considering this fact, the nitrogen supplying capacity of soybean leaves was estimated to be about two times as large as that estimated conventionally from the net loss of nitrogen during their senescence. The turnover of leaf nitrogen was closely related to the turnover of leaf protein. Influx of nitrogen was invariably accompanied by the simultaneous synthesis of leaf protein, and conversely, efflux by the simultaneous breakdown of leaf protein. Sink removal (topping treatment) prevented the breakdown of leaf protein (as measured from the rate of release of label after the pulse feeding) as well as the export of nitrogen from the leaves. The nitrogen supplying function of soybean leaves was discussed in relation to the nitrogen and protein turnover of leaves. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. Studies on Ferrokinetics and Copper Metabolism in Various Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyu

    1967-01-01

    Anemia is a usual finding in advanced malignant diseases. Various mechanisms were reported as to be involved in the development of anemia of this kind, and they may differ in individual cases. Tumor anemias may be due, for instance, to chronic blood loss, shortened life span of the red blood cells or a decreased hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The serum iron and copper levels, total iron binding capacity, apparent half survival of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were measurement with the ferrokinetic studies using 59 Fe in 64 patients with various malignant tumors. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron levels were decreased in all cases. There existed no correlation between the serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 2) The serum copper levels were increased, particularly in lung cancer, rectal cancer, hepatoma and various sarcomas. There was also no correlation between the serum copper levels and the severity of the diseases. 3) The serum iron levels appeared to be inversely proportional to the serum copper levels. 4) The total iron binding capacities were within normal limits in all cases. There were also no correlations between the total iron binding capacities, serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 5) The patients could be classified according the ferrokinetic patterns, namely, that of iron deficiency anemia in 10 cases, that of refractory anemia in 6 cases, normal in 1 case and that of atypical abnormal in 9 cases. 6) Apparent half survival time of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were definitely shortened in half of the cases.

  8. Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome?An Open Label Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Atsunori; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Sharma, Prachi; Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by cardiometabolic risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Oxidative stress is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of hydrogen rich water (1.5?2?L/day) in an open label, 8-week study on 20 subjects with potential metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen rich water was produced, by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking w...

  9. Association of meat and dairy consumption with normal weight metabolic obesity in men: the Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Sima; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdieh; Ziaee, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is not limited to obese individuals. Normal weight individuals may also be insulin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the association of lifestyle and diet patterns with IR in normal weight Iranian men. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 men with a body mass index lower than 25 kg/m(2) (aged 20-72 years old) between September 2010 and April 2011 in Qazvin, Iran. Metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) was defined as IR using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The optimal cut point to diagnose IR was the 80th percentile of HOMA-IR values in normal subjects. The HOMA-IR cut point was 2.48. Dietary pattern was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression and ANCOVA. Fat and meat consumption and energy intake in subjects with MONW were more than subjects without MONW. Each serving of meat consumption was associated with three times increased risk of MONW (OR: 3.06), while each serving of dairy consumption was associated with 56 % lower risk of MONW with borderline significance (OR: 0.64). Adjusted mean of HOMA-IR in the first tertile of dairy consumption was significantly higher than other tertiles. Adjusted HOMA-IR value in the third tertile of meat consumption was significantly higher than the second tertile. Higher meat consumption was associated with MONW in men. Higher meat consumption and lower dairy consumption were associated with higher means of HOMA-IR.

  10. C-11-labeled octadecylamine, a potential agent for positron tomographic pulmonary metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Wallace, R.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Sun, T.T.; Coffey, J.L.; Hubner, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    C-11-Labeled straight-chain primary aliphatic amines are rapidly and selectively sequestered by lung endothelial cells, making these agents potentially useful for positron tomographic studies of the lung as a metabolic organ. However, because amines having straight chains containing 4 to 13 carbon atoms are rapidly catabolized in vivo with loss of radiolabel, quantitation of pulmonary concentration is difficult. The authors have studied the effect of structural changes on the uptake and retention of primary aliphatic amines in rat lung and found that the metabolic loss form the lung decreased with increasing length of the straight carbon chain. In fact, the lung concentration of octadecylamine, a straight-chain amine with 18 carbon atoms, was constant between 1 and 30 minutes after intravenous administration. This highly insoluble amine was solubilized using 3% aqueous human serum albumin. Unilateral, radiation-induced lung injury in the rat was used as a model to study the potential of C-11-labeled octadecylamine. Radiation-damaged (3000 and 5000 Rads) lungs had significantly lower 15-minute uptakes of the labeled amine than the corresponding nonirradiated lungs. However, at 8000 Rads the concentration in both lungs was greatly suppressed, indicating that the decrease in metabolism becomes systemic at high radiation doses. These results suggest that C-11-labeled octadecylamine is a potentially useful agent for quantitative evaluation of pulmonary metabolism by positron tomography

  11. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  12. Systems biology study of mucopolysaccharidosis using a human metabolic reconstruction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego A; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Herreño, Angélica; Barbosa, Hector; Herrera, Juliana; Ardila, Andrea; Barreto, George E; González, Janneth; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD), characterized by the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). This deficiency leads to the lysosomal accumulation of partially degraded GAG. Nevertheless, deficiency of a single lysosomal enzyme has been associated with impairment in other cell mechanism, such as apoptosis and redox balance. Although GAG analysis represents the main biomarker for MPS diagnosis, it has several limitations that can lead to a misdiagnosis, whereby the identification of new biomarkers represents an important issue for MPS. In this study, we used a system biology approach, through the use of a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction to understand the effect of metabolism alterations in cell homeostasis and to identify potential new biomarkers in MPS. In-silico MPS models were generated by silencing of MPS-related enzymes, and were analyzed through a flux balance and variability analysis. We found that MPS models used approximately 2286 reactions to satisfy the objective function. Impaired reactions were mainly involved in cellular respiration, mitochondrial process, amino acid and lipid metabolism, and ion exchange. Metabolic changes were similar for MPS I and II, and MPS III A to C; while the remaining MPS showed unique metabolic profiles. Eight and thirteen potential high-confidence biomarkers were identified for MPS IVB and VII, respectively, which were associated with the secondary pathologic process of LSD. In vivo evaluation of predicted intermediate confidence biomarkers (β-hexosaminidase and β-glucoronidase) for MPS IVA and VI correlated with the in-silico prediction. These results show the potential of a computational human metabolic reconstruction to understand the molecular mechanisms this group of diseases, which can be used to identify new biomarkers for MPS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Metabolic Pathway Assignment of Plant Genes based on Phylogenetic Profiling–A Feasibility Study

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    Sandra Weißenborn

    2017-10-01

    study highlights the potential and challenges associated with phylogenetic profiling methods for the detection of functional relationships between genes as well as the need to enlarge the set of plant genes with proven secondary metabolism involvement as well as the limitations of distinct pathways as abstractions of relationships between genes.

  14. Studies on prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer by tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Shu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been studied extensively in recent decades for its beneficial health effects in the prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Whereas these beneficial effects have been convincingly demonstrated in most laboratory studies, results from human studies have not been consistent. Some studies demonstrated that weight reduction, alleviation of metabolic syndrome and risk reduction in diabetes were only observed in individuals who consume 3–4 cups of tea (600–900 mg tea catechins or more daily. This chapter reviews some of these studies, the possible mechanisms of actions of tea constituents, and the challenges in extrapolating laboratory studies to human situations.

  15. Association of Serum Uric Acid With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adolescents: the CASPIAN-III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiri, Saeid; Qorbani, Mostafa; Heshmat, Ramin; Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Eslami Shahr Babaki, Amir; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Tajadini, Mohammad Hasan; Asayesh, Hamid; Safari, Omid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-05-01

    There is controversial evidence on association of serum acid uric (SUA) with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in adults. This study aimed to investigate the associations of SUA levels, components of metabolic syndrome, and other cardiometabolic risk factors, in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents. This study included 132 participants who met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and 235 participants without metabolic syndrome. The participants were grouped according to the tertiles of SUA. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for children and adolescents. The relationship between SUA and cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome was assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the participants was 15.21 ± 2.35 years, with no significant difference between the boys and the girls. The participants whose SUA was categorized in the 2nd tertile and those falling into the 3rd tertile had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P Metabolic syndrome was associated with the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of SUA as compared to the lower tertile(s), in the adjusted model (P metabolic syndrome had higher SUA levels. Its association with some components of metabolic syndrome supports that SUA might be an additional component of metabolic syndrome even during adolescence.

  16. Association of Marital Status and Marital Transition With Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Fallah-ghohroudy, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most existing reports indicate that body weight gradually increases following marital status and thereby enhances health status and decreases mortality; however, the association between marital status and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been thoroughly investigated in a longitudinal study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of marital status and marital transition on MetS during a 9.6-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. P...

  17. A prospective study of dairy consumption in relation to changes in metabolic risk factors: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Marieke B; van Dam, Rob M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Heine, Robert J; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2008-03-01

    Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Baseline dairy intake (servings/day) was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1,124 participants of the Hoorn Study. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dairy intake and 6.4-year change in weight, fat distribution, and metabolic risk factors (glucoses, lipids, blood pressure) and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Baseline dairy consumption was not associated with changes in fasting and post-load glucose concentrations, serum lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides), or blood pressure, nor with the risk of developing the MS in 6.4 years (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was 0.86 (0.52-1.42) comparing highest with lowest quartile of dairy consumption). In subjects with BMI consumption was significantly associated with an increase in BMI, weight, waist, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a higher dairy consumption protects against weight gain and development of metabolic disturbances in a Dutch elderly population.

  18. In vitro metabolism study of a black market product containing SARM LGD-4033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Lore; Pozo, Oscar J; Lootens, Leen; Morthier, Wouter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2017-02-01

    Anabolic agents are often used by athletes to enhance their performance. However, use of steroids leads to considerable side effects. Non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of substances that have not been approved so far but seem to have a more favourable anabolic/androgenic ratio than steroids and produce fewer side effects. Therefore the use of SARMs has been prohibited since 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Several of these SARMs have been detected on the black market. Metabolism studies are essential to identify the best urinary markers to ensure effective control of emerging substances by doping control laboratories. As black market products often contain non-pharmaceutical-grade substances, alternatives for human excretion studies are needed to elucidate the metabolism. A black market product labelled to contain the SARM LGD-4033 was purchased over the Internet. Purity verification of the black market product led to the detection of LGD-4033, without other contaminants. Human liver microsomes and S9 liver fractions were used to perform phase I and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolism studies. The samples of the in vitro metabolism studies were analyzed by gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)), liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(HR)MS/MS). LC-HRMS product ion scans allowed to identify typical fragment ions for the parent compound and to further determine metabolite structures. In total five metabolites were detected, all modified in the pyrrolidine ring of LGD-4033. The metabolic modifications ranged from hydroxylation combined with keto-formation (M1) or cleavage of the pyrrolidine ring (M2), hydroxylation and methylation (M3/M4) and dihydroxylation (M5). The parent compound and M2 were also detected as glucuronide-conjugates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multiphoton microscopy for skin wound healing study in terms of cellular metabolism and collagen regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Gitanjal; Okano, Kazunori; Wu, Wei-Wen; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was employed to study normal skin wound healing in live rats noninvasively. Wound healing is a process involving series of biochemical events. This study evaluates the regeneration of collagen and change in cellular metabolic activity during wound healing in rats, with second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), respectively. In eukaryotic cells ATP is the molecule that holds the energy for cellular functioning. Whereas NADH is an electron donor in the metabolic pathways, required to generate ATP. Fluorescence lifetime of NADH free to protein bound ratio was evaluated to determine the relative metabolic activity. The FLIM data were acquired by a TCSPC system using SPCM software and analyzed by SPCImage software. Additionally, polarization resolved SHG signals were also collected to observe the changes in optical birefringence and hence the anisotropy of regenerated collagens from rat wound biopsy samples. Mat lab programming was used to process the data to construct the anisotropy images. Results indicated that, cells involved in healing had higher metabolic activity during the first week of healing, which decreases gradually and become equivalent to normal skin upon healing completes. A net degradation of collagen during the inflammatory phase and net regeneration starting from day 5 were observed in terms of SHG signal intensity change. Polarization resolved SHG imaging of the wound biopsy sample indicates higher value of anisotropy in proliferative phase, from day 4th to 8th, of wound formation; however the anisotropy decreases upon healing.

  20. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  1. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le You

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1 properly designed tracer experiments; (2 stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3 efficient metabolite separations; (4 high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5 data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio. This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates. The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research.

  2. Guinea pigs: A suitable animal model to study lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous animal models have been used to study diet effects on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. However, most of those models differ from humans in the plasma distribution of cholesterol and in the processing of lipoproteins in the plasma compartment. Although transgenic or knock-out mice have been used to study a specific pathway involved in cholesterol metabolism, these data are of limited use because other metabolic pathways and responses to interventions may differ from the human condition. Carbohydrate restricted diets have been shown to reduce plasma triglycerides, increase HDL cholesterol and promote the formation of larger, less atherogenic LDL. However, the mechanisms behind these responses and the relation to atherosclerotic events in the aorta have not been explored in detail due to the lack of an appropriate animal model. Guinea pigs carry the majority of the cholesterol in LDL and possess cholesterol ester transfer protein and lipoprotein lipase activities, which results in reverse cholesterol transport and delipidation cascades equivalent to the human situation. Further, carbohydrate restriction has been shown to alter the distribution of LDL subfractions, to decrease cholesterol accumulation in aortas and to decrease aortic cytokine expression. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the use of guinea pigs as useful models to evaluate diet effects on lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation with an emphasis on carbohydrate restricted diets.

  3. Premutation female carriers of fragile X syndrome: a pilot study on brain anatomy and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Mentis, M J; Pietrini, P; Grady, C L; Moore, C J; Horwitz, B; Hinton, V; Dobkin, C S; Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1999-10-01

    It was thought that premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome (FraX) have no neurobiological abnormalities, but there have been no quantitative studies of brain morphometry and metabolism. Thus the authors investigated brain structure and metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Eight normal IQ, healthy female permutation FraX carriers aged 39 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD) and 32 age-sex-handedness-matched controls (39 +/- 10 years) were studied; in vivo brain morphometry was measured using volumetric magnetic resonances imaging, and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured using positron emission tomography and (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Compared with controls, FraX premutation carriers had a significant (1) decrease in volume of whole brain, and caudate and thalamic nuclei bilaterally; (2) increase in volume of hippocampus and peripheral CSF bilaterally, and third ventricle; (3) relative hypometabolism of right parietal, temporal, and occipital association areas; (4) bilateral relative hypermetabolism of hippocampus; (5) relative hypermetabolism of left cerebellum; and (6) difference in right-left asymmetry of the Wernicke and Broca language areas. Premutation carriers of FraX, as defined by analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, have abnormalities in brain anatomy and metabolism. The biological basis for this is unknown, but most likely it includes tissue heterogeneity for mutation status. The findings may be of relevance to people counseling families with FraX and to understanding other neuropsychiatric disorders which are associated with expansion of triplet repeats and genetic anticipation.

  4. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Dry Eye: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Sevil Karaman; Aydin, Rukiye; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Olmuscelik, Oktay; Eliacik, Mustafa; Demirci, Goktug; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome. 108 eyes of 64 patients with metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 110 eyes of 55 healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity. Main outcome measures were Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity values and OSDI scores were significantly higher in group 1 (314.4 ± 19.1 mOsm and 38.9 ± 1.1, respectively) compared with group 2 (295 ± 14.3 mOsm and 18.69 ± 17.2, respectively) (p = 0.01 for both). The Schirmer test values and TBUT in group 1 (10 ± 3.7 mm and 14.8 ± 3.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.8 ± 2.6 mm and 18.1 ± 0.5 sec, respectively) (p metabolic syndrome can influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  5. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Le; Zhang, Baichen; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2014-01-01

    The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1) properly designed tracer experiments; (2) stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3) efficient metabolite separations; (4) high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5) data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio). This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates). The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research. PMID:24957020

  6. Parametric studies of metabolic cooperativity in Escherichia coli colonies: Strain and geometric confinement effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Peterson

    Full Text Available Characterizing the complex spatial and temporal interactions among cells in a biological system (i.e. bacterial colony, microbiome, tissue, etc. remains a challenge. Metabolic cooperativity in these systems can arise due to the subtle interplay between microenvironmental conditions and the cells' regulatory machinery, often involving cascades of intra- and extracellular signalling molecules. In the simplest of cases, as demonstrated in a recent study of the model organism Escherichia coli, metabolic cross-feeding can arise in monoclonal colonies of bacteria driven merely by spatial heterogeneity in the availability of growth substrates; namely, acetate, glucose and oxygen. Another recent study demonstrated that even closely related E. coli strains evolved different glucose utilization and acetate production capabilities, hinting at the possibility of subtle differences in metabolic cooperativity and the resulting growth behavior of these organisms. Taking a first step towards understanding the complex spatio-temporal interactions within microbial populations, we performed a parametric study of E. coli growth on an agar substrate and probed the dependence of colony behavior on: 1 strain-specific metabolic characteristics, and 2 the geometry of the underlying substrate. To do so, we employed a recently developed multiscale technique named 3D dynamic flux balance analysis which couples reaction-diffusion simulations with iterative steady-state metabolic modeling. Key measures examined include colony growth rate and shape (height vs. width, metabolite production/consumption and concentration profiles, and the emergence of metabolic cooperativity and the fractions of cell phenotypes. Five closely related strains of E. coli, which exhibit large variation in glucose consumption and organic acid production potential, were studied. The onset of metabolic cooperativity was found to vary substantially between these five strains by up to 10 hours and the

  7. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  8. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

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    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  9. High carbohydrate intake from starchy foods is positively associated with metabolic disorders: a Cohort Study from a Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Rennan; Du, Shanshan; Chen, Yang; Zheng, Sining; Zhang, Wei; Na, Guanqiong; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Starchy foods are the main sources of carbohydrates; however, there is limited information on their metabolic impact. Therefore, we assessed the association between carbohydrates from starchy foods (Carb-S) intakes and the metabolic disorders of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hyperlipidemia. In this study, 4,154 participants from Northern China were followed up for 4.2 years. Carb-S included rice, refined wheat, tubers, and their products. Multivariable regression models were used to calculate...

  10. Alanine aminotransferase and the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian men and women : The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R. K.; Dekker, J. M.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C. D A; Bouter, L. M.; Heine, R. J.; Diamant, M.

    Aims: To study the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based study in Caucasian men and women. Methods: The association of ALT with the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in 1097 subjects, aged 50-75 years, was assessed

  11. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  12. Comparative studies of the nitrogen metabolism of phytoplankton and periphyton in oligotrophic lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, R.P.; Goldman, C.R.; Reuter, J.E.; Loeb, S.L.; Priscu, J.C.; Carlton, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary data of limnological research at the meso-oligotrophic Castle Lake, CA and at the ultratrophic Lake Tahoe, CA-NEV, USA, during 1980 to 1981. The areas of study were effects of nutrients enrichment and deficiency on primary producers; nitrogen cycling and nitrogen metabolism of benthic and planktonic algae and whole-epilimnion enrichment with ammonium nitrate. Tracer techniques using 14 C- and 15 N-labelled compounds were employed in the study

  13. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study

    OpenAIRE

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Michels, Nathalie; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, LA; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexib...

  14. Combined Effects of Ezetimibe and Phytosterols on Cholesterol Metabolism: A Randomized, Controlled Feeding Study in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B.; Lefevre, Michael; Ma, Lina; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Steger-May, Karen; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both ezetimibe and phytosterols inhibit cholesterol absorption. We tested the hypothesis that ezetimibe combined with phytosterols is more effective than ezetimibe alone in altering cholesterol metabolism. Methods and Results Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple crossover study. Each subject received a phytosterol-controlled diet plus (1) ezetimibe placebo + phytosterol placebo, (2) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + phytosterol placebo, and (3) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + 2.5 g phytosterols/day, for 3 weeks each. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen. Primary outcomes were intestinal cholesterol absorption, fecal cholesterol excretion, and LDL cholesterol levels. The combined treatment resulted in significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (598 mg/day, 95% CI 368 to 828) relative to control (2161 mg/day, 1112 to 3209) and ezetimibe alone (1054 mg/day, 546 to 1561, both P phytosterols averaged 129 (95% CI: 116 to 142), 108 (97 to 119), and 101 (90 to 112) mg/dL (P phytosterols to ezetimibe significantly enhanced the effects of ezetimibe on whole-body cholesterol metabolism and plasma LDL cholesterol. The large cumulative action of combined dietary and pharmacologic treatment on cholesterol metabolism emphasizes the potential importance of dietary phytosterols as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21768544

  15. Chick metabolic rate and growth in three species of albatross: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R A; Green, J A; Phalan, B; Croxall, J P; Butler, P J

    2003-05-01

    The relative importance of genetic vs. environmental factors in determining the pattern of avian post-embryonic development is much debated. Previous cross-fostering of albatrosses suggested that although inter-specific variation in growth rate was determined primarily by differences in dietary energy content, species-specific constraints might have evolved that could limit maximal growth, even in chicks fed at similar rates and on similar diets. This study aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in resting metabolic rate were apparent during the linear phase of growth in chicks of three species (black-browed, grey-headed and light-mantled sooty albatrosses). There was a gradual increase in absolute, and a reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate from 5.0 W kg(-1) during the earliest part of linear growth, to 3.5 W kg(-1) by the time chicks reached peak mass. These values are considerably higher than in resting adults of comparable or lower mass, presumably reflecting the large size and high metabolic demand of organs involved in rapid nutrient processing and tissue synthesis by chicks. The lack of any detectable inter-specific variation in the pattern of metabolic rate changes casts some doubt on the existence of fundamental differences in growth rate that cannot be attributed simply to differences in dietary energy or nutrient delivery rate.

  16. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lun Sun

    Full Text Available The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively, a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05. However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05. The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  17. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; puric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; puric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  18. Modelling metabolic evolution on phenotypic fitness landscapes: a case study on C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, David

    2015-12-01

    How did the complex metabolic systems we observe today evolve through adaptive evolution? The fitness landscape is the theoretical framework to answer this question. Since experimental data on natural fitness landscapes is scarce, computational models are a valuable tool to predict landscape topologies and evolutionary trajectories. Careful assumptions about the genetic and phenotypic features of the system under study can simplify the design of such models significantly. The analysis of C4 photosynthesis evolution provides an example for accurate predictions based on the phenotypic fitness landscape of a complex metabolic trait. The C4 pathway evolved multiple times from the ancestral C3 pathway and models predict a smooth 'Mount Fuji' landscape accordingly. The modelled phenotypic landscape implies evolutionary trajectories that agree with data on modern intermediate species, indicating that evolution can be predicted based on the phenotypic fitness landscape. Future directions will have to include structural changes of metabolic fitness landscape structure with changing environments. This will not only answer important evolutionary questions about reversibility of metabolic traits, but also suggest strategies to increase crop yields by engineering the C4 pathway into C3 plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Developmental programming of metabolic diseases – a review of studies on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Piotrowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development in utero is a complex and dynamic process that requires interaction between the mother organism and the fetus. The delivery of macro – and micronutrients, oxygen and endocrine signals has crucial importance for providing a high level of proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells, and a disruption in food intake not only has an influence on the growth of the fetus, but also has negative consequences for the offspring’s health in the future. Diseases that traditionally are linked to inappropriate life style of adults, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arterial hypertension, can be “programmed” in the early stage of life and the disturbed growth of the fetus leads to the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The structural changes of some organs, such as the brain, pancreas and kidney, modifications of the signaling and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscles and in fatty tissue, epigenetic mechanisms and mitochondrial dysfunction are the basis of the metabolic disruptions. The programming of the metabolic disturbances is connected with the disruption in the intrauterine environment experienced in the early and late gestation period. It causes the changes in deposition of triglycerides, activation of the hormonal “stress axis” and disturbances in the offspring’s glucose tolerance. The present review summarizes experimental results that led to the identification of the above-mentioned links and it underlines the role of animal models in the studies of this important concept.

  20. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (Pfitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; Pcardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  1. Comparative Study of Ultrasonographic and Anthropometric Measurements of Regional Adiposity in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jebin; Prasanthi, Krishna; Reddy, Harish T; Shah, Rushit Sandeep; Haritha, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is complex disorder unifying dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hyper insulinemia. Rising global epidemic of obesity has tremendous impact on metabolic syndrome. Ultrasound is becoming widely utilized modality for measuring the visceral adiposity. Aim To determine the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurements in the estimation of regional adiposity and to compare them with anthropometric measurements and to correlate ultrasonographic measurements of regional adiposity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare anthropometry and ultrasonography in assessing the regional adiposity in metabolic syndrome. A total of 105 consecutive participants were included in the study after scrutinizing them for various definable factors of metabolic syndrome. Body Mass Index (BMI) of all participants was calculated and their available serological investigations were gathered. Primarily participants were subjected for anthropometric measurements like waist circumference and hip circumference, further waist/hip ratio was calculated. Following which all participants underwent sonological examination and sonographic indices like intraabdominal fat thickness, preperitoneal fat thickness, minimum and maximum subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured. Abdominal wall fat index was calculated as ratio of maximum preperitoneal fat thickness to minimum subcutaneous fat thickness. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package Social Science, version-10.0.5) software. A p-value was calculated and values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results Significant correlation was established between the BMI and waist and hip circumferences. Mild positive correlation was obtained between BMI and sonographic indices like IAF, SCF and PPF with Pearson correlation (r) values of 0.324, 0.585 and 0.211 respectively. Anthropometric measurements showed higher r-values (WC- 0.624 and

  2. Metabolomics study of cereal grains reveals the discriminative metabolic markers associated with anatomical compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Moazzami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profile of different anatomical compartments of cereal grains i.e. bran and endosperm in order to gain further insightsinto their possible role in the beneficial health effects of whole grain products (WG. Polar watersoluble metabolites in 64 bran and endosperm, samples from rye and wheat were observed using600 MHz NMR. Bran samples had higher contents of 12 metabolites than endosperm samples. A comparative approach revealed higher contents of azelaic acid and sebacic acid in bran than in endosperm. In a pilot study, the consumption of WG rye bread (485 g caused NMR signals in 24h urine corresponding to azelaic acid. The relatively high abundance, anatomical specificity, patternof metabolism, urinary excretion in human, antibacterial, and anticancer activities suggest further studying of azelaic acid when exposure to WG or beneficial effects of WG are investigated.

  3. Rodent models to study the metabolic effects of shiftwork in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Loes eOpperhuizen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our current 24-hour society requires an increasing number of employees to work nightshifts with millions of people worldwide working during the evening or night. Clear associations have been found between shiftwork and the risk to develop metabolic health problems, such as obesity. An increasing number of studies suggest that the underlying mechanism includes disruption of the rhythmically organized body physiology. Normally, daily 24-hour rhythms in physiological processes are controlled by the central clock in the brain in close collaboration with peripheral clocks present throughout the body. Working schedules of shiftworkers greatly interfere with these normal daily rhythms by exposing the individual to contrasting inputs, i.e., at the one hand (dimlight exposure at night, nightly activity and eating and at the other hand daytime sleep and reduced light exposure. Several different animal models are being used to mimic shiftwork and study the mechanism responsible for the observed correlation between shiftwork and metabolic diseases. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the available animal studies with a focus on the four most relevant models that are being used to mimic human shiftwork: altered timing of 1 food intake, 2 activity, 3 sleep or 4 light exposure. For all studies we scored whether and how relevant metabolic parameters, such as bodyweight, adiposity and plasma glucose were affected by the manipulation. In the discussion, we focus on differences between shiftwork models and animal species (i.e., rat and mouse. In addition, we comment on the complexity of shiftwork as an exposure and the subsequent difficulties when using animal models to investigate this condition. In view of the added value of animal models over human cohorts to study the effects and mechanisms of shiftwork, we conclude with recommendations to improve future research protocols to study the causality between shiftwork and metabolic health problems using

  4. Rodent models to study the metabolic effects of shiftwork in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; van Kerkhof, Linda W. M.; Proper, Karin I.; Rodenburg, Wendy; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-01-01

    Our current 24-h society requires an increasing number of employees to work nightshifts with millions of people worldwide working during the evening or night. Clear associations have been found between shiftwork and the risk to develop metabolic health problems, such as obesity. An increasing number of studies suggest that the underlying mechanism includes disruption of the rhythmically organized body physiology. Normally, daily 24-h rhythms in physiological processes are controlled by the central clock in the brain in close collaboration with peripheral clocks present throughout the body. Working schedules of shiftworkers greatly interfere with these normal daily rhythms by exposing the individual to contrasting inputs, i.e., at the one hand (dim)light exposure at night, nightly activity and eating and at the other hand daytime sleep and reduced light exposure. Several different animal models are being used to mimic shiftwork and study the mechanism responsible for the observed correlation between shiftwork and metabolic diseases. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the available animal studies with a focus on the four most relevant models that are being used to mimic human shiftwork: altered timing of (1) food intake, (2) activity, (3) sleep, or (4) light exposure. For all studies we scored whether and how relevant metabolic parameters, such as bodyweight, adiposity and plasma glucose were affected by the manipulation. In the discussion, we focus on differences between shiftwork models and animal species (i.e., rat and mouse). In addition, we comment on the complexity of shiftwork as an exposure and the subsequent difficulties when using animal models to investigate this condition. In view of the added value of animal models over human cohorts to study the effects and mechanisms of shiftwork, we conclude with recommendations to improve future research protocols to study the causality between shiftwork and metabolic health problems using animal models

  5. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of leukoaraiosis; a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2018-04-10

    Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individual is known to be defended from the metabolic complications of obesity. Leukoaraiosis, which is commonly detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is now recognized as a risk of stroke, dementia and death. However, the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis is unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 796 participants who received a medical examination program, we investigated the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis. We used common clinical markers for definition of metabolic healthy status: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . We diagnosed leukoaraiosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery without hypointensity on T1-weighted images or the presence of a hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The crude prevalence proportion of leukoaraiosis was 44.5% (case/n = 171/384) in metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) individual, 46.3% (44/95) in MHO individual, 62.3% (114/183) in metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO) individual or 56.6% (77/136) in MUO individual. The odds ratios of prevalence of leukoaraiosis were 1.19 (95% CI 0.74-1.90, p = 0.471) for MHO, 1.79 (1.22-2.62, p = 0.003) for MUNO and 1.56 (1.03-2.37, p = 0.037) for MUO individuals after adjusting for sex, age, smoking statues, habit of exercise and alcohol, compared with MHNO individual. We revealed that MHO individuals were not related with the higher risk of leukoaraiosis, whereas MUNO and MUO individuals were.

  6. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis using B-splines to study the effects of temperature shift on CHO cell metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S. Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux analysis (MFA is widely used to estimate intracellular fluxes. Conventional MFA, however, is limited to continuous cultures and the mid-exponential growth phase of batch cultures. Dynamic MFA (DMFA has emerged to characterize time-resolved metabolic fluxes for the entire culture period. Here, the linear DMFA approach was extended using B-spline fitting (B-DMFA to estimate mass balanced fluxes. Smoother fits were achieved using reduced number of knots and parameters. Additionally, computation time was greatly reduced using a new heuristic algorithm for knot placement. B-DMFA revealed that Chinese hamster ovary cells shifted from 37 °C to 32 °C maintained a constant IgG volume-specific productivity, whereas the productivity for the controls peaked during mid-exponential growth phase and declined afterward. The observed 42% increase in product titer at 32 °C was explained by a prolonged cell growth with high cell viability, a larger cell volume and a more stable volume-specific productivity. Keywords: Dynamic, Metabolism, Flux analysis, CHO cells, Temperature shift, B-spline curve fitting

  7. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    Full Text Available The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study.The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods.During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4% developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853. The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004. The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, P<0.001, and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046-0.0143, P<0.001.The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome.

  8. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  9. The metabolism of tritiated oleic acid in the rat. A radiological protection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Nazard, Raymonde.

    1979-04-01

    The metabolism of 3 H-labelled oleic acid has been studied in the rat during 600 days. The results of urinary and fecal excretions, of the retention of the total and fixed activities in 25 tissues or organs and the cumulative activity from day 4 to 616 are discussed. Oleic acid is more widely spread than other labelled molecules studied previously both as regard excretion or retention. During the first 4 days one can grossly admit that half the activity is fixed to water and half is stored in the adipose tissues which it leaves quickly first, then more slowly with a half-life of 200 days about. For some ten tissues, the cumulative activity due to the fixed fraction exceeds the cumulative activity due to tritiated water obtained by metabolism of oleic acid [fr

  10. Use of stable isotopes of selenium in human metabolic studies: development of analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Ting, B.T.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    Use of stable isotopes of selenium in relation to enrichment of diets for studies of selenium absorption and metabolism in human subjects is discussed. A method based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis is described which allows accurate measurement of stable isotopes 74Se, 76Se, and 80Se in matrices (feces, plasma, red blood cells, and urine) of interest in metabolic studies. We show that these isotopes can routinely be measured with analytical precision and accuracy of 10% in samples of available size. This precision and accuracy is satisfactory for conduct of many nutritional experiments concerned with gastrointestinal absorption, plasma and red cell selenium turnover, and urinary excretion of the element, using an oral dose of 74Se. Original, experimental data are presented to illustrate the degree of enrichment of 74Se in feces, plasma, and urine after a single oral ingestion of 50 micrograms of the isotope with a breakfast meal in healthy young men

  11. Comparative study of hops-containing products on human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian C; Arnason, John T; Saleem, Ammar; Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Mao, Jingqin; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2011-05-11

    The potential for 15 different ales (6), ciders (2 apple and 1 pear), and porters (6) and 2 non-alcoholic products to affect cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of rhodamine was examined. As in our previous study, a wide range of recovered nonvolatile suspended solids dry weights were noted. Aliquots were also found to have varying effects on biotransformation and efflux. Distinct differences in product ability to affect the safety and efficacy of therapeutic products confirmed our initial findings that some porters (stouts) have a potential to affect the safety and efficacy of health products metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isozymes. Most products, except 2 of the ciders and the 2 non-alcoholic products, also have the potential to affect the safety of CYP2C9 metabolized medications and supplements. Further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of these findings.

  12. Effect of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-Hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key pointsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment.Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music.In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list

  13. Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word

  14. Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The Mexico City Diabetes Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén López-Molina; Socorro Parra-Cabrera; Ruy López-Ridaura; María E González-Villalpando; Ele Ferrannini; Clicerio González-Villalpando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in low income urban Mexican population. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants) was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with...

  15. The metabolism of the human brain studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greitz, T.; Ingvar, D.H.; Widen, L.

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents coverage of the use of positron emission tomography (PET) to study the human brain. The contributors assess new developments in high-resolution positron emission tomography, cyclotrons, radiochemistry, and tracer kinetic models, and explore the use of PET in brain energy metabolism, blood flow, and protein synthesis measurements, receptor analysis, and pH determinations, In addition, they discuss the relevance and applications of positron emission tomography from the perspectives of physiology, neurology, and psychiatry

  16. Cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk among men with and without erectile dysfunction: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, João Paulo; Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba de; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Karam Junior, Amir; Santos, Raul D.; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf de; Wroclawski, Eric Roger

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim here was to evaluate cardiovascular risk through the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) criteria, C-reactive protein (CRP) assays and presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with and without erectile dysfunction diagnosed within a healthcare program. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. The patients were selected from a healthcare program at the Hospital Israelita...

  17. Timing of food intake during simulated night shift impacts glucose metabolism: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Gupta, Charlotte C; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.

  18. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  19. A preliminary study of the metabolic stability of a series of benzoxazinone derivatives as potent neuropeptide Y5 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordal, Alberto; Lipkin, Mike; Macritchie, Jackie; Mas, Josep; Port, Adriana; Rose, Sally; Salgado, Leonardo; Savic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Serafini, Maria Teresa; Spearing, William; Torrens, Antoni; Yeste, Sandra

    2005-08-15

    The metabolic stability of benzoxazinone derivatives, a potent series of NPY Y5 antagonists, has been investigated. This study resulted in the identification of the structural moieties prone to metabolic transformations and which strongly influenced the in vitro half-life. This provides opportunities to optimize the structure of this new class of NPY Y5 antagonists.

  20. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  1. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000, but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024. Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001 and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050. Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  2. Use of deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine in the study of catecholamine and aromatic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtius, H.C.; Redweik, U.; Steinmann, B.; Leimbacher, W.; Wegmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine have been used for the study of their respective metabolism in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in healthy persons. Urinary excretion of dopamine and its metabolites was studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deuterated L-tyrosine in 2 patients with PKU and in normal controls at low and high plasma phenylalanine levels. From these studies it seemed that the in vivo tyrosine 3-hydroxylase activity and thus the formation of L-dopa depend on the phenylalanine concentration in plasma and also in tissues. After loading 3 mentally retarded patients with 3,5-[ 2 H 2 ]-4-hydroxyphenylalanine, we found, among others, excretion of deuterated m-hydroxyphenyl-hydracrylic acid, p-hydroxymandelic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyhippuric acid, benzoic acid and hippuric acid. An intramolecular rearrangement is postulated. Deuterated phenylalanine was used to investigate phenylalanine and dopa metabolism in PKU. In addition, one untreated person with PKU of normal intelligence and normal excretion of catecholamines at high plasma phenylalanine concentration was investigated in order to see whether there exists an alternative metabolic pathway from phenylalanine to dopa formation

  3. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  4. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease

  5. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Crypt Organoid Culture as an in Vitro Model in Drug Metabolism and Cytotoxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenqi; Rettenmeier, Eva; Paszek, Miles; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Tukey, Robert H; Trottier, Jocelyn; Barbier, Olivier; Chen, Shujuan

    2017-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is enriched with xenobiotic processing proteins that play important roles in xenobiotic bioactivation, metabolism, and detoxification. The application of genetically modified mouse models has been instrumental in characterizing the function of xenobiotic processing genes (XPG) and their proteins in drug metabolism. Here, we report the utilization of three-dimensional crypt organoid cultures from these animal models to study intestinal drug metabolism and toxicity. With the successful culturing of crypt organoids, we profiled the abundance of Phase I and Phase II XPG expression, drug transporter gene expression, and xenobiotic nuclear receptor (XNR) gene expression. Functions of XNRs were examined by treating crypt cells with XNR prototypical agonists. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the representative downstream target genes were induced. These findings were validated from cultures developed from XNR-null mice. In crypt cultures isolated from Pxr -/- mice, pregnenolone 16 α -carbonitrile failed to induce Cyp3a11 gene expression; similarly, WY14643 failed to induce Cyp4a10 in the Pparα -/- crypts. Crypt cultures from control ( Ugt1 F/F ) and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) specific Ugt1 null mice ( Ugt1 ΔIEC ) were treated with camptothecin-11, an anticancer prodrug with severe intestinal toxicity that originates from insufficient UGT1A1-dependent glucuronidation of its active metabolite SN-38. In the absence of Ugt1 gene expression, Ugt1 ΔIEC crypt cultures exhibit very limited production of SN-38 glucuronide, concordant with increased apoptosis in comparison with Ugt1 F/F crypt cultures. This study suggests crypt organoid cultures as an effective in vitro model for studying intestinal drug metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle-East countries: Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarimoghaddam, Alireza; Adineh, Hosein Ali; Zareban, Iraj; Iranpour, Sohrab; HosseinZadeh, Ali; Kh, Framanfarma

    2017-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome is an important metabolic disorder which impose noticeable burden on health system. We aimed to review and imply the prevalence of it in Middle-East countries. present study was a systematic review to present overview about metabolic disorder in Middle East. Electronic literature search of Medline database and Google scholar were done for English-language articles without time filtering, as well as for population-based or national studies of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The fallowing search terms were used simultaneously: prevalence of " metabolic syndrome" and "national study", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle East", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome" and "name of country", "metabolic syndrome &name of country". Additionally, relevant articles in bibliography were searched. Analysis of data was carried out in STATA version 11.0. out of 456 studies in first-step searching (selecting by title) 59 studies were recruited and reviewed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome fluctuated by country and time of study. This amount was 2.2-44% in Turkish, 16-41% in Saudi-Arabia, 14-63 in Pakistan, 26-33 in Qatar, 9-36 in Kuwait, 22-50 in Emirate, 6-42 in Iran, and up to 23 in Yemen. Pooled estimate was 25%. Attributable risk for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke was 15.87, 11.7, and 16.23, respectively. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome is high and it is noticeable cause for stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on the Effect of Asparagus Extracts on Promoting Metabolism of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effective ingredients of asparagus extracts and the changes of vitamins content in mice body after the intake of asparagus extracts, thus to conclude the effect of asparagus extracts on body metabolism during exercises. Extracts were made into different concentrations of solution and given to the mice by intragastric administration. The content of micro-elements and vitamin groups in the mice body before and after the drug administration were detected respectively and biochemical index parameter values before and after swimming were measured respectively. Results showed that, 20 min after the drug administration, the content of blood lactic acid of the mice in the swimming experiment group decreased significantly. Besides, the content of muscle glycogen decreased and correspondingly the content of hepatic glycogen increased significantly (experiment group one and two: p < 0.01; experiment group 3: p < 0.05. Thus the ethanol extract solution of asparagus can effectively improve body metabolism.

  10. Strategic patent analysis in plant biotechnology: terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolic engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralpeix, Bruna; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The do-it-yourself patent search is a useful alternative to professional patent analysis particularly in the context of publicly funded projects where funds for IP activities may be limited. As a case study, we analysed patents related to the engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) metabolism in plants. We developed a focused search strategy to remove redundancy and reduce the workload without missing important and relevant patents. This resulted in the identification of approximately 50 key patents associated with TIA metabolic engineering in plants, which could form the basis of a more detailed freedom-to-operate analysis. The structural elements of this search strategy could easily be transferred to other contexts, making it a useful generic model for publicly funded research projects. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Use of isotopically radiolabelled GM3 ganglioside to study metabolic alterations in Salla disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigorno, Vanna; Valsecchi, Manuela; Nicolini, Marco; Sonnino, Sandro

    1997-01-01

    We report the preparation of radioactive GM3 ganglioside and its use in the study of sialic acid storage disorders. For the first time GM3 was isotopically radiolabelled in three positions of the molecule: at the sialic acid acetyl group, [ 3 H-Neu5Ac]GM3, at the Cl of the fatty acid moiety, [ 1 4C-Stearoyl]GM3, and at C3 of sphingosine, [ 3 H-Sph]GM3. The radioactive GM3 administered to cultured human fibroblasts from a patient suffering from Salla disease was taken up by the cells and metabolized. An analysis of the distribution of radioactivity within the ganglioside metabolic derivatives showed an accumulation of free sialic acid and ceramide in the pathological cells. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry and substrate oxidation (via respiratory exchange ratio were measured at baseline (pre-ingestion and at the end of each hour for 3 hours post-ingestion. Results Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p ® ingestion. No differences in respiratory exchange ratio were noted between trials. Conclusion These preliminary findings indicate Celsius™ has thermogenic properties when ingested acutely. The effects of repeated, chronic ingestion of Celsius™ on body composition are unknown at this time.

  13. Associations between fish consumption and metabolic syndrome. A large cross-sectional study from the Norwegian Tromsø Study: Tromsø 4

    OpenAIRE

    Tørris, C.; Molin, M.; Cvancarova Småstuen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish consumption may prevent or improve metabolic health. The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption, both fatty and lean, and metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Associations between fish consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components were studied in a large sample from a Norwegian population (N = 23,907), using cross-sectional data from t...

  14. Synthesis and formulation studies of griseofulvin analogues with improved solubility and metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Asger B; Andersen, Nikolaj S; Konotop, Gleb; Hanafiah, Nur Hafzan Md; Raab, Marc S; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads H

    2017-04-21

    Griseofulvin (1) is an important antifungal agent that has recently received attention due to its antiproliferative activity in mammalian cancer cells. Comprehensive SAR studies have led to the identification of 2'-benzyloxy griseofulvin 2, a more potent analogue with low micromolar anticancer potency in vitro. Analogue 2 was also shown to retard tumor growth through inhibition of centrosomal clustering in murine xenograft models of colon cancer and multiple myeloma. However, similar to griseofulvin, compound 2 exhibited poor metabolic stability and aqueous solubility. In order to improve the poor pharmacokinetic properties, 11 griseofulvin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for biological activity and physiological stabilities including SGF, plasma, and metabolic stability. Finally, the most promising compounds were investigated in respect to thermodynamic solubility and formulation studies. The 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 proved to be the most promising compound with low μM in vitro anticancer potency, a 200-fold increase in PBS solubility over compound 2, and with improved metabolic stability. Furthermore, this analogue proved compatible with formulations suitable for both oral and intravenous administration. Finally, 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 was confirmed to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo sup 1 sup 3 C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, J

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in th...

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome is positively related to metabolic syndrome: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinting Guo

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder that may affect dietary pattern, food digestion, and nutrient absorption. The nutrition-related factors are closely related to metabolic syndrome, implying that irritable bowel syndrome may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few epidemiological studies are available which are related to this potential link. The purpose of this study is to determine whether irritable bowel syndrome is related to metabolic syndrome among middle-aged people. We designed a cross-sectional study of 1,096 subjects to evaluate the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome and its components. Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was based on the Japanese version of the Rome III Questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statements of 2009. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal-components analysis was used to derive 3 major dietary patterns: "Japanese", "sweets-fruits", and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub "from 39 food groups. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome were 19.4% and 14.6%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the dietary pattern factor score tertiles and irritable bowel syndrome. After adjustment for potential confounders (including dietary pattern, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of having metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides for subjects with irritable bowel syndrome as compared with non-irritable bowel syndrome are 2.01(1.13-3.55 and 1.50(1.03-2.18, respectively. Irritable bowel syndrome is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and it components. This study is the first to show that irritable bowel syndrome was significantly related to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides among an adult population. The findings suggest that

  17. Surgical menopause versus natural menopause and cardio-metabolic disturbances: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, M; Ramezani Tehrani, F; Bahri Khomami, M; Noroozzadeh, M; Azizi, F

    2015-07-01

    Menopausal status exposes women to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to compare the effect of menopausal types, including surgical and natural, on metabolic syndrome and other metabolic disorders 3 years before and after menopause. Of 437 postmenopausal women, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 13 women with surgical menopause and 39 age-matched controls with natural menopause were selected. During the follow-up period, changes in metabolic and biochemical profiles were compared between surgical and natural menopause women. Odds of incidence of metabolic syndrome in surgical menopause women, compared to natural menopause women, was 9.7 (95 % CI 1.8-51.8). Metabolic disturbances after menopause are highly influenced by type of menopause and are more prevalent in those undergoing surgical menopause.

  18. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  19. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  20. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (P<0.05 at natural secondary forest site. The regression analysis showed that a strong positive (P<0.05 correlation was existed between the soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (P<0.05 to the relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback

  1. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study

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    Bersot Thomas P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to explore the agreement among World Health Organization (WHO, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, American College of Endocrinology (ACE, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD 13 years were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups. Results The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83. The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84. The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF. One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p 0.05, but lower log HOMA-IR values (p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased Framingham risk scores and are more useful than the definitions that require measurement of insulin levels (WHO and EGIR.

  2. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-01-01

    Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (PThe regression analysis showed that a strong positive (Pthe soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (Pthe relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback responses of the terrestrial ecosystem to environmental changes.

  3. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  4. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Choi, Eunhee; Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn Zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome.

  5. An Integrative Genetic Study of Rice Metabolism, Growth and Stochastic Variation Reveals Potential C/N Partitioning Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Huai, Dongxin; Zhou, Yongming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we show that in contrast to other rice studies, the heritability of primary metabolism is similar to Arabidopsis. The vast majority of metabolic QTLs had small to moderate effects with significant polygenic epistasis. Two metabolomics QTL hotspots had opposing effects on carbon and nitrogen rich metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic variation for metabolism than was found in Arabidopsis. Thus, it is possible that domestication has differentially impacted stochastic metabolite variation more than average metabolite variation.

  6. Metabolic regulation in meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801: Study of gene-diet interactions on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Silva-Brito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the most important source of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs for humans. With the stagnation of world marine fisheries, the role of aquaculture stocks increased rapidly as source of n-3 HUFA (FAO, 2012, but not sufficiently. To reduce the dependence as well as find ways to use of marine sources more economically and efficiently, the use of vegetable oils (VO have been widely investigated (Estévez et al., 2011. Vegetable oils are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoided of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, essential fatty acids involved in maintaining cell membrane structure, among other essential functions. The capacity of fish to thrive on diets containing only the C18 PUFA, 18 : 2n − 6 and 18 : 3n – 3 varies among species (Tocher, 2003; Leaver et al., 2008; Castro et al., 2012. It is well documented that teleosts have different enzyme capacity to desaturate-elongate 18C fatty acids into 20-22C LC-PUFAs (Cook & McMaster, 2004; Leaver et al., 2008. Generally, freshwater fish species can convert 18:2 n−6 and 18:3 n−3 to HUFA more efficiently than marine species, especially carnivorous which prey on organisms rich in HUFA (Tocher, 2003. Thus, the modulation of expression and translation of elongases and desaturases is of great importance to achieve independence of (carnivorous marine fish aquaculture from fishmeal and fish oil. There is currently considerable interest in the HUFA biosynthetic pathway in fish aiming to determine the effectiveness of vegetable oils as a total replacement of fish oil in the aquaculture of carnivore fish species (Vagner & Santigosa, 2011. Selenium is a structural component for several enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxine (Perottoni et al., 2004. These enzymes have physiological antioxidant properties and thus, protect the tissues of lipid peroxidation products (Orun et al., 2008. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid

  7. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

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    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  8. The Ussing Chamber Assay to Study Drug Metabolism and Transport in the Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Beatrice; Mangelsen, Eva; Wingolf, Caroline; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Tannergren, Christer; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus

    2017-06-22

    The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes. While there are limitations to the Ussing chamber assay, the use of human intestinal tissue remains the best laboratory test for characterizing the transport and metabolism of compounds following oral administration. Detailed in this unit is a step-by-step protocol for preparing human intestinal tissue, for designing Ussing chamber experiments, and for analyzing and interpreting the findings. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. A metabolic study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus

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    Hao Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract White spot syndrome virus (WSSV cause great harm in shrimp aquaculture. To understand the impact of viral infection on the shrimp metabolism, we monitored the culture farms of Litopenaeus vannamei and collected the samples on different stages of WSSV infection. The hepatopancreas of shrimp were separated, and then used gas chromatography mass spectrometry to detect the metabolites. Through the mass spectrometric analysis combined with multivariate data analysis, including PCA and OPLS models, metabolism of the shrimp was significantly changed by WSSV infection. The data indicated that in the early stage of WSSV infection, the glycolysis changed significantly, the contents of glucose and lactate increased distinctly. The metabolites of TCA cycle did not show up obviously regularity. The organism of fatty acids showed the same situation with glycolysis. At the early stage of infection, 14 amino acids metabolism were up-regulated, and glycine still increased at later stage of infection and the concentration was increased twice. The data of this study may provide some information to further research of viral disease mechanism.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome: retrospective study of repatriated prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnville, Steven; Hoyt, Robert E; Moore, Jeffrey L; Segovia, Francine; Hain, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of metabolic data for Vietnam-era repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) and a comparison group to determine if metabolic syndrome (MbS) was more common in those individuals with clinically diagnosed, current or lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as suggested in a recent report. The metabolic data of our patients nearest the time of psychiatric evaluation (1998-2004) for PTSD were analyzed using both an analysis of variance and logistic regression. Although we found elevated triglyceride levels (40 mg/dl higher) in RPWs with PTSD who met MbS criteria, overall the prevalence of MbS was the same in RPWs with and without PTSD and comparison group. Moreover, current PTSD symptom severity did not increase the likelihood of MbS. Our results from these repatriates who actively participate in a 37-year medical follow up program do not support the conclusion that MbS occurs more commonly in individuals with current PTSD.

  11. Studies on induction of metabolism of ethyl carbamate (EC) in mice by ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, N.; Hurst, H.E.; Kemper, R.A.; Waddell, W.J. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Acute administration of ethanol, acetaldehyde, DMSO and several other compounds has been reported previously by this laboratory to inhibit the metabolism of EC in mice. Since many enzyme systems which are inhibited acutely by a compound are induced when that chemical is given on a chronic schedule, the effect of chronic administration of ethanol on the metabolism of EC was studied in male, A/JAX mice. Ethanol was given in 3 pretreatment schedules: (1) 5% in drinking water for 7 days with a 24 hour washout before EC; (2) 10% in drinking water 48-12 hours before EC; (3) 5 g/kg orally as 10% in saline 48 and 24 hours before EC. EC (11.125 mg/kg) in saline was administered orally and blood samples taken at frequent intervals for analysis of EC by a GC/MS technique developed in this laboratory. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by trepezoidal estimation from concentration and time points. The clearances (dose/AUC; ml kg{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}) were: Control 751{+-}49.7; group 1, 803{+-}43.5; group 2, 1225{+-}24.6; group 3, 815{+-}75.4. Only group 2 was significantly different form control and other groups by Neuman-Keuls test. These results indicate that ethanol may be an inducer of EC metabolism only under certain conditions.

  12. Primary Hepatocytes Cultured on a Fiber-Embedded PDMS Chip to Study Drug Metabolism

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    Yaowen Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro drug screening using reliable and predictable liver models remains a challenge. The identification of an ideal biological substrate is essential to maintain hepatocyte functions during in vitro culture. Here, we developed a fiber-embedded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS chip to culture hepatocytes. Hepatocyte spheroids formed in this device were subjected to different flow rates, of which a flow rate of 50 μL/min provided the optimal microenvironment for spheroid formation, maintained significantly higher rates of albumin and urea synthesis, yielded higher CYP3A1 (cytochrome P450 3A1 and CYP2C11 (cytochrome P450 2C11 enzyme activities for metabolism, and demonstrated higher expression levels of liver-specific genes. In vitro metabolism tests on tolbutamide and testosterone by hepatocytes indicated predicted clearance rates of 1.98 ± 0.43 and 40.80 ± 10.13 mL/min/kg, respectively, which showed a good in vitro–in vivo correspondence. These results indicate that this system provides a strategy for the construction of functional engineered liver tissue that can be used to study drug metabolism.

  13. Relation of cardiac energy metabolism to workload studied with 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligeti, L.; Osbakken, M.; Clark, B.J.; Schnall, M.; Bolinger, L.; Subramanian, H.; Leigh, J.S.; Chance, B.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial work and concentration of mediators of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP, PCr, Pi) was studied in vivo in 6 dogs and 4 cats with 31 P NMR. The heart was exposed via thoracotomy for placement of surface coils and pacing electrodes. Work (defined as heart rate X blood pressure product) was increased by pacing the heart from 2Hz (rest) to 5Hz. In cats, an increase in work from 1.9 x 10 4 +/- .32 to 2.4 x 10 4 +/- .08 was associated with an increase in Pi/PCr ratio from .29 +/- .08 to .68 +/- .33; in dogs, work increase from 1.74 x 10 4 .82 to 3.4 x 10 4 +/- .84 did not cause significant change in Pi/PCr (.29 +/- .15 to .30 +/- .17). If these data are analyzed via the Michaelis-Menten algorithm, the cat heart can be considered to be set closer to V/sub max/ and the dog heart set closer to V/sub o/ (i.e. having a larger metabolic reserve). The difference between the 2 species could be due to microvascular and/or metabolic control mechanisms. Delineation of the different metabolic responses to work in these animal models may be helpful in understanding the physiological basis of heart disease

  14. Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae—A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study

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    Fredd Vergara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea. Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal, the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and principal component analysis (PCA. Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of 1H-13C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae.

  15. Yogurt consumption, body composition, and metabolic health in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Doyon, Caroline Y; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo

    2017-06-02

    The aim was to compare the anthropometric and metabolic profiles and lifestyle behaviours of yogurt consumers and non-consumers and to determine if the observed differences persisted after adjustment for diet quality and related variables. Using cross-sectional and follow-up data from the Québec Family Study, men and women were classified into yogurt consumers (n = 269; 96 men and 173 women) and non-consumers (n = 570; 279 men and 291 women), and their anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and lifestyle factors were compared. Men yogurt consumers had a lower body weight, BMI, % body fat, waist circumference and lower plasma insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in response to oral glucose, while women yogurt consumers had lower waist circumference, BMI, % body fat, plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide compared with non-consumers (P composition. Yogurt consumption is associated with body composition and metabolic health benefits that are not entirely explained by a global effect of diet quality.

  16. 13C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Keri L.H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N.; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J.; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P.; Menon, David K.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R.; Pickard, John D.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons’ tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver 13C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the 13C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution 13C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and 13C research modalities addressing them. PMID:24361470

  17. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  18. Denervation of the renal arteries in metabolic syndrome: the DREAMS-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L; Spiering, Wilko; Vink, Eva E; Beeftink, Martine M A; Blankestijn, Peter J; Doevendans, Pieter A; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-04-01

    Chronic elevation of sympathetic nervous system is a key factor in metabolic syndrome. Because renal denervation (RDN) is thought to modulate sympathetic activity, we performed the Denervation of the Renal Arteries in Metabolic Syndrome (DREAMS)-study to investigate the effects of RDN on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure (BP) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-nine patients fulfilling the criteria for metabolic syndrome and who used a maximum of 1 antihypertensive or 1 antidiabetic drug or 1 of both gave informed consent and were treated by RDN. Glucose tolerance tests and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements were performed at baseline, at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, we performed self-monitored BP measurements at home every month. To assess sympathetic activity, we performed muscle sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate variability measurements at baseline and follow-up. The majority of the included patients was men (57%), mean body mass index was 31±5 kg/m(2). Median insulin sensitivity as assessed by the Simple Index assessing Insulin Sensitivity oral glucose tolerance test did not change at 6- and 12-month follow-up (P=0.60 and P=0.77, respectively). Mean 24-hour BP decreased by 6±12/5±7 mm Hg 12 months after RDN (P=0.04/0.01). However, self-monitored BP measurements data showed no reduction over time. Measurements of sympathetic activity showed no reduction in systemic sympathetic activity. In conclusion, RDN did not lead to a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity ≤12 months after treatment. Although a significant reduction in ambulatory BP was observed in this nearly drug-naïve population, the self-monitored BP measurements data suggest that this may be explained by regression to the mean. Moreover, no effect in systemic sympathetic activity was observed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Changes in mouse brain metabolism following a convulsive dose of soman: A proton HRMAS NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvelle, F.; Dorandeu, F.; Carpentier, P.; Foquin, A.; Rabeson, H.; Graveron-Demilly, D.; Arvers, P.; Testylier, G.

    2010-01-01

    Soman, an irreversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor, induces status epilepticus and, in sensitive brain areas, seizure-related brain damage (e.g. brain edema and neuronal loss). The brain metabolic disturbances associated with these events are ill known. In the present study, we thus evaluated these changes in a murine model of soman-induced status epilepticus up to 7 days after intoxication. Mice, protected by HI-6 and atropine methyl nitrate, were poisoned with soman (172 μg/kg) and then sacrificed at set time points, from 1 h to 7 days. Brain biopsies from the piriform cortex (Pir) and cerebellum (Cer) were analyzed by 1 H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Spectra were then analyzed using both a supervised multivariate analysis and the QUEST procedure of jMRUI for the quantification of 17 metabolites. The multivariate analysis clearly showed the metabolic differences between a damaged structure (Pir) and a structure with less prominent changes (cerebellum) and helped to globally assess the time course of metabolic changes. Analysis of the individual metabolites showed that the major changes took place in the piriform cortex but that cerebellum was not change-free. The most prominent changes in the former were an early (1-4 h) increase in alanine and acetate, a delayed increase in lactate, glycerophosphocholine and glutamine as well as a delayed decrease in myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate. A week after poisoning, some metabolic disturbances were still present. Further research will be necessary to clarify what could be the involvement of these metabolites in physiological processes and how they might become useful surrogate markers of brain damage and repair.

  20. Depressive symptom profiles, cardio-metabolic risk and inflammation: Results from the MIDUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Diana A; Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to (1) provide a comprehensive characterization of depressive symptoms profiles, and (2) examine the cross-sectional association between depressive symptom profiles and cardio-metabolic outcomes, including metabolic syndrome and obesity, while controlling for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors and inflammation. Our sample was comprised of 1085 participants (55.80% female) enrolled in the MIDUS-II biomarker study. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to derive depressive symptom profiles using subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) subscales as well as Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Interim Joint Statement definition. CRP was used as a marker of inflammation. Four depressive symptom profiles were identified. The "No Symptoms" subgroup (60.65% of the sample) had the lowest overall scores across subscales. The "Mild Symptoms" subgroup (26.73%) was characterized by lower scores across indicators, with subscales measuring somatic symptoms being the highest within group. The "Moderate Symptoms" subgroup (10.32%) had higher scores across subscales (1 SD above the mean), with subscales measuring negative affect/loss of interest being the highest within group. Finally, the "Acute symptoms" subgroup (2.30%) was characterized by the highest overall scores (1.5-3 SD above the mean) on all indicators. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, the "Moderate Symptoms" subgroup was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.595, p=0.035) and obesity (OR=1.555, p=0.046). Further, there was a trend between the "Mild Symptoms" subgroup and the presence of obesity (OR=1.345, p=0.050). Inflammation attenuated these associations. Four depressive symptom profiles were identified among healthy mid-life individuals in the US. These profiles are differentially

  1. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  2. A tale of two methods: combining near-infrared spectroscopy with MRI for studies of brain oxygenation and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff F; Nathoo, Nabeela; Yang, Runze

    2014-01-01

    Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) leads to excellent synergies which can improve the interpretation of either method and can provide novel data with respect to measuring brain oxygenation and metabolism. MRI has good spatial resolution, can detect a range of physiological parameters and is sensitive to changes in deoxyhemoglobin content. NIRS has lower spatial resolution, but can detect, and with specific technologies, quantify, deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase. This paper reviews the application of both methods, as a multimodal technology, for assessing changes in brain oxygenation that may occur with changes in functional activation state or metabolic rate. Examples of hypoxia and ischemia are shown. Data support the concept of reduced metabolic rate resulting from hypoxia/ischemia and that metabolic rate in brain is not close to oxygen limitation during normoxia. We show that multimodal MRI and NIRS can provide novel information for studies of brain metabolism.

  3. Relationships of H. pylori infection and its related gastroduodenal morbidity with metabolic syndrome: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaeli, Rotem; Chodick, Gabriel; Haj, Saeda; Goren, Sophy; Shalev, Varda; Muhsen, Khitam

    2018-03-06

    The few published studies on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and metabolic homeostasis were relatively small and yielded inconsistent results. We examined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in relation to H. pylori infection and its symptoms in a large and unselected population. Coded data from the computerised database of a large health maintenance organisation in Israel were accessed for 147,936 individuals 25-95 years of age who performed the urea breath test during 2002-2012. The classification of metabolic syndrome followed a modified definition of the international diabetes federation. Prevalences of H. pylori infection and metabolic syndrome were 52.0% and 11.4% respectively. H. pylori infected patients had increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10-1.19), as did patients with gastric ulcer: aOR 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.28) vs patients without these conditions. Duodenal ulcer was associated with metabolic syndrome only in persons aged 25-34 years: aOR 1.59 (95% CI 1.19-2.13), but not in older persons (P = 0.001 for heterogeneity). In conclusion, the likelihood of metabolic syndrome appeared significantly increased in relation to H. pylori infection and gastric and duodenal ulcers. These findings suggest that H. pylori long-term gastric inflammation might play a role in metabolic homeostasis.

  4. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  5. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szostak-Węgierek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. Methods One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20–49 years who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study in 2013–2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20–29 years (n = 403, 30–39 years (n = 600 and 40–49 years (n = 585. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Results Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with

  6. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, M.

    2007-01-01

    sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7).In spite of the cerebral atrophy of aging, these relative hypometabolic brain areas are considered to be correlated with structural and functional cerebral changes and cognitive dysfunction such as verbal and spatial working memory deficit in the process of normal brain aging. The study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brains can be used for reference and instruction in future clinical studies and in normal brain aging. (author)

  7. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese and Non-Obese Individuals – The Maastricht Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Berg, Julianne D.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Schram, Miranda T.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although both frequently occur together in the same individual, obesity and the metabolic syndrome can also develop independently from each other. The (patho)physiology of “metabolically healthy obese” (i.e. obese without metabolic syndrome) and “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” phenotypes (i.e. non-obese with metabolic syndrome) is not fully understood, but physical activity and sedentary behavior may play a role. Objective To examine objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across four groups: I) “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO); II) “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO); III)”metabolically healthy non-obese” (MHNO); and IV) “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” (MUNO). Methods Data were available from 2,449 men and women aged 40–75 years who participated in The Maastricht Study from 2010 to 2013. Participants were classified into the four groups according to obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome (ATPIII definition). Daily activity was measured for 7 days with the activPAL physical activity monitor and classified as time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. Results In our study population, 562 individuals were obese. 19.4% of the obese individuals and 72.7% of the non-obese individuals was metabolically healthy. After adjustments for age, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, waking time, T2DM, history of CVD and mobility limitation, MHO (n = 107) spent, per day, more time stepping (118.2 versus 105.2 min; psedentary (563.5 versus 593.0 min., p = 0.02) than MUO (n = 440). In parallel, MHNO (n = 1384) spent more time stepping (125.0 versus 115.4 min; psedentary (553.3 versus 576.6 min., psedentary and more physically active than the metabolically unhealthy groups. Therefore, physical activity and sedentary time may partly explain the presence of the metabolic

  8. Impact of Serum Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio on Regression of Metabolic Syndrome in High-Risk Individuals: The ARIRANG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Ryong; Yadav, Dhananjay; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang Young; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2017-03-01

    The ratio of serum leptin to adiponectin (L/A ratio) could be used as a marker for insulin resistance. However, few prospective studies have investigated the impact of L/A ratio on improvement of metabolic components in high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome. We examined the association between L/A ratio and the regression of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. A total of 1017 subjects (431 men and 586 women) with metabolic syndrome at baseline (2005-2008) were examined and followed (2008-2011). Baseline serum levels of leptin and adiponectin were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive ability of L/A ratio for the regression of metabolic syndrome. During an average of 2.8 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome disappeared in 142 men (32.9%) and 196 women (33.4%). After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for regression of metabolic syndrome in comparisons of the lowest to the highest tertiles of L/A ratio were 1.84 (1.02-3.31) in men and 2.32 (1.37-3.91) in women. In AUROC analyses, L/A ratio had a greater predictive power than serum adiponectin for the regression of metabolic syndrome in both men (p=0.024) and women (p=0.019). Low L/A ratio is a predictor for the regression of metabolic syndrome. The L/A ratio could be a useful clinical marker for management of high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Associations in a Bariatric Surgery Cohort from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645

  10. An integrative genetic study of rice metabolism, growth and stochastic variation reveals potential C/N partitioning loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic...... on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we......Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused...

  11. Multiplatform plasma metabolic and lipid fingerprinting of breast cancer: A pilot control-case study in Colombian Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Mónica P; Aldana, Julian; Medina, Jessica; Sánchez, Julián; Guio, José; Wist, Julien; Meesters, Roland J W

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease associated with metabolic reprogramming. The shifts in the metabolome caused by BC still lack data from Latin populations of Hispanic origin. In this pilot study, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches were performed to establish a plasma metabolic fingerprint of Colombian Hispanic women with BC. Data from 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS were combined and compared. Statistics showed discrimination between breast cancer and healthy subjects on all analytical platforms. The differentiating metabolites were involved in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multiplatform approaches in metabolic/lipid fingerprinting studies to broaden the outlook of possible shifts in metabolism. Our findings propose relevant plasma metabolites that could contribute to a better understanding of underlying metabolic shifts driven by BC in women of Colombian Hispanic origin. Particularly, the understanding of the up-regulation of long chain fatty acyl carnitines and the down-regulation of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). In addition, the mapped metabolic signatures in breast cancer were similar but not identical to those reported for non-Hispanic women, despite racial differences.

  12. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  13. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  14. A randomized placebo-controlled study on the effects of pioglitazone on cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hagen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible effects of insulin-sensitizing treatment on cortisol metabolism in insulin-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care medical center. PATIENT(S): Thirty insulin...

  15. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  16. Study of beta-cell function (by HOMA model) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M K; Dutta, M K; Mahalle, Namita

    2011-07-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS), which strongly predict risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies implicate insulin resistance (IR) in the development of diabetes, but ignore the contribution of beta-cell dysfunction. Hence, we studied beta-cell function, as assessed by HOMA model, in subjects with MS. We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, biochemical, and insulin measurement. IR and secretion were calculated by HOMA model. Subjects with MS had more IR (HOMA-IR) than controls (3.35 ± 3.14 vs. 1.76 ± 0.53, P = 0.029) and secreted less insulin (HOMA-S) than controls (66.80 ± 69.66 vs. 144.27 ± 101.61, P = 0.0003), although plasma insulin levels were comparable in both groups (10.7 ± 10.2 vs. 8.2 ± 2.38, P = 0.44). HOMA-IR and HOMA-S were related with number of metabolic abnormalities. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio, body fat mass, and percent body fat. HOMA-S was negatively associated with waist hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol and positively with basal metabolic rate. Percent body fat was an independent predictor of HOMA-IR and waist hip ratio of HOMA-S in multiple regression analysis. Subjects with MS have increased IR and decreased insulin secretion compared with healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve IR, insulin secretion, and various components and effects of MS. Hence, there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent ongoing epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Characterization of amino acid metabolism by cultured rat kidney cells: Study with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissim, I.; States, B.; Yudkoff, M.; Segal, S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study evaluates the metabolism of glutamine and glutamate by normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. The major aim was to evaluate the effect of acute acidosis on the metabolism of amino acid and ammonia formation by cultured NRK cells. Experiments at either pH 7.0 or 7.4 were conducted with phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with either 1 mM [5- 15 N]glutamine, [2- 15 N]glutamine, or [ 15 N]glutamate. Incubation with either glutamine or glutamate as a precursor showed that production of ammonia and glucose was increased significantly at pH 7.0 vs 7.4. In experiments with [5- 15 N]glutamine, the authors found that ∼57 and 43% of ammonia N was derived from 5-N of glutamine at pH 7.4 and 7.0, respectively. Three major metabolic pathways of [2- 15 N]glutamine or [ 15 N]glutamate disposal were identified: (1) transamination reactions involving the pH-independent formation of [ 15 N] aspartate and [ 15 N]alanine; (2) the synthesis of [6- 15 NH 2 ]adenine nucleotide, a process more active at pH 7.4 vs. 7.0; and (3) glutamine synthesis from [ 15 N]glutamate, especially at pH 7.4. The data indicate that NRK cells in culture consume glutamine and glutamate and generate ammonia and various amino acids, depending on the H + concentration in the media. The studies suggest that these cell lines may provide a useful model for studying various aspects of the effect of pH on rat renal ammoniagenesis

  18. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  19. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 13C MRS Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corin O. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well-known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs using 13C MRS.Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal, along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion half way through the study on the second study session.Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e., monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen

  1. Energy metabolism and whole-exome sequencing-based analysis of Sasang constitution: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyoung Kyu Kim; Heetak Lee; Ji Ho So; Seung Hun Jeong; Dae Yun Seo; Jong-Yeol Kim; Sanguk Kim; Jin Han

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traditional Korean Sasang constitutional (SC) medicine categorizes individuals into four constitutional types [Tae-eum (TE), So-eum (SE), Tae-yang (TY), or So-yang (SY)] based on biological and physiological characteristics. As these characteristics are closely related to the bioenergetics of the human body, we assessed the correlation between SC type and energy metabolism features. Methods: Forty healthy, young (22.3 ± 1.4 years) males volunteered to participate in this study....

  2. Radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in rat during chronic poisoning by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.J.; Oustrin, J.

    1978-01-01

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism during chronic poisoning by cadmium in the rat (8 mg/kg/day) has shown an important decrease of intestinal absorption of calcium after 6 weeks. After 13 weeks, this impairement is associated to a decrease of rapidly and slow exchangeable calcium compartments as well exchange rates. The decrease of osteogenesis is confirmed by an important drop of serum alkaline phosphatases which reflect the decrease of osteoblastic activity. These results suggest that the disorders observed in rat are similar to those elicited in osteoporosis [fr

  3. Cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic changes in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Y.; Loc'h, C.; Ottaviani, M.; Baron, J.C.; Bousser, M.

    1984-09-01

    Using the positron emission tomography, with the O 15 inhalation technique, the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were studied in 37 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. In the territory of the occluded ICA, two pattern of focal anomaly have been observed: a CBF decrease with a ''compensatory'' OEF increase or a matched CBF and CMRO 2 decrease. On the other hand, as compared to age matched control values, CMRO 2 is significantly decreased in the territory of the occluded carotid only in patients with extensive neck vessels obstructive disease

  4. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zhang Lansheng; Kang Baoan

    1988-08-01

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  5. Panel discussion: cCinical pet neurotransmitter metabolism and receptor binding studies of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following presentations on applications and results of PET imaging in Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, additional aspects of PET use in evaluating neurologic disease were discussed. Several questions addressed imaging of the dopamine (DA) synapse in PD. Discussion centered around reasons for focal hypometabolism of the association cortex in AD but not of the striatum in PD as well as potential applications of metabolic and presynaptic DA measurements in the diagnostic evaluation of Parkinsonian syndromes. The specificity of fluoroDOPA (FD) uptake following PD treatment by adrenal or substantia nigra transplantation was addressed. Blood-brain-barrier disruption and the metabolic instability of FD were discussed as underlying causes of increased tracer accumulation reported in the literature. The session then turned to dementia and the problem of establishing a definite diagnosis.The roles of PET and SPECT imaging in these areas is relatively new but is very promising. The session concluded with discussion of the possibility of activation studies with neurotransmitter ligands. The design and interpretation of such studies are quite complex. Physiologic stimulation studies frequently result in altered local cerebral perfusion; it will be necessary to distinguish differences in ligand distribution arising form blood flow changes from possible alterations in receptor availability. These interactions may also confound radioligand studies following pharmacologic interventions with unlabeled drugs

  6. Metabolic syndrome and osteoporotic fracture: a population-based study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Gu, Hongxia; Li, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Lingfei; Lu, Shuai; Xing, Yin; Zhang, Hongmei; Niu, Yixin; Ning, Guang; Su, Qing

    2016-05-27

    Associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporotic fracture have been reported. However, the epidemiological studies are not conclusive. The objective of the study was to determine whether metabolic syndrome associates with osteoporotic fracture. This was a cross-sectional study of 9930 Chinese adults aged 40 year or older in the Chongming District, Shanghai, China. A questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were conducted. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. A history of fractures was collected with an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Osteoporotic fractures were defined as fractures that occurred due to low-trauma in 2 years prior to the study. Among women, the prevalence of osteoporotic fractures was significantly higher in those with MetS (3.5 vs. 2.6 %, P =0.028). However, the difference was not found in men (2.6 vs. 2.4 %, P =0.737). The presence of Mets was significantly associated with increased odds of osteoporotic fracture among women (odds ratio 1.22; 95 % confidence interval 1.12-1.54; P = 0.039) after controlling for potential confounders. The significant associations were not detected in men. The presence of MetS was significantly associated with a recent history of osteoporotic fracture in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

  7. Studies on the metabolism of propafenone. 2nd comm.: studies on the biotransformation in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, H G; Lietz, H; Weymann, J

    1984-01-01

    Following administration of 14C- and 2H-labelled propafenone hydrochloride (2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-propylaminopropoxy)-omega-phenyl-propiophenone hydrochloride) to beagle dogs, the metabolites were isolated from urine and bile and analysed by mass spectrometry. Reference substances were synthesized on the basis of the structures postulated from the mass spectra and compared with the substances isolated from the biological material. Propafenone was absorbed completely following i.d. administration and eliminated mainly with the bile. Within 28 h 10% of the dose was excreted with the urine and 87% with the bile. Propafenone was extensively metabolized. Less than 1% of the dose was recovered as unchanged substance in urine and bile. The urinary and biliary metabolites were almost exclusively conjugated. The main metabolite, accounting for more than 30% of the dose, was propafenone glucuronide, followed by conjugates of hydroxylated propafenone derivatives with glucuronic acid and sulphuric acid. 5-Hydroxy-propafenone, a propafenone derivative hydroxylated in the middle aromatic ring, and a derivative hydroxylated in the omega-phenyl ring each accounted for about 15% of the dose. Besides these monohydroxy metabolites, two other O-methylated catechol-like derivatives, substituted in the different aromatic rings were recovered. The remainder of the metabolic products identified were mainly substances resulting from degradation of the propoxyamine side chain.

  8. Comprehensive metabolomic study of platelets reveals the expression of discrete metabolic phenotypes during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur E; Rolfsson, Óttar

    2014-01-01

    not undergo a monotonic decay, but experienced systematic changes in metabolism reflected in three discrete metabolic phenotypes: The first (Days 0-3) was associated with active glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and glutathione metabolism and down regulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The second...

  9. Functional genomics and proteomics applied to the study of nutritional metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guengerich, F P

    2001-08-01

    Functional genomics, commonly applied to the genes and enzymes involved in metabolism of chemicals, can also be applied to enzymes involved in the metabolism of nutrients. Although in its infancy, genomics can be used to determine relationships between nutrition and toxicology, drug metabolism, and cancer.

  10. [DiabeTIC website: a pilot study of satisfaction and impact on metabolic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Ayala Ortega, María del Carmen; Jiménez Millán, Ana Isabel; Piñero Zaldivar, Antonia; García Calzado, Concepción; Prieto Ferrón, Matilde; Silva Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate satisfaction and short-term impact on metabolic control of diabetes monitoring through the DiabeTIC website. A prospective, uncontrolled intervention study was conducted in 32 patients aged 29.7±9.7 years (65% female) incorporated to the telemedicine platform DiabeTIC between March and September 2012. All patients completed a satisfaction questionnaire in the first month, and impact on metabolic control was evaluated at three and six months. In the satisfaction survey conducted in the first month of follow-up, the following mean scores (0-10) were obtained: overall impression with the platform: 8.6±1.8; ease of use: 8.1±1.5; intuitive navigation: 6.7±3.0; value of measurements: 9.1±1.1; importance of the platform in diabetes management: 9.5±0.9; sense of security: 9.5±0.8; value of the library: 9.4±1.1; value of messages: 9.1±1.4, and recommendation to use the platform: 9.4±0.9. Glycosilated hemoglobin concentrations significantly improved at six months as compared to study start (7.0±0.8 versus 8.1±1.9; p=0.007). Nine patients were discharged from DiabeTIC before completing six months of follow-up. Patients with diabetes monitored through the DiabeTIC website report a high degree of satisfaction, showing improved metabolic control at short-term follow-up. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Toshiisa [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei [and others

    1998-04-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75{+-}0.34%, 0.65{+-}0.25%, and 0.43{+-}0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17{+-}0.49%, 0.80{+-}0.44% and 0.99{+-}0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38{+-}0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  12. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71±5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects

  13. Metabolic activity in the insular cortex and hypothalamus predicts hot flashes: an FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Lin, Nancy U; Makris, Nikos; Skaar, Todd C; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Hall, Janet E

    2012-09-01

    Hot flashes are a common side effect of adjuvant endocrine therapies (AET; leuprolide, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that reduce quality of life and treatment adherence in breast cancer patients. Because hot flashes affect only some women, preexisting neurobiological traits might predispose to their development. Previous studies have implicated the insula during the perception of hot flashes and the hypothalamus in thermoregulatory dysfunction. The aim of the study was to understand whether neurobiological factors predict hot flashes. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine whether metabolic activity in the insula and hypothalamic thermoregulatory and estrogen-feedback regions measured before and in response to AET predict hot flashes. Findings were correlated with CYP2D6 genotype because of CYP2D6 polymorphism associations with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. We measured regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake (rCMRglu) in the insula and hypothalamus on FDG-PET. Of 18 women without hot flashes who began AET, new-onset hot flashes were reported by 10 (55.6%) and were detected objectively in nine (50%) participants. Prior to the use of all AET, rCMRglu in the insula (P ≤ 0.01) and hypothalamic thermoregulatory (P = 0.045) and estrogen-feedback (P = 0.007) regions was lower in women who reported developing hot flashes. In response to AET, rCMRglu was further reduced in the insula in women developing hot flashes (P ≤ 0.02). Insular and hypothalamic rCMRglu levels were lower in intermediate than extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Trait neurobiological characteristics predict hot flashes. Genetic variability in CYP2D6 may underlie the neurobiological predisposition to hot flashes induced by AET.

  14. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-05-01

    To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, t(max2) and C(max2) for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t(1/2) and CL(int) value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CL(int) and lower absorption in male rats.

  15. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  16. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, Julia E.; Moore, Lee E.; Lee, Yuan-Chin A.; McKay, James D.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Karami, Sara; Gaborieau, Valérie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Zaridze, David G.; Mukeriya, Anush; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Rothman, Nathaniel; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have among the highest worldwide rates of renal cell cancer (RCC). Few studies have examined whether genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes may modify risk for this cancer. Methods: The Central and Eastern Europe Renal Cell Cancer study was a hospital-based case–control study conducted between 1998 and 2003 across seven centers in Central and Eastern Europe. Detailed data were collected from 874 cases and 2053 controls on demographics, work history, and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Genes [cytochrome P-450 family, N-acetyltransferases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] were selected for the present analysis based on their putative role in xenobiotic metabolism. Haplotypes were calculated using fastPhase. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for country of residence, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and hypertension. Results: We observed an increased risk of RCC with one SNP. After adjustment for multiple comparisons it did not remain significant. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with disease. Conclusion: We observed no association between this pathway and renal cell cancer.

  17. Dietary nitrate reduces resting metabolic rate: a randomized, crossover study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ekblom, Björn; Mattsson, Mathias P; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Nyström, Thomas; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate, which is an inorganic anion abundant in vegetables, increases the efficiency of isolated human mitochondria. Such an effect might be reflected in changes in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and formation of reactive oxygen species. The bioactivation of nitrate involves its active accumulation in saliva followed by a sequential reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide, and other reactive nitrogen species. We studied effects of inorganic nitrate, in amounts that represented a diet rich in vegetables, on the RMR in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we measured the RMR by using indirect calorimetry in 13 healthy volunteers after a 3-d dietary intervention with sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) or a placebo (NaCl). The nitrate dose (0.1 mmol · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) corresponded to the amount in 200-300 g spinach, beetroot, lettuce, or other vegetable that was rich in nitrate. Effects of direct nitrite exposure on cell respiration were studied in cultured human primary myotubes. The RMR was 4.2% lower after nitrate compared with placebo administration, and the change correlated strongly to the degree of nitrate accumulation in saliva (r² = 0.71). The thyroid hormone status, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, plasma concentration of isoprostanes, and total antioxidant capacity were unaffected by nitrate. The administration of nitrite to human primary myotubes acutely inhibited respiration. Dietary inorganic nitrate reduces the RMR. This effect may have implications for the regulation of metabolic function in health and disease.

  18. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G.; Clement, Karine; Petit, Francois M.; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  19. Anthropometric cutoff values for predicting metabolic syndrome in a Saudi community: from the SAUDI-DM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubean, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M; AlFarsi, Yousuf; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Bawazeer, Nahla; AlOtaibi, Mohammad T; AlRumaih, Fahd Issa; Zaidi, Muhammad Shoaib

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies widely by ethnicity and by the criteria used in its definition. To identify the optimal cutoff values for waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) for identifying metabolic syndrome among the Saudi population. Nationwide household cross-sectional population-based survey. Thirteen health sectors in Saudi Arabia. We used data for subjects in the Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM), which was conducted from 2007 to 2009. Using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, metabolic syndrome and its different components were assessed using anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess sensitivity and specificity for different cutoff values of WC, WHR, and BMI. The Youden index was used to calculate the optimal cutoff value for each anthropometric measurement. Optimal cutoff value for WC, WHR, and BMI for identifying the risk of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of two or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome was observed in 43.42% of the total cohort of 12126 study participants >=18 years of age. The presence of two or more risk factors were significantly higher among men (46.81%) than women (40.53%) (P metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose significantly increased with age for both genders. The proposed WC cutoff values were better than WHR and BMI in predicting metabolic syndrome and could be used for screening people at high risk for metabolic syndrome in the Saudi population. No direct measure of body fatness and fat distribution, cross-sectional design.

  20. Work-family life courses and metabolic markers in mid-life: evidence from the British National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found generally better health among those who combine employment and family responsibilities; however, most research excludes men, and relies on subjective measures of health and information on work and family activities from only 1 or 2 time points in the life course. This study investigated associations between work-family life course types (LCTs) and markers of metabolic risk in a British birth cohort study. Methods Multichannel sequence analysis was used to generate work-family LCTs, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood between 16 and 42 years for men and women in the British National Child Development Study (NCDS, followed since their birth in 1958). Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in mid-life (age 44–45) were tested using multivariate linear regression in multiply imputed data. Results Life courses characterised by earlier transitions into parenthood were associated with significantly increased metabolic risk, regardless of attachment to paid work or marital stability over the life course. These associations were only partially attenuated by educational qualifications, early life circumstances and adult mediators. The positive association between weak labour markets ties and metabolic risk was weaker than might be expected from previous studies. Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors did not differ significantly by gender. Conclusions Earlier transitions to parenthood are linked to metabolic risk in mid-life. PMID:26659761

  1. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in Spain: prevalence and coronary risk associated with harmonized definition and WHO proposal. DARIOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Sanz, Héctor; Elosua, Roberto; Guembe, María J; Alzamora, Maite; Vega-Alonso, Tomás; Félix-Redondo, Francisco J; Ortiz-Marrón, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Lama, Carmen; Gavrila, Diana; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lozano, Luis; Marrugat, Jaume

    2012-03-01

    To update the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated coronary risk in Spain, using the harmonized definition and the new World Health Organization proposal (metabolic premorbid syndrome), which excludes diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Individual data pooled analysis study of 24,670 individuals from 10 autonomous communities aged 35 to 74 years. Coronary risk was estimated using the REGICOR function. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31% (women 29% [95% confidence interval, 25%-33%], men 32% [95% confidence interval, 29%-35%]). High blood glucose (P=.019) and triglycerides (Pmetabolic syndrome, but abdominal obesity (Pmetabolic syndrome showed moderate coronary risk (8% men, 5% women), although values were higher (Psyndrome (4% men, 2% women). Women and men with metabolic syndrome had 2.5 and 2 times higher levels of coronary risk, respectively (Pmetabolic premorbid syndrome was 24% and the increase in coronary risk was also proportionately larger in women than in men (2 vs 1.5, respectively; Pmetabolic syndrome is 31%; metabolic premorbid syndrome lowers this prevalence to 24% and delimits the population for primary prevention. The increase in coronary risk is proportionally larger in women, in both metabolic syndrome and metabolic premorbid syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Sodium Oxybutyrate on Mesentery Microcirculation and Liver Metabolism in Hemorrhagic Stroke (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Korzhevskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of sodium oxybutyrate on canine mesentery microcirculation and liver metabolism in hemorrhagic stroke. Materials and methods. The investigation was based on the examination of specimens taken from 72 dogs of both sexes, weight 15.5±1.5 kg. Hypovolemic hypotension was induced by free bloodletting via the femoral artery. Systolic blood pressure was lowered to 40 mm Hg and maintained at the same level during an hour by the Wiggers procedure. The magnitude of blood loss was 31—33 ml/kg. The dogs were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact (n=5; 2 one-hour hypovolemic hypotension (n=8; 3 control (n=31, in which physiological saline was intravenously injected at a concentration of 0.9—1.1 ml/kg an hour after hypovolemic hypotension; 4 experimental (n=28, in which 10% sodium oxybutyrate solution was intravenously injected at a concentration of 180—200 mg/kg an hour after hypovolemic hypotension. In Groups 1 and 2 dogs, as well as in the control and experimental groups, divided into 2 subgroups, in which laparotomy was carried out under local 0.25% novocaine solution in combination with intravenous sodium thiopental (15—20 mg/kg an hour after the drug administration and an hour after blood reinfusion, then right liver lobe pieces were excised for histochemical and biochemical studies. In Groups 3 and 4, heparinized blood was reinfused an hour after administration of the agent. The animals were observed during an hour. In the dogs from the latter two groups, mesentery vascular microcirculation was evaluated at control time stages, by using biomicroscopy on a MBR-1 microscope-based unit. Results. Despite uncompensated blood loss, the use of sodium oxybutyrate in hemor-rhagic stroke improves microcirculation in the mesentery vessels. In the liver, it enhances the rate of reactions of oxida-tive phosphorylation and the pentose phosphate pathway, activates glucose uptake processes, prevents lactate accumulation, preserves

  4. Causal relationship between adiponectin and metabolic traits: a Mendelian randomization study in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Meyre, David; Lanktree, Matthew B; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Gerstein, Hertzel; Hegele, Robert A; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada. Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes. Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002). The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P = 0.10). The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001). There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001), but not with adiponectin level (P = 0.67). The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance.

  5. Paliperidone Palmitate and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Schizophrenia: A 12-Month Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Gianluca; Pessina, Enrico; Martini, Azzurra; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oral and long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics are known to be associated with a high risk of metabolic adverse effects. Together with other drug treatments, poor lifestyle choices, and genetic liability, they contribute to development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which occurs in nearly one third of patients with schizophrenia.The primary objective of this multicenter prospective observational study was to explore the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 60 real-world patients treated with paliperidone palmitate (PP) over a period of 12 months. The secondary objectives were to assess other tolerability aspects and the efficacy of PP on schizophrenic symptoms.The proportion of patients with MetS at baseline (33%) did not significantly change neither at 6 (39.0%) nor at 12 months (29.5%) of PP treatment. The same applies to each individual component of MetS. We found a slight but statistically significant increase in body mass index (26.3 ± 6.0 vs 27.1 ± 4.6, P = 0.031) and of waist circumference (98.2 ± 17.9 vs 100.3 ± 15.9, P = 0.021) from baseline to end point. Weight gain was detected in approximately 15% of patients.At least 1 mild or moderate adverse event was found in 71.3%, 88.0%, and 52.1% of patients, respectively, at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A significant improvement in schizophrenic symptoms emerged by means of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and subscale scores.Together with previous literature findings, our results seem to indicate that PP could be a valid therapeutic option for patients with a severe disorder and with a high metabolic risk profile.

  6. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins.

  7. Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Edlow

    Full Text Available One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women.This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI≥30 and eight lean (BMI<25 women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05. Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas.In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold. Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu.Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women.

  8. Vitamin D levels and their impact on mineral metabolism in HIV infected patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaglia, Silvina; Watson, Dana; Bello, Natalia; Fridman, Vanesa; Stecher, Daniel; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties. The nuclear receptor for vitamin D is expressed in several immune cells, which convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to the active form 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. Under conditions of infection, 1,25(OH) 2 D promotes production of cathelicidin (an antimicrobial peptide) in monocytes and activated macrophages. In vitro studies have shown the ability of cathelicidin to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in T CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages. To evaluate vitamin D levels and their impact on mineral metabolism in HIV infected patients. Seventy-four clinical records of HIV/AIDS patients seen at the outpatients clinic were reviewed. The following data were collected: age, sex, time since diagnosis of HIV, HIV-1 viral load, CD4 counts (absolute value and percentage), and mineral metabolism determinations: 25OHD, intact parathormone (iPTH); serum calcium (sCa); serum phosphorus (sP) and serum crosslaps (sCTX). Vitamin D levels were stratified as follows: optimal: ≥30ng/ml; insufficient: 21-29ng/ml; moderately deficient: 20≥ -25OHD- >10 ng/ml and severely deficient ≤10 ng/ml. Fifty-five clinical records were included; 82% of patients had 25OHD levels below 30ng/ml (insufficient: 23.6%, moderately deficient: 36.4%; and severely deficient: 21.8%). A significantly higher serum PTH levels in the moderately and severely deficient groups than in the optimal and insufficient groups was observed (pART). Systematic assessment of mineral metabolism is considered necessary in HIV/AIDS positive patients.

  9. Changes in kidney perfusion and renal cortex metabolism in septic shock: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Emiel Hendrik; Su, Fuhong; Hosokawa, Koji; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Herpain, Antoine; Creteur, Jacques; Vincent, Jean-Louis; De Backer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of renal dysfunction in sepsis is currently attributed to altered perfusion, microcirculatory abnormalities and cellular alterations. To clarify these mechanisms, we characterized the changes in renal perfusion and cortex metabolism in a large animal model of sepsis. We studied 12 adult female sheep randomized to peritonitis-induced sepsis (n = 8) or to sham procedure (n = 4). A flow probe was positioned around the renal artery to measure renal blood flow (RBF). Laser Doppler was used to measure regional flow in the kidney cortex and medulla. A microdialysis probe was inserted into the renal cortex to measure cortical glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. Fluid resuscitation was provided to keep pulmonary artery occlusion pressure at baseline levels. All animals were observed for 18 h. Hypotension occurred after 9 h in the septic animals (P = 0.02 versus baseline). RBF and cortical flow were significantly lower than at baseline from 12 h in the septic animals (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Cortical lactate and pyruvate levels increased in the septic animals from 3 and from 6 h, respectively (both P = 0.02 versus baseline), and the L/P ratio from 15 h (P = 0.01). There was a correlation between cortical flow and cortical L/P ratio after shock onset (r = -0.60, P = 0.002) but not before. In this peritonitis model, sepsis was associated with metabolic alterations that may reflect early induction of cortical glycolysis. Septic shock was associated with reduced renal perfusion and decreased cortical and medullary blood flow, followed by signs of anaerobic metabolism in the cortex when flow reductions became critical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired Iron Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Critical Conditions (an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the pathogenetic value of iron metabolic disturbances in microcirculatory disorders and in the development of endotoxemia in the critical conditions caused by abdominal sepsis and bone injury. Material and methods: Abdominal sepsis was simulated in the first series of experiments on 40 male Wistar rats; hip fracture of both hind limbs was done in 40 rats in the second series. In each series of experiments, deferoxamine was injected at a dose of 80 mg/kg in 10 animals for preventive purposes 2 hours before simulating the critical condition. The viscosity of blood and the levels of serum transferrin, ferritin, iron, oligopeptides, and low and medium molecular weight substances (LMMWS were studied. Results. In severe bone injury and abdominal sepsis, there was a reduction in serum transferrin by more than 50%, impaired blood rheology, and increases in LMMWS and oligopeptides. Pre-administration of deferoxamine led to the normalization of transferrin concentrations and blood rheology, which was associated with lower serum Fe2+ concentrations. Conclusion. Thus, pre-administration of deferoxamine reduces impaired blood rheology and the intensity of endotoxemia in different critical conditions. Key words: critical conditions, iron metabolism, transferrin, microcirculatory disorders, endotoxemia, deferoxamine.

  11. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence for involvement of serotonin metabolism--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, D; Troost, F J; Jonkers, D M; van Eijk, H M; Dekker, J; Buurman, W A; Masclee, A A M

    2015-08-01

    Altered serotonergic (5-HT) metabolism and visceral perception have been associated with the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Aim of this preliminary study was to assess the effect of the direct precursor of 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on systemic 5-HT metabolites and visceral perception and to assess potential differential responses between IBS and controls. 15 IBS patients and 15 healthy volunteers participated in this randomized double-blind placebo controlled study. Visceroperception was measured by rectal barostat. The 100 mg 5-HTP or placebo was ingested orally. Serotonergic metabolites were assessed in platelet poor plasma. 5-HTP induces rectal allodynia in a significant number of healthy controls; IBS patients exhibit lowered pain thresholds in both placebo and 5-HTP conditions. 5-HTP induces rectal hyperalgesia in hypersensitive but not in non-hypersensitive IBS patients. Administration of 5-HTP significantly increased plasma 5-HTP levels (p 0.05), while levels of the main metabolite of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, increased significantly (p HTP induced significant alterations in systemic 5-HT metabolites that were accompanied by increased visceroperception of pain in controls and hypersensitive IBS patients. Changes in 5-HT metabolism appear to be important factors involved in visceral hypersensitivity as the 5-HTP-induced pro-nociceptive response was observed in all hypersensitive IBS patients and to a lesser magnitude in a significant number of healthy controls but in none of the non-hypersensitive IBS patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways - a large-scale eQTL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Robert; Venkatesh, Geetha; Tan, Qihua; Flachsbart, Friederike; Sinha, Anupam; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Stefan; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Nebel, Almut

    2017-08-01

    Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated with a depletion of metabolic pathways in a genotype-dependent and independent manner. Further analyses indicated that 20% of the differentially expressed genes are influenced by genetic variants in cis. The subsequent study of twins showed that the transcriptional activity of a third of the differentially regulated genes is heritable. These findings suggest that longevity-associated biological processes such as altered metabolism are, to a certain extent, also the driving force of longevity rather than just a consequence of old age. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Erika P. S.; Cunha, Aline T. O.; Aquino, Sephora L. S.; Pedrosa, Lucia F. C.; Lima, Severina C. V. C.; Lima, Josivan G.; Almeida, Maria G.; Sena-Evangelista, Karine C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p 0.05) between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001) independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008), and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001). There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479), waist circumference (r = 0.253), triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360), glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250), homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427) (all p < 0.05) in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria. PMID:28241426

  14. Post-metabolic response to passive normobaric hypoxic exposure in sedendary overweight males: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present pilot study was designed to test the impact of passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure (PAH and passive short-term normobaric hypoxic exposure (PSH conditions on energy expenditure (EE and substrates utilisation (glucose and lipid oxidation. Methods Eleven participants have completed the PAH session while the control group (CG underwent a simulated experimental condition in normobaric normoxic condition. A subset of 6 participants underwent an additional six 3-hour sessions on consecutive days. Metabolic rates were obtained pre- and post-treatments on the morning following an overnight (12 hours fast in PAH, PSH, and CG groups. Results The statistical outcomes showed a significant increase in EE for PAH, control, and PSH while a shift in substrate utilization towards lipid sources was only detected for PAH and PSH, respectively. Conclusion This pilot study showed that passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure did affect EE and fuel utilization in sedentary overweight males and that further passive normobaric hypoxic exposures (PSH magnified these metabolic adjustments. These outcomes provide valuable information for further research in the area of hypoxia as a new therapeutic strategy to improve the management of weight loss.

  15. Studies of the transition cow under a pasture-based milk production system: metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavestany, D; Blanc, J E; Kulcsar, M; Uriarte, G; Chilibroste, P; Meikle, A; Febel, H; Ferraris, A; Krall, E

    2005-02-01

    This study describes the effect of parity (multiparous versus primiparous) and body condition score (BCS) at calving ( or =3; scale 1-5) on variations of BCS, body weight (BW) and metabolic profiles in Holstein cows grazing on improved pastures. Forty-two cows were studied (21 multiparous and 21 primiparous) from 2 months before to 3 months after calving. BCS, BW and milk production were measured every 2 weeks. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks to determine total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Primiparous cows had lower BCS during the early postpartum (PP) period and produced less milk than multiparous. In primiparous cows NEFA concentrations were higher during the early postpartum period; BHB levels were similar in both categories during this period. Primiparous cows showed a more unbalanced metabolic profile than multiparous cows, reflecting that they are recovering from the loss of BCS after calving with less success.

  16. Association between Hyperuricemia and Metabolic Syndrome: An Epidemiological Study of a Labor Force Population in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS has become an important issue worldwide. Metabolic comorbidities of hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia are shown as important risk factors for incident gout. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hyperuricemia and MetS. This is a cross-sectional study. The effective sample included 21,544 individuals who received worker health examinations at a local teaching hospital in Changhua County from 2008~2012. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the influences of hyperuricemia on MetS. The results showed that individuals with MetS had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than those without MetS (P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to be an important factor of MetS. The risk of developing MetS is higher with high levels of serum uric acid (SUA and the odds ratio (OR of having MetS is 4.98 times higher for Tertile 3 than for Tertile 1 (95% CI = 4.16–5.97 and 4 times higher for Quartile 4 than for Quartile 1 (95% CI = 3.59–4.46. In conclusion, males are more likely to develop MetS than females, and the risk of having MetS increases with age and SUA concentration.

  17. Alterations in tryptophan and purine metabolism in cocaine addiction: a metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Ashwin A; Rozen, Steve; Mannelli, Paolo; Matson, Wayne; Pae, Chi-Un; Krishnan, K Ranga; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2009-10-01

    Mapping metabolic "signatures" can provide new insights into addictive mechanisms and potentially identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We examined the differences in metabolites related to the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, and oxidative stress pathways between cocaine-dependent subjects and healthy controls. Several of these metabolites serve as biological indices underlying the mechanisms of reinforcement, toxicity, and oxidative stress. Metabolomic analysis was performed in 18 DSM-IV-diagnosed cocaine-dependent individuals with at least 2 weeks of abstinence and ten drug-free controls. Plasma concentrations of 37 known metabolites were analyzed and compared using a liquid chromatography electrochemical array platform. Multivariate analyses were used to study the relationship between severity of drug use [Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores] and biological measures. Cocaine subjects showed significantly higher levels of n-methylserotonin (p cocaine and control groups with no overlap. Alterations in the methylation processes in the serotonin pathways and purine metabolism seem to be associated with chronic exposure to cocaine. Given the preliminary nature and cross-sectional design of the study, the findings need to be confirmed in larger samples of cocaine-dependent subjects, preferably in a longitudinal design.

  18. Glucose metabolism in brain tumor as studied by positron-emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiyama, Takashi; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Kido, Goro; Kumakawa, Hitoshi; Iio, Masaaki; Hara, Toshihiko.

    1988-01-01

    Although high rates of glycolysis have been correlated with malignancy in glioma on the basis of PET findings using 18-F-deoxyglucose, these results indicate only the activity of hexokinase in the tumor cells; they do not demonstrate what kinds of systems of glycolysis increase. In this report, the differences in the activities of systems of glycolysis on both benign and malignant tumors were studied by means of PET using 11 C-glucose and 11 C-pyruvate administration, along with PET studies of r-CBF, r-OEF and r-CMRO 2 . At a benign glioma, the uptake of 11 C-glucose was lower than in normal brain tissue, with lower r-CBF, r-OEF, and r-CMRO 2 values. Many malignant tumors and cases of meningioma showed increases in glucose uptake with lower oxygen metabolism. On the other hand, the activities of 11 C-pyruvate in both benign and malignant tumors were increased 34 - 131 % relative to normal brain tissue, and there was no difference between benign and malignant tumors. According to these findings, it might be concluded that benign and malignant tumors have mainly an anerobic glycolytic pathway. However, the findings of the alternation of 11 C-glucose uptake suggest that, in addition to the anerobic glycolytic pathway, an alternative metabolic pathway of glucose, such as a pentose-phosphate pathway or an amino-acid-utilizing pathway, may also be present. (author)

  19. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease's natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO 2 . A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO 2 and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  20. Perirenal Fat and Association With Metabolic Risk Factors: The Uberlândia Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Leonardo; Resende, Elmiro S; Veloso, Fernando C; Diniz, Angélica L D; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo M M; Chagas, Antonio C P

    2015-09-01

    Perirenal fat (PRF) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and PRF in the Brazilian population are lacking.Cross-sectional study with 101 (50.49% men; mean age 56.5 ± 18, range 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal adipose. For the PRF, a 3.5 MHz transducer was measured in the middle third of the right kidney, with the transducer positioned at the axillary midline. The examinations were always performed by the same examiner. The PRF thickness was examined in relation to waist circumference, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. The PRF was significantly associated with the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05, r = 0.08), fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05, r = 0.07), waist circumference (P < 0.05, r = 0.10), and metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001, r = 0.38) in men, and with the levels of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05) in women.The PRF was correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors in men and only in glucose at the women.

  1. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  2. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  3. ecoAO: A Simple System for the Study of Human Aldehyde Oxidases Role in Drug Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Paragas, Erickson M.; Humphreys, Sara C.; Min, Joshua; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A.; Leimk?hler, Silke; Jones, Jeffrey P.

    2017-01-01

    Although aldehyde oxidase (AO) is an important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme, it remains understudied and is consequently often overlooked in preclinical studies, an oversight that has resulted in the failure of multiple clinical trials. AO?s preclusion to investigation stems from the following: (1) difficulties synthesizing metabolic standards due to the chemospecificity and regiospecificity of the enzyme and (2) significant inherent variability across existing in vitro systems including ...

  4. Metabolic modeling of denitrification in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A tool to study inhibiting and activating compounds for the denitrification pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Kleerebezem, R.; Picioreanu, C.; Bakken, L.; Bergaust, L.; De Vries, S.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    A metabolic network model for facultative denitrification was developed based on experimental data obtained with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The model includes kinetic regulation at the enzyme level and transcription regulation at the enzyme synthesis level. The objective of this work was to study the key factors regulating the metabolic response of the denitrification pathway to transition from oxic to anoxic respiration and to find parameter values for the biological processes that were mode...

  5. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  6. Study on the effect of valproate (VPA) on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuexin; Chen Xuguang; He Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy under valproate treatment. Methods: Fasting serum glucose (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels, insulin resistance index, body weight, BMI were examined in (1) 65 pediatric patients with epilepsy before valproate treatment (2) 65 patients after 3 months' valproate treatment (3) 65 patients after 6 months' treatment and (4) 65 controls. Results: In the patients after 3 months' treatment, the body weight, BMI, fasting insulin levels were significantly higher than those in patients before treatment (P 0.05). The calculated HOMA did not change much throughout the whole study. The proportion of patients with increased appetite after 6 months' treatment was 47 /65 (vs 20 /65 before treatment, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of body weight and BMI asually observed during valproate treatment is mainly due to increased appetite with limited increase of fasting insulin level. Insulin resistance was not found in present study. (authors)

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagal, Urmila A; Torgal, Shashikant S; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Malleshappa, Anil

    2012-06-01

    The present study was taken up to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents and to determine the most sensitive and specific clinical parameters used for screening of metabolic syndrome in these patients. The present study was taken up in a tertiary care hospital. Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving a single second-generation antipsychotic for 3 months or more were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were screened for metabolic syndrome using American Heart Association and National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA NHLBI)-modified National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 35%. The clinical parameter with highest sensitivity for screening of metabolic syndrome is low-serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with a sensitivity of 89.28%. Elevated fasting blood glucose and increased waist circumference were found to have highest and equal specificity of 90.38%. There is a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents. Increasing awareness of this fact among psychiatrists will help to prevent, detect, and treat this condition that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  8. Prospective study of serum uric acid levels and incident metabolic syndrome in a Korean rural cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jung Soo; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, paucity of available data regarding the cause and effect relationship between SUA and MetS in healthy adults is still a big challenge which remains to be studied. Therefore, we investigated whether SUA predicts new onset of MetS in a population-based cohort study. The study included 1590 adults (661 men and 929 women) aged 40-70 years without MetS at baseline (2005-2008) and subjects were prospectively followed for 2.6 years. To evaluate the relationship between SUA and MetS, we divided the aforementioned subjects into quintiles (SUA-I to SUA-V) from the lowest to the highest values of SUA. SUA was measured by the enzymatic colorimetric method. We used category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) to characterize the performance of predicted model. During a mean of 2.6 years of follow-up, 261(16.4%) adults developed MetS. MetS variables were significantly related to the baseline SUA level. Waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and serum triglyceride (TG) were significantly higher in the highest quintile of SUA compared to the lowest SUA quintile in men and women. After adjustment for age, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in men and women, subjects in the fifth quintiles of SUA showed significantly higher ORs for incident MetS. The association between hyperuricemia and new onset of MetS were consistently stronger in women than men. Additionally, among women, we found an improvement in the area under the ROC curve in the models that added SUA to core components of MetS. Our study suggests that SUA is significantly correlated with future risk of WC, BP, TG and may predicted as a risk factor for developing MetS. SUA may have a clinical role in predicting new-onset metabolic syndrome among women. Large prospective study is needed to reveal the clinical

  9. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

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    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  10. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  12. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A human dietary arachidonic acid supplementation study conducted in a metabolic research unit: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A

    1997-04-01

    While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the

  14. Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The Mexico City Diabetes Study.

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    Rubén López-Molina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB and metabolic syndrome (MS in low income urban Mexican population. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with MS and intake of SB. Results. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 26.5 and 19.8% in males and females respectively. In an adjusted multivariate model, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglyceride were higher as uric acid quartiles increased (p menor que 0.005-0.001. The odds ratio for MS was 1.48 for 3rd uric acid quartile and 2.03 for 4th quartile. Higher consumption of SB was associated with higher uric acid levels (p menor que 0.001. Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia is high. Potential association with intake of SB, resulting in metabolic alterations should be considered.

  15. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Urinary Calculi and Metabolic Studies in a Group of Sicilian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Maria Michela; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Tralongo, Pietro; Maringhini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of urinary calculi in children has been increasing in the past years. We performed an analysis of the chemical composition of stones formers of the pediatric population in our geographical area over the years 2005 to 2013. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the determination of the calculus composition of a group of Sicilian children, and metabolic studies were performed to formulate the correct diagnosis and establish therapy. The prevalence of stone formation was much higher for boys than for girls, with a sex ratio of 1.9:1. The single most frequent component was found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate, and calcium oxalates (pure or mixed calculi) were the overall most frequent components. Calcium phosphates ranked 2nd for frequency, most often in mixed calculi, while urates ranked 3rd. The metabolic disorder most often associated with pure calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi was hypocitraturia, while hyperoxaluria was predominantly associated with calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi. Mixed calculi had the highest prevalence in our pediatric population. Our data showed that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was a useful tool for the determination of the calculi composition.

  17. Using Cryo-EM to Map Small Ligands on Dynamic Metabolic Enzymes: Studies with Glutamate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgnia, Mario J; Banerjee, Soojay; Merk, Alan; Matthies, Doreen; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Earl, Lesley A; Falconieri, Veronica; Subramaniam, Sriram; Milne, Jacqueline L S

    2016-06-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods are now being used to determine structures at near-atomic resolution and have great promise in molecular pharmacology, especially in the context of mapping the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein complexes that display conformational flexibility. We illustrate this here using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a 336-kDa metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Dysregulation of GDH leads to a variety of metabolic and neurologic disorders. Here, we report near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures, at resolutions ranging from 3.2 Å to 3.6 Å for GDH complexes, including complexes for which crystal structures are not available. We show that the binding of the coenzyme NADH alone or in concert with GTP results in a binary mixture in which the enzyme is in either an "open" or "closed" state. Whereas the structure of NADH in the active site is similar between the open and closed states, it is unexpectedly different at the regulatory site. Our studies thus demonstrate that even in instances when there is considerable structural information available from X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM methods can provide useful complementary insights into regulatory mechanisms for dynamic protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  18. Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study

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    Adil El Midaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in the deficiency of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.M.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of calcium mobilization in rats were determined to estimate the role of testosterone in the metabolism of this ion. Calcium multicompartimental theory was combined to and used in measurements of metabolic balance (for 45 CaCl 2 or 40 CaCl 2 ). Three groups of 60 day old rats were used: G I-control; G II-castrated; G III-castrated and treated with testosterone propionate. Data were obtained from measurements of Ca ++ in samples of plasma, feces and urine. Balance studies suggest that calcium level in blood plasma remained constant in all groups, the increase of bone reabsorption in groups II and III being counterbalanced by the elevation of the urinary excrection. This result implies the equilibrium occurring at renal level. Intestinal calcium absorption remained the same in the three groups of animals, indicating that testosterone has no consistent effect at intestinal level. The increase of total calcium in feces of groups II and III arises from a great endogenous secretion. A significant negative balance of calcium was also observed in these groups. This fact permits the conclusion that in the absence of testosterone the organism doesn't retain calcium efficiently. (M.A.) [pt

  20. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

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    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  1. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed Hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (pZoroastrians of Yazd, Iran.

  2. Study of inborn errors of metabolism in urine from patients with unexplained mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, Angela; Arias, Angela; Farré, Guillermo; García-Villoria, Judith; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Desviat, Lurdes R; Merinero, Begoña; García-Cazorla, Angels; Vilaseca, Maria A; Ribes, Antonia; Artuch, Rafael; Campistol, Jaume

    2010-02-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a common disorder frequently of unknown origin. Because there are few studies regarding MR and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), we aimed to identify patients with IEM from a cohort of 944 patients with unexplained MR. Biochemical examinations such as determination of creatine (Cr) metabolites, acylcarnitines, purine, and pyrimidines in urine were applied. We found seven patients with IEM [three with cerebral Cr deficiency syndromes (CCDS)], one with adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency, and three, born before the neonatal metabolic screening program in Catalonia, with phenylketonuria (PKU). All told, they represent 0.8% of the whole cohort. All of them had additional symptoms such as epilepsy, movement disorders, autism, and other psychiatric disturbances. In conclusion, in patients with MR, it is essential to perform a thorough appraisal of the associated signs and symptoms, and in most disorders, it is necessary to apply specific analyses. In some cases, it is important to achieve an early diagnosis and therapy, which may reduce the morbimortality, and to offer genetic counselling.

  3. Mechanistic studies of the metabolic chiral inversion of (R)-ibuprofen in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, T.A.; Adams, W.J.; Kaiser, D.G.; Olanoff, L.S.; Halstead, G.W.; Harpootlian, H.; Van Giessen, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic chiral inversion of R-(-)-ibuprofen has been studied in human subjects by means of specific deuterium labeling and stereoselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology. After simultaneous p.o. administration of a mixture of R-(-)-ibuprofen (300 mg) and R-(-)-[3,3,3-2H3]ibuprofen (304 mg) to four adult male volunteers, the enantiomeric composition and deuterium content of the drug in serum, and of the drug and its principal metabolites in urine, were followed over a period of 24 hr. The results of these analyses indicated that: (1) conversion of R-(-)- to S-(+)-ibuprofen takes place with complete retention of deuterium at the beta-methyl (C-3) position; (2) chiral inversion of R-(-)-[2H3]ibuprofen is not subject to a discernible deuterium isotope effect; and (3) replacement of the beta-methyl hydrogen atoms by deuterium has no effect on any of the serum pharmacokinetic parameters for R-(-)- or S-(+)-ibuprofen. These data indicate that the process whereby R-(-)-ibuprofen undergoes metabolic inversion in human subjects does not involve 2,3-dehydroibuprofen as an intermediate, and that the underlying mechanism cannot, therefore, entail a desaturation/reduction sequence

  4. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized......Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans......, probably because of the higher doses of bread provided to the pigs (per kg body weight) and/or because of their growing status. Acute metabolic differences in these metabolites induced by the breads were, however, comparable between the 2 species. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pigs are a suitable...

  5. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  6. Association of Glu298Asp Polymorphism of Endothelial NO Synthase Gene with Metabolic Syndrome Development: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhov, N S; Skuratovskaya, D A; Vasilenko, M A; Kirienkova, E V; Zatolokin, P A; Mironyuk, N I; Litvinova, L S

    2017-03-01

    We studied association of single nucleotide polymorphism Glu298Asp (rs1799983) of the NOS3 gene with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the Slavic population. Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with metabolic syndrome and 100 healthy individuals. Polymorphism Glu298Asp of the NOS3 gene was genotyped by allele-specific PCR. Allele Asp (OR=1.95, 95%CI 1.29-2.95, p=0.007) and genotype Asp/Asp (OR=2.56, 95%CI 0.98-6.72, p=0.04) were associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in Slavic population. Patients with metabolic syndrome carrying genotype Asp/Asp had higher serum endothelin-1 level in comparison with Glu/Asp and Glu/Glu carriers.

  7. Studies on the metabolism and bioactivation of (S)-nicotine and beta-nicotyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigenaga, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    (S)-Nicotine has long been suspected of contributing to the chronic toxicities associated with the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products. The possibility that (S)-nicotine could contribute to these chronic toxicities by causing irreversible damage to cellular macromolecules has prompted studies aimed at characterizing the metabolic pathways of (S)-nicotine that form reactive metabolites which bind covalently. In order to study these processes, (S)-5- 3 H-nicotine was synthesized by catalytic tritiolysis of (S)-5-bromonicotine with carrier-free tritium gas, purified by HPLC and characterized by tritium NMR, diode array VV and HPLC chromatographic analysis. The metabolism of (S)-5- 3 H-nicotine by rabbit liver and lung microsomal enzymes produced reactive intermediates which bound covalently to microsomal macromolecules in a time, NADPH and cytochrome P-450 dependent manner. The results of studies employing rabbit lung microsomes and agents which inhibit or alter the expression of the cytochrome P-450 isozyme composition in this tissue indicated that the covalent binding of (S)-nicotine requires (S)-nicotine Δ 1',5' -iminium ion as an obligate intermediate and the catalytic activity of lung cytochrome P-450 isozyme-2. Investigations of the effects of (S)-nicotine and related tobacco alkaloids on the oxidation of the Parkinson's disease inducing agent MPTP by the mitochondrial enzyme MAO-B were prompted by the inverse correlation between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease. In the author studies (S)-nicotine A 1',5' -iminium bisperchlorate inhibited the MAOB catalyzed oxidation of MPTP by a linear-mixed type mechanism. Subsequent studies identified β-nicotyrine as a MAO-B catalyzed oxidation product of (S)-nicotine A 1',5' -iminium ion

  8. Prospective associations between persistent organic pollutants and metabolic syndrome: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Ki-Su; Kim, Se-A; Hong, Nam-Soo; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has recently been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and some MetS components. However, prospective evidence in humans is scarce, and the nature of the dose-response relationship is unclear. We evaluated the association between POPs and MetS using a nested-case control study within a community-based Korean cohort. The study subjects were 64 patients newly diagnosed with MetS during a 4-year follow-up, and the controls were 182 subjects without MetS. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in stored serum collected at baseline. The concentrations of most PCBs and some OCPs such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide predicted the risk for MetS. The POP exposure and MetS showed an inverted U-shaped or a linear association with plateau rather than a linear dose-response association. When the summary measure of the PCBs and OCPs was used, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) across the quartiles of the summary measure were 1.0, 1.3, 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.7), and 2.1 (Pquadratic=0.013) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the analyses of each of the five MetS components, POP exposure was mainly associated with an increased risk for glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances. This study demonstrated that chronic exposure to a mixture of PCBs and OCPs can increase the risk for MetS within the low-dose background exposure range of POPs. As the findings of this study suggest a nonmonotonic dose-response relationship, in vitro and in vivo experimental studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and metabolic syndrome: An epidemiologic study among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies linking carbohydrate consumption and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. The association between low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate low-carbohydrate-diet score in relation to MetS among a group of Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 442 Iranian female teachers >20 y of age. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated, dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/International Diabetes Federation definition guidelines. The prevalence of MetS in the lowest and highest quintile of low-carbohydrate-diet score was 17.5% and 18.8%, respectively (P = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between extreme quartiles low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.28). After controlling for age, energy intake, and other potential confounders, low-carbohydrate-diet score was not significantly associated with MetS. A significant association was observed between this score and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. We failed to find a significant relationship between this score and other components of MetS. Diets with lower amounts of carbohydrate and higher contents of fat and protein were not significantly associated with the risk for MetS in a cross-sectional study with a group of Iranian women. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Topological Organization of Metabolic Brain Networks in Pre-Chemotherapy Cancer with Depression: A Resting-State PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Yao, Zhijun; An, Jianping; Chen, Xuejiao; Xie, Yuanwei; Zhao, Hui; Mao, Junfeng; Liang, Wangsheng; Ma, Xiangxing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolic brain network and its relationship with depression symptoms using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data in 78 pre-chemotherapy cancer patients with depression and 80 matched healthy subjects. Functional and structural imbalance or disruption of brain networks frequently occur following chemotherapy in cancer patients. However, few studies have focused on the topological organization of the metabolic brain network in cancer with depression, especially those without chemotherapy. The nodal and global parameters of the metabolic brain network were computed for cancer patients and healthy subjects. Significant decreases in metabolism were found in the frontal and temporal gyri in cancer patients compared with healthy subjects. Negative correlations between depression and metabolism were found predominantly in the inferior frontal and cuneus regions, whereas positive correlations were observed in several regions, primarily including the insula, hippocampus, amygdala, and middle temporal gyri. Furthermore, a higher clustering efficiency, longer path length, and fewer hubs were found in cancer patients compared with healthy subjects. The topological organization of the whole-brain metabolic networks may be disrupted in cancer. Finally, the present findings may provide a new avenue for exploring the neurobiological mechanism, which plays a key role in lessening the depression effects in pre-chemotherapy cancer patients.

  11. Effects of different metabolic states and surgical models on glucose metabolism and secretion of ileal L-cell peptides: protocol for a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Alper; Dixon, John B; Pouwels, Sjaak; Celik, Bahri Onur; Karaca, Fatih Can; Gupta, Adarsh; Santoro, Sergio; Ugale, Surendra

    2016-03-14

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing worldwide, reaching pandemic proportions. The understanding of the role of functional restriction and gut hormones can be a beneficial tool in treating obesity and diabetes. However, the exact hormonal profiles in different metabolic states and surgical models are not known. The HIPER-1 Study is a single-centre cross-sectional study in which 240 patients (in different metabolic states and surgical models) will receive an oral mixed-meal tolerance test (OMTT). At baseline and after 30, 60 and 120 min, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels and glucose and insulin sensitivity will be measured. The primary end point of the study will be the area under the glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY curves after the OMTT. Secondary study end points will include examination of the difference in plasma levels of the distal ileal hormones in subjects with various health statuses and in patients who have been treated with different surgical techniques. An independent ethics committee, the Institutional Review Board of Istanbul Sisli Kolan International Hospital, Turkey, has approved the study protocol. Dissemination will occur via publication, national and international conference presentations, and exchanges with regional, provincial and national stakeholders. NCT02532829; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. 13C Mrs Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Corin O.; Cao, Jin; Zhu, He; Chen, Li M.; Wilson, George; Kennan, Richard; Gore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs) using 13C MRS. Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz) NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys) were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal), along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion) half way through the study on the second study session. Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e. monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal) was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen synthesis

  13. Nutritional and Metabolic Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparham, Anna E.; Smith, Teri; Belmont, John M.; Haden, Michael; Wagner, Leigh E.; Evans, Randall G.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently on the rise, now affecting approximately 1 in 68 children in the United States according to a 2010 surveillance summary from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This figure is an estimated increase of 78% from the figure in 2002. The CDC suggests that more investigation is needed to understand this astounding increase in autism in such a short period. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether a group of children with ASD exhibited similar variations in a broad array of potential correlates, including medical histories, symptoms, genetics, and multiple nutritional and metabolic biomarkers. Design This study was a retrospective, descriptive chart review. Setting The study took place at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC). Participants Participants were 7 children with ASD who had sought treatment at the Integrative Medicine Clinic at the medical center. Results A majority of the children exhibited an elevated copper:zinc ratio and abnormal vitamin D levels. Children also demonstrated abnormal levels of the essential fatty acids: (1) α-linolenic acid (ALA)— C13:3W3, and (2) linoleic acid (LA)—C18:2W6; high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and an elevated ω-6:ω-3 ratio. Three of 7 children demonstrated abnormal manganese levels. Children did not demonstrate elevated urine pyruvate or lactate but did have abnormal detoxification markers. Three of 7 patients demonstrated abnormalities in citric acid metabolites, bacterial metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation markers. A majority demonstrated elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to casein, egg whites, egg yolks, and peanuts. A majority had absent glutathione S-transferase (GSTM) at the 1p13.3 location, and 3 of 7 children were heterozygous for the glutathione S-transferase I105V (GSTP1). A majority also exhibited genetic polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene superoxide dismutase A16V (SOD2

  14. Studying of a wave activity condition and cellular metabolism of tissues in patients with perioral dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grashkin V.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Perioral dermatitis is a facial skin disease with insuffciently studied ethiology and pathogenetic mechanisms, being one of actual problems of dermatology. It is a chronic relapsing facial skin disease mainly in women of young and middle age (in men and children meets less often. The disease has an independent clinical picture which is different from rosacea, demodecosis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. The standard diagnostic criterion is a visual estimation of expression of an infammation on the basis of signs of exudative reaction which has a subjective character. Possibilities of a radiometric method for an objective estimation of a facial skin functional condition and indicators of an intracellular metabolism in patients with a perioral dermatitis were frst studied.

  15. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome: results from the ISMIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Gullace, Giuseppe; Zito, Concetta; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Benedetto, Frank; Novo, Salvatore; Pezzano, Antonio; Perticone, Francesco; Balbarini, Alberto; Carerj, Scipione

    2010-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has previously been associated with an early marker of atherosclerosis, the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). From the ISMIR (Ispessimento Medio Intimale e Rischio cardiovascolare [media-intima thickness and cardiovascular risk]) study population of 479 asymptomatic participants, we identified 80 participants with MetS. Carotid IMT and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from all participants. Participants with MetS had a significantly higher prevalence of a carotid IMT > 0.80 mm (P = .004) and of carotid plaques (P creatinine, and uric acid levels only in participants without MetS. Our study confirms the association between MetS and carotid atherosclerosis. In MetS, a significant correlation between carotid IMT and triglycerides and fibrinogen levels was found.

  16. Coffee consumption and the occurrence and intensity of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate associations between coffee consumption and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in individuals with a normal BMI, as well in those who are overweight and obese. The analysis was based on the data of 10,367 participants. The studies included a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements and analyses of collected fasting-blood samples. In the overweight and obese participants, lower coffee consumption, compared with higher consumption was correlated with a significantly higher risk of abdominal obesity, hypertension, an abnormal glucose concentration, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and MetS (p coffee consumption was related to the abdominal obesity, HDL cholesterol and MetS (p coffee, compared with those with excessive body mass.

  17. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkels, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 ( 23 Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  18. The role of life-course socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in the intergenerational transmission of the metabolic syndrome : results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Angelini, Viola; Mierau, Jochen O.; Smidt, Nynke

    Background: The risk of metabolic syndrome is associated between parents and offspring, but studies are inconsistent on differences by sex of parents and offspring. Our aim is to investigate to what extent metabolic syndrome present in fathers and mothers is associated with risk of metabolic

  19. An evaluation of the metabolic syndrome in the HyperGEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Cora E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP provided a categorical definition for metabolic syndrome (c-MetS. We studied the extent to which two ethnic groups, Blacks and Whites were affected by c-MetS. The groups were members of the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN, a part of the Family Blood Pressure Program, supported by the NHLBI. Although the c-MetS definition is of special interest in particular to the clinicians, the quantitative latent traits of the metabolic syndrome (MetS are also important in order to gain further understanding of its etiology. In this study, quantitative evaluation of the MetS latent traits (q-MetS was based on the statistical multivariate method factor analysis (FA. Results The prevalence of the c-MetS was 34% in Blacks and 39% in Whites. c-MetS showed predominance of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Three and four factor domains were identified through FA, classified as "Obesity," "Blood pressure," "Lipids," and "Central obesity." They explained approximately 60% of the variance in the 11 original variables. Two factors classified as "Obesity" and "Central Obesity" overlapped when FA was performed without rotation. All four factors in FA with Varimax rotation were consistent between Blacks and Whites, between genders and also after excluding type 2 diabetes (T2D participants. Fasting insulin (INS associated mainly with obesity and lipids factors. Conclusions MetS in the HyperGEN study has a compound phenotype with separate domains for obesity, blood pressure, and lipids. Obesity and its relationship to lipids and insulin is clearly the dominant factor in MetS. Linkage analysis on factor scores for components of MetS, in familial studies such as HyperGEN, can assist in understanding the genetic pathways for MetS and their interactions with the environment, as a first step in identifying the underlying pathophysiological causes of this syndrome.

  20. A systematic literature review of observational studies of the bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, V A; Galan, P; Julia, C; Fezeu, L; Hercberg, S; Kesse-Guyot, E

    2017-12-13

    To evaluate all epidemiological evidence in the literature linking the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and migraine in adults. Database (Medline, Embase; published reports up to November 2017) and manual searches were performed. Information on data collection, sample characteristics, study design, MetS and migraine assessment, and results was extracted from each relevant publication. The methodological quality of each study was also assessed. A total of 15 observational epidemiological studies in adults, published between 2009 and 2017, were retrieved. Of these, one employed a prospective design, while the rest had a cross-sectional (13 studies) or case-control (one study) design. Five studies assessed the presence of migraine in individuals with MetS, whereas 10 studies assessed the presence or risk of MetS in migraineurs. Most participants were female hospital outpatients. The sole prospective cohort study reported 11-year MetS incidence of 21.8% in migraineurs with aura, 16.8% in migraineurs without aura and 14.5% in subjects without headaches. Most studies (60%) provided no statistical estimates of association. Methodological flaws included selection biases, lack of power analysis, unsuitable research plans and no multivariable analyses. Meta-analysis was not feasible with the available data. Our systematic review has identified major gaps in knowledge and weaknesses in research that should provide an impetus for future epidemiological investigations using more rigorous methodology, large general-population prospective cohorts, and substantial data on dietary behaviours and lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism in adults celiac disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Flávia Xavier; Campos, Tatiana do Nascimento; Moraes, Luís Fernando de Sousa; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Gilberti, Flávio Augusto Barros; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2015-10-20

    The only treatment for celiac disease is the gluten-free diet. Few studies have assessed the nutritional adequacy of this diet, especially of B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and serum concentrations of B vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism, and to determine whether the dietary intake of these vitamins are meeting Dietary Reference Intakes in celiac patients. A cross-sectional study enrolled a total of 20 celiac patients (36.3 ± 13.7 years old; 65% women), following strict gluten-free diet (GFD) and 39 healthy controls matched by sex and age. The dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, and serum concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins B6, B12, and folate were determined after overnight fasting. Comparisons between the two groups were performed by Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U-test, for continuous variables. Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. An alpha level of 5% were considered significant. Celiac patients had lower serum folate concentrations (7.7 ± 3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.05) than controls. All celiac patients had folate intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (130.8 ± 53.6 μg/d). However, only a small proportion of celiac patients had hyperhomocysteinemia. Celiac patients treated with GFD presented inadequacy of dietary folate intake and low-serum concentrations of folate, suggesting that more attention should be given to the quality of the nutrients offered by the GFD, as it constitutes a lifelong treatment.

  2. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A.; Ellison, Curtis R.; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Arnett, Donna K.; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. Methods We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25–93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Results Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1–3 times/ month, 1–4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). Conclusion These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women. PMID:25126517

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Traits Reveals Novel Gene-Metabolite-Disease Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Andrew W.; Salek, Reza M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Montoliu, Ivan; Da Silva, Laeticia; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Steinbeck, Christoph; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Le Coutre, Johannes; Mooser, Vincent; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on 1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10−8) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10−44) and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10−33), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers. PMID:24586186

  4. Genome-wide association study of metabolic traits reveals novel gene-metabolite-disease links.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Rueedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on (1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10(-8 and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10(-44 and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10(-33, respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers.

  5. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Ellison, Curtis R; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Hunt, Steven C; Kraja, Aldi T; Arnett, Donna K; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25-93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1-3 times/ month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women.

  6. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study collected in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2014. The population-based sample included South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan participants (aged 18 to 70 years). PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. The metabolic syndrome was determined according to the harmonized definition of the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, and others. Logistic regression was used for analysis. population-attributable fraction was used to calculate the contribution of PED. PED was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Moroccan participants (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [0.99-1.30], 1.15 [1.00-1.32], and 1.19 [1.03-1.38], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. No significant association was observed among Ghanaian and Turkish participants. For the individual components, the associations were statistically significant for blood pressure, fasting glucose, and waist circumference among Surinamese participants. PED was associated with dyslipidemia in Moroccan participants. The population-attributable fractions were 5% for South-Asian Surinamese and Moroccan participants, and 7% for African Surinamese participants. We found a positive association of PED with the metabolic syndrome in some ethnic groups, with PED contributing around 5% to 7% to the metabolic syndrome among Surinamese and Moroccans. This suggests that PED might contribute to ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolism, body size and life span: a case study in evolutionarily divergent populations of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne; Vleck, David

    2010-11-01

    We present a case study of metabolism, life history and aging in the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). Early research in the field supported the rate-of-living hypothesis as an explanation of aging, which was based on an apparent negative relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate and lifespan in endotherms. This hypothesis in its original form has not withstood additional tests and comparisons between the two main lineages of endotherms-birds and mammals, but there is still much to be discovered of the causative links among rate of oxygen consumption, physiology and life history, particularly in ectothermic reptiles. We present data that show adult short-lived snakes, from naturally occurring ecotypes of garter snakes, have higher mass-specific resting metabolic rates at any given body mass (metabolic intensity) across a series of normal activity temperatures (15-32°C). The short-lived ecotype in this geographic region reaches a larger body size, and has life-history traits that place it at the fast end of a pace-of-life continuum (fast growth, early maturation, high reproductive output) relative to individuals of the small-bodied long-lived ecotype. The difference between ecotypes in metabolic intensity, even after acclimation to identical conditions, may reflect evolutionary divergence and genetic differences between ecotypes. The difference in metabolic intensity is not, however, present at birth, so an alternative is that developmental environment may permanently influence metabolic rate and life history. Such developmental canalization could lead to altered gene expression via environmental influences on the epigenome and result in altered metabolic trajectories in the snakes' natural habitats.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and incidence of breast cancer in middle-aged Korean women: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Yoo, Jung Eun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the risk of breast cancer in middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). We analyzed 23,820 women aged 50-64 years who participated in the NHIS-NCS in 2008 and 2009. We excluded subjects with any previous history of cancer or with inadequate information regarding metabolic syndrome. Participated subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and provided fasting blood samples for the assessment of glucose and lipid profiles, and answered a lifestyle questionnaire. Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. During the 5-year follow-up, 131 subjects were newly diagnosed with breast cancer (incidence, 10.86 per 10,000 person years). After adjusting for age and body mass index, the RR for incident breast cancer in participants with metabolic syndrome versus those without it was 1.47 (95% CI 1.01-2.13). For those individuals of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia was most primarily related with the incidence of breast cancer (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04). Among the study individuals who were middle-aged Korean women, metabolic syndrome is highly related with the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, it needs to be managed or prevented to reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

  9. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Leber, Bettina; Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R; Tripolt, Norbert J; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13) or no LcS (n = 15). Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  10. Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavret, Severine; Feidt, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Food would seem to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In vivo studies suggest a transfer in intestinal epithelium by diffusion, which appears extensively governed by the physicochemical properties of PAHs, particularly lipophilicity. However, other mechanisms, such as metabolism, are considered to intervene. Our work aimed at testing in vitro intestinal metabolism and defining its impact on transepithelial transport of PAHs. Caco-2 cells were cultivated on permeable filters and incubated with 14 C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Pyr), and phenanthrene (Phe), which differ in their physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cells were able to metabolize the compounds. In basal media, Phe appeared to be the least hydroxylated molecule (45% after a 6-h exposure), followed by Pyr (65%) and finally BaP (96%). Inhibition of PAH metabolism showed a determinant effect on kinetics profiles. Transfer in the basal compartment of BaP, Pyr, and Phe radioactivities was, respectively, 26, 4, and 2 times lower with inhibitors, corroborating that intestinal metabolism of PAHs would have a positive impact on their transfer, an impact that increased with their lipophilicity. Furthermore, after a 6-h incubation, metabolites were also detected in apical medium. These findings suggested that intestinal metabolism might play a key role in intestinal barrier permeability and thus in the bioavailability of tested micropollutants

  11. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13 or no LcS (n = 15. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16. Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  12. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wempe MF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Wempe,1 Janet W Lightner,2 Bettina Miller,1 Timothy J Iwen,1 Peter J Rice,1 Shin Wakui,3 Naohiko Anzai,4 Promsuk Jutabha,4 Hitoshi Endou51Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA; 3Department of Toxicology, Azabu University School of Veterinary Medicine, Chuo Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12 is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structure–activity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing or intravenously (orbital sinus administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to

  13. Relationship between neck circumference and overactive bladder in women with metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yigit; Gulmez, Hakan; Savas, Murat; Aykan, Serdar; Onder, Ozde; Yucel, Selcuk

    2016-12-01

    To investigate relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and metabolic syndrome (MtS) by using neck circumference (NC). In retrospective view of prospective collected data, 204 women with or without OAB were enrolled into study, between August 2012 and December 2013. All patients were administered OAB validated questionnaires (OAB-V8) and whose score was > 8 were accepted as OAB. Patients were divided into two groups and group 1 consisted of patients with OAB, group 2 consisted of patients without OAB. Demographic data with anthropometric measurements and blood analyses were recorded. Statistical analyses including receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed; statistically significant p was syndrome seems like more common in women than in those without. NC may be a novel indicator for OAB in selected female patients with MtS.

  14. Utilization of carbon 13-labelled stable isotopes for studying drug toxicity on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.; Wietzerbin, J.; Tran-Dinh, S.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for studying the effects of two drugs, amphotericine B (AMB), an anti-fungal antibiotic, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG), on the glucose metabolism in brewer yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is presented; AMB interacts with the membrane sterols, inducing formation of pores through which ions and small molecules can pass. DG may enter in the cytosol, where it is phosphoryled by hexokinase into deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (DG6P) which disappears very slowly. DG slows down the glycolysis process and induces the formation of new substances. This paper shows the advantages of utilizing carbon 13-labelled substrates combined to the NMR-13C and NMR-1H techniques. 6 figs., 5 refs

  15. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a self-managed group. The guided group attends intervention meetings that comprise education and experience with the following components: diet, exercise, AI culture, and attention to emotional wellbeing. The self-managed group receives printed CVD prevention materials that are generally available. The duration of the intervention is 24 months. Several outcome variables will be compared between the two groups to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program. PMID:22941041

  16. A study of the calcium metabolism of dairy sheep using radioisotope and balance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Ca metabolism of dairy sheep was studied using radioisotope and balance techniques. The level of Ca intake increased the rate of Ca absorption and decreased the efficiency of Ca absorption in dry sheep. The net Ca requirements of dry sheep were estimated at 870 mg/day. The endogenous faecal and urinary Ca losses decreased and the efficiency of Ca absorption increased in pregnant sheep on a Ca-deficient diet compared to pregnant sheep on a normal Ca diet. Ca balance was positive in ewes on both diets. The pre-partum level of Ca intake had a similar effect on the rate and the efficiency of Ca absorption and Ca balance was positive in early lactation. The endogenous faecal Ca loss was linearly related to dry matter intake. (author)

  17. Marine Metagenomics: New Tools for the Study and Exploitation of Marine Microbial Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. W. Dobson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is extremely diverse, with huge variations in pressure and temperature. Nevertheless, life, especially microbial life, thrives throughout the marine biosphere and microbes have adapted to all the divergent environments present. Large scale DNA sequence based approaches have recently been used to investigate the marine environment and these studies have revealed that the oceans harbor unprecedented microbial diversity. Novel gene families with representatives only within such metagenomic datasets represent a large proportion of the ocean metagenome. The presence of so many new gene families from these uncultured and highly diverse microbial populations represents a challenge for the understanding of and exploitation of the biology and biochemistry of the ocean environment. The application of new metagenomic and single cell genomics tools offers new ways to explore the complete metabolic diversity of the marine biome.

  18. Design of a quadrature surface coil for hyperpolarized 13C MRS cardiac metabolism studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the design of a quadrature surface coil constituted by a circular loop and a butterfly coil, employed in transmit/receive (TX/RX) mode for hyperpolarized 13C studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. The coil characterization is performed by developing an SNR model......, the performance of the quadrature coil was compared with the single TX/RX circular and TX/RX butterfly coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the single coils throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Finally, the quadrature surface coil was tested...... by acquiring metabolic maps with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate injected i.v. in a pig. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. The Effect of HIV Infection on Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotein Metabolism: a One Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Honor; Low, Hann; Dewar, Elizabeth; Bukrinsky, Michael; Hoy, Jennifer; Dart, Anthony; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV infection is associated with dyslipidaemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in a 12 month prospective study. Methods and Results Treatment-naive HIV patients were recruited into one of three groups: untreated HIV infection not likely to require initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 12 months; initiating treatment with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing ART regimen and initiating treatment with protease inhibitor-containing ART regimen. The patients underwent assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and variables of plasma lipoprotein metabolism at baseline and 12 months. The findings were compared with published values for age and sex matched HIV-negative healthy subjects in a cross-sectional fashion. cIMT and FMD were lower while PWV was higher in HIV-patients compared with HIV-negative individuals; none of the markers changed significantly during 12 months follow up. HIV patients had hypoalphalipoproteinemia and elevated plasma levels of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. The only significant changes in lipid-related variables were elevation of total cholesterol and triglycerides in patients treated with PI-containing regimen and elevation of plasma LCAT levels in patients treated with NNRTI-containing regimen. The ability of whole and apoB-depleted plasma to effect cholesterol efflux was not impaired in all three groups. Conclusions This study did not find evidence for rapid progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and deterioration of dyslipidaemia in HIV patients within 1 year. PMID:23642913

  20. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Michaela L; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2016-12-30

    The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function. Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. Seventeen healthy normotensive female subjects (23 ± 4 y) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (mouthwash) or placebo mouthwash (placebo) with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were obtained after each intervention together with blood, saliva and urine samples. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP. RMR and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were unaffected by the intervention. We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in a south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic disease and leads to an important cardiovascular and global mortality rate, either directly or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors. Aim: We sought to study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MS, and cardiovascular risk (CVR in a south Indian population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in a cohort of 96 healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, total lipid profiles, fating plasma glucose (FPG, post lunch plasma glucose (PLPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine and insulin were measured by standard methods. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used to determine differences between mean and frequency values of continuous and categorical variables. Results: Significant differences were observed in the means of BMI (28.89 kg/m 2 (P<0.0001, FPG (102.41 mg/dL (P<0.0001, insulin (18.1 μU/L (P<0.0001, PLPG (149.05 mg/dL (P<0.0001, diastolic BP (84.41 mmHg (P<0.01, total cholesterol (166.72 mg/dL (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (90.65 mg/dL (P<0.0001 in overweight subjects when compared to normal subjects . The prevalence of dyslipidemia, IGT, MS and CVR was significantly higher in younger (<45years than middle-aged (46-55years subjects. Conclusions: The condition of being overweight, expressed as BMI, appears to be a good indicator of risk for IGT, MS, and CVR, particularly in young non-obese subjects (BMI<30.

  2. Metabolic Markers or Conditions Preceding Parkinson’s Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Rocca, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several metabolic markers or conditions have been explored as possible risk or protective factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, results remain conflicting. We further investigated these associations using a case-control study design. Methods We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (± 1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to abstract information about body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus preceding the onset of PD (or the index year). Results There were no significant differences between cases and controls for the metabolic markers or conditions investigated. No significant associations were found using 2 cut-offs for BMI levels (BMI ≥ 25 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 3 cut-offs for cholesterol levels (> 200, > 250, or > 300 mg/dl). A diagnosis of hypertension or the documented use of anti-hypertensive medications were not significantly associated with the subsequent risk of PD (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–1.54; P = .99), nor was a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or the use of glucose-lowering medications (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.37–1.57; P =.47). Conclusions Our study, based on historical information from a records-linkage system, does not support an association between BMI, cholesterol levels, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus and later development of PD. PMID:22674432

  3. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease`s natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman`s rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO{sub 2}. A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO{sub 2} and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  4. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  5. Meat Consumption and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the Korean Population and a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngyo Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported harmful effects of red meat or processed meat on chronic diseases including cancer and diabetes, but epidemiological evidence for metabolic syndrome is limited and remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the association between various meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome. The PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through June 2017, and further included unpublished results from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2015, including 8387 Korean adults. Sixteen studies were suitable for meta-analysis, which included 19,579 cases among 76,111 participants. We used a random-effects model to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The pooled RR for metabolic syndrome of the highest versus lowest category of meat intake was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 for total meat, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.74 for red meat, 1.35 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.54 for processed meat, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.97 for white meat. All of these associations did not differ significantly by study design and adjustment factors. Our findings indicated that total, red, and processed meat intake is positively associated with metabolic syndrome, and white meat intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Monforte, Míriam; Sánchez, Emília; Barrio, Francisco; Costa, Bernardo; Flores-Mateo, Gemma

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle is linked to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, its relationship with dietary patterns remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to analyse the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with the metabolic syndrome. The PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched for epidemiological studies of dietary patterns and MetS. The association between dietary patterns and MetS was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 28 cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of prudent/healthy dietary patterns, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for MetS was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.76, 0.90; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2  = 72.1 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the pooled relative risk (RR) for MetS in cohort studies was 0.91 (95 % CI 0.68, 1.21; P for heterogeneity =0.005; I 2  = 81.1 %). The pooled OR for MetS in a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of Western dietary patterns was 1.28 (95 % CI 1.17, 1.40; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2  = 72.0 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the RR was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.53, 1.73; P for heterogeneity =0.102; I 2  = 62.6 %) in cohort studies. The results from cross-sectional studies showed that a prudent/healthy pattern is associated with a lower prevalence of MetS, whereas a Western/unhealthy is associated with an increased risk for MetS. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between dietary patterns and MetS.

  7. Vitamin D and cardio-metabolic health in the elderly : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vitezova (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Chapter 1 of this thesis introduces the reader to the background of the main topic – vitamin D, its metabolism and physiological effects. Since its discovery vitamin D has been recognized as an important factor in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Recently, there

  8. Preliminary study on metabolic regulation and control of L-valine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... processes, an effective redirection of metabolic fluxes towards the desired product is essential (Sahm et al.,. 2000; Lee et al., 2005). The substrate, in many cases glucose, should be converted to the product of interest very effectively. In order to strengthen the metabolic path of L-valine production by XQ-6, ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Taiwan: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2015-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome increases the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. A case-control study. Tertiary university hospital. We retrospectively investigated 181 cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 181 controls from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, in southern Taiwan from 2010 to 2012, comparing their clinical variables. We analyzed the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with Asian modifications. The demographic and clinical characteristics, audiometry results, and outcome were reviewed. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 3.54-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00-6.43, P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components, the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss increased (P for trend Vertigo was associated with a poor outcome (P = .02; 95% CI = 1.13~5.13, adjusted odds ratio = 2.39). The hearing loss pattern may influence the outcome of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (P Vertigo and total hearing loss were indicators of a poor outcome in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Hans-Georg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects concerning the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes are incompletely understood including the magnitude of the risk estimate, potential gender differences in the associations between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, the associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, and whether the metabolic syndrome provides additional prediction beyond its components. To shed light on these issues, we examined the prospective association between the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF and diabetes. Methods We used data for 2796 men and women aged 35–65 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study followed for an average of 6.9 years. This analysis employed a case-cohort design that included 697 participants who developed diabetes and 2099 participants who did not. Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of self-reports and verified by contacting the patient's attending physician. Results The adjusted hazard ratio for the NCEP definition was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.90–5.48 and that for the IDF definition was 4.59 (95% CI: 3.84–5.50. The adjusted hazard ratios for the NCEP but not IDF definition were higher for women than men. When participants who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities were used as the reference group for the NCEP definition, the adjusted hazard ratio for having 3 or more abnormalities increased to 22.50 (95% CI: 11.21–45.19. Of the five components, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were most strongly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusion In this study population, both definitions of the metabolic syndrome provided similar estimates of relative risk for incident diabetes. The increase in risk for participants with the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP

  11. Effect of vitamin E in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with metabolic syndrome: A propensity score-matched cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Hyun Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsVitamin E improves the biochemical profiles and liver histology in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but the role of vitamin E is not clearly defined in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which includes both simple steatosis and steatohepatitis. Co-morbid metabolic syndrome increases the probability of steatohepatitis in NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to determine the short-term effects of vitamin E and off-treatment durability of response in a propensity-score matched cohort of NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome.MethodsA retrospective cohort was constructed by retrieving 526 consecutive NAFLD patients from the electronic medical record data warehouse of a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Among them, 335 patients (63.7% had metabolic syndrome and were eligible for vitamin E therapy. In order to assess the effect of vitamin E, propensity score matching was used by matching covariates between control patients (n=250 and patients who received vitamin E (n=85.ResultsThe PS-matched vitamin E group (n=58 and control group (n=58 exhibited similar baseline metabolic profiles. After 6 months of vitamin E therapy, the mean ALT levels decreased significantly compared to PS-matched control (P<0.01. The changes in metabolic profiles (body weight, lipid and glucose levels did not differ between control and vitamin E groups during the study period.ConclusionsShort-term vitamin E treatment significantly reduces ALT levels in NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome, but metabolic profiles are not affected by vitamin E.

  12. Metabolic Health in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Longitudinal Study in a Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Harriet M; Emilsson, Hanna; Gabriel, Melissa; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2016-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of metabolic dysfunction as a late effect of cancer treatment. However, pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) lacks a unified definition, limiting the diagnosis of MetS in CCS. This study evaluated individual metabolic health risk factors and potential areas for intervention in this at-risk population. This single center, retrospective observational longitudinal study evaluated the metabolic health of all CCS attending an oncology long-term follow-up clinic at a university hospital in Sydney, Australia (January 2012-August 2014). Participants were 276 CCS (52.2% male; mean age 18.0 years; range 6.8-37.9 years), at least 5 years disease free with a broad spectrum of oncological diagnoses. Primary metabolic health risk factors included raised body mass index, hypertension, and hypertransaminasemia. Participants treated with cranial radiotherapy (n = 47; 17.0% of cohort) had additional biochemical variables analyzed: fasting glucose/insulin, HDL/LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hypertension was common (19.0%), with male sex (p < 0.01) and being aged 18 years or above (p < 0.01) identified as risk factors. Cranial irradiation was a risk factor for overweight/obesity (47.8% in cranial radiotherapy-treated participants vs. 30.4%; p = 0.02). Hypertransaminasemia was more prevalent among participants treated with radiotherapy (15.6% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.03), and overweight/obese participants (17.6% vs. 8.2%; p = 0.04). Metabolic health risk factors comprising MetS are common in CCS, placing this population at risk of premature adverse cardiovascular consequences. Proactive surveillance and targeted interventions are required to minimize these metabolic complications, and a unified definition for pediatric MetS would improve identification and monitoring.

  13. A comparative study of glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during germination of Pinus pinea L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, F; Paciolla, C; de Pinto, M C; De Gara, L

    2001-08-01

    The ascorbate and glutathione systems have been studied during the first stages of germination in orthodox seeds of the gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (pine). The results indicate that remarkable changes in the content and redox balance of these metabolites occur in both the embryo and endosperm; even if with different patterns for the two redox pairs. Dry seeds are devoid of the ascorbate reduced form (ASC) and contain only dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). By contrast, glutathione is present both in the reduced (GSH) and in the oxidized (GSSG) forms. During imbibition the increase in ASC seems to be mainly caused by the reactivation of its biosynthesis. On the other hand, the GSH rise occurring during the first 24 h seems to be largely due to GSSG reduction, even if GSH biosynthesis is still active in the seeds. The enzymes of the ascorbate--glutathione cycle also change during germination, but in different ways. ASC peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activities progressively rise both in the embryo and in endosperm. These changes are probably required for counteracting production of reactive oxygen species caused by recovery of oxidative metabolism. The two enzymes involved in the ascorbate recycling, ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and DHA reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), show different behaviour: the DHA reductase activity decreases, while that of AFR reductase remains unchanged. The relationship between ascorbate and glutathione metabolism and their relevance in the germination of orthodox seeds are also discussed.

  14. Metabolic profiling studies on the toxicological effects of realgar in rats by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lai; Liao Peiqiu; Wu Huifeng; Li Xiaojing; Pei Fengkui; Li Weisheng; Wu Yijie

    2009-01-01

    The toxicological effects of realgar after intragastrical administration (1 g/kg body weight) were investigated over a 21 day period in male Wistar rats using metabonomic analysis of 1 H NMR spectra of urine, serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts. Liver and kidney histopathology examination and serum clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. 1 H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from realgar treated animals showed increased excretion of urinary Kreb's cycle intermediates, increased levels of ketone bodies in urine and serum, and decreased levels of hepatic glucose and glycogen, as well as hypoglycemia and hyperlipoidemia, suggesting the perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of choline containing metabolites and betaine in serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts and increased serum creatine indicated altered transmethylation. Decreased urinary levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetylglycine and hippurate suggested the effects on the gut microflora environment by realgar. Signs of impairment of amino acid metabolism were supported by increased hepatic glutamate levels, increased methionine and decreased alanine levels in serum, and hypertaurinuria. The observed increase in glutathione in liver tissue aqueous extracts could be a biomarker of realgar induced oxidative injury. Serum clinical chemistry analyses showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase as well as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating slight liver and kidney injury. The time-dependent biochemical variations induced by realgar were achieved using pattern recognition methods. This work illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabonomic approach on the study of the biochemical effects induced by traditional Chinese medicine

  15. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-01-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of [ 14 C]lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM

  16. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  17. METABOLIC SIDE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL AND RISPERIDONE- A SIX MONTHS FOLLOWUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaimathi B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare and analyse the metabolic side effects of Risperidone and Haloperidol in newly diagnosed drug-naive schizophrenic disorder patients attending Govt. Stanley Medical College Hospital during initial 6 months of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newly diagnosed drug-naïve Schizophrenic Patients (n = 60 aged between 18 - 45 years are recruited and randomly allocated into Group A (Risperidone 4 - 6 mg daily and Group B (Haloperidol 5 - 10 mg daily after getting informed consent from the patient’s family members. Patients are followed up monthly for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities like weight gain, rise in blood pressure, elevated fasting, post-prandial blood sugar level, dyslipidaemia for a period of 6 months. RESULTS Risperidone group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.40 to 69.27, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79 to 129.90/83.13; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 135.40/185.00; TC increase from 177.23 to 206.23; LDL from 124.30 to 158.30; HDL 48.83 to 50.07; TG 133.47 to 197.83: Haloperidol group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.07 to 68.48, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79.00 to 124.27/81.67; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 119.87/167.10; TC increase from 177.23 to 197.40; LDL from 119.77 to 139.00; HDL remained 48.83; TG 133.47 to 171.40. CONCLUSION This study showed that patients in both the groups had weight gain, rise in blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides level, but the rise was significant in patients on Risperidone when compared to those on Haloperidol during the 6-month followup.

  18. Metabolic model of inhaled plutonium for radiation protection purposes: experimental animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Data from experimental animal studies and from accidental exposures to humans were used in the formulation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1966 Task Group Lung Model (TGLM). Data from experimental animal studies and from human studies of Pu fallout and accidental exposures suggested 239 PuO 2 should be a Class Y compound. More recent changes in the model reclassifying 241 AmO 2 and 244 CmO 2 lung retention from Class Y (years) to Class W (weeks) (IC79) were based on animal studies. Animal studies provided information that supports and verifies the model, that suggests changes in the model and identifies new parameters that could be incorporated in the model. The metabolic differences observed in various animal species and differences related to deposition and age suggest that caution must be exercised in extrapolating quantitative data from animals to humans. The animal data suggest many parameters that could be considered in improving the model; however, we must be concerned that these improvements do not make the model unnecessarily complex for radiation protection purposes

  19. Symptom burden and its association with change in glucose metabolism status over a 7-year period: the Hoorn Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pols-Vijlbrief, R.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; de Boer, M.R.; Nijpels, G.; Snoek, F.J.; Adriaanse, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To study symptom burden among older people and its associations with change in glucose metabolism status over a 7-year period. Methods: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study among 397 older people. We used the revised Diabetes Symptom Checklist to assess symptom burden.

  20. Further studies on the intermediary metabolism of bone in vitro and a monoclonal cell line (MMB-1) derived from bone: effects of parathyroid hormone and acetazolamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism/mechanisms by which PTH affects Ca homeostasis between blood and bone have not been clearly established. Most studies of metabolic acid production in bone took place during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since that time, assay techniques for metabolic acid production have been improved for greater sensitivity, more has been learned as to how PTH mediates its cellular responses, and techniques for cell isolation and culture have dramatically improved. These improvements have made possible new approaches to the study of short term effects of PTH on metabolic acid production in bone. Chapter 1 explores the potential of bone to utilize substrates other than glucose for metabolic energy transfer. Chapter 2 characterizes glucose metabolism in mouse calvaria in vitro and explores effects of PTH, acetazolamide, and C1 13,850 on calvaria oxidative metabolism. Chapter 3 describes PTH effects on glucose metabolism of MMB-1 cells, a monoclonal cell line reported to possess osteoblast-like characteristics

  1. Work-family life courses and metabolic markers in mid-life: evidence from the British National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have found generally better health among those who combine employment and family responsibilities; however, most research excludes men, and relies on subjective measures of health and information on work and family activities from only 1 or 2 time points in the life course. This study investigated associations between work-family life course types (LCTs) and markers of metabolic risk in a British birth cohort study. Multichannel sequence analysis was used to generate work-family LCTs, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood between 16 and 42 years for men and women in the British National Child Development Study (NCDS, followed since their birth in 1958). Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in mid-life (age 44-45) were tested using multivariate linear regression in multiply imputed data. Life courses characterised by earlier transitions into parenthood were associated with significantly increased metabolic risk, regardless of attachment to paid work or marital stability over the life course. These associations were only partially attenuated by educational qualifications, early life circumstances and adult mediators. The positive association between weak labour markets ties and metabolic risk was weaker than might be expected from previous studies. Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors did not differ significantly by gender. Earlier transitions to parenthood are linked to metabolic risk in mid-life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Genome-wide association study of caffeine metabolites provides new insights to caffeine metabolism and dietary caffeine-consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; Kacprowski, Tim; Menni, Cristina; Gustafsson, Stefan; Pivin, Edward; Adamski, Jerzy; Artati, Anna; Eap, Chin B; Ehret, Georg; Friedrich, Nele; Ganna, Andrea; Guessous, Idris; Homuth, Georg; Lind, Lars; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mangino, Massimo; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pietzner, Maik; Suhre, Karsten; Völzke, Henry; Bochud, Murielle; Spector, Tim D; Grabe, Hans J; Ingelsson, Erik

    2016-12-15

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and presents with wide interindividual variation in metabolism. This variation may modify potential adverse or beneficial effects of caffeine on health. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine/caffeine ratio among up to 9,876 individuals of European ancestry from six population-based studies. A single SNP at 6p23 (near CD83) and several SNPs at 7p21 (near AHR), 15q24 (near CYP1A2) and 19q13.2 (near CYP2A6) met GW-significance (P caffeine and lower plasma paraxanthine/caffeine (slow caffeine metabolism) were previously associated with lower coffee and caffeine consumption behavior in GWAS. Variants at 19q13.2 associated with higher plasma paraxanthine/caffeine (slow paraxanthine metabolism) were also associated with lower coffee consumption in the UK Biobank (n = 94 343, P caffeine or its metabolites. Taken together, we have identified genetic factors contributing to variation in caffeine metabolism and confirm an important modulating role of systemic caffeine levels in dietary caffeine consumption behavior. Moreover, candidate genes identified encode proteins with important clinical functions that extend beyond caffeine metabolism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Systematic review of clinical studies related to pork intake and metabolic syndrome or its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stettler N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas Stettler,1 Mary M Murphy,1 Leila M Barraj,1 Kimberly M Smith,2 Rexford S Ahima3 1Exponent Inc, Washington, DC, USA; 2Exponent Inc, Derby, United Kingdom; 3Translational Research Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Globally, both the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the consumption of meat, in particular pork meat, have increased, concurrently. Processed meats have been associated with an increased risk for diabetes in observational studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the possible mechanisms of this association and the impact of meats from different species. The goal of this systematic review was to assess experimental human studies of the impact of pork intake compared with other protein sources on early markers for the development of diabetes, ie, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and the components of the metabolic syndrome. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and EMBASE and using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. Eight studies were eligible and critically reviewed. Five studies were based on a single meal or single day exposure to pork, as compared with other sources of protein. The glucose-insulin response following the pork meals did not differ compared with beef, shrimp, or mixed sources of proteins. However, compared with eggs, ham (processed meat led to a larger insulin response in nonobese subjects. Compared with whey, ham led to a smaller insulin response and a larger glucose response. These findings suggest possible mechanisms for the association between processed meat and the development of diabetes. Nonprocessed pork meats were not compared with eggs or whey. The three longer interventions (11 days to 6 months did not show a significant impact of pork on the components of the metabolic syndrome, with the exception of a possible benefit on waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (one study each with

  4. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in a current depressive episode: Population-based study: Metabolic syndrome in current depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Kapczinski, Flávio; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2017-09-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 972 subjects with a mean age of 25.81 (±2.17) years. Both BD and MDD patients showed higher prevalence of MetS compared to the population sample (BD = 46.9%, MDD = 35.1%, population = 22.1%, p obesity were observed in both BD and MDD individuals with current depressive episode compared to the general population. Moreover, there was a significant difference on BMI values in the case of BD and MDD subjects (p = 0.016). Metabolic components were significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, independently of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  6. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author) [fr

  7. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1 PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O + polycystic ovaries (P + hyperandrogenism (H 2 P + O, 3 P + H, and 4 O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III 2005 guidelines and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6% followed by P + O (22.2%; H + O (11.2%; and P + H (0.9%. Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50% and P + H + O (37.04%, had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10% (P ≤ 0.001. Body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI, waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI, were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff

  8. Beverage Intake and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Over 14 Years: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Baylin, Ana; Huang, Mei-Hua; Li, Hong; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Avery, Elizabeth F; Kravitz, Howard M

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol and energy-dense beverages consumption have been implicated in cardiometabolic disease, albeit inconsistently. This study tested prospective associations between intakes of alcohol, energy-dense beverages, and low-calorie beverages and cardiometabolic risk in midlife women. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a 14-year, multisite prospective cohort study (1996-2011). Beverage intake and cardiometabolic risk factors that define the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and hypertriglyceridemia) were assessed throughout follow-up. Participants (N=1,448) were African American, Chinese, Japanese, and non-Hispanic white midlife women from six US cities. The primary outcomes were incident metabolic syndrome and the individual metabolic syndrome components. Generalized linear mixed models tested associations between intakes within each beverage category and odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome and each of the metabolic syndrome components. Energy-dense beverage consumption was highest among African-American women and lowest among women with college degrees. Non-Hispanic white women consumed the largest quantities of alcohol. Independent of energy intake and potential confounders, each additional 355 mL energy-dense beverages consumed per day was associated with higher odds of developing metabolic syndrome in each successive year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08). Greater energy-dense beverage intake was associated with more rapidly increasing odds of developing hypertension (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16) over time, but not with the other metabolic syndrome components. Intakes of alcohol and low-calorie coffees, teas, and diet cola were not associated with metabolic syndrome risk. Over 14 years of follow-up, energy-dense nonalcoholic beverage consumption was associated with

  9. A controlled study of Dextran 40: effect on cerebral blood flow and metabolic rates in acute head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, F; Philippon, B; Flachaire, E; Peyrieux, J C; Boissel, J P; Ferry, S; Deleuze, R

    1989-01-01

    A controlled double-blind evaluation of the effects of Dextran 40 at different concentrations on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) and cerebral lactate production (CMRLact) was carried out. We studied 40 patients in coma due to recent head injury. Concentrations of Dextran solution were not significantly related to variations in CBF and metabolic rate over the period of infusion. The lack of effect of the Dextran infusion may be explained by the absence of global brain ischemia in these patients at the time of the study. The very low initial CBF values were a consequence of brain metabolic depression and not a sign of global ischaemia. The rheological benefits of treatment with Dextran 40 in head injured patients should preferably be investigated using techniques which permit detection of local changes in CBF and metabolism.

  10. Experimental study on renal and hepatic glucose metabolism in total gastrectomized dogs with special reference to glycolysis and glyconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, S

    1976-09-01

    In spite of the extensive studies on glucose metabolism in surgical field, the postoperative renal and hepatic glucose metabolism and their interrelation have not been reported. The present study was undertaken to interrelate the metabolic states in the kidney and the liver in total gastrectomized dogs. In the kidney, the glycolysis was inhibited in the early postoperative stage whereas the gluconeogenesis was activated. In the late postoperative stage the glycolysis remained slightly inhibited, while the gluconeogenesis remained activated. In the liver, in the early postoperative stage the glycolysis was inhibited, whereas the gluconeogenesis was activated. The glycolysis in the late postoperative stage returned to the preoperative stage, while the gluconeogenesis remained inhibited. The gluconeogenesis in both kidney and liver was disturbed in the early postoperative stage while they were restored, but were reversed, in the late postoperative stage.

  11. The METEOR study of diabetes and other metabolic disorders in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. I. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; Mauri, Mauro; Shaw, Ken; Wetterling, Tilman; Doble, Adam; Giudicelli, Agnès; Falissard, Bruno

    2010-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present a two- to three-fold higher prevalence of diabetes, of metabolic syndrome and of cardiovascular morbidity. The reason for this increased prevalence may involve intrinsic vulnerability, lifestyle factors and iatrogenic effects of antipsychotic drugs. The objective of this multinational, cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. Particular attention was taken to acquire data on a wide a range as possible of demographic, clinical and lifestyle variables that may influence the risk of metabolic disorders, which were taken into account in the calculation of prevalence data by propensity scoring. The study included 2270 subjects from 16 European countries, predominantly from Central and Eastern Europe. The proportion of subjects presenting the pathologies of interest was relatively high, ranging from 28% for glycaemic disorders to 70% for lipid disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

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    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  14. Sleep duration independently influences metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents: a population-based study.

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    Lim, Han Hyuk

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found an association between sleep duration and obesity. However, the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 3650 participants (1946 boys and 1704 girls) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were classified into four phenotypes according to body mass index and metabolic heath status based on the definition of metabolic syndrome by NCEP-ATP III or the International Diabetes Federation. The four phenotypes were: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO). The associations between the four metabolic body size phenotypes and sleep duration, categorized as very short (≤5 h), short (6-7 h), normal (8-10 h), or long (≥11 h), were evaluated. Sleep duration was shorter in the MUO group (7.0 ± 1.5 h) than in the MHNW (7.3 ± 1.4 h) or MUNW (7.8 ± 1.6 h) groups. After adjusting for age, sex, household income, and physical activity, compared with a normal sleep duration, very short sleep duration (≤5 h) was associated with a higher prevalence of being overweight/obese (26.4% vs 17.4%, p = 0.001), lower risk of being MHNW (0.711 (0.538-0.940), p = 0.017) or MUNW (0.478 (0.237-0.962), p = 0.039), and higher risk of being MHO (1.702 (1.193-2.428), p = 0.003). By contrast, long sleep duration (≥11 h) was associated with a higher risk of being MUNW (2.581 (1.124-5.928), p = 0.025). Sleep duration may be independently associated with metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of osteoporosis susceptibility genes with bone mineral density and bone metabolism related markers in Koreans: the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) study.

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    Park, Se Eun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Kun Ho; Son, Ho Young; Lee, Won Chul; Kang, Moo Il

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within eight osteoporosis susceptibility genes that were previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A total of 494 men and 493 postmenopausal women participating in the Chungju Metabolic Disease cohort study in Korea were included. The following 10 SNPs were genotyped: ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, ESR1 rs2941740, TNFRSF11B rs3134070, TNFRSF11B rs2073617, SOX6 rs711785, LRP5 rs599083, TNFSF11 rs227438, TNFSF11 rs9594782, and FOXL1 rs10048146; and the association between these SNPs and bone metabolism-related markers was assessed. Two SNPs, TNFSF11 rs2277438 and FOXL1 rs1004816, were associated with lumbar spine BMD. TNFSF11 rs2277438 in men and SOX6 rs7117858 and FOXL1 rs10048146 in postmenopausal women were found to be associated with lumbar BMD. ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, and LRP5 rs599083 showed significant associations with femur neck BMD. These three SNPs in men and MEF2C rs1366594 and ESR1 rs2941740 in postmenopausal women were associated with femur neck BMD. A significant association between MEF2C rs1366594 and serum calcium levels was observed in men. Serum phosphorus levels were related to SOX6 rs7117858. Serum PTH levels were significantly associated with TNFRSF11B rs3134070 in men, and SOX6 rs711858 in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our study independently confirmed associations between several SNPs: ZBTB40, MEF2C, ESR1, SOX6, LRP5, TNFSF11, and FOXL1 and bone marrow density in the Korean population.

  16. Metabolism and transport studies of exogenous compounds thanks to 13C uniform isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravin, F.

    2008-12-01

    The study of many exogenous compounds does not raise difficulties when they are isolated, purified and in quantities sufficient for the usual detection methods used in biology (Chromatography, NMR, Mass Spectrometry, etc). When they are found in a biological fluid (blood, urines,..), they are often in infinitesimal amount such as the effect of their biological matrices or the background noise that make their detection and their quantification very delicate. The use of internal standards uniformly enriched with carbon 13 and/or nitrogen 15 makes it possible to obtain a signal more easily recognizable and identifiable thanks to the presence of the isotopes (peaks shifted in a mass spectrum for example). This is why, complementary to the analytical and biochemical studies of zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism, we were interested in building mass spectra of molecules enriched (rates between 0 and 1) by various isotopes ( 13 C, 15 N, 18 O and 2 H). In parallel we studied the influence of the 13 C enrichment on the reactivity of a given molecule, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. (author)

  17. The Oslo health study: cheese intake was negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome.

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    Høstmark, Arne T; Tomten, Sissel E

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported that the frequency of cheese intake (FCI) was negatively associated with serum triglycerides and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We therefore wanted to study whether FCI is associated with MetS. The Oslo Health Study (18,770 subjects), obtained data from 7815 men and 9685 women on cheese intake and risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. MetS requires central obesity and at least 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. We calculated the index SumRisk, providing the number of MetS factors present, and MetSRisk to reflect the combined levels of many MetS factors. The association between FCI and MetSRisk (SumRisk) was studied using regression analyses. In young (30 years), middle-aged (40 and 45 years), seniors (59-60), and old (75-76 years) subjects, there was an inverse association between FCI and MetSRisk (p ≤ 0.005, except in old men). Using regression, we found a consistent negative association (p Cheese intake can be negatively and independently associated with (1) an index including the level of many risk factors for MetS, (2) the number of MetS requirements present, (3) single MetS components, and (4) the complete MetS.

  18. Study of radiation induced changes of phosphorus metabolism in mice by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersa, Igor; Kranjc, Simona; Sersa, Gregor; Nemec-Svete, Alenka; Lozar, Bojan; Sepe, Ana; Vidmar, Jernej; Sentjurc, Marjeta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether (31)P NMR can efficiently detect X-ray radiation induced changes of energy metabolism in mice. Exposure to ionizing radiation causes changes in energy supply that are associated with the tissue damage because of oxidative stress and uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation. This has as a consequence decreased phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio (Pcr/ATP) as well as increased creatine kinase (CK) and liver enzymes (transaminases AST and ALT) levels in serum. In this study, experimental mice that received 7 Gy of X-ray radiation and a control group were studied by (31)P NMR spectroscopy and biochemically by measuring CK and liver enzyme levels in plasma. Mice (irradiated and control) were measured at regular time intervals for the next three weeks after the exposure to radiation. A significant change in the Pcr/ATP ratio, determined from corresponding peaks of (31)P NMR spectra, was observed in the 7 Gy group 2 days or more after the irradiation, while no significant change in the Pcr/ATP ratio, was observed in the control group. This result was supported by parallel measurements of CK levels that were highly increased immediately after the irradiation which correlates with the observed decrease of the Pcr/ATP ratio and with it associated drop of muscle energy supply. The (31)P NMR measurements of the Pcr/ATP ratio can in principle serve as an instantaneous and noninvasive index for assessment of the received dose of irradiation.

  19. Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy within a Natural History Study.

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    Simina M Boca

    Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate in their levels between DMD patients and healthy controls while adjusting for age and study site and allowing for an interaction between disease status and age. Increased metabolites included arginine, creatine and unknown compounds at m/z of 357 and 312 while decreased metabolites included creatinine, androgen derivatives and other unknown yet to be identified compounds. Furthermore, the creatine to creatinine ratio is significantly associated with disease progression in DMD patients. This ratio sharply increased with age in DMD patients while it decreased with age in healthy controls. Overall, this study yielded promising metabolic signatures that could prove useful to monitor DMD disease progression and response to therapies in the future.

  20. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  1. Metabolic syndrome among adults of surendranagar District of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A cross-sectional Study

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    Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps. Demographics, personal details along with anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. The MetS was diagnosed as per the definition provided by Joint Interim Statement 2009. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS among studied population was found to be