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Sample records for metabolic studies

  1. Ca-48 metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    Calcium metabolism has been studied in depth physiologically and is a relatively well-understood element in biochemistry and medicine. There is still only restricted knowledge of the metabolic fate of calcium in normal and abnormal paediatric subjects. The latter is partially owing to inadequate techniques for tracing and modelling calcium pathways in children. The advent of radioactive tracers has unquestionably enhanced medical research and improved the quality of many metabolic studies. The present study was aimed at the development, promotion and justification of a new tracer technique using the stable isotope, calcium-48. The obvious advantages of such a technique are its harmlessness tothe subject, its applicability to both short- and long-term studies as well as its usefulness to the study for which it was originally motivated, viz research defining the actual relationship between a calcium-deficient diet and the occurrence of rickets in rural Black children in South Africa. Exploratory instrumental analyses were performed specifically with serum samples. This proved successful enough to develop a less specific pre-concentration technique which improved the sensitivity and reduces the cost of doing calcium-48 metabolism studies. The results of a simple metabolic study are presented whereby the scope of the technique is demonstrated in a real situation. The possibilities and limitations of double-isotope metabolic studies are discussed, particularly with regard to strontium as the second tracer

  2. Sample size calculation in metabolic phenotyping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Elise; Navratil, Vincent; Blaise, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    The number of samples needed to identify significant effects is a key question in biomedical studies, with consequences on experimental designs, costs and potential discoveries. In metabolic phenotyping studies, sample size determination remains a complex step. This is due particularly to the multiple hypothesis-testing framework and the top-down hypothesis-free approach, with no a priori known metabolic target. Until now, there was no standard procedure available to address this purpose. In this review, we discuss sample size estimation procedures for metabolic phenotyping studies. We release an automated implementation of the Data-driven Sample size Determination (DSD) algorithm for MATLAB and GNU Octave. Original research concerning DSD was published elsewhere. DSD allows the determination of an optimized sample size in metabolic phenotyping studies. The procedure uses analytical data only from a small pilot cohort to generate an expanded data set. The statistical recoupling of variables procedure is used to identify metabolic variables, and their intensity distributions are estimated by Kernel smoothing or log-normal density fitting. Statistically significant metabolic variations are evaluated using the Benjamini-Yekutieli correction and processed for data sets of various sizes. Optimal sample size determination is achieved in a context of biomarker discovery (at least one statistically significant variation) or metabolic exploration (a maximum of statistically significant variations). DSD toolbox is encoded in MATLAB R2008A (Mathworks, Natick, MA) for Kernel and log-normal estimates, and in GNU Octave for log-normal estimates (Kernel density estimates are not robust enough in GNU octave). It is available at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/repository, with a tutorial at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/wiki. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Screening scale studies were performed with eight cultures for their ability to metabolize phenobarbital, an antiepileptic, sedative, hypnotic and substrate for CYP 2C9 and 2C19. Methods: The transformation of phenobarbital was confirmed and characterized by fermentation techniques, high performance liquid ...

  4. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    techniques, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) ... Keywords: Microbial metabolism, Phenobarbital, Inhibition studies, Rhizopus stolonifer, CYP 2C9, .... 24 h of incubation 0.5 ml of drug solution was ... mode, positive: spray voltage, 3.5 KV: ... Rhizopus stolonifer showed an extra peak at.

  5. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  6. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillerud, L.O.; Han, C.H.; Whaley, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for the detection of the metabolic transformations of biological compounds labeled with stable isotopes, particularly carbon-13 have been explored. We have studied adipose tissue in the intact rat, the exteriorized epididymal fat pad, and the isolated adipocyte. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue is regulated by lipogenic factors (insulin, corticosterone, thyroxine, and growth hormone) and lipolytic factors (glucagon and catecholamines). The synthesis of triglyceride from 5.5 mM glucose was stimulated by about 4-fold by 10 nM insulin. Triglyceride synthesis from glucose in the presence of insulin occurred at a rate of 330 nmol/hr/10 6 cells. Since the NMR signals from free and esterified fatty acids and glycerol are distinct, we could directly measure the rate of hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Epinephrine (10 μM) gave a lipolytic rate of 0.30 μmol/hr/10 6 cells as monitored by free-glycerol appearance in the medium. 13 C NMR provides a superior method for the measurement of triglyceride metabolism since it directly measures the changes in the substrates and products in situ

  8. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  9. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, April S.Y.; Ho, Emmie N.M.; Wan, Terence S.M.; Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  10. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  11. Metabolic and improved organ scan studies. III. 13N-ammonia metabolic studies in hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from an investigation into the nature of hepatic encephalopathy, through study of the uptake and metabolism of 13 N-labeled ammonia by the brain in relation to liver function, in order to develop improved methods for the management of patients with this condition

  12. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  14. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  15. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  16. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies...

  17. Protocols to Study Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburger, Katrin; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters. It then provides protocols for measuring tissue growth, cell size, and metabolic parameters such as stored lipids and glycogen, and circulating sugars.

  18. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  19. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  20. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  1. Applications of deuterium labeling in studies of drug metabolism: metabolism of trideuteroaniline mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.J.; Farmer, P.B.; Foster, A.B.; Jarman, M.

    1977-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of aniline mustard, the metabolism of 2,4,6-trideuteroaniline mustard [N-N-di-(2-chloroethyl)-2,4,6-trideuteroaniline] was investigated. Measurements of the ratios of deuterated to nondeuterated species in p-hydroxyaniline mustard and N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-hydroxyaniline isolated following in vitro metabolism of a mixture of aniline mustard and aniline mustard-d 3 enabled a determination both of the kinetic isotope effect and of the extents of NIH shifts and indicated the probable metabolite sequence

  2. Isotopic studies of urea metabolism in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, E.; Irons, L.; Koj, A.; McFarlane, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The half-life of [15N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [14C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of 14C but is approx. 20% for 15N. [15N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of 15N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired 14CO2 confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [14C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1·5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be

  3. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  4. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1H NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foodstuff is discussed. The study of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor") over-expressing the KNAT1 gene from Arabidopsis is presented as a novel study-case. The 1H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out. Twenty-two wat...

  5. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Justice at work and metabolic syndrome: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Adám G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-04-01

    Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35-55 years without prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 to 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organisational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men.

  7. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  8. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  9. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  10. Study of collagen metabolism after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xulan; Wu Shiliang; Zhang Xueguang; Chen Liesong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of collagen metabolism and it's regulation after β radiation. Method: The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 was tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. Results: After exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. Conclusion: The changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 and IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  11. Association of sleep quality components and wake time with metabolic syndrome: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (QMDS), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo {sup 13}C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of {sup 13}C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1{sup 13}C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F{sub TCA}) and neurotransmitter cycling (F{sub cyc}). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F{sub TCA} upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F{sub cyc} due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  13. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13 C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13 C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1 1 3 C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F TCA ) and neurotransmitter cycling (F cyc ). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F TCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F cyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of epithelial metabolism and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a noninvasive technique for studying cellular metabolism and function. In this review the general applications and advantages of NMR will be discussed with specific reference to epithelial tissues. Phosphorus NMR investigations have been performed on epithelial tissues in vivo and in vitro; however, other detectable nuclei have not been utilized to date. Several new applications of phosphorus NMR to epithelial tissues are also discussed, including studies on isolated renal tubules and sheet epithelia

  15. Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Wevers, R.A.; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder

  16. Metabolic and inflammatory profiles of biomarkers in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in a Mediterranean population. DARIOS Inflammatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Peñafiel, Judith; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Vila, Joan; Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Guembe, María Jesús; Vega, Tomás; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto; Díaz, Oscar; Marrugat, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the differences in the biomarker profiles of patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus as compared to a healthy, normal weight population. We aimed to study the biomarker profile of the metabolic risk continuum defined by the transition from normal weight to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. We performed a pooled analysis of data from 7 cross-sectional Spanish population-based surveys. An extensive panel comprising 20 biomarkers related to carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, inflammation, coagulation, oxidation, hemodynamics, and myocardial damage was analyzed. We employed age- and sex-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for the identification of those biomarkers associated with the metabolic risk continuum phenotypes: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 2851 subjects were included for analyses. The mean age was 57.4 (8.8) years, 1269 were men (44.5%), and 464 participants were obese, 443 had metabolic syndrome, 473 had diabetes mellitus, and 1471 had a normal weight (healthy individuals). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B100, leptin, and insulin were positively associated with at least one of the phenotypes of interest. Apolipoprotein A1 and adiponectin were negatively associated. There are differences between the population with normal weight and that having metabolic syndrome or diabetes with respect to certain biomarkers related to the metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid profiles. The results of this study support the relevance of these mechanisms in the metabolic risk continuum. When metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are compared, these differences are less marked. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of radioisotopes to studies of pesticide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic form and structural change of pesticides in the living body were mentioned. In the early stage of the study, 14 C, 35 S, 36 Cl, and 32 P were used, and 32 P was used mainly. At present, specimen labelled with 14 C or 3 H can be traced easily with liquid scintillation counter, and metabolic study is performed by using gaschromatography, nuclear magnetism resonant together with mass, and infrared spectrum analysis. Generally, pesticides are fat-soluble compounds. They convert into water-soluble compounds through the changes such as oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Furthermore, they combine with ingredients in the living body, and are taken in. In animals, they are excreted outside the body, and in plants, they are stored after detoxication. Microorganisms break molecules into parts. They are used as energy source, and perform oxidative cleavage of nucleus of aromatic pesticides. (Kanao, N.)

  18. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  19. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan; Wu Shiliang; Qiu Hao; Jiang Zhi; Tu Youbin; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 , IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  20. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  1. Uses and limits of radiotracers in the study of drugs and xenobiotics metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with scientific papers issued in 1977-1978, on labelling of drugs and xenobiotics and their metabolism. It is divided in five parts: site of label; in vivo metabolism in animals and human beings; in vitro metabolism on tissue slices, cells culture, microsomes, membrane receptors; metabolism of xenobiotics: nutrients, food additives, detergents, plastics and fabrics; discussion. Metabolic studies, nowadays, associate radiotracers, stable isotopes with high performing procedures for analytical separation [fr

  2. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  3. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  4. Genome-wide association studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-01-25

    Until just a few years ago, the genetic determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome were largely unknown, with the exception of a few forms of monogenic extreme obesity. Since genome-wide association studies (GWAS) became available, large advances have been made. The first single nucleotide polymorphism robustly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) was in 2007 mapped to a gene with for the time unknown function. This gene, now known as fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) has been repeatedly replicated in several ethnicities and is affecting obesity by regulating appetite. Since the first report from a GWAS of obesity, an increasing number of markers have been shown to be associated with BMI, other measures of obesity or fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. This systematic review of obesity GWAS will summarize genome-wide significant findings for obesity and metabolic syndrome and briefly give a few suggestions of what is to be expected in the next few years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  6. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  7. Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Study from Bursa Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Orhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Obesity is one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and obesity among women aged 20 years and older. METHOD: This is a cross- sectional study, undergone in a primary health care setting in Bursa /Turkey in the year 2008. A total of 807 women were included in the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Metabolic Syndrome definition was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.713.2 years, 96.4% were married, 50.7% had education of less than 8 years, 93.7% were housewives and 85.3% had a monthly family income of $650 or less. The prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity were 17.5 % and 87.7% respectively. Those with diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma lipids had increased risk of developing MetS 11.3 and 4.5 times more than those without these situations respectively. The risk of MetS increases with age and increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an alarming risk factor for the development of MetS in our study group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 421-432

  8. Voriconazole metabolism is influenced by severe inflammation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, Anette; ter Avest, Mendy; Span, Lambert F. R.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Touw, Daan J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Background: During an infection or inflammation, several drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver are downregulated, including cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes. Since voriconazole is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, the metabolism of voriconazole can be influenced during inflammation

  9. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  10. Radioisotope techniques in the study of protein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a panel meeting on June 1-5, 1964. The purpose of the panel was to discuss the present status of radioactive tracer techniques for the study of protein metabolism and to suggest ways of extending an co-ordinating the Agency's research programme in this field. The meeting was attended by 13 invited experts from ten different countries, and three representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO). Sessions of the panel were devoted to methods of preparation of labelled proteins and protein-like substances, to techniques of measurement of gastro-intestinal protein absorption and loss and to the clinical applications of these techniques. At each session, working papers were presented by various participants and then discussed in detail. This report gives the full texts of the working papers together with extensive summaries of the discussions and provides a detailed picture of the present situation and likely future developments in this field of work. It is hoped that its publication will be of interest to all concerned with problems of protein metabolism, whether in clinical medicine or the basic medical sciences. 349 refs, figs and tabs

  11. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  12. Radioisotopic and synthetic studies related to caroxazone metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, L.; Coda, S.; Nicolella, V.; Vicario, G.P.; Gioia, B.; Minghetti, A.; Vigevani, A.; Arcamone, F.

    1979-01-01

    Labelled 2-oxo-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H)-acetamide (caroxazone), has been synthesized by condensing N-(2-hydroxylbenzyl) glycinamide with 14 C phosgene. Metabolic studies were performed administering the labelled drug to man and recovering metabolites were identified and confirmed by synthesis, namely (3,4-dihydro - 3-carboxamidomethyl-2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazin-4-yl) urea (IX), N-carboxamidomethyl o-hydroxymethylphenyl carbamate (V), 4-methoxy-2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetamide (VIIIa), 2-oxo-2H - 1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetic acid (III) and 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-3(4H) acetamide (IV). (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 GR [de

  13. Studies of the calcium metabolism of subjects with renal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    In order to perform a detailed study of calcium metabolism, it is necessary to differentiate between intestinal absorption and its subsequent behaviour in terms of either uptake onto the bone or excretion. The measurement of calcium absorption involved two separate intakes of the tracer 47 Ca. Each subject ingested a known activity. Measurements on blood samples were made after 5 hours and a smoothed curve describing the appearance of the activity in the plasma was determined. About 4 weeks after oral ingestion a known activity was injected into the subject and the procedure repeated. A curve describing the differential transfer of calcium from the intestine to the blood stream was derived by performing a deconvolution procedure on the two curves

  14. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.; Pincetl, S.; Bunje, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. - This paper presents a chronological review of urban metabolism studies and highlights four areas of application.

  15. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  16. In situ coral reef oxygen metabolism: an eddy correlation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Long

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies of coral reefs are challenged by the three-dimensional hard structure of reefs and the high spatial variability and temporal dynamics of their metabolism. We used the non-invasive eddy correlation technique to examine respiration and photosynthesis rates, through O2 fluxes, from reef crests and reef slopes in the Florida Keys, USA. We assessed how the photosynthesis and respiration of different reef habitats is controlled by light and hydrodynamics. Numerous fluxes (over a 0.25 h period were as high as 4500 mmol O2 m(-2 d(-1, which can only be explained by efficient light utilization by the phototrophic community and the complex canopy structure of the reef, having a many-fold larger surface area than its horizontal projection. Over diel cycles, the reef crest was net autotrophic, whereas on the reef slope oxygen production and respiration were balanced. The autotrophic nature of the shallow reef crests implies that the export of organics is an important source of primary production for the larger area. Net oxygen production on the reef crest was proportional to the light intensity, up to 1750 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 and decreased thereafter as respiration was stimulated by high current velocities coincident with peak light levels. Nighttime respiration rates were also stimulated by the current velocity, through enhanced ventilation of the porous framework of the reef. Respiration rates were the highest directly after sunset, and then decreased during the night suggesting that highly labile photosynthates produced during the day fueled early-night respiration. The reef framework was also important to the acquisition of nutrients as the ambient nitrogen stock in the water had sufficient capacity to support these high production rates across the entire reef width. These direct measurements of complex reefs systems yielded high metabolic rates and dynamics that can only be determined through in situ, high temporal resolution

  17. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  18. 32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, G.; Pfueller, K.; Bier, H.; Mueller, D.; Rummel, G.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32 P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

  19. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physiopathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-11-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developped in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolutions, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physiopathologic studies [fr

  20. Study of bone metabolism in patients with chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaccioli, S; Del Giorno, R; Crapa, G; Sabatini, C; Panaccione, A; Di Cato, L; Lavagna, A; Fatati, G; Paladini, A; Frongillo, R; Puxeddu, A

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have confirmed the high incidence of skeletal homeostasis modifications in subjects who are carriers of chronic HIV infections, and specific pharmacological treatments, which modify the metabolism and condition both the weight loss and the reshaping of the bones. The presence of a reduction in body mass index seems to contribute to the progressive deterioration of the skeletal framework. The aim of this study was to see whether the presence of HIV-seropositivity could constitute a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis/osteopenia, even in the light of the fact that our group was composed of patients with a concentrated age span well under the limit for both post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis, and with a median age superimposable for both sexes. Our study involved 26 HIV+ patients with an average duration of infection equal to 6.7 +/- 4.8 years, and a range of seropositive duration between 6 months to 16 years. The prominent ultrasonometrical parameters are as follows: Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation, Speed of Sound, Stiffness Index or Quantitative Ultra-sound Index, Bone Mineral Density, and T-score. The biochemical study was carried out by assessing a marker of neoformation such as seric osteocalcine, and uninary pyridinoline and deoxipyridonoline as resorption markers. The results confirmed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in 46% of the samples (11%, and 35%, respectively), with a progressive reduction in bone mineral density in relation to the duration of HIV infection. Assessment of the marker for bone metabolism showed a significant increase in osteocalcine in the female population compared to the males, without any significant variations in the normal values. Extreme variability in the morphological appearance at bone level during the course of HIV infection would lead us to believe that in the genesis of various forms, depending on the mechanisms and the time involved only in the parts defined, other attributable factors

  1. Study of brain metabolism using positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W D

    1983-03-21

    Positron emission tomography permits the three-dimensional regional measurement of metabolism and blood flow in the brain. For the determination of cerebral metabolic rates of glucose by PET /sup 18/fluordeoxyglucose is usually applied: cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was found to be 36 to 47 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the grey matter and 23 to 29 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the white matter of normal volunteers. During physiologic activation metabolic rate of glucose is increased in the respective brain areas in relation to the strength and complexity of the stimulation. In patients suffering from ischaemic stroke glucose metabolism is markedly decreased within the infarction. Additonally, glucose metabolism is reduced by 20% in morphologically intact areas of the homolateral cortex, in the basal ganglia, in the cortical area contralateral to the infarction and in the contralateral cerebellum. This remote reduction of glucose utilization is probably caused by functional inactivation of these brain structures; it could be responsible for the diffuse organic syndrome in stroke victims not caused by the focal lesion. In patients suffering from dementia of the multi-infarct type and of the Alzheimer type glucose metabolism is reduced; the lesions in Alzheimer cases are most prominent in partietal and frontal cortical areas. In Chorea Huntington cases glucose metabolism is primarily disturbed in the striate, especially in the caudate nucleus; in these cases the metabolic disturbance can be detected earlier than the atrophy in computed tomograms. Disturbances of glucose and oxygen utilization are not necessary causes, but may also be sequelae od functional impairment. Additional information on pathogentic mechanisms may be obtained by the investigation of the protein synthesis.

  2. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Metabolism of allylnitrile to cyanide: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, M Y; Ybarra, B; Piper, J

    1993-09-01

    In liver fractions from male Sprague-Dawley rats, the metabolism of allylnitrile (ALN) to cyanide (CN-) was localized in the microsomal fraction and required NADPH and oxygen for maximal activity. The biotransformation of ALN to CN- was characterized with respect to time, microsomal protein concentration, pH and temperature. Metabolism of ALN was increased in microsomes obtained from phenobarbital-treated rats (160% of control) and decreased with cobaltous chloride and beta-diethyl aminoethyl-2,2-diphenyl pentanoate (SKF 525-A) treatments (48% of control). Addition of SKF 525-A to the incubation mixtures inhibited ALN metabolism to CN-. Addition of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropane 2,3-oxide, decreased the formation of CN- from ALN. Addition of glutathione, cysteine, D-penicillamine, and 2-mercaptoethanol enhanced the release of CN- from ALN. These findings indicate that ALN is metabolized to CN- via a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system.

  4. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  5. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    likely products of dioxane metabolism-2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEM or 13- hydroxyethoxyacetic acid ) and 1 ,4-dioxan-2-one (or dioxanone...Mar 10 (2) Hoch-Ligeti and coworkers (Hoch-Ligeti et al. 1974) originally proposed that dioxane was metabolized to oxalic acid by way of diglycolic... acid . This proposal was based upon chemical oxidation experiments on dioxane using nitric acid originally conducted by Fairley and coworkers (Fairley

  6. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  7. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H.; Santos, U.P.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  8. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  9. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  10. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF TELMISARTAN (ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKER ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesekhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is currently a major worldwide epidemic. It strongly associates with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are major pathologies contributing to mortality and morbidity worldwide. The effect of PPAR-y on metabolic syndrome is significant it is critical regulator of adipogenesis the gain in PPAR-y is resulted in obesity but loss of PPAR–y by mutation is associated with loss of weight and insulin resistance. Telmisartan is an orally active, long-acting, non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (ATI receptor blocker. In addition to this, it has been identified as partial agonist/selective modulator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-y. MATERIAL AND METHOD This is a prospective, randomised and open labelled 16 weeks study conducted in the Dept. of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Science, Amalapuram. Present study is designed to study the effect of telmisartan on various metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients who fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. RESULT There was statistically significant change in all parameters most important was lipid profile; LDL concentration was decreased from 139.2 mg/dL to 120.2 mg/dL. Baseline triglyceride concentration was 161.0 mg/dL which was changed 152.8 mg/dL Total cholesterol was decreased from 203.2 to 193.8 mg/dL. CONCLUSION In our study, we have also found that use of telmisartan is associated with decrease in lipid concentration in addition to its effect on blood pressure regulation. But a long term study with high dose required of this drug is required because safety profile of this drug is better than thiazolidinedione. Financial part of this study is our limitation.

  11. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  12. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  13. Drosophila as a Model to Study the Link between Metabolism and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Hector; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    new approaches to therapy. Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable model to study multiple aspects of tumor formation and malignant transformation. In this review, we discuss the use of Drosophila as model to study how changes in cellular metabolism, as well as metabolic disease, contribute...

  14. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  15. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  16. The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Lazo, Mariana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Gamble, Mary V; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Cole, Shelley A; Umans, Jason G; Howard, Barbara V; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-03-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose) in 1,047 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective family-based cohort in American Indian communities (baseline visits in 1998-1999 and 2001-2003, follow-up visits in 2001-2003 and 2006-2009). 32% of participants developed metabolic syndrome over follow-up. An IQR increase in arsenic exposure was associated with 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) greater risk for elevated fasting plasma glucose but not with other individual components or overall metabolic syndrome. Arsenic metabolism, specifically lower MMA% and higher DMA% was associated with higher risk of overall metabolic syndrome and elevated waist circumference, but not with any other component. These findings support there is a contrasting and independent association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic outcomes which may contribute to overall diabetes risk.

  17. Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    These studies demonstrated increasing glucose metabolic rates in the human primary (PVC) and associative (AVC) visual cortex as the complexity of visual scenes increased. The metabolic response of the AVC increased more rapidly with scene complexity than that of the PVC, indicating the greater involvement of the higher order AVC for complex visual interpretations. Increases in local metabolic activity by as much as a factor of 2 above that of control subjects with eyes closed indicate the wide range and metabolic reserve of the visual cortex

  18. A simple and efficient in vitro method for metabolism studies of radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choe, Yearn Seong E-mail: yschoe@samsung.co.krjeewoo@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Bok-Nam; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Lee, Jeewoo E-mail: yschoe@samsung.co.krjeewoo@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2001-05-01

    In vitro metabolism of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors containing 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethylbenzyl- ([{sup 18}F]1) and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl-piperidine moieties ([{sup 18}F]2) was studied and compared with the in vivo metabolism. Defluorination of the [{sup 18}F]1 mainly occurred to generate [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the [{sup 18}F]2 was converted into an unknown polar metabolite in both metabolism methods and another metabolite, 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoic acid in vitro. These results demonstrated that the in vitro method can be used to predict the in vivo metabolism of both radiotracers.

  19. A simple and efficient in vitro method for metabolism studies of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Bok-Nam; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2001-01-01

    In vitro metabolism of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors containing 3-[ 18 F]fluoromethylbenzyl- ([ 18 F]1) and 4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzyl-piperidine moieties ([ 18 F]2) was studied and compared with the in vivo metabolism. Defluorination of the [ 18 F]1 mainly occurred to generate [ 18 F]fluoride ion both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the [ 18 F]2 was converted into an unknown polar metabolite in both metabolism methods and another metabolite, 4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoic acid in vitro. These results demonstrated that the in vitro method can be used to predict the in vivo metabolism of both radiotracers

  20. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  1. Hyperpolarized C-13 MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Hartwig, V.; Frijia, F.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac metabolism assessment with hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models requires the design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work presents a comparison between a commercial 13C quadrature...

  2. Importance of metabolism in pharmacological studies: possible in vitro predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaforge, M.

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic transformation of drug leads to the formation of a large number of secondary compounds. These metabolites may (a) participate to the elimination of the patent drug, (b) have similar or different therapeutic effects compared to the parent drug (c) exert toxic effects. Cytochromes P450 are the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of exogenous drugs, leading to oxidized, reduced or peroxidized metabolites. Different isozymes of P450 are present in already all the organs and differ by their affinity for substrate families. P450 3A is the most abundant P450 protein in the adult human liver and is able to transform hundreds of substrates into either drugs or endogenous compounds such as testosterone. Its catalytic activities are regulated either by induction or by inhibition. Attempts to predict metabolic transformation of a given drug are based on the amount of P450 expressed in heterologous systems, induction, and inhibition experiments and by comparison to classical P450 substrates. Erythromycin metabolism and its P450 effects are used to illustrate the complexity and the consequences of metabolic transformation of a given drug

  3. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data...

  4. Associations Between Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome Over Time: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the association between changes in adiposity traits including anthropometric and fat mass indicators and changes in metabolic syndrome traits including metabolic syndrome clustering and individual components over time. We also assessed the shared genetic and environmental correlations between the two traits. Participants were 284 South Korean twin individuals and 279 nontwin family members had complete data for changes in adiposity traits and metabolic syndrome traits of the Healthy Twin study. Mixed linear model and bivariate variance-component analysis were applied. Over a period of 3.1 ± 0.6 years of study, changes in adiposity traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass, and fat mass to lean mass ratio] had significant associations with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering [high blood pressure, high serum glucose, high triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] after adjusting for intra-familial and sibling correlations, age, sex, baseline metabolic syndrome clustering, and socioeconomic factors and health behaviors at follow-up. Change in BMI associated significantly with changes in individual metabolic syndrome components compared to other adiposity traits. Change in metabolic syndrome component TG was a better predictor of changes in adiposity traits compared to changes in other metabolic components. These associations were explained by significant environmental correlations but not by genetic correlations. Changes in anthropometric and fat mass indicators were positively associated with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering and those associations appeared to be regulated by environmental influences.

  5. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  6. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Practical approach for the study of metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Macedo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available First year students in Physical Education must understand metabolic regulation to comprehend thewhole integration of biochemical pathways in attempt to establish the relation with exercise. Thiswhole view is not easy to learn and the task becomes even harder with the lack of time at theend of course, when normally the students think about metabolic integration. Trying to get thestudents attention to this important issue, we developed practical works beginning in the middle ofthe course, in parallel with theory classes. Blood and urine were collected for metabolite analysis ineach practice. The students were divided in groups (10 students and they created the protocols in formthat they only have been guided and directed by the teacher and monitors. The practical activitiesand biochemical analysis were: six 30m sprints with dierent recovery times (blood lactate and meanvelocities, lactate removal from muscle to blood after high intensity exercise (blood lactate, anaerobicthreshold (blood lactate and heart rate, the eect of glycogen depletion after high and moderateintensity exercises (plasma glucose and urea concentrations and low carbohydrate diet vs. normaldiet (plasma glucose and urine ketone bodies. After data collection, discussion and interpretation, thestudents presented orally each work in the same order above. Each presentation had the focus on themetabolic pathways involved in each practice. Group 1: phosphocreatine utilization and resynthesis.Group 2: anaerobic glycolysis, lactate production and removal. Group 3: transition between anaerobicglycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In attempt to promote the integration between muscle and liver-Group 4: protein catabolism after high intensity exercise with low muscular glycogen concentration(transamination, Cori Cycle and gluconeogenesis. Group 5: liver ketogenesis in low carbohydratediet. This sequence was intended to promote the comprehension of integrated metabolism. As a nalactivity, the

  9. Metabolic studies of Hg-203 on chlamydomonas reinhardi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macka, W.; Stehlik, G.; Wihlidal, H.; Washuettl, J.; Bancher, E.

    1977-09-01

    Vegetative cultures of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardi WT + in the log-phase reduce mercury(II)-nitrate to elemental mercury which is removed from the cell suspension by the stream of gas bubbling through it. Monomethyl and dimethyl mercury as intermediate metabolic compounds are to be excluded, because none of them could be found in the algae, the nutrient medium or the gas phase. (author)

  10. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-12-25

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed.

  11. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  12. [Dyuamical studies on metabolic chemistry of lignans from seeds of Arctium lappa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-min; Cai, Shao-xi; Xu, Xiu-ying; Fu, Shan-quan

    2005-08-01

    To study the metabolic chemistry and pharmaco-dynamics characters of ligan from seeds of Arctium lappa. HPLC method was used in the study. The analysis was carried out on C18 column. The mobile phase was CH3CN-0.05% H3PO4 (36:64) with flow-rate at 0.6 mL x min(-1) and wave-length of 210 nm. The column temperature was kept at 25 degrees C. The results indicated that the ligan was detected in plasma and the main organs 5 min after po. The main metabolic production in plasma was arctigenin. In addition, arctigenin and an unknown product were found in metabolic production in the organs. The method was stable,simple and reproducible. It can be used to determine the metabolic product of the ligan. The metabolic chemistry of ligan in plasma was obviously different from that in the main organs.

  13. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from 13C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sonnay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, 1H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. 1H-[13C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from 13C-coupled 1H, together with infusion of 13C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of 13C isotopomers, the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct 13C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here

  14. A Metabolic Study on Colon Cancer Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal carcinoma is the third cause of cancer deaths in the world. For diagnosis, invasive methods like colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are used, and noninvasive screening tests are not very accurate. We decided to study the potential of 1HNMR spectroscopy with metabolomics and chemometrics as a preliminary noninvasive test. We obtained a distinguishing pattern of metabolites and metabolic pathways between colon cancer patient and normal. Methods. Sera were obtained from confirmed colon cancer patients and the same number of healthy controls. Samples were sent for 1HNMR spectroscopy and analysis was carried out Chenomex and MATLAB software. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolic Data Base (HDMB and the main metabolic cycles were identified using Metaboanalyst software. Results. 15 metabolites were identified such as pyridoxine, orotidine, and taurocholic acid. Main metabolic cycles involved were the bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, methane metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Discussion. The main detected metabolic cycles were also reported earlier in different cancers. Our observations corroborated earlier studies that suggest the importance of lowering serum LCA/DCA and increasing vitamin B6 intake to help prevent colon cancer. This work can be looked upon as a preliminary step in using 1HNMR analysis as a screening test before invasive procedures.

  15. Association between pancreatic fat and incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year Japanese cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hajime; Tauchi, Shinichi; Kimachi, Miho; Dohke, Mitsuru; Hanawa, Nagisa; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Katanuma, Akio; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-04-26

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that pancreatic fat was associated with metabolic syndrome. However, no longitudinal study has evaluated whether people with high pancreatic fat are likely to develop future metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between baseline pancreatic fat and metabolic syndrome incidence. In 2008-2009, 320 participants without metabolic syndrome underwent health checks, which included unenhanced computed tomography, and were followed up annually for 4-5 years. Baseline pancreatic fat amounts were evaluated using a histologically validated method that measured differences between pancreas and spleen attenuations on computed tomography. The participants were divided into low (reference), intermediate, and high pancreatic fat groups based on pancreas and spleen attenuation tertiles. Metabolic syndrome incidence was evaluated annually over a median follow-up period of 4.99 (interquartile range, 4.88-5.05) years, in accordance with the 2009 harmonized criteria. Risk ratios (RRs) for the association between baseline pancreatic fat amounts and metabolic syndrome incidence were estimated using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, liver fat, pre-metabolic syndrome, cigarette use, alcohol use, and physical activity. Metabolic syndrome incidence was 30.6% (98/320). Pancreatic fat was associated with an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, based on a univariate analysis (RRs [95% confidence interval], 3.14 [1.74-5.67] and 3.96 [2.23-7.03] in the intermediate and high pancreatic fat groups, respectively). The association remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (RR [95% confidence interval], 2.04 [1.14-3.64] and 2.30 [1.28-4.14] for the same groups, respectively). Pancreatic fat predicts the future risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Use of density functional theory in drug metabolism studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize many drug compounds. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions, and potentially, a large number of different metabolites can be generated. Density functional theory (DFT) has, over the past decade, been shown to be a powerful tool...... isoforms. This is probably due to the fact that the binding of the substrates is not the major determinant. When binding of the substrate plays a significant role, the well-known issue of determining the free energy of binding is the challenge. How approaches taking the protein environment into account...

  17. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  18. A combined microdialysis and FDG-PET study of glucose metabolism in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Peter J; O'Connell, Mark T; Seal, Alex; Nortje, Jurgens; Timofeev, Ivan; Al-Rawi, Pippa G; Coles, Jonathan P; Fryer, Timothy D; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Carpenter, Keri L H

    2009-01-01

    Microdialysis continuously monitors the chemistry of a small focal volume of the cerebral extracellular space. Positron emission tomography (PET) establishes metabolism of the whole brain but only for the scan's duration. This study's objective was to apply these techniques together, in patients with traumatic brain injury, to assess the relationship between microdialysis (extracellular glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and the lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio as a marker of anaerobic metabolism) and PET parameters of glucose metabolism using the glucose analogue [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In particular, we aimed to determine the fate of glucose in terms of differential metabolism to pyruvate and lactate. Microdialysis catheters (CMA70 or CMA71) were inserted into the cerebral cortex of 17 patients with major head injury. Microdialysis was performed during FDG-PET scans with regions of interest for PET analysis defined by the location of the gold-tipped microdialysis catheter. Microdialysate analysis was performed on a CMA600 analyser. There was significant linear relationship between the PET-derived parameter of glucose metabolism (regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose; CMRglc) and levels of lactate (r = 0.778, p glucose was metabolised to both lactate and pyruvate, but was not associated with an increase in the L/P ratio. This suggests an increase in glucose metabolism to both lactate and pyruvate, as opposed to a shift towards anaerobic metabolism.

  19. Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Sexual Minority Women: Results from the ESTHER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Stall, Ron; Hawk, Mary; Markovic, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority women (SMW) have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome risk factors (e.g., obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and depression). Yet, no published research has examined whether SMW have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual factors in a sample of heterosexuals and SMW, and identify whether SMW are at greater risk of having the metabolic syndrome. Data are from the Epidemiologic STudy of HEalth Risk in Women (ESTHER), a cross-sectional convenience sample of 479 SMW and 400 heterosexual women from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants provided self-report questionnaire data, clinical data, and blood work. Compared to heterosexuals, SMW had higher mean waist circumference, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nearly one-quarter (24.3%) of SMW had the metabolic syndrome compared to 15.6% of heterosexual women (p = 0.002). After controlling for demographic and risk factors, SMW had a 44% higher risk of having the metabolic syndrome than heterosexuals (p = 0.031). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify this health disparity in SMW. Future studies should explore differential risk of mortality and metabolic health between SMW and heterosexuals.

  20. Chimeric mice with humanized liver: Application in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritomi, Yoichi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2018-02-01

    Predicting human drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK) is key to drug discovery. In particular, it is important to predict human PK, metabolite profiles and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Various methods have been used for such predictions, including in vitro metabolic studies using human biological samples, such as hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes, and in vivo studies using experimental animals. However, prediction studies using these methods are often inconclusive due to discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results, and interspecies differences in drug metabolism. Further, the prediction methods have changed from qualitative to quantitative to solve these issues. Chimeric mice with humanized liver have been developed, in which mouse liver cells are mostly replaced with human hepatocytes. Since human drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the liver of these mice, they are regarded as suitable models for mimicking the drug metabolism and PK observed in humans; therefore, these mice are useful for predicting human drug metabolism and PK. In this review, we discuss the current state, issues, and future directions of predicting human drug metabolism and PK using chimeric mice with humanized liver in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  2. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People′s Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases, squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases, and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases. The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. Results: The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255 was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217 and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292. Conclusions: The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  3. Earwax metabolomics: An innovative pilot metabolic profiling study for assessing metabolic changes in ewes during periparturition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Engy; Pereira, Julião; Marques Júnior, Jair Gonzalez; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; Noronha Filho, Antônio Dionísio Feitosa; da Silva, Jessica Alves; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; de Oliveira, Anselmo Elcana; Antoniosi Filho, Nelson Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Important metabolic changes occur during transition period of late pregnancy and early lactation to meet increasing energy demands of the growing fetus and for milk production. The aim of this investigation is to present an innovative and non-invasive tool using ewe earwax sample analysis to assess the metabolic profile in ewes during late pregnancy and early lactation. In this work, earwax samples were collected from 28 healthy Brazilian Santa Inês ewes divided into 3 sub-groups: 9 non-pregnant ewes, 6 pregnant ewes in the last 30 days of gestation, and 13 lactating ewes ≤ 30 days postpartum. Then, a range of metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOC), amino acids (AA), and minerals were profiled and quantified in the samples by applying headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, respectively. As evident in our results, significant changes were observed in the metabolite profile of earwax between the studied groups where a remarkable elevation was detected in the levels of non-esterified fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, and hydroxy urea in the VOC profile of samples obtained from pregnant and lactating ewes. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was detected in the levels of 9 minerals and 14 AA including essential AA (leucine, phenyl alanine, lysine, isoleucine, threonine, valine), conditionally essential AA (arginine, glycine, tyrosine, proline, serine), and a non-essential AA (alanine). Multivariate analysis using robust principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was successfully applied to discriminate the three study groups using the variations of metabolites in the two stress states (pregnancy and lactation) from the healthy non-stress condition. The innovative developed method was successful in evaluating pre- and post-parturient metabolic changes using earwax and can in the future be applied to

  4. Earwax metabolomics: An innovative pilot metabolic profiling study for assessing metabolic changes in ewes during periparturition period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy Shokry

    Full Text Available Important metabolic changes occur during transition period of late pregnancy and early lactation to meet increasing energy demands of the growing fetus and for milk production. The aim of this investigation is to present an innovative and non-invasive tool using ewe earwax sample analysis to assess the metabolic profile in ewes during late pregnancy and early lactation. In this work, earwax samples were collected from 28 healthy Brazilian Santa Inês ewes divided into 3 sub-groups: 9 non-pregnant ewes, 6 pregnant ewes in the last 30 days of gestation, and 13 lactating ewes ≤ 30 days postpartum. Then, a range of metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOC, amino acids (AA, and minerals were profiled and quantified in the samples by applying headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, respectively. As evident in our results, significant changes were observed in the metabolite profile of earwax between the studied groups where a remarkable elevation was detected in the levels of non-esterified fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, and hydroxy urea in the VOC profile of samples obtained from pregnant and lactating ewes. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was detected in the levels of 9 minerals and 14 AA including essential AA (leucine, phenyl alanine, lysine, isoleucine, threonine, valine, conditionally essential AA (arginine, glycine, tyrosine, proline, serine, and a non-essential AA (alanine. Multivariate analysis using robust principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was successfully applied to discriminate the three study groups using the variations of metabolites in the two stress states (pregnancy and lactation from the healthy non-stress condition. The innovative developed method was successful in evaluating pre- and post-parturient metabolic changes using earwax and can in the future be

  5. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  6. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. A Prospective Study of Dairy Consumption in Relation to Changes in Metabolic Risk Factors: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Heine, R.J.; Dekker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Methods and Procedures: Baseline dairy

  8. Technological Development of High-Performance MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Study of Metabolic Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, Adam D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    This thesis represents efforts made in technological developments for the study of metabolic biology in plants, specifically maize, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-mass spectrometry imaging.

  9. Adiponectin Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Syndrome: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the association of plasma adiponectin levels with longitudinal changes in metabolic syndrome and the metabolic syndrome-related traits [insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as their genetic and environmental correlations. A total of 1030 Koreans (380 men and 650 women; 44.0 ± 12.7 years old) without diabetes of the Healthy Twin Study visited at baseline (2005-2010) and returned for a follow-up examination 3.7 ± 1.2 years later. Baseline plasma adiponectin, metabolic syndrome components [waist circumference (WC), glucose, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs)] and metabolic syndrome-related traits were measured at baseline and follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, caloric intake, education level, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, and changes in BMI, 1 standard deviation increment in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with 38-63% lower odds of incident and persistent metabolic syndrome. After additionally adjusting for the baseline levels of each trait, baseline adiponectin levels were inversely associated with WC, blood pressure, insulin, HOMA-IR, and TGs values at follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline values of each trait or sum of metabolic syndrome components, baseline adiponectin levels exhibited significantly inverse genetic and environmental correlations with insulin, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C values and the sum of metabolic syndrome components at follow-up. High adiponectin levels reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and having persistent metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome-related traits over time. These associations may be explained by pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  10. Altered metabolism of growth hormone receptor mutant mice: a combined NMR metabonomics and microarray study.

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    Horst Joachim Schirra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone

  11. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

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    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  12. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

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    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  13. Metabolic and cardiovascular genes in polycystic ovary syndrome: A candidate-wide association study (CWAS)

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    Jones, Michelle R.; Chua, Angela K.; Mengesha, Emebet A.; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Li, Xiaohui; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Legro, Richard S.; Azziz, Ricardo; Goodarzi, Mark O.

    2011-01-01

    The role of metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been well established, with insulin resistance and the resulting compensatory hyperinsulinemia thought to promote hyperandrogenemia. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established a large number of loci for metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. A subset of these loci has been investigated for a role in PCOS; these studies generally have not revealed a confirmed role for these loci in PCOS ri...

  14. Dynapenic obesity as an associated factor to lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome in older adults - Findings from SABE Study.

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    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Máximo, Roberta de Oliveira; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Brito, Tábatta Renata Pereira de; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2018-08-01

    There is little evidence showing that dynapenic obesity is associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to analyze whether dynapenic abdominal obesity can be associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in older adults living in São Paulo. This cross-sectional study included 833 older adults who took part of the third wave of the Health, Well-being and Aging Study in 2010. Based on waist circumference (>88 cm women and >102 cm men) and handgrip strength (metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dynapenia and abdominal obesity status and lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. The fully adjusted models showed that D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of low HDL plasma concentrations (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.40-4.48), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 1.43-4.47), hyperglycemia (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.14-3.69), high glycated-haemoglobin concentrations (OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.03-3.30) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 12.39, 95%CI: 7.38-20.79) than ND/NAO. Dynapenic and D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of heart disease (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.17-3.59 and OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.06-3.48, respectively) than ND/NAO. D/AO was associated with high prevalence of lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome while dynapenia and D/AO were associated with high prevalence of heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

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    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  16. Study of clinical parameters and laboratory evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adolescents

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    Ayesha Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide incidence of obesity is rising. Genetic predisposition, urbanization, sedentary lifestyle, television watching, food habits, and lack of exercise are contributing factors. They result in obesity-related morbidity like metabolic syndrome, stroke in young, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1000 adolescents of both genders, aged 12-19 years in three schools of Pimpri, Pune, after obtaining approval from Institutional Ethical Committee. The criterion used to diagnose metabolic syndrome was International Diabetes Federation definition. The Chi-square test was used to explore the association between metabolic syndrome and various predictors. A P value of 0.05 was accepted as the level of statistical significance. Results: In the study sample, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 16/1000. Females were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (male:female = 7:9. Factors associated were body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, birth weight, skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, faulty dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyles (P < 0.05. Among all, the components of metabolic syndrome, raised triglyceride (75%, and fasting blood sugar level (75% were more prevalent than high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (44% and hypertension (37.5%. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was found to be more prevalent in females of age group 16-19 years, among the obese population, associated with birth weight, BMI, and WHR.

  17. Radiorespirometric study of carbohydrate metabolism in childhood liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaCosta, H.; Shreeve, W.W.; Merchant, S.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a suitable parameter to evaluate patients with chronic liver disease has been felt for some time, especially in order to judge the response to surgical shunts and the influence of certain drugs and diets on the liver. Since the liver is a major organ for carbohydrate metabolism, it was decided to analyze the in vivo oxidation of such substrates as glucose and galactose labeled with 14 C. Moderately advanced ''Indian childhood cirrhosis'' and idiopathic fatty hepatic infiltration were selected to represent diffuse chronic liver disease. Oral administration of 14 C-U-glucose or 14 C-1-galactose was followed by analyses of 14 CO 2 in breath by liquid scintillation counting. Conversion of 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 was accelerated by both diseases. On the other hand, oxidation of 14 C-galactose was slowed in fatty infiltration and was markedly subnormal in Indian childhood cirrhosis

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERACTIVE SOFTWARE TO STUDY ENERGETIC METABOLISM

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    Emanuella da Silva Cardoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Technology allows the creation of dynamic interfaces and graphics, which enables the construction of different scenarios that simulate biochemical events at cellular and molecular level. Furthermore, games have the ability to amuse and stimulate students and thus keeping them interested and receptive. Therefore, digital games must be explored as teaching aids once they have features that enhance the teaching process. OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to develop an educational software that contributes to the understanding of various events taking place in energetic metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a downloadable educational game in Java, divided into two levels, each of which tackle issues about the Krebs cycle, the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Initially, the names of the components of the metabolic process appear randomly on computer screen and the user must follow clues to place them in the right sequence, until all the biochemical reactions are complete. In next phase, there is a quiz about details and clinical correlates related to the theme of the game. Finally, students have to answer a form in order to verify acceptance and relevance of the game. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The game was applied to 40 medical students from UFF. The game’s subject matter and its difficulty were analyzed and more than 40% of students classified both respiratory chain and Krebs cycle as difficult. These findings highlight the need to establish new methods to enhance the teaching and learning processes and decrease the students’ difficulties, which is the game’s purpose. The game was very highly rated by students once they evaluated the game as an excellent educational aid and 92% of students agreed that it complements the content discussed in classroom. Finally, 97,5% of students said they would play again. CONCLUSION: Therefore, educational games could be an excellent tool to optimize learning.

  19. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

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    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  20. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

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    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  1. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

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    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  2. A prospective study of monitoring practices for metabolic disease in antipsychotic-treated community psychiatric patients

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    Watkinson Helen MO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. A number of recent guidelines and consensus statements recommend stringent monitoring of metabolic function in individuals receiving antipsychotic drugs. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 106 community-treated psychiatric patients from across the diagnostic spectrum from the Northeast of England to investigate changes in metabolic status and monitoring practices for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We undertook detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment at baseline and follow-up, and examined clinical notes and hospital laboratory records to ascertain monitoring practices. Results A high prevalence of undiagnosed and untreated metabolic disease was present at baseline assessment. Mean follow-up time was 599.3 (SD ± 235.4 days. Body mass index (p 50% of subjects had neither blood glucose nor lipids monitored during the follow-up period. Conclusion This cohort has a high prevalence of metabolic disease and heightened cardiovascular risk. Despite the publication of a number of recommendations regarding physical health screening in this population, monitoring rates are poor, and physical health worsened during the follow-up period.

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  4. Association between habitual daytime napping and metabolic syndrome: a population-based study.

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    Lin, Diaozhu; Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Ren, Meng; Huang, Chulin; Tang, Juying; Xue, Shengneng; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between habitual daytime napping and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We conducted a population-based study of 8,547 subjects aged 40 years or older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to a harmonized definition from a joint statement and the recommended thresholds for the Chinese population. Information about sleep duration was self-reported. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the no daytime napping group, the 0 to 1 hour daytime napping group and the more than 1 hour daytime napping group were 35.0%, 36.0% and 44.5% among the females (Pnapping hours were positively associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome in the female subjects, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (Pnapping females, napping for more than 1 hour was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.72). Compared to the female subjects in the no daytime napping group, those habitually napped for more than 1 hour exhibited 46% and 26% increases in the prevalence of central obesity and hypertriglyceridemia (all Pnapping hours and metabolic syndrome among the male subjects. Daytime napping is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged non-obese Chinese women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Sedentary behaviour and clustered metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-López, J P; Bel-Serrat, S; Santaliestra-Pasías, A; de Moraes, A C; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Ruiz, J R; Artero, E G; Martínez-Gómez, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; Polito, A; Molnar, D; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

    2013-10-01

    Although sedentary behaviours are linked with mortality for cardiovascular reasons, it is not clear whether they are negatively related with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim was to examine the association between time engaged in television (TV) viewing or playing with videogames and a clustered cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity were assessed in 769 adolescents (376 boys, aged 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA-CSS study. We measured systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO₂max and the sum of four skinfolds, and a clustered metabolic risk index was computed. A multilevel regression model (by Poisson) was performed to calculate the prevalence ratio of having a clustered metabolic risk. In boys, playing >4 h/day with videogames (weekend) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with cardio-metabolic risk after adjustment for age, maternal education and MVPA. In contrast, TV viewing was not associated with the presence of cardio-metabolic risk. In boys, playing with videogames may impair cardio-metabolic health during the adolescence. Adolescents should be encouraged to increase their participation in physical activity of at least moderate intensity to obtain a more favourable risk factor profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth hormone regulation of metabolic gene expression in muscle: a microarray study in hypopituitary men.

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    Sjögren, Klara; Leung, Kin-Chuen; Kaplan, Warren; Gardiner-Garden, Margaret; Gibney, James; Ho, Ken K Y

    2007-07-01

    Muscle is a target of growth hormone (GH) action and a major contributor to whole body metabolism. Little is known about how GH regulates metabolic processes in muscle or the extent to which muscle contributes to changes in whole body substrate metabolism during GH treatment. To identify GH-responsive genes that regulate substrate metabolism in muscle, we studied six hypopituitary men who underwent whole body metabolic measurement and skeletal muscle biopsies before and after 2 wk of GH treatment (0.5 mg/day). Transcript profiles of four subjects were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChips. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and procollagens I and III were measured by RIA. GH increased serum IGF-I and procollagens I and III, enhanced whole body lipid oxidation, reduced carbohydrate oxidation, and stimulated protein synthesis. It induced gene expression of IGF-I and collagens in muscle. GH reduced expression of several enzymes regulating lipid oxidation and energy production. It reduced calpain 3, increased ribosomal protein L38 expression, and displayed mixed effects on genes encoding myofibrillar proteins. It increased expression of circadian gene CLOCK, and reduced that of PERIOD. In summary, GH exerted concordant effects on muscle expression and blood levels of IGF-I and collagens. It induced changes in genes regulating protein metabolism in parallel with a whole body anabolic effect. The discordance between muscle gene expression profiles and metabolic responses suggests that muscle is unlikely to contribute to GH-induced stimulation of whole body energy and lipid metabolism. GH may regulate circadian function in skeletal muscle by modulating circadian gene expression with possible metabolic consequences.

  7. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  8. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  9. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD

  11. Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome, Periodontitis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production. A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patini, Romeo; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Cordaro, Massimo; Cantiani, Monica; Amalfitano, Adriana; Arcovito, Alessandro; Callà, Cinzia; Mingrone, Gertrude; Nocca, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis even if the mechanism is unknown. Since both MetS and periodontitis are characterized by an alteration of inflammation status, the aim of this pilot study was to determine if differences in ROS metabolism of phagocytes isolated from (A) patients with MetS, (B) patients with both MetS and mild periodontitis, (C) healthy subjects and (D) normal weight subjects with mild periodontitis, were ...

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Insulin Metabolism: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. Christine; Watkins, Steve M.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Il?yasova, Dora; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Haffner, Steven M.; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies using untargeted metabolomics approaches have suggested that plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with incident diabetes. However, little is known about the role of plasma BCAAs in metabolic abnormalities underlying diabetes and whether these relationships are consistent across ethnic populations at high risk for diabetes. We investigated the associations of BCAAs with insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and metabolic clearance ...

  13. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University Hospital of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis.

  14. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kang, Young Han

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis

  15. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  16. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pmetabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  17. Metabolic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Abuse in Non-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiamaka Obianyo

    Full Text Available An alcohol use disorder (AUD is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infection and injury and, upon hospitalization, higher mortality rates. Studies in model systems show effects of alcohol on mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and antioxidant systems. The present study applied high-resolution metabolomics to test for these changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of subjects with an AUD. Smokers were excluded to avoid confounding effects and compliance was verified by cotinine measurements. Statistically significant metabolic features, differentially expressed by control and AUD subjects, were identified by statistical and bioinformatic methods. The results show that fatty acid and acylcarnitine concentrations were increased in AUD subjects, consistent with perturbed mitochondrial and lipid metabolism. Decreased concentrations of methyl-donor compounds suggest altered one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. An accumulation of peptides suggests proteolytic activity, which could reflect altered epithelial barrier function. Two metabolites of possible microbial origin suggest subclinical bacterial infection. Furthermore, increased diacetylspermine suggests additional metabolic perturbations, which could contribute to dysregulated alveolar macrophage function and vulnerability to infection. Together, the results show an extended metabolic consequence of AUD in the bronchoalveolar space.

  18. Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M J; Moffitt, T E; Gregory, A M; Goldman-Mellor, S; Nolan, P M; Poulton, R; Caspi, A

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Circadian rhythms are known to control both sleep timing and energy homeostasis, and disruptions in circadian rhythms have been linked with metabolic dysfunction and obesity-associated disease. In previous research, social jetlag, a measure of chronic circadian disruption caused by the discrepancy between our internal versus social clocks, was associated with elevated self-reported body mass index, possibly indicative of a more generalized association with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We studied participants from the population-representative Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1037) to determine whether social jetlag was associated with clinically assessed measurements of metabolic phenotypes and disease indicators for obesity-related disease, specifically, indicators of inflammation and diabetes. Our analysis was restricted to N=815 non-shift workers in our cohort. Among these participants, we found that social jetlag was associated with numerous clinically assessed measures of metabolic dysfunction and obesity. We distinguished between obese individuals who were metabolically healthy versus unhealthy, and found higher social jetlag levels in metabolically unhealthy obese individuals. Among metabolically unhealthy obese individuals, social jetlag was additionally associated with elevated glycated hemoglobin and an indicator of inflammation. The findings are consistent with the possibility that 'living against our internal clock' may contribute to metabolic dysfunction and its consequences. Further research aimed at understanding that the physiology and social features of social jetlag may inform obesity prevention and have ramifications for policies and practices that contribute to increased social jetlag, such as work schedules and daylight savings time.

  19. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  20. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG : models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Helene; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Veronique; Staels, Bart

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological

  1. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Iron metabolism in critically ill patients developing anemia of inflammation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Margit; Binnekade, Jan M; Nota, Benjamin; van de Groep, Kirsten; Cremer, Olaf L; Tuinman, Pieter R; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2018-05-02

    Anemia occurring as a result of inflammatory processes (anemia of inflammation, AI) has a high prevalence in critically ill patients. Knowledge on changes in iron metabolism during the course of AI is limited, hampering the development of strategies to counteract AI. This case control study aimed to investigate iron metabolism during the development of AI in critically ill patients. Iron metabolism in 30 patients who developed AI during ICU stay was compared with 30 septic patients with a high Hb and 30 non-septic patients with a high Hb. Patients were matched on age and sex. Longitudinally collected plasma samples were analyzed for levels of parameters of iron metabolism. A linear mixed model was used to assess the predictive values of the parameters. In patients with AI, levels of iron, transferrin and transferrin saturation showed an early decrease compared to controls with a high Hb, already prior to the development of anemia. Ferritin, hepcidin and IL-6 levels were increased in AI compared to controls. During AI development, erythroferrone decreased. Differences in iron metabolism between groups were not influenced by APACHE IV score. The results show that in critically ill patients with AI, iron metabolism is already altered prior to the development of anemia. Levels of iron regulators in AI differ from septic controls with a high Hb, irrespective of disease severity. AI is characterized by high levels of hepcidin, ferritin and IL-6 and low levels of iron, transferrin and erythroferrone.

  3. STUDY OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERIES OF OPERATIVE TIME GREATER THAN 2 HOURS DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathu T. S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic acidosis is proven complication of major surgery, but very less significance is given to it. Metabolic acidosis has a significant effect in postoperative recovery and morbidity of patients undergoing major surgery. Metabolic acidosis has a say in proper functioning of cardiovascular, renal and pulmonary system, added to severe stress full condition related to postoperative period, it bring about major shift in the speedy recovery of patient. It becomes significantly important that metabolic acidosis in diagnosed as early as possible and corrective measures are taken immediately. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study design is a prospective observational study. 109 patients who underwent elective and emergency surgeries in the department of General Surgery, Govt. Medical College Kottayam was studied for a period of 3 months (2016. On arrival of the patient, a detailed history of the patient was taken, along with emphasis to the multiple factors in the history which could be contributory to postoperative metabolic acidosis such as diabetic status, drug history, history of respiratory, cardiac and renal status. Basic preoperative laboratory investigation was carried out and its values were recorded. A preoperative arterial blood gas analysis (ABG of the patient was done before patient was taken for surgery, values of which were recorded and analysed to rule out existing acidotic status of patient, if the patient is already having metabolic acidosis he was excluded from the study. A second ABG was sent at 2 hours after induction of anaesthesia, values of which was recorded, along with the values of intraoperative fluids, preoperative Hb, duration of surgery, type of surgery, blood transfusion and colloid administration given during the time of anaesthesia. A third ABG was sent within six hours of completion of surgery and the values analysed, with due notes on postoperative care done and the days of ICU stay, for analysis and comparison

  4. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Portugal: the PORMETS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2017-06-08

    The PORMETS study was designed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants in the overall and administrative regions of the Portuguese mainland. A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of non-institutionalized Portuguese adults selected from primary health care centres lists including 1695 men and 2309 women was conducted from February 2007 to July 2009. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history and socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, and venous blood samples were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to three operational definitions. The prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binomial generalized linear regression, with the log link function. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in this sample of Portuguese adults were 36.5%, 49.6%, and 43.1%, using the Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation and Joint Interim Statement definitions, respectively. The most prevalent feature of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high blood pressure (64.3%) and the lowest was high fasting glucose (24.9%). After adjustment for age and gender, significant differences were observed for the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland. Additionally, metabolic syndrome was significantly more frequent in non-urban areas than in urban ones (p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women (p˂0.001) and older participants (p˂0.001), as well as in those who reported being housewives (p = 0.010), retired (p = 0.046) or unemployed (p = 0.024). This study showed that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the Portuguese adult population. Regional differences in the prevalence of this syndrome were observed, and this condition was more common in non-urban areas and less favoured socio-economic categories.

  5. Epigenome-wide association study of metabolic syndrome in African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Do, Anh N; Patki, Amit; Aslibekyan, Stella; Zhi, Degui; Hidalgo, Bertha; Tiwari, Hemant K; Absher, Devin; Geng, Xin; Arnett, Donna K; Irvin, Marguerite R

    2018-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity among US adults has resulted in significant increases in associated metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Together, these disorders constitute metabolic syndrome, a clinically defined condition highly prevalent among African-Americans. Identifying epigenetic alterations associated with metabolic syndrome may provide additional information regarding etiology beyond current evidence from genome-wide association studies. Data on metabolic syndrome and DNA methylation was assessed on 614 African-Americans from the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the joint harmonized criteria, and DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K Bead Chip assay on DNA extracted from buffy coat. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine the association between CpG methylation at > 450,000 CpG sites and metabolic syndrome adjusted for study covariates. Replication using DNA from a separate sample of 69 African-Americans, as well as meta-analysis combining both cohorts, was conducted. Two differentially methylated CpG sites in the IGF2BP1 gene on chromosome 17 (cg06638433; p value = 3.10 × 10 - 7 ) and the ABCG1 gene on chromosome 21 (cg06500161; p value = 2.60 × 10 - 8 ) were identified. Results for the ABCG1 gene remained statistically significant in the replication dataset and meta-analysis. Metabolic syndrome was consistently associated with increased methylation in the ABCG1 gene in the discovery and replication datasets, a gene that encodes a protein in the ATP-binding cassette transporter family and is involved in intra- and extra-cellular signaling and lipid transport.

  6. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  7. Applications of NMR to studies of tissue metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avison, M.J.; Hetherington, H.P.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    From its beginnings as a tool for the elucidation of biochemical pathways and bioenergetic status in unicellular organisms, the field of NMR studie in vivo has grown to encompass not only the study of isolated perfused organs, but also the study of various aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology of these same organs in the intact animal. In recent years several groups have begun to extend the techniques developed in animals to the study of clinically relevant conditions in humans. A comprehensive review of all areas of NMR studies in vivo would be either unacceptably long or very superficial. For this reason the authors have restricted this review to studies published since 1980, except where an earlier study is particularly relevant to the topic under discussion. Furthermore, they have concentrated on areas that have been extending the scope of NMR in vivo. One specific omission is review of NMR studies of tumors, since a comprehensive review has recently appeared

  8. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  9. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Vrijkotte

    Full Text Available In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5-6 years.Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study were collected at age 5-6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed.In analysis adjusted for child's physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01, higher SBP (p<0.001 and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01. Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05. Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5 adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001.This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5-6 years.

  10. Metabolic distress in lipid & one carbon metabolic pathway through low vitamin B-12: a population based study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Joshi, Shipra; Yadav, Suniti; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2018-04-25

    Dyslipidemia and hyper-homocysteinemia are the major independent risk factors of cardio vascular disease. Deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12 are associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship of homocysteine and its associated dietary determinant levels (Folate and Vitamin B-12) with lipids and obesity parameters (WC, BMI, WHR) in North Indian population. The participants were recruited under a major government funded project through household survey covering 15 villages of Haryana, India. Participants were both males and females, between age group 30-65 years, from a north Indian community. Initially 1634 individuals were recruited, of which 1374 were considered for analysis as they were not found to be on any kind of medication for high blood pressure, CAD, diabetes or any other disorder, and had no missing data. 5 mL of intravenous blood sample was collected after obtaining written informed consent from the participants. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were estimated through Immulite 1000 by chemi-luminescence technique. Triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-C were estimated by spectrophotometry technique using commercial kits. The values for LDL and VLDL were calculated using Friedwald's equation. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) was measured over light clothing. Statistical analysis for data was performed using SPSS 16.0 version. All the lipid indices, except HDL, showed a trend of negative correlation with homocysteine after controlling for confounders, though not significant. No association was found between obesity (WC, BMI, WHR) and homocysteine in the present study. Vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and low HDL. Folate was found to have significantly reduced risk for high TC & LDL. The "hcy-lipid" hypothesis does not seem to be complementing in the present studied population. The

  11. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsdal HT

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Henriette Thisted Horsdal,1,2 Michael Eriksen Benros,2,3 Ole Köhler-Forsberg,2–4 Jesper Krogh,3 Christiane Gasse1,2,5 1National Centre for Register-based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 4Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Centre for Integrated Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician’s monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark Region. Information on metabolic parameters was obtained from a clinical laboratory information system. Associations were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: A total of 2,452 people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4% were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present an abnormal lipid measure (65.7% vs 46.8%, P<0.001 and abnormal glucose profile (16.4% vs 10.1%, P=0.01. Conclusion: Metabolic abnormalities are common at first

  12. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos-Manuel; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto; Fuente-Vera, Tania-Angélica De-la

    2016-01-01

    According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases) and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls). The analysis comprised: Tumor (s), anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI); moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1). Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  14. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Manuel Ortiz-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. Aim: To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls. The analysis comprised: Tumor (s, anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI; moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Results: The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  15. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  16. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bee S; Poh, Bee K; Bulgiba, Awang; Ismail, Mohd N; Ruzita, Abdul T; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-05-18

    With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007) growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP) was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG) and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). International Diabetes Federation (2007) criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245) Malay, 30.9% (n = 124) Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33) Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8), followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1) and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7). Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p < 0.01). Overweight/obese children had higher odds (OR = 16.3; 95%CI 2.2, 461.1) of developing the metabolic syndrome compared to normal-weight children. Binary logistic regression showed no significant association between age, gender and family history of communicable diseases with the metabolic

  17. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry in aluminum metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirav, O.; Vetterli, D.; Johnson, R.R.; Sutton, R.A.L.; Walker, V.R.; Halabe, A.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Klein, J.

    1990-06-01

    The recent recognition that aluminum causes toxicity in uremic patients and may be associated with Alzheimer's disease has stimulated many studies of its biochemical effects. However, such studies were hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer. In a novel experiment, we have applied the new technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to investigate aluminum kinetics in rats, using as a marker the long-lived isotope 26 Al. We present the first aluminum kinetic model for a biological system. The results clearly demonstrate the advantage this technique holds for isotope tracer studies in animals as well as humans. (Author) (24 refs., 3 figs.)

  18. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry in aluminum metabolism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirav, O; Vetterli, D; Johnson, R R [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Sutton, R A.L.; Walker, V R; Halabe, A [British Columbia U.iv., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Medicine; Fink, D; Middleton, R; Klein, J [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1990-06-01

    The recent recognition that aluminum causes toxicity in uremic patients and may be associated with Alzheimer`s disease has stimulated many studies of its biochemical effects. However, such studies were hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer. In a novel experiment, we have applied the new technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to investigate aluminum kinetics in rats, using as a marker the long-lived isotope {sup 26}Al. We present the first aluminum kinetic model for a biological system. The results clearly demonstrate the advantage this technique holds for isotope tracer studies in animals as well as humans. (Author) (24 refs., 3 figs.).

  19. A study of changes in bone metabolism in cases of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Yoon Taek; Oda, Hiromi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing estrogen and decreasing androgen in males and increasing androgen and decreasing estrogen in females on bone metabolism in patients with gender identity disorder (GID). We measured and examined bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers retrospectively in GID patients who were treated in our hospital. In addition, we studied the effects of treatment on those who had osteoporosis. Patients who underwent a change from male to female (MtF) showed inhibition of bone resorption and increased L2-4 BMD whereas those who underwent a change from female to male (FtM) had increased bone resorption and decreased L2-4 BMD. Six months after administration of risedronate to FtM patients with osteoporosis, L2-4 BMD increased and bone resorption markers decreased. These results indicate that estrogen is an important element with regard to bone metabolism in males.

  20. Use of stable isotopes for the in vivo study of metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faull, K.F.; Gan, I.; Halpern, B.; Danke, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Deuterated tyrosine has been used to study tyrosine metabolism in one normal and two tyrosinemic patients. The labeled tyrosine was ingested orally, after which urine and serum samples were examined at regular intervals for residual labeled tyrosine and tyrosine metabolites. Deuteration measurements were made with a combined GC-MS instrument operating under computer control using time averaging and mass fragmentometry. Initial experiments were done with a loading of 829 μmoles of deuterated tyrosine/kg body wt., but we have been able to reduce this by one-third without any loss of precision. The rate of deuterated tyrosine metabolism has allowed us to distinguish between individuals having different clinical manifestations but similar biochemical abnormalities. The sensitivity of the method suggests the procedure has value in the study of metabolic defects

  1. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  2. Study on the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiao Zhuang; Han, Kun Yuan; Zhu, Cai Zhong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in elderly patients. From January 2014 to January 2015, 54 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in this study as the observation group. During the same period, 46 healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study as the control group. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism (rs28502) was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The expression levels of mRNA in different genotypes were detected using FQ-PCR. ELISA was used to evaluate the KCNJ11 protein expression in different genotypes. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome was studied by measuring the blood pressure levels in patients with different genotypes. Three genotypes of KCNJ11 gene in rs28502 were CC, CT and TT. The CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in healthy population were 8.5, 9.2 and 82.2%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies in patients with metabolic syndrome were 42.4, 49.8 and 7.8%, respectively. There were significant differences between groups (P≤0.05). However, the genotype frequencies of C/T in healthy individuals and metabolic syndrome patients were 35.3 and 38.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). FQ-PCR results showed that the KCNJ11 mRNA expression levels in the control and observation groups had no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the results obtained from ELISA analysis revealed that KCNJ11 protein expression level in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (Pmetabolic syndrome in the elderly. Elderly patients with the CC and TT genotypes are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  4. Excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiqun; Xu, Huajun; Xia, Yunyan; Qian, Yingjun; Li, Xinyi; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Tang, Xulan; Zhu, Huaming; Zhou, Huiqun; Su, Kaiming; Yu, Dongzhen; Yi, Hongliang; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2017-10-03

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have showed that excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with some individual components of metabolic syndrome. We performed a large cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in male OSA patients. A total of 2241 suspected male OSA patients were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth sleepiness scale. Anthropometric, metabolic, and polysomnographic parameters were measured. Metabolic score was used to evaluate the severity of metabolic syndrome. Among the male OSA patients, most metabolic parameters varied by excessive daytime sleepiness. In the severe group, male OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness were more obese, with higher blood pressure, more severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia than non-sleepy patients. Patients with metabolic syndrome also had a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and scored higher on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio =1.242, 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.512). No substantial interaction was observed between excessive daytime sleepiness and OSA/ obesity. Excessive daytime sleepiness was related to metabolic disorders and independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in men with OSA. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be taken into consideration for OSA patients, as it may be a simple and useful clinical indicator for evaluating the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  5. In vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies on methylone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Just; Petersen, Trine Hedebrink; Linnet, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of the stimulant designer drug methylone (methylenedioxymethcathinone) has been documented in most parts of the world. As with many of the new designer drugs that continuously appear in the illicit drug market, little is known about the pharmacokinetics of methylone. Using in vitro studies...

  6. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    standard, linguaggio comune , necessario a stabilire protocolli di collaborazione) Start Up Progetto Certificazione ISO 9001, IFO, Rome, Italy 3rd December...28 June 2008 CONCLUSIONS In summary, in the context of a still limited scientific panorama, our study and meta- analysis provide evidence...Department of Urology, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy 7 Scientific Direction, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy

  7. Studies of citric acid metabolism in heart muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meduski, J.W.

    1950-01-01

    1. The pentabromoacetone method for the determination of citric acid was studied; a modification of the procedure of Natelson, Lugovoy and Pincus was used. 2. Two tissue preparations were obtained. The first by washing with water, the second by washing with water and then with 0.5% sodium

  8. Validation of a metabolic network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mixed substrate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrolleghem, P A; de Jong-Gubbels, P; van Gulik, W M; Pronk, J T; van Dijken, J P; Heijnen, S

    1996-01-01

    Setting up a metabolic network model for respiratory growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the estimation of only two (energetic) stoichiometric parameters: (1) the operational PO ratio and (2) a growth-related maintenance factor k. It is shown, both theoretically and practically, how chemostat cultivations with different mixtures of two substrates allow unique values to be given to these unknowns of the proposed metabolic model. For the yeast and model considered, an effective PO ratio of 1.09 mol of ATP/mol of O (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.11) and a k factor of 0.415 mol of ATP/C-mol of biomass (0.385-0.445) were obtained from biomass substrate yield data on glucose/ethanol mixtures. Symbolic manipulation software proved very valuable in this study as it supported the proof of theoretical identifiability and significantly reduced the necessary computations for parameter estimation. In the transition from 100% glucose to 100% ethanol in the feed, four metabolic regimes occur. Switching between these regimes is determined by cessation of an irreversible reaction and initiation of an alternative reaction. Metabolic network predictions of these metabolic switches compared well with activity measurements of key enzymes. As a second validation of the network, the biomass yield of S. cerevisiae on acetate was also compared to the network prediction. An excellent agreement was found for a network in which acetate transport was modeled with a proton symport, while passive diffusion of acetate gave significantly higher yield predictions.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276

  10. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study of AMPK-Regulated Metabolic Fluxes in Neurons Using the Seahorse XFe Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Claudia; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe; Buée, Luc; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the intracellular master energy sensor and metabolic regulator. AMPK is involved in cell energy homeostasis through the regulation of glycolytic flux and mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, metabolic dysfunctions and AMPK deregulations are observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's. While these deregulations could play a key role in the development of these diseases, the study of metabolic fluxes has remained quite challenging and time-consuming. In this chapter, we describe the Seahorse XFe respirometry assay as a fundamental experimental tool to investigate the role of AMPK in controlling and modulating cell metabolic fluxes in living and intact differentiated primary neurons. The Seahorse XFe respirometry assay allows the real-time monitoring of glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration from different kind of cells, tissues, and isolated mitochondria. Here, we specify a protocol optimized for primary neuronal cells using several energy substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, glutamine, and ketone bodies. Nevertheless, this protocol can easily be adapted to monitor metabolic fluxes from other types of cells, tissues, or isolated mitochondria by taking into account the notes proposed for each key step of this assay.

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Satoe; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nihashi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

  13. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders.

  14. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16) for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers. PMID:22651100

  15. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-31

    The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7-8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91-3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75-2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04-5.16) for those working 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥ 40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04-3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53-2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24-7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  17. Human volunteer studies with non-pharmaceutical chemicals: metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M F; Woollen, B H

    1994-06-01

    1. Human volunteer studies are an essential part of drug development but their use in the area of non-pharmaceutical chemicals has so far been very limited. Such studies can have considerable value in the assessment and improvement of the safe use of chemicals. 2. Once metabolic pathways and target metabolites have been identified in volunteers this information can be used in studies in the workplace or in the general population. Studies should be performed selectively only if there is both a toxic hazard and a significant exposure potential. In addition, they should only be carried out if the required information cannot be obtained in any other way. 3. Volunteer studies with non-pharmaceuticals have become increasingly acceptable in the light of established international guidelines, no-fault compensation, improvements in study design and technical developments which allow the use of very low dose levels. The final decision on whether to carry out a study must always rest with an independent ethical committee. 4. The practical aspects of the study should be specified in a detailed protocol conforming with the principles of good clinical practice. The safety of volunteers must be of paramount concern throughout. Depending on the nature of the chemical and the study, it may be advisable to carry out studies in a clinical facility where equipment is available for the treatment of any emergencies that might occur. 5. Numerous investigators have now shown that human volunteer studies are ethically acceptable, practicable and yield important information. The risk to volunteers is minimal and this approach can lead to an improved foundation for occupational hygiene standards, more accurate risk assessment and thus better protection of the workforce and the general population.

  18. A STUDY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY AT KIMS HOSPITAL, HUBBALLI, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary heart disease has become an epidemic since 20th century. Deaths due to the same are increasing of around 17.5 million deaths in year 2012. The deaths are increasing more in developing countries and metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders, which are promoting the development of coronary artery diseases. The disorders include central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Increasing prevalence, changing lifestyle and progression of the disease without obvious symptoms had led to increasing morbidity and mortality. The non-infectious epidemic of the century is posing great challenges to healthcare and research in development of more infrastructure and funds to prevent and treat the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients diagnosed with CAD and posted for Coronary Angiogram (CAG in ICCU at KIMS Hospital, Hubballi, were studied over a period of one and a half year. Cases were categorised according to ATPIII and new IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome and compared. Clinical evaluation, ECG, lipid profile and 2D-echo was done. Statistical analysis done using unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney tests, Chi-square test and Kappa statistics. RESULTS Of the total 100, 57 had metabolic syndrome by either ATP criteria or IDF criteria. Kappa=0.859 (p-value 150 mg/dL and DM or FBS >100 mg/dL (p value <0.001. The mean values of SBP (144.0 vs. 120.8, DBP (85.6 vs. 73.8 and waist circumference (95.4 vs. 87.7 was statistically significant (p value <0.01 between patients with metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome with IDF criteria (p value <0.001. It was observed LAD (28.1% was the most common vessel involved individually. There was no much significance related to metabolic syndrome. Incidence of CAD was more common in patients with metabolic syndrome than other group. CONCLUSION The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in patients with CAD. Both metabolic syndrome definitions identify subset

  19. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasein, N; Masa'd, D

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its components, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Jordanian patients attending a family practice clinic for management of cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was 730 randomly selected patients aged > or = 25 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (31.7% in men; 41.0% in women). The prevalence increased with age in the total sample and in both sexes. High waist circumference showed the highest prevalence in the total sample (61.6%). Among females it ranked as the first criterion (73.5%). High serum triglyceride level showed the highest prevalence in males (50.2%). Differences between the sexes were significant. Family practitioners should be alerted to the importance of multiple risk factors in the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Studies of liver-specific metabolic reactions with 15N. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Jung, K.; Faust, H.; Matkowitz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 N tracer technique was used to investigate liver-specific reactions (urea and hippurate synthesis) for studying the metabolism in the healthy and damaged pig liver. After [ 15 N]ammonium chloride administration the tracer distribution on non-protein compounds of serum and urine was followed. Blood samplings before and after liver passage rendered possible a direct analysis of the [ 15 N]ammonium metabolism. The thioacetamide-induced liver damage was used as model for an acute liver intoxication. The capacity for urea synthesis was not influenced by means of this noxious substance, but the metabolism of amino acids and hippuric acid. The considerably depressed excretion of [ 15 N]hippurate seems to be a suitable indicator of liver disfunction. (author)

  1. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  2. A PET study of cerebellar metabolism in normal and abnormal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.; Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Silver, F.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Reivich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied cerebellar metabolism under varying conditions of sensory stimulation. Cerebellar glucose consumption was measured by positron emission scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in 64 subjects. Cerebellar metabolism relative to the whole brain (CM), and the asymmetry of metabolism between the cerebellar hemispheres (CA) was determined. The lowest CM occurred with maximal sensory deprivation, eyes and ears closed, (CM=96%, n=6). CM increased nonsignificantly with visual stimulation (CM=99%,n=17) and was highest for auditory stimulation (CM=104%,n=10,p<.05). CA was unaffected by sensory input. Under ambient conditions the CM values were 101%, 113% and 135% respectively for young controls (n=9, age=22), old controls (n=8, age=61) and Alzheimer patients (SDAT, n=14, age=69). This difference was significant for SDAT vs young and old controls and was nearly significant for young vs old controls

  3. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; von der Trenck, T.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo [alpha] pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given 14 C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed

  4. Study of radioactive fibrinogen metabolism in renal allotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takahiro; Nagai, Nobuo; Kaneko, Shigeo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masanori

    1979-01-01

    Turn over administrated radioactive fibrinogen and uptake to renal allograft were studied in 9 cases of renal allotransplanted patients. In patients with acute rejection crisis biological half-time (T 1/2) of 131 I-fibrinogen were shortened and allograft/heart counts ratio of 125 I-fibrinogen were elevated up to 125 - 140 percent at 24 - 48 hours after administration; these parameters seemed to be useful in aid of diagnosis of acute rejection. It is suggested that deposition of fibrinogen into allograft and increased turn over of plasma fibrinogen occurred in acute rejection. (author)

  5. Study of metabolism of hydrazoic acid in the purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violet, A.

    1988-03-01

    The transfer of HN 3 between different phases has been studied - It has been found that the transfer of HN 3 from aqueous solution of the reprocessing to gaz phase is a physical mechanism of desorbtion. - The limiting phenomena of the transfer of HN 3 fromt the organic to the gaseous phase, is the decomplexation of this specy with tributyl phosphate (TBP). - Chemical reactions of hydrazoic acid occurring with nitrogen oxides in the gaseous flow has shown that it is rapidly destroyed in the presence of nitrogen dioxide [fr

  6. Design, synthesis and cellular metabolism study of 4'-selenonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinha; Sahu, Pramod K; Kim, Gyudong; Qu, Shuhao; Choi, Yoojin; Song, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Kook; Noh, Minsoo; Park, Sunghyouk; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2015-01-01

    4'-seleno-homonucleosides were synthesized as next-generation nucleosides, and their cellular phosphorylation was studied to confirm the hypothesis that bulky selenium atom can sterically hinder the approach of cellular nucleoside kinase to the 5'-OH for phosphorylation. 4'-seleno-homonucleosides (n = 2), with one-carbon homologation, were synthesized through a tandem seleno-Michael addition-SN2 ring cyclization. LC-MS analysis demonstrated that they were phosphorylated by cellular nucleoside kinases, resulting in anticancer activity. The bulky selenium atom played a key role in deciding the phosphorylation by cellular nucleoside kinases. [Formula: see text].

  7. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two......-duration product (CP) over 5 years was assessed using a quadratic polynomial contrast, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent cardiovascular disease and treatment arm (losartan or atenolol). At baseline, despite similar blood pressures, CP was greater in the presence than in the absence of MetAb (p

  8. Androgen metabolism in invertebrates and its modulation by xenoandrogens: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Leblanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-04-01

    Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusc), Hyalella azteca (Crustacean), and Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoderm) demonstrated the ability to metabolize androgens through different pathways catalyzed by 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD), hydroxylases, sulfotransferases (SULT), and fatty-acid acyl-CoA acyltransferases (ATAT). Interspecies differences and tissue-specific distribution of those enzymatic activities were observed. Xenobiotics, such as triphenyltin, tributyltin, and fenarimol, interfered with some of the pathways studied, namely, testosterone sulfation, testosterone esterification, and 5alpha-R activity. The work evidenced different sensitivity of those pathways to androgenic compounds, together with interphyla differences in androgen metabolism.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2 assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14 C O 2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs

  10. Metabolism of labeled parathyroid hormone. V. Collected biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, W F; Neuman, M W; Lane, K; Miller, L; Sammon, P J

    1975-01-01

    Biologically active /sup 125/I-labeled parathyroid hormone (/sup 125/I-PTH) was used in a series of studies in dogs and chickens designed to confirm and augment earlier studies in rats. As in rats, a three exponential equation was required to describe disappearance of /sup 125/I-PTH from the blood in the dog. The first two ''half-lives'' (1.8 and 7 min) accounted for the bulk of the dose. Also as in rats, deposition of apparently intact hormone took place rapidly in kidney, liver and bone in both the dog and the chicken. Degradation occurred very rapidly in all three target organs. Three labeled hormones of different biological activities were compared in the rat. Inactive, oxidized hormone was rejected by the liver but showed markedly increased deposition in kidney and the higher the purity of the hormone the higher was its uptake by liver. Exploration of a wide range of dosages revealed few effects on distribution (smaller depositon in liver and kidney at highest dosages, 65 ..mu..g/rat). Fresh sera did not degrade hormone rapidly or extensively. There was no deposition of hormone in intestinal mucosa, marrow, and red cells. Nephrectomy increased deposition in liver and bone. Finally, the perfused liver was capable of extensive degradation of the hormone.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bangladesh: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Ziaul Islam; Anik, Ataul Mustufa; Farhana, Zaki; Bristi, Piali Dey; Abu Al Mamun, B M; Uddin, Mohammad Jasim; Fatema, Jain; Akter, Tanjila; Tani, Tania Akhter; Rahman, Meshbahur; Turin, Tanvir C

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of health problems that set the stage for serious health conditions and places individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The worldwide prevalence of MS in the adult population is on the rise and Bangladesh is no exception. According to some epidemiological study, MS is highly prevalent in Bangladesh and has increased dramatically in last few decades. To provide a clear picture of the current situation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with an objective to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the Bangladeshi population using data already published in the scientific literature. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed and manually checked references of all identified relevant publications that described the prevalence of MS in Bangladesh. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the prevalence. Heterogeneity was explored using formal tests and subgroup analyses. Study quality and publication bias was also explored. Electronic and grey literature search retrieved 491 potentially relevant papers. After removing duplicates, reviewing titles and abstracts and screening full texts, 10 studies were finally selected. Most of the studies were conducted in rural populations and study participants were mostly females. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome regardless of gender and criteria used to define metabolic syndrome, was 30.0% with high heterogeneity observed. Weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in females (32%) compared to males (25%) though not statistically significant (p = 0.434). Prevalence was highest (37%) when Modified NCEP ATP III criteria was used to define MS, while it was lowest (20%) when WHO criteria was used. In most cases, geographical area (urban/rural) was identified as a source of heterogeneity between the studies. Most of the studies met study quality assessment criteria's except adequate sample size

  12. 131I metabolism in the study of antithyroid drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, R.P.; Santalla de Pirovano, M. del C.; Kramar de Valmaggia, E.P.; Valsecchi, R.; Pisarev, Mario; Altschuler, Noe

    1977-11-01

    The main purpose of the present report was to study the action of antithyroid drugs on different parameters of thyroid activity utilizing 131 I, in the offsprings of rats treated during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Both PTU and MMI caused alterations in growth and thyroid activity, but they were more dramatic with the former. A significative increase in 131 I thyroid uptake and in circulating radioactivity was observed. When % uptake was expressed as a function of thyroidal and body weights, a significative decrease was noticed. The ratio T/S and the percentage of labelled iodothyronines in pancreatin digests were also decreased. Neuromuscular maturation was evaluated, by means of the test of Schapiro. A group of animals treated with PTU plus T 4 had a significant delay, reaching normal developement later than the controls or those treated with MMI. (author) [es

  13. Studying disorders of vertebrate iron and heme metabolism using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vorm, Lisa N; Paw, Barry H

    2017-01-01

    Iron is a crucial component of heme- and iron-sulfur clusters, involved in vital cellular functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. Both excess and insufficient levels of iron and heme-precursors cause human disease, such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, and porphyrias. Hence, their levels must be tightly regulated, requiring a complex network of transporters and feedback mechanisms. The use of zebrafish to study these pathways and the underlying genetics offers many advantages, among others their optical transparency, ex-vivo development and high genetic and physiological conservations. This chapter first reviews well-established methods, such as large-scale mutagenesis screens that have led to the initial identification of a series of iron and heme transporters and the generation of a variety of mutant lines. Other widely used techniques are based on injection of RNA, including complementary morpholino knockdown and gene overexpression. In addition, we highlight several recently developed approaches, most notably endonuclease-based gene knockouts such as TALENs or the CRISPR/Cas9 system that have been used to study how loss of function can induce human disease phenocopies in zebrafish. Rescue by chemical complementation with iron-based compounds or small molecules can subsequently be used to confirm causality of the genetic defect for the observed phenotype. All together, zebrafish have proven to be - and will continue to serve as an ideal model to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of human iron and heme-related diseases and to develop novel therapies to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 13C and 31P NMR studies of myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fluxes through two enzyme systems have been measured in perfused or in in vivo heart using NMR: phosphocreatine kinase, and glycogen synthase and phosphorylase. The rates of synthesis and degradation of glycogen were monitored in vivo in fed, fasted, and diabetic rat heart during infusions of 13 C-1-glucose and insulin using proton-decoupled 13 C-NMR at 1.9 and 4.7 tesla. The enzyme activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were also measured in this tissue which had been freeze clamped at the end of the experiment, for comparison with the synthetic rates. For normal fed, fasted, and diabetic animals, synthesis rates were 0.28, 0.16, and 0.15 μmol/min.gww respectively. Glycogen synthase i activity was 0.23, 0.14, and 0.14 μmol/min.gww in these hearts at the end of the experiment, when measured at appropriate substrate and activator concentrations, and follow activation time courses that are consistent with being the main rate determinant for net synthesis in all cases. Turnover of glycogen was studied by observing the preformed 13 C-1-glycogen signal during infusion of 12 C-glucose and insulin, and was found to be close to zero. Extracted phosphorylase a activity was approximately ten times that of synthase i under these circumstances. In order to fully interpret the turnover studies, glycogenolysis of preformed 13 C-glycogen was observed after a bolus of glucagon. The glycogen had either been synthesized from 13 C-1-glucose for a single hour, or during an hour of 13 C-glucose and a subsequent hour of 12 C-glucose infusion. The author observed that breakdown follows an exponential time course related to the phosphorylase a activation state and that the last synthesized glycogen breaks down at the rate of 2.5 μmol/min.gww, five times faster than that synthesized an hour earlier

  15. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  16. Low muscle strength is associated with metabolic risk factors in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dylan Cohen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In youth, poor cardiorespiratory and muscular strength are associated with elevated metabolic risk factors. However, studies examining associations between strength and risk factors have been done exclusively in high income countries, and largely in Caucasian cohorts. The aim of this study was to assess these interactions in schoolchildren in Colombia, a middle income Latin American country. METHODS: We measured body mass index, body composition, handgrip strength (HG, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and metabolic risk factors in 669 low-middle socioeconomic status Colombian schoolchildren (mean age 11.52±1.13, 47% female. Associations between HG, CRF and metabolic risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: HG and CRF were inversely associated with blood pressure, HOMA index and a composite metabolic risk score (p = 0.001, HOMA (β = -0.164; p = 0.005, triglycerides (β = -0.583; p = 0.026 and CRP (β = -0.183; p = 0.037 but not glucose (p = 0.698 or HDL cholesterol (p = 0.132. The odds ratios for having clustered risk in the weakest quartile compared with the strongest quartile were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.81-4.95. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombian schoolchildren both poorer handgrip strength/kg body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with a worse metabolic risk profile. Associations were stronger and more consistent between handgrip and risk factors than between cardiorespiratory fitness and these risk factors. Our findings indicate the addition of handgrip dynamometry to non-invasive youth health surveillance programs would improve the accuracy of the assessment of cardio-metabolic health.

  17. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  18. Establishing post mortem criteria for the metabolic syndrome: an autopsy based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin Roest; Bugge, Anne; Malik, Mariam Elmegaard; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Lynnerup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Banner, Jytte

    2018-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from mental illness are more prone to obesity and related co-morbidities, including the metabolic syndrome. Autopsies provide an outstanding platform for the macroscopic, microscopic and molecular-biological investigation of diseases. Autopsy-based findings may assist in the investigation of the metabolic syndrome. To utilise the vast information that an autopsy encompasses to elucidate the pathophysiology behind the syndrome further, we aimed to both develop and evaluate a method for the post mortem definition of the metabolic syndrome. Based on the nationwide Danish SURVIVE study of deceased mentally ill, we established a set of post mortem criteria for each of the harmonized criteria of the metabolic syndrome. We based the post mortem (PM) evaluation on information from the police reports and the data collected at autopsy, such as anthropometric measurements and biochemical and toxicological analyses (PM information). We compared our PM evaluation with the data from the Danish health registries [ante mortem (AM) information, considered the gold standard] from each individual. The study included 443 deceased individuals (272 male and 171 female) with a mean age of 50.4 (± 15.5) years and a median (interquartile range) post mortem interval of 114 (84-156) hours. We found no significant difference when defining the metabolic syndrome from the PM information in comparison to the AM information ( P  = 0.175). The PM evaluation yielded a high specificity (0.93) and a moderate sensitivity (0.63) with a moderate level of agreement compared to the AM evaluation (Cohen's κ = 0.51). Neither age nor post mortem interval affected the final results. Our model of a PM definition of the metabolic syndrome proved reliable when compared to the AM information. We believe that an appropriate estimate of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome can be established post mortem. However, while neither the PM nor the AM information is exhaustive in

  19. Multi-column chromatography and the use of isotopes in the study of steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayegh, J.F.; Vestergaard, P.

    1978-01-01

    Multi-column liquid chromatography is demonstrated to be a technique well suited for isotope experiments involving administration of labelled cortisol. It has potential for secretion rate determinations, for dynamic studies of cortisol metabolism and for work with stable isotopes. (author)

  20. Brain, nutrition and metabolism : Studies in lean, obese and insulin resistant humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the effects of obesity, weight loss and meal timing on the human brain and glucose metabolism. We investigated effects of meal timing during a hypocaloric diet and weight loss on brain serotonin transporters (SERT) and dopamine transporters (DAT), neuronal activity

  1. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  2. Metabolic syndrome in a cohort of affectively ill patients, a naturalistic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Madsen, Maiken; Breum, Leif

    2012-01-01

    at a Mood Disorder Clinic. Methods: Patients were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) according to modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Results: Of the 143 patients eligible for participation, 100 patients participated in the study (32% male, mean age 43.6 ± 14.2); the prevalence of MeS was 26...

  3. Microfluidics Enables Small-Scale Tissue-Based Drug Metabolism Studies With Scarce Human Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Early information on the metabolism and toxicity properties of new drug candidates is crucial for selecting the right candidates for further development. Preclinical trials rely on cell-based in vitro tests and animal studies to characterize the in vivo behavior of drug candidates, although neither

  4. Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carayol, Marion; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Stepien, Magdalena; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Agudo, Antonio; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Key, Timothy J; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective

  5. An update on psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanminder Singh

    Full Text Available The relationship between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome is not well understood. Though multiple epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome, there is a lack of a comprehensive meta-analysis synthesizing the results of all available observational studies to date. In this meta-analysis, we examined global data on the relationship between psoriasis and odds of metabolic syndrome by searching for studies published between 1946-2016. Specifically, we analyzed the results from 35 observational studies from 20 countries with 1,450,188 total participants, of which 46,714 were psoriasis patients. The pooled odds ratio based on random effects analysis was 2.14 (95% CI 1.84-2.48. Publication bias was present, as evidenced by an Egger test and graphical visualization through a funnel plot (p = 0.001. Based on this comprehensive meta-analysis, psoriasis patients have higher odds of having metabolic syndrome when compared with the general population.

  6. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond K.; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura M.; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Adan, RAH

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Method: Following uniformquality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in

  7. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kas, Martinus J.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. METHOD: Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)

  8. Positron computed tomography studies of cerebral metabolic responses to complex motor tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Human motor system organization was explored in 8 right-handed male subjects using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron computed tomography to measure cerebral glucose metabolism. Five subjects had triple studies (eyes closed) including: control (hold pen in right hand without moving), normal size writing (subject repeatedly writes name) and large (10-15 X normal) name writing. In these studies normal and large size writing had a similar distribution of metabolic responses when compared to control studies. Activations (percent change from control) were in the range of 12-20% and occurred in the striatum bilaterally > contralateral Rolandic cortex > contralateral thalamus. No significant activations were observed in the ipsilateral thalamus, Rolandic cortex or cerebellum (supplementary motor cortex was not examined). The magnitude of the metabolic response in the striatum was greater with the large versus normal sized writing. This differential response may be due to an increased number and topographic distribution of neurons responding with the same average activity between tasks or an increase in the functional activity of the same neuronal population between the two tasks (present spatial resolution inadequate to differentiate). When subjects (N=3) performed novel sequential finger movements, the maximal metabolic response was in the contralateral Rolandic cortex > striatum. Such studies provide a means of exploring human motor system organization, motor learning and provide a basis for examining patients with motor system disorders

  9. [An in vitro method for studying the metabolism of young bone matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, C; Guest, M; Delbarre, F

    1977-07-04

    A method for studying in vitro bone resorption by the use of 35S labeled injection was investigated. Various substances (papaine) and hormones (calcitonin, vitamin D analogues) were tested and their effects on 35S and 45Ca metabolism were compared.

  10. A study on the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Materials andMethods: Through the establishment of an experimental mouse model of hyperlipidemia, the effect of resveratrol on change in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol ...

  11. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.R.; Green, D.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1) Uranium is initially deposited on to all types of bone surface, but preferentially on to those that are accreting. 2) Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3) Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4) Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5) Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6) Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7) The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium. (author)

  12. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Howells, G R; Green, D; Haines, J W

    1982-03-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1 Uranium is initially deposited onto all types of bone surface, but preferentially onto those that are accreting. 2 Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3 Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4 Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5 Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6 Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7 The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium.

  13. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of soybean plants, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasumasa; Kitada, Subaru

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen that came from cotyledons and nitrogen ( 15 N) pulse-fed at 5 different times during the growth of young soybean plants were studied for 33-days after germination. Cotyledons furnished nitrogen to primary leaves, stems, and roots for the first 8 days, but thereafter principally to 1 st and 2 nd trifoliate leaves. Redistribution of the cotyledon-derived nitrogen from primary leaves commenced from the 14 th day after germination when their total nitrogen was still increasing. At the end of the experiment, the cotyledon-derived nitrogen was distributed approximately uniformly among 6 expanded leaves, and very small amount was found in 3 immature leaves. It was shown that soybean leaves took up 15 N (via roots) throughout the entire period of their life, and from their near-mature stage onwards, uptake and redistribution of nitrogen were observed simultaneously. Thus, the nitrogen in mature leaves was partially being renewed constantly. Considering this fact, the nitrogen supplying capacity of soybean leaves was estimated to be about two times as large as that estimated conventionally from the net loss of nitrogen during their senescence. The turnover of leaf nitrogen was closely related to the turnover of leaf protein. Influx of nitrogen was invariably accompanied by the simultaneous synthesis of leaf protein, and conversely, efflux by the simultaneous breakdown of leaf protein. Sink removal (topping treatment) prevented the breakdown of leaf protein (as measured from the rate of release of label after the pulse feeding) as well as the export of nitrogen from the leaves. The nitrogen supplying function of soybean leaves was discussed in relation to the nitrogen and protein turnover of leaves. (Kaihara, S.)

  14. Studies on Ferrokinetics and Copper Metabolism in Various Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyu

    1967-01-01

    Anemia is a usual finding in advanced malignant diseases. Various mechanisms were reported as to be involved in the development of anemia of this kind, and they may differ in individual cases. Tumor anemias may be due, for instance, to chronic blood loss, shortened life span of the red blood cells or a decreased hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The serum iron and copper levels, total iron binding capacity, apparent half survival of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were measurement with the ferrokinetic studies using 59 Fe in 64 patients with various malignant tumors. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron levels were decreased in all cases. There existed no correlation between the serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 2) The serum copper levels were increased, particularly in lung cancer, rectal cancer, hepatoma and various sarcomas. There was also no correlation between the serum copper levels and the severity of the diseases. 3) The serum iron levels appeared to be inversely proportional to the serum copper levels. 4) The total iron binding capacities were within normal limits in all cases. There were also no correlations between the total iron binding capacities, serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 5) The patients could be classified according the ferrokinetic patterns, namely, that of iron deficiency anemia in 10 cases, that of refractory anemia in 6 cases, normal in 1 case and that of atypical abnormal in 9 cases. 6) Apparent half survival time of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were definitely shortened in half of the cases.

  15. C-11-labeled octadecylamine, a potential agent for positron tomographic pulmonary metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Wallace, R.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Sun, T.T.; Coffey, J.L.; Hubner, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    C-11-Labeled straight-chain primary aliphatic amines are rapidly and selectively sequestered by lung endothelial cells, making these agents potentially useful for positron tomographic studies of the lung as a metabolic organ. However, because amines having straight chains containing 4 to 13 carbon atoms are rapidly catabolized in vivo with loss of radiolabel, quantitation of pulmonary concentration is difficult. The authors have studied the effect of structural changes on the uptake and retention of primary aliphatic amines in rat lung and found that the metabolic loss form the lung decreased with increasing length of the straight carbon chain. In fact, the lung concentration of octadecylamine, a straight-chain amine with 18 carbon atoms, was constant between 1 and 30 minutes after intravenous administration. This highly insoluble amine was solubilized using 3% aqueous human serum albumin. Unilateral, radiation-induced lung injury in the rat was used as a model to study the potential of C-11-labeled octadecylamine. Radiation-damaged (3000 and 5000 Rads) lungs had significantly lower 15-minute uptakes of the labeled amine than the corresponding nonirradiated lungs. However, at 8000 Rads the concentration in both lungs was greatly suppressed, indicating that the decrease in metabolism becomes systemic at high radiation doses. These results suggest that C-11-labeled octadecylamine is a potentially useful agent for quantitative evaluation of pulmonary metabolism by positron tomography

  16. Is antipsychotic polypharmacy associated with metabolic syndrome even after adjustment for lifestyle effects?: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Yasuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy remains unclear, it is commonplace in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the degree that antipsychotic polypharmacy contributed to metabolic syndrome in outpatients with schizophrenia, after adjustment for the effects of lifestyle. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April 2007 and October 2007 at Yamanashi Prefectural KITA hospital in Japan. 334 patients consented to this cross-sectional study. We measured the components consisting metabolic syndrome, and interviewed the participants about their lifestyle. We classified metabolic syndrome into four groups according to the severity of metabolic disturbance: the metabolic syndrome; the pre-metabolic syndrome; the visceral fat obesity; and the normal group. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association of metabolic syndrome with antipsychotic polypharmacy, adjusting for lifestyle. Results Seventy-four (22.2% patients were in the metabolic syndrome group, 61 (18.3% patients were in the pre-metabolic syndrome group, and 41 (12.3% patients were in visceral fat obesity group. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was present in 167 (50.0% patients. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, antipsychotic polypharmacy was significantly associated with the pre-metabolic syndrome group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.348; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.181-4.668, but not with the metabolic syndrome group (AOR, 1.269; 95%CI, 0.679-2.371. Conclusions These results suggest that antipsychotic polypharmacy, compared with monotherapy, may be independently associated with an increased risk of having pre-metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for patients' lifestyle characteristics. As metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, further studies are needed to clarify the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs.

  18. A prospective study of dairy consumption in relation to changes in metabolic risk factors: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Marieke B; van Dam, Rob M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Heine, Robert J; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2008-03-01

    Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Baseline dairy intake (servings/day) was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1,124 participants of the Hoorn Study. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dairy intake and 6.4-year change in weight, fat distribution, and metabolic risk factors (glucoses, lipids, blood pressure) and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Baseline dairy consumption was not associated with changes in fasting and post-load glucose concentrations, serum lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides), or blood pressure, nor with the risk of developing the MS in 6.4 years (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was 0.86 (0.52-1.42) comparing highest with lowest quartile of dairy consumption). In subjects with BMI consumption was significantly associated with an increase in BMI, weight, waist, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a higher dairy consumption protects against weight gain and development of metabolic disturbances in a Dutch elderly population.

  19. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Ischemic Heart Disease: A 10-Year Follow-Up of the Inter99 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Louise; Netterstrøm, Marie K; Johansen, Nanna B; Rønn, Pernille F; Vistisen, Dorte; Husemoen, Lise L N; Jørgensen, Marit E; Rod, Naja H; Færch, Kristine

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a subgroup of obese individuals is not at increased risk of obesity-related complications. This subgroup has been referred to as metabolically healthy obese. To investigate whether obesity is a risk factor for development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) irrespective of metabolic health. In all, 6238 men and women from the Danish prospective Inter99 study were followed during 10.6 (standard deviation = 1.7) years. General community. Participants were classified according to body mass index and four metabolic risk factors (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose). Metabolically healthy individuals were defined as having no metabolic risk factors, and metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as having a minimum of one. IHD. During follow-up, 323 participants developed IHD. Metabolically healthy obese men had increased risk of IHD compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight men [hazard ratio (HR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 8.2)]. The corresponding results for women were less pronounced (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 4.8). Being metabolically healthy but overweight was not associated with higher risk of IHD in men (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.4), and in women the risk was only slightly increased and insignificant (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8 to 3.0). A substantial proportion of metabolically healthy individuals became metabolically unhealthy after 5 years of follow-up. When these changes in exposure status were taken into account, slightly higher risk estimates were found. Being obese is associated with higher incidence of IHD irrespective of metabolic status, and we question the feasibility of denoting a subgroup of obese individuals as metabolically healthy. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer: a pilot study at a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de-la-Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    According to developed countries' studies, in breast cancer survivors there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome; however, in Mexico data is lacking about this issue. To explore if metabolic syndrome occurs in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer. At a second-level general hospital, women with breast cancer with a surviving > 2 years were studied. The analysis involved their demographic and anthropometric features, blood pressure measurement, time of surviving, besides fasting blood levels of lipids and glucose. The sample consisted of 100 women; 42% were obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2). The sample's mean age was 60 years with a mean surviving time of 6.5 years. Their mean glucose level was 122 mg/dL and triglycerides 202 mg/dL. There were 33% with blood pressure > or = 130/85mm Hg or diagnosis of hypertension. Fifty-seven percent had glucose > 99 mg/dL or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 58% had triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 57% of obese women. Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome occurs in more than 50% of obese Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.

  1. Premutation female carriers of fragile X syndrome: a pilot study on brain anatomy and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Mentis, M J; Pietrini, P; Grady, C L; Moore, C J; Horwitz, B; Hinton, V; Dobkin, C S; Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1999-10-01

    It was thought that premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome (FraX) have no neurobiological abnormalities, but there have been no quantitative studies of brain morphometry and metabolism. Thus the authors investigated brain structure and metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Eight normal IQ, healthy female permutation FraX carriers aged 39 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD) and 32 age-sex-handedness-matched controls (39 +/- 10 years) were studied; in vivo brain morphometry was measured using volumetric magnetic resonances imaging, and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured using positron emission tomography and (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Compared with controls, FraX premutation carriers had a significant (1) decrease in volume of whole brain, and caudate and thalamic nuclei bilaterally; (2) increase in volume of hippocampus and peripheral CSF bilaterally, and third ventricle; (3) relative hypometabolism of right parietal, temporal, and occipital association areas; (4) bilateral relative hypermetabolism of hippocampus; (5) relative hypermetabolism of left cerebellum; and (6) difference in right-left asymmetry of the Wernicke and Broca language areas. Premutation carriers of FraX, as defined by analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, have abnormalities in brain anatomy and metabolism. The biological basis for this is unknown, but most likely it includes tissue heterogeneity for mutation status. The findings may be of relevance to people counseling families with FraX and to understanding other neuropsychiatric disorders which are associated with expansion of triplet repeats and genetic anticipation.

  2. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Le; Zhang, Baichen; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2014-01-01

    The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1) properly designed tracer experiments; (2) stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3) efficient metabolite separations; (4) high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5) data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio). This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates). The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research. PMID:24957020

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino-Americans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalusung-Angosta, Alona; Gutierrez, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are a) to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino-Americans, b) to compare the rate of metabolic syndrome between Filipino men and women, and c) to examine the prevalence of central adiposity. Filipino-Americans are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States and their leading cause of death is coronary heart disease (CHD). This study utilized a descriptive correlational, cross-sectional design that included a convenience sample of 300 Filipino-Americans residing in Southern Nevada. Survey questionnaires were used to collect the sample's demographic data and presence of CHD risk factors. Waist circumference measurements were used to examine central adiposity. Metabolic syndrome and central adiposity are highly prevalent among Filipino-Americans residing in Southern Nevada. More men than women had the syndrome, but the rate of central adiposity was significantly higher in women than in men. Intensive lifestyle modifications and treatment are indicated to decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the risk of heart disease in this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  5. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  6. Combined Effects of Ezetimibe and Phytosterols on Cholesterol Metabolism: A Randomized, Controlled Feeding Study in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B.; Lefevre, Michael; Ma, Lina; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Steger-May, Karen; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both ezetimibe and phytosterols inhibit cholesterol absorption. We tested the hypothesis that ezetimibe combined with phytosterols is more effective than ezetimibe alone in altering cholesterol metabolism. Methods and Results Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple crossover study. Each subject received a phytosterol-controlled diet plus (1) ezetimibe placebo + phytosterol placebo, (2) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + phytosterol placebo, and (3) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + 2.5 g phytosterols/day, for 3 weeks each. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen. Primary outcomes were intestinal cholesterol absorption, fecal cholesterol excretion, and LDL cholesterol levels. The combined treatment resulted in significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (598 mg/day, 95% CI 368 to 828) relative to control (2161 mg/day, 1112 to 3209) and ezetimibe alone (1054 mg/day, 546 to 1561, both P phytosterols averaged 129 (95% CI: 116 to 142), 108 (97 to 119), and 101 (90 to 112) mg/dL (P phytosterols to ezetimibe significantly enhanced the effects of ezetimibe on whole-body cholesterol metabolism and plasma LDL cholesterol. The large cumulative action of combined dietary and pharmacologic treatment on cholesterol metabolism emphasizes the potential importance of dietary phytosterols as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21768544

  7. Developmental programming of metabolic diseases – a review of studies on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Piotrowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development in utero is a complex and dynamic process that requires interaction between the mother organism and the fetus. The delivery of macro – and micronutrients, oxygen and endocrine signals has crucial importance for providing a high level of proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells, and a disruption in food intake not only has an influence on the growth of the fetus, but also has negative consequences for the offspring’s health in the future. Diseases that traditionally are linked to inappropriate life style of adults, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arterial hypertension, can be “programmed” in the early stage of life and the disturbed growth of the fetus leads to the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The structural changes of some organs, such as the brain, pancreas and kidney, modifications of the signaling and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscles and in fatty tissue, epigenetic mechanisms and mitochondrial dysfunction are the basis of the metabolic disruptions. The programming of the metabolic disturbances is connected with the disruption in the intrauterine environment experienced in the early and late gestation period. It causes the changes in deposition of triglycerides, activation of the hormonal “stress axis” and disturbances in the offspring’s glucose tolerance. The present review summarizes experimental results that led to the identification of the above-mentioned links and it underlines the role of animal models in the studies of this important concept.

  8. Relationship between CNS metabolism and cytoarchitecture: a review of 14C-deoxyglucose studies with correlation to cytochrome oxidase histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Rocco, R.J.; Kageyama, G.H.; Wong-Riley, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the inception of the 14 C-deoxyglucose method and its extension to in vivo imaging of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in humans by positron emission tomography, uncertainty has persisted concerning the type of work to which regional metabolism is coupled, as well as the distribution of this work within the neuron. 14 C-deoxyglucose studies indicate that functionally-coupled neural metabolism is more apparent in axon terminals and perhaps dendrites than neuronal perikarya. Moreover, it appears that most of the metabolism in axon terminals is accounted for by Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Nevertheless, cytochrome oxidase histochemistry reveals the presence of intensely reactive mitochondria in soma-dendrite regions opposite presynaptic axon terminals, thereby indicating that continuous temporal and spatial summation of postsynaptic graded potentials is associated with increased metabolism. While the situation concerning the relative postsynaptic metabolic prices of EPSP's and IPSP's remains uncertain, the presence of elevated levels of cytochrome oxidase activity within certain classes of presynaptic terminals indicates that active excitation and inhibition is associated with increases in presynaptic metabolism. This observation has been confirmed in 14 C-deoxyglucose studies. Nevertheless, studies of neonatal hippocampus indicate that, before metabolic activity shifts to dendritic and telodendritic regions of electrophysiological activity, metabolism is high in somal foci of biosynthesis. 51 references

  9. Comparative studies of the nitrogen metabolism of phytoplankton and periphyton in oligotrophic lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, R.P.; Goldman, C.R.; Reuter, J.E.; Loeb, S.L.; Priscu, J.C.; Carlton, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary data of limnological research at the meso-oligotrophic Castle Lake, CA and at the ultratrophic Lake Tahoe, CA-NEV, USA, during 1980 to 1981. The areas of study were effects of nutrients enrichment and deficiency on primary producers; nitrogen cycling and nitrogen metabolism of benthic and planktonic algae and whole-epilimnion enrichment with ammonium nitrate. Tracer techniques using 14 C- and 15 N-labelled compounds were employed in the study

  10. Studies of liver-specific metabolic reactions with /sup 15/N. 1. Metabolism of /sup 15/N-ammonium chloride in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, K; Jung, K; Faust, H; Matkowitz, R

    1987-07-01

    The /sup 15/N tracer technique was used to investigate liver-specific reactions (urea and hippurate synthesis) for studying the metabolism in the healthy and damaged pig liver. After (/sup 15/N)ammonium chloride administration the tracer distribution on non-protein compounds of serum and urine was followed. Blood samplings before and after liver passage rendered possible a direct analysis of the (/sup 15/N)ammonium metabolism. The thioacetamide-induced liver damage was used as model for an acute liver intoxication. The capacity for urea synthesis was not influenced by means of this noxious substance, but the metabolism of amino acids and hippuric acid. The considerably depressed excretion of (/sup 15/N)hippurate seems to be a suitable indicator of liver disfunction.

  11. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  12. Bioprinting of Micro-Organ Tissue Analog for Drug Metabolism Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei

    An evolving application of tissue engineering is to develop in vitro 3D cell/tissue models for drug screening and pharmacological study. In order to test in space, these in vitro models are mostly manufactured through micro-fabrication techniques and incorporate living cells with MEMS or microfluidic devices. These cell-integrated microfluidic devices, or referred as microorgans, are effective in furnishing reliable and inexpensive drug metabolism and toxicity studies [1-3]. This paper will present an on-going research collaborated between Drexel University and NASA JSC Radiation Physics Laboratory for applying a direct cell printing technique to freeform fabrication of 3D liver tissue analog in drug metabolism study. The paper will discuss modeling, design, and solid freeform fabrication of micro-fluidic flow patterns and bioprinting of 3D micro-liver chamber that biomimics liver physiological microenvironment for enhanced drug metabolization. Technical details to address bioprinting of 3D liver tissue analog, integration with a microfluidic device, and basic drug metabolism study for NASA's interests will presented. 1. Holtorf H. Leslie J. Chang R, Nam J, Culbertson C, Sun W, Gonda S, "Development of a Three-Dimensional Tissue-on-a-Chip Micro-Organ Device for Pharmacokinetic Analysis", the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, DC, December 1-5, 2007. 2. Chang, R., Nam, J., Culbertson C., Holtorf, H., Jeevarajan, A., Gonda, S. and Sun, W., "Bio-printing and Modeling of Flow Patterns for Cell Encapsulated 3D Liver Chambers For Pharmacokinetic Study", TERMIS North America 2007 Conference and Exposition, Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto, Canada, June 13-16, 2007. 3.Starly, B., Chang, R., Sun, W., Culbertson, C., Holtorf, H. and Gonda, S., "Bioprinted Tissue-on-chip Application for Pharmacokinetic Studies", Proceedings of World Congress on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 24-27, 2006.

  13. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis using B-splines to study the effects of temperature shift on CHO cell metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S. Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux analysis (MFA is widely used to estimate intracellular fluxes. Conventional MFA, however, is limited to continuous cultures and the mid-exponential growth phase of batch cultures. Dynamic MFA (DMFA has emerged to characterize time-resolved metabolic fluxes for the entire culture period. Here, the linear DMFA approach was extended using B-spline fitting (B-DMFA to estimate mass balanced fluxes. Smoother fits were achieved using reduced number of knots and parameters. Additionally, computation time was greatly reduced using a new heuristic algorithm for knot placement. B-DMFA revealed that Chinese hamster ovary cells shifted from 37 °C to 32 °C maintained a constant IgG volume-specific productivity, whereas the productivity for the controls peaked during mid-exponential growth phase and declined afterward. The observed 42% increase in product titer at 32 °C was explained by a prolonged cell growth with high cell viability, a larger cell volume and a more stable volume-specific productivity. Keywords: Dynamic, Metabolism, Flux analysis, CHO cells, Temperature shift, B-spline curve fitting

  14. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of leukoaraiosis; a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2018-04-10

    Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individual is known to be defended from the metabolic complications of obesity. Leukoaraiosis, which is commonly detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is now recognized as a risk of stroke, dementia and death. However, the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis is unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 796 participants who received a medical examination program, we investigated the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis. We used common clinical markers for definition of metabolic healthy status: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . We diagnosed leukoaraiosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery without hypointensity on T1-weighted images or the presence of a hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The crude prevalence proportion of leukoaraiosis was 44.5% (case/n = 171/384) in metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) individual, 46.3% (44/95) in MHO individual, 62.3% (114/183) in metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO) individual or 56.6% (77/136) in MUO individual. The odds ratios of prevalence of leukoaraiosis were 1.19 (95% CI 0.74-1.90, p = 0.471) for MHO, 1.79 (1.22-2.62, p = 0.003) for MUNO and 1.56 (1.03-2.37, p = 0.037) for MUO individuals after adjusting for sex, age, smoking statues, habit of exercise and alcohol, compared with MHNO individual. We revealed that MHO individuals were not related with the higher risk of leukoaraiosis, whereas MUNO and MUO individuals were.

  15. Pharmacokinetic interplay of phase II metabolism and transport: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baojian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the interdependence of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein in disposition of drugs (also termed "transport-metabolism interplay") has been significantly advanced in recent years. However, whether such "interplay" exists between phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters remains largely unknown. The objective of this article is to explore the role of efflux transporters (acting on the phase II metabolites) in disposition of the parent drug in Caco-2 cells, liver, and intestine via simulations utilizing a catenary model (for Caco-2 system) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models (for the liver and intestine). In all three models, "transport-metabolism interplay" (i.e., inhibition of metabolite efflux decreases the metabolism) can be observed only when futile recycling (or deconjugation) occurred. Futile recycling appeared to bridge the two processes (i.e., metabolite formation and excretion) and enable the interplay thereof. Without futile recycling, metabolite formation was independent on its downstream process excretion, thus impact of metabolite excretion on its formation was impossible. Moreover, in liver PBPK model with futile recycling, impact of biliary metabolite excretion on the exposure of parent drug [(systemic (reservoir) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(R1))] was limited; a complete inhibition of efflux resulted in AUC(R1) increases of less than 1-fold only. In intestine PBPK model with futile recycling, even though a complete inhibition of efflux could result in large elevations (e.g., 3.5-6.0-fold) in AUC(R1), an incomplete inhibition of efflux (e.g., with a residual activity of ≥ 20% metabolic clearance) saw negligible increases (interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. Those studying such "interplay" are encouraged to adequately consider potential consequences of inhibition of efflux transporters in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Depression, anxiety and glucose metabolism in the general dutch population: the new Hoorn study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bouwman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a well recognized association between depression and diabetes. However, there is little empirical data about the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among different groups of glucose metabolism in population based samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of increased levels of depression and anxiety is different between patients with type 2 diabetes and subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM and normal glucose metabolism (NGM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study of 2667 residents, 1261 men and 1406 women aged 40-65 years from the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, score >or=16 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A, score >or=8, respectively. Glucose metabolism status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test. In the total study population the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety for the NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes were 12.5, 12.2 and 21.0% (P = 0.004 and 15.0, 15.3 and 19.9% (p = 0.216, respectively. In men, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 7.7, 9.5 and 19.6% (p<0.001, and in women 16.4, 15.8 and 22.6 (p = 0.318, for participants with NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Anxiety was not associated with glucose metabolism when stratified for sex. Intergroup differences (NGM vs. IGM and IGM vs. type 2 diabetes revealed that higher prevalences of depressive symptoms are mainly manifested in participants with type 2 diabetes, and not in participants with IGM. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms, but not anxiety are associated with glucose metabolism. This association is mainly determined by a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in participants with type 2 diabetes and not in participants with IGM.

  17. Automation of metabolic stability studies in microsomes, cytosol and plasma using a 215 Gilson liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linget, J M; du Vignaud, P

    1999-05-01

    A 215 Gilson liquid handler was used to automate enzymatic incubations using microsomes, cytosol and plasma. The design of automated protocols are described. They were based on the use of 96 deep well plates and on HPLC-based methods for assaying the substrate. The assessment of those protocols was made with comparison between manual and automated incubations, reliability and reproducibility of automated incubations in microsomes and cytosol. Examples of the use of those programs in metabolic studies in drug research, i.e. metabolic screening in microsomes and plasma were shown. Even rapid processes (with disappearance half lives as low as 1 min) can be analysed. This work demonstrates how stability studies can be automated to save time, render experiments involving human biological media less hazardous and may be improve inter-laboratory reproducibility.

  18. The metabolism of tritiated oleic acid in the rat. A radiological protection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Nazard, Raymonde.

    1979-04-01

    The metabolism of 3 H-labelled oleic acid has been studied in the rat during 600 days. The results of urinary and fecal excretions, of the retention of the total and fixed activities in 25 tissues or organs and the cumulative activity from day 4 to 616 are discussed. Oleic acid is more widely spread than other labelled molecules studied previously both as regard excretion or retention. During the first 4 days one can grossly admit that half the activity is fixed to water and half is stored in the adipose tissues which it leaves quickly first, then more slowly with a half-life of 200 days about. For some ten tissues, the cumulative activity due to the fixed fraction exceeds the cumulative activity due to tritiated water obtained by metabolism of oleic acid [fr

  19. Comparative study of hops-containing products on human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian C; Arnason, John T; Saleem, Ammar; Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Mao, Jingqin; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2011-05-11

    The potential for 15 different ales (6), ciders (2 apple and 1 pear), and porters (6) and 2 non-alcoholic products to affect cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of rhodamine was examined. As in our previous study, a wide range of recovered nonvolatile suspended solids dry weights were noted. Aliquots were also found to have varying effects on biotransformation and efflux. Distinct differences in product ability to affect the safety and efficacy of therapeutic products confirmed our initial findings that some porters (stouts) have a potential to affect the safety and efficacy of health products metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isozymes. Most products, except 2 of the ciders and the 2 non-alcoholic products, also have the potential to affect the safety of CYP2C9 metabolized medications and supplements. Further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of these findings.

  20. Synthesis and formulation studies of griseofulvin analogues with improved solubility and metabolic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Andersen, Nikolaj Sten; Konotop, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    Griseofulvin (1) is an important antifungal agent that has recently received attention due to its antiproliferative activity in mammalian cancer cells. Comprehensive SAR studies have led to the identification of 2'-benzyloxy griseofulvin 2, a more potent analogue with low micromolar anticancer...... potency in vitro. Analogue 2 was also shown to retard tumor growth through inhibition of centrosomal clustering in murine xenograft models of colon cancer and multiple myeloma. However, similar to griseofulvin, compound 2 exhibited poor metabolic stability and aqueous solubility. In order to improve...... studies. The 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 proved to be the most promising compound with low μM in vitro anticancer potency, a 200-fold increase in PBS solubility over compound 2, and with improved metabolic stability. Furthermore, this analogue proved compatible with formulations suitable for both oral...

  1. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  2. Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word

  3. Effect of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-Hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key pointsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment.Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music.In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list

  4. Pathophysiology of Adipocyte Defects and Dyslipidemia in HIV Lipodystrophy: New Evidence from Metabolic and Molecular Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Balasubramanyam; Rajagopal V. Sekhar; Farook Jahoor; Henry J. Pownall; Dorothy Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning mass of descriptive information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, body composition changes, hormonal alterations and dyslipidemic patterns in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS), the specific biochemical pathways that are dysregulated in the condition and the molecular mechanisms that lead to their dysfunction, remain relatively unexplored. In this paper, we review studies that detail the metabolic basis of the dyslipidemia - specifically, the hype...

  5. Association Study between Ghrelin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in a Han Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yueyue; Yu, Yaqin; Wu, Yanhua; Rao, Wenwang; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yingyu; Yang, Guang; Fu, Yingli; Shi, Jieping; Kou, Changgui

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, in humans, is a hormone secreted from the stomach with an orexigenic effect, which is good for digestion and absorption, as well as regulating physical growth, metabolism, and energy balance. It is also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the association between single nucleotide variants of the GHRL gene and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a Han Chinese population. A case-control study was performed on 3780 Han Chinese comprising 1813 MetS cases and 1967 controls. Three missense polymorphisms in GHRL (rs26802, rs10490816, and rs696217) were selected, and the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of MetS was investigated. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Using Pearson's 2 test, we found that there were no significant differences in genotype distributions and allele frequencies between cases and controls (all p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in haplotype distributions between MetS cases and healthy controls. Furthermore, we confirmed that rs26802 of the GHRL gene is associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and fasting glucose; rs10490816 is associated with triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC); while rs696217 is associated with hip circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that mutations in the GHRL gene did not confer risk for MetS in our study population. Therefore, functional analysis and replication studies in other populations are needed to further investigate the exact role of the GHRL gene in MetS.

  6. Cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk among men with and without erectile dysfunction: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, João Paulo; Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba de; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Karam Junior, Amir; Santos, Raul D.; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf de; Wroclawski, Eric Roger

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim here was to evaluate cardiovascular risk through the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) criteria, C-reactive protein (CRP) assays and presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with and without erectile dysfunction diagnosed within a healthcare program. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. The patients were selected from a healthcare program at the Hospital Israelita...

  7. The metabolism of the human brain studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greitz, T.; Ingvar, D.H.; Widen, L.

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents coverage of the use of positron emission tomography (PET) to study the human brain. The contributors assess new developments in high-resolution positron emission tomography, cyclotrons, radiochemistry, and tracer kinetic models, and explore the use of PET in brain energy metabolism, blood flow, and protein synthesis measurements, receptor analysis, and pH determinations, In addition, they discuss the relevance and applications of positron emission tomography from the perspectives of physiology, neurology, and psychiatry

  8. Autoradiographic studies on glucose metabolism in the salivary gland of Lygaeus SP. (Heteroptera, Lygalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies using 3H-glucose in the salivary glands of Lygaeus sp.were carried out. It has been observed that the radioactivity appears in the cell cytoplasm and lumen within a short period of incubation and attains its peak after 30 min of incubation. Afterwards, the radioactivity is exhausted from the cell and lumen suggesting a very high rate of glucose metabolism in this species. (author) [pt

  9. A preliminary study of the metabolic stability of a series of benzoxazinone derivatives as potent neuropeptide Y5 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordal, Alberto; Lipkin, Mike; Macritchie, Jackie; Mas, Josep; Port, Adriana; Rose, Sally; Salgado, Leonardo; Savic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Serafini, Maria Teresa; Spearing, William; Torrens, Antoni; Yeste, Sandra

    2005-08-15

    The metabolic stability of benzoxazinone derivatives, a potent series of NPY Y5 antagonists, has been investigated. This study resulted in the identification of the structural moieties prone to metabolic transformations and which strongly influenced the in vitro half-life. This provides opportunities to optimize the structure of this new class of NPY Y5 antagonists.

  10. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  11. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  12. Use of deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine in the study of catecholamine and aromatic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtius, H.C.; Redweik, U.; Steinmann, B.; Leimbacher, W.; Wegmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine have been used for the study of their respective metabolism in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in healthy persons. Urinary excretion of dopamine and its metabolites was studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deuterated L-tyrosine in 2 patients with PKU and in normal controls at low and high plasma phenylalanine levels. From these studies it seemed that the in vivo tyrosine 3-hydroxylase activity and thus the formation of L-dopa depend on the phenylalanine concentration in plasma and also in tissues. After loading 3 mentally retarded patients with 3,5-[ 2 H 2 ]-4-hydroxyphenylalanine, we found, among others, excretion of deuterated m-hydroxyphenyl-hydracrylic acid, p-hydroxymandelic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyhippuric acid, benzoic acid and hippuric acid. An intramolecular rearrangement is postulated. Deuterated phenylalanine was used to investigate phenylalanine and dopa metabolism in PKU. In addition, one untreated person with PKU of normal intelligence and normal excretion of catecholamines at high plasma phenylalanine concentration was investigated in order to see whether there exists an alternative metabolic pathway from phenylalanine to dopa formation

  13. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000, but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024. Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001 and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050. Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  14. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  16. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease

  17. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle-East countries: Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarimoghaddam, Alireza; Adineh, Hosein Ali; Zareban, Iraj; Iranpour, Sohrab; HosseinZadeh, Ali; Kh, Framanfarma

    Metabolic syndrome is an important metabolic disorder which impose noticeable burden on health system. We aimed to review and imply the prevalence of it in Middle-East countries. present study was a systematic review to present overview about metabolic disorder in Middle East. Electronic literature search of Medline database and Google scholar were done for English-language articles without time filtering, as well as for population-based or national studies of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The fallowing search terms were used simultaneously: prevalence of " metabolic syndrome" and "national study", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle East", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome" and "name of country", "metabolic syndrome &name of country". Additionally, relevant articles in bibliography were searched. Analysis of data was carried out in STATA version 11.0. out of 456 studies in first-step searching (selecting by title) 59 studies were recruited and reviewed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome fluctuated by country and time of study. This amount was 2.2-44% in Turkish, 16-41% in Saudi-Arabia, 14-63 in Pakistan, 26-33 in Qatar, 9-36 in Kuwait, 22-50 in Emirate, 6-42 in Iran, and up to 23 in Yemen. Pooled estimate was 25%. Attributable risk for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke was 15.87, 11.7, and 16.23, respectively. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome is high and it is noticeable cause for stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of isotopically radiolabelled GM3 ganglioside to study metabolic alterations in Salla disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigorno, Vanna; Valsecchi, Manuela; Nicolini, Marco; Sonnino, Sandro

    1997-01-01

    We report the preparation of radioactive GM3 ganglioside and its use in the study of sialic acid storage disorders. For the first time GM3 was isotopically radiolabelled in three positions of the molecule: at the sialic acid acetyl group, [ 3 H-Neu5Ac]GM3, at the Cl of the fatty acid moiety, [ 1 4C-Stearoyl]GM3, and at C3 of sphingosine, [ 3 H-Sph]GM3. The radioactive GM3 administered to cultured human fibroblasts from a patient suffering from Salla disease was taken up by the cells and metabolized. An analysis of the distribution of radioactivity within the ganglioside metabolic derivatives showed an accumulation of free sialic acid and ceramide in the pathological cells. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Metabolism of 5-fluorouracil in human liver: an in vivo 19F NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankrishnan, P.; Sprigg, J.; Cardwell, D.; Komoroski, R.A.; Hutchins, L.; Nauke, S.; Williamson, M.R.; Jagannathan, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    In vivo fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 19 F NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human liver. Nine patients received 5-FU, and additional chemotherapeutic agents (methotrexate, leucovorin, or levamisole) either prophylactically after breast cancer surgery or for colorectal cancer. The time constant for the disappearance of 5-FU from the liver in vivo varied from 5 to 17 min, while the time constant for the appearance of α-fluoro-β-alanine (the major catabolite of 5 FU) varied from 7 to 86 min. The modulators of 5-FU metabolism did not appear to affect the time constant for the disappearance of 5-FU from the liver or for the appearance of α-fluoro-β-alanine. Results obtained indicate that the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU and α-fluoro-β-alanine may vary substantially at different times in a given individual. (author)

  1. Study on the Effect of Asparagus Extracts on Promoting Metabolism of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effective ingredients of asparagus extracts and the changes of vitamins content in mice body after the intake of asparagus extracts, thus to conclude the effect of asparagus extracts on body metabolism during exercises. Extracts were made into different concentrations of solution and given to the mice by intragastric administration. The content of micro-elements and vitamin groups in the mice body before and after the drug administration were detected respectively and biochemical index parameter values before and after swimming were measured respectively. Results showed that, 20 min after the drug administration, the content of blood lactic acid of the mice in the swimming experiment group decreased significantly. Besides, the content of muscle glycogen decreased and correspondingly the content of hepatic glycogen increased significantly (experiment group one and two: p < 0.01; experiment group 3: p < 0.05. Thus the ethanol extract solution of asparagus can effectively improve body metabolism.

  2. Conserved Metabolic Changes in Nondiabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Bariatric Surgery Patients: Global Metabolomic Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Sarosiek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to provide insight into the mechanism by which bariatric surgical procedures led to weight loss and improvement or resolution of diabetes. Global biochemical profiling was used to evaluate changes occurring in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic (T2D patients experiencing either less extreme sleeve gastrectomy or a full gastric bypass. We were able to identify changes in metabolism that were affected by standard preoperation liquid weight loss diet as well as by bariatric surgery itself. Preoperation weight-loss diet was associated with a strong lipid metabolism signature largely related to the consumption of adipose reserves for energy production. Glucose usage shift away from glycolytic pyruvate production toward pentose phosphate pathway, via glucose-6-phosphate, appeared to be shared across all patients regardless of T2D status or bariatric surgery procedure. Our results suggested that bariatric surgery might promote antioxidant defense and insulin sensitivity through both increased heme synthesis and HO activity or expression. Changes in histidine and its metabolites following surgery might be an indication of altered gut microbiome ecology or liver function. This initial study provided broad understanding of how metabolism changed globally in morbidly obese nondiabetic and T2D patients following weight-loss surgery.

  3. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Dry Eye: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Sevil Karaman; Aydin, Rukiye; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Olmuscelik, Oktay; Eliacik, Mustafa; Demirci, Goktug; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome. 108 eyes of 64 patients with metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 110 eyes of 55 healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity. Main outcome measures were Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity values and OSDI scores were significantly higher in group 1 (314.4 ± 19.1 mOsm and 38.9 ± 1.1, respectively) compared with group 2 (295 ± 14.3 mOsm and 18.69 ± 17.2, respectively) (p = 0.01 for both). The Schirmer test values and TBUT in group 1 (10 ± 3.7 mm and 14.8 ± 3.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.8 ± 2.6 mm and 18.1 ± 0.5 sec, respectively) (p syndrome can influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  4. Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome, Periodontitis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patini, Romeo; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Cordaro, Massimo; Cantiani, Monica; Amalfitano, Adriana; Arcovito, Alessandro; Callà, Cinzia; Mingrone, Gertrude; Nocca, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis even if the mechanism is unknown. Since both MetS and periodontitis are characterized by an alteration of inflammation status, the aim of this pilot study was to determine if differences in ROS metabolism of phagocytes isolated from (A) patients with MetS, (B) patients with both MetS and mild periodontitis, (C) healthy subjects and (D) normal weight subjects with mild periodontitis, were present. ROS metabolism was studied by a Chemiluminescence (CL) technique: the system was made up of luminol (100 nmol/L) and cells (1 × 10 5 ) in the presence or absence of stimulus constituted by opsonized zymosan (0.5 mg). The final volume (1.0 mL) was obtained using modified KRP buffer. ROS production was measured at 25°C for 2 h, using an LB 953 luminometer (Berthold, EG & G Co, Germany). All the experiments were performed in triplicate. All results are mean ± standard deviation (SD). The group of means was compared by the analysis of variance "(ANOVA)". A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results showed that basal ROS production (both from PMNs and from PBMs) of groups A, B and D was increased with respect to that obtained from group C ( p <0.05). These results are congruent with literature data, although the actual clinical relevance of the phenomenon remains to be evaluated.

  5. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B; Whitford, Gary M; Maguire, Anne

    2015-11-19

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0-8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect.

  6. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  7. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  8. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  9. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersot Thomas P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to explore the agreement among World Health Organization (WHO, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, American College of Endocrinology (ACE, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD 13 years were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups. Results The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83. The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84. The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF. One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p 0.05, but lower log HOMA-IR values (p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased Framingham risk scores and are more useful than the definitions that require measurement of insulin levels (WHO and EGIR.

  10. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-01-01

    Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (PThe regression analysis showed that a strong positive (Pthe soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (Pthe relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback responses of the terrestrial ecosystem to environmental changes.

  11. A FDG-PET Study of Metabolic Networks in Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available Recently, some studies have applied the graph theory in brain network analysis in Alzheimer's disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. However, relatively little research has specifically explored the properties of the metabolic network in apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 allele carriers. In our study, all the subjects, including ADs, MCIs and NCs (normal controls were divided into 165 APOE ε4 carriers and 165 APOE ε4 noncarriers. To establish the metabolic network for all brain regions except the cerebellum, cerebral glucose metabolism data obtained from FDG-PET (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were segmented into 90 areas with automated anatomical labeling (AAL template. Then, the properties of the networks were computed to explore the between-group differences. Our results suggested that both APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers showed the small-world properties. Besides, compared with APOE ε4 noncarriers, the carriers showed a lower clustering coefficient. In addition, significant changes in 6 hub brain regions were found in between-group nodal centrality. Namely, compared with APOE ε4 noncarriers, significant decreases of the nodal centrality were found in left insula, right insula, right anterior cingulate, right paracingulate gyri, left cuneus, as well as significant increases in left paracentral lobule and left heschl gyrus in APOE ε4 carriers. Increased local short distance interregional correlations and disrupted long distance interregional correlations were found, which may support the point that the APOE ε4 carriers were more similar with AD or MCI in FDG uptake. In summary, the organization of metabolic network in APOE ε4 carriers indicated a less optimal pattern and APOE ε4 might be a risk factor for AD.

  12. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  13. Characterization of energy and neurotransmitter metabolism in cortical glutamatergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells: A novel approach to study metabolism in human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Blanca I; Zhang, Yu; Lihme, Maria Fog; Bak, Lasse K; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Holst, Bjørn; Hyttel, Poul; Freude, Kristine K; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-06-01

    Alterations in the cellular metabolic machinery of the brain are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Novel human cellular disease models are essential in order to study underlying disease mechanisms. In the present study, we characterized major metabolic pathways in neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). With this aim, cultures of hiPSC-derived neurons were incubated with [U- 13 C]glucose, [U- 13 C]glutamate or [U- 13 C]glutamine. Isotopic labeling in metabolites was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and cellular amino acid content was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, we evaluated mitochondrial function using real-time assessment of oxygen consumption via the Seahorse XF e 96 Analyzer. Moreover, in order to validate the hiPSC-derived neurons as a model system, a metabolic profiling was performed in parallel in primary neuronal cultures of mouse cerebral cortex and cerebellum. These serve as well-established models of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, respectively. The hiPSC-derived neurons were previously characterized as being forebrain-specific cortical glutamatergic neurons. However, a comparable preparation of predominantly mouse cortical glutamatergic neurons is not available. We found a higher glycolytic capacity in hiPSC-derived neurons compared to mouse neurons and a substantial oxidative metabolism through the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. This finding is supported by the extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates measured in the cultured human neurons. [U- 13 C]Glutamate and [U- 13 C]glutamine were found to be efficient energy substrates for the neuronal cultures originating from both mice and humans. Interestingly, isotopic labeling in metabolites from [U- 13 C]glutamate was higher than that from [U- 13 C]glutamine. Although the metabolic profile of hiPSC-derived neurons in vitro was

  14. Sequence- and Structure-Based Functional Annotation and Assessment of Metabolic Transporters in Aspergillus oryzae: A Representative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachon Raethong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the industrial production of enzymes. In A. oryzae metabolism, transporters appear to play crucial roles in controlling the flux of molecules for energy generation, nutrients delivery, and waste elimination in the cell. While the A. oryzae genome sequence is available, transporter annotation remains limited and thus the connectivity of metabolic networks is incomplete. In this study, we developed a metabolic annotation strategy to understand the relationship between the sequence, structure, and function for annotation of A. oryzae metabolic transporters. Sequence-based analysis with manual curation showed that 58 genes of 12,096 total genes in the A. oryzae genome encoded metabolic transporters. Under consensus integrative databases, 55 unambiguous metabolic transporter genes were distributed into channels and pores (7 genes, electrochemical potential-driven transporters (33 genes, and primary active transporters (15 genes. To reveal the transporter functional role, a combination of homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation was implemented to assess the relationship between sequence to structure and structure to function. As in the energy metabolism of A. oryzae, the H+-ATPase encoded by the AO090005000842 gene was selected as a representative case study of multilevel linkage annotation. Our developed strategy can be used for enhancing metabolic network reconstruction.

  15. Sequence- and Structure-Based Functional Annotation and Assessment of Metabolic Transporters in Aspergillus oryzae: A Representative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raethong, Nachon; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak; Laoteng, Kobkul; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the industrial production of enzymes. In A. oryzae metabolism, transporters appear to play crucial roles in controlling the flux of molecules for energy generation, nutrients delivery, and waste elimination in the cell. While the A. oryzae genome sequence is available, transporter annotation remains limited and thus the connectivity of metabolic networks is incomplete. In this study, we developed a metabolic annotation strategy to understand the relationship between the sequence, structure, and function for annotation of A. oryzae metabolic transporters. Sequence-based analysis with manual curation showed that 58 genes of 12,096 total genes in the A. oryzae genome encoded metabolic transporters. Under consensus integrative databases, 55 unambiguous metabolic transporter genes were distributed into channels and pores (7 genes), electrochemical potential-driven transporters (33 genes), and primary active transporters (15 genes). To reveal the transporter functional role, a combination of homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation was implemented to assess the relationship between sequence to structure and structure to function. As in the energy metabolism of A. oryzae, the H(+)-ATPase encoded by the AO090005000842 gene was selected as a representative case study of multilevel linkage annotation. Our developed strategy can be used for enhancing metabolic network reconstruction.

  16. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  17. Metabolic regulation in meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801: Study of gene-diet interactions on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Silva-Brito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the most important source of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs for humans. With the stagnation of world marine fisheries, the role of aquaculture stocks increased rapidly as source of n-3 HUFA (FAO, 2012, but not sufficiently. To reduce the dependence as well as find ways to use of marine sources more economically and efficiently, the use of vegetable oils (VO have been widely investigated (Estévez et al., 2011. Vegetable oils are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoided of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, essential fatty acids involved in maintaining cell membrane structure, among other essential functions. The capacity of fish to thrive on diets containing only the C18 PUFA, 18 : 2n − 6 and 18 : 3n – 3 varies among species (Tocher, 2003; Leaver et al., 2008; Castro et al., 2012. It is well documented that teleosts have different enzyme capacity to desaturate-elongate 18C fatty acids into 20-22C LC-PUFAs (Cook & McMaster, 2004; Leaver et al., 2008. Generally, freshwater fish species can convert 18:2 n−6 and 18:3 n−3 to HUFA more efficiently than marine species, especially carnivorous which prey on organisms rich in HUFA (Tocher, 2003. Thus, the modulation of expression and translation of elongases and desaturases is of great importance to achieve independence of (carnivorous marine fish aquaculture from fishmeal and fish oil. There is currently considerable interest in the HUFA biosynthetic pathway in fish aiming to determine the effectiveness of vegetable oils as a total replacement of fish oil in the aquaculture of carnivore fish species (Vagner & Santigosa, 2011. Selenium is a structural component for several enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxine (Perottoni et al., 2004. These enzymes have physiological antioxidant properties and thus, protect the tissues of lipid peroxidation products (Orun et al., 2008. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid

  18. Brain PET substrate of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: A metabolic connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Klesse, Elsa; Chawki, Mohammad B; Witjas, Tatiana; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Eusebio, Alexandre; Guedj, Eric

    2018-04-10

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have received increased attention in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of potentially dramatic consequences. Their physiopathology, however, remains incompletely understood. An overstimulation of the mesocorticolimbic system has been reported, while a larger network has recently been suggested. The aim of this study is to specifically describe the metabolic PET substrate and related connectivity changes in PD patients with ICDs. Eighteen PD patients with ICDs and 18 PD patients without ICDs were evaluated using cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. SPM-T maps comparisons were performed between groups and metabolic connectivity was evaluated by interregional correlation analysis (IRCA; p  130) and by graph theory (p < .05). PD patients with ICDs had relative increased metabolism in the right middle and inferior temporal gyri compared to those without ICDs. The connectivity of this area was increased mostly with the mesocorticolimbic system, positively with the orbitofrontal region, and negatively with both the right parahippocampus and the left caudate (IRCA). Moreover, the betweenness centrality of this area with the mesocorticolimbic system was lost in patients with ICDs (graph analysis). ICDs are associated in PD with the dysfunction of a network exceeding the mesocorticolimbic system, and especially the caudate, the parahippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, remotely including the right middle and inferior temporal gyri. This latest area loses its central place with the mesocorticolimbic system through a connectivity dysregulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Redistribution of whole-body energy metabolism by exercise. A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.M.; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Fujimoto, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism of skeletal muscles and viscera induced by different workloads using 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) and three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3-D PET). Five male volunteers performed ergometer bicycle exercise for 40 min at 40% and 70% of the maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max ). [ 18 ]FDG was injected 10 min later following the exercise task. Whole-body 3-D PET was performed. Five other male volunteers were studied as a control to compare with the exercise group. The PET image data were analyzed using manually defined regions of interest to quantify the regional metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlc). Group comparisons were made using analysis of variance, and significant differences (P 18 F]FDG-PET can be used as an index of organ energy metabolism for moderate exercise workloads (70% VO 2max ). The results of this investigation may contribute to sports medicine and rehabilitation science. (author)

  20. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  1. Relation of cardiac energy metabolism to workload studied with 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligeti, L.; Osbakken, M.; Clark, B.J.; Schnall, M.; Bolinger, L.; Subramanian, H.; Leigh, J.S.; Chance, B.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial work and concentration of mediators of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP, PCr, Pi) was studied in vivo in 6 dogs and 4 cats with 31 P NMR. The heart was exposed via thoracotomy for placement of surface coils and pacing electrodes. Work (defined as heart rate X blood pressure product) was increased by pacing the heart from 2Hz (rest) to 5Hz. In cats, an increase in work from 1.9 x 10 4 +/- .32 to 2.4 x 10 4 +/- .08 was associated with an increase in Pi/PCr ratio from .29 +/- .08 to .68 +/- .33; in dogs, work increase from 1.74 x 10 4 .82 to 3.4 x 10 4 +/- .84 did not cause significant change in Pi/PCr (.29 +/- .15 to .30 +/- .17). If these data are analyzed via the Michaelis-Menten algorithm, the cat heart can be considered to be set closer to V/sub max/ and the dog heart set closer to V/sub o/ (i.e. having a larger metabolic reserve). The difference between the 2 species could be due to microvascular and/or metabolic control mechanisms. Delineation of the different metabolic responses to work in these animal models may be helpful in understanding the physiological basis of heart disease

  2. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  3. Investigations on the effects of ''Ecstasy'' on cerebral glucose metabolism: an 18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Tuttass, T.; Schulz, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Buell, U.; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylendioxyethamphetamine) on the cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers. Method: In a randomised double-blind trial, 16 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with 18-FDG PET 110-120 minutes after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Beginning two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, a constant cognitive stimulation was maintained for 32 minutes using a word repetition paradigm in order to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral 18-FDG uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash MRI, followed by manual regionalisation into 108 regions-of-interest and PET/MRI overlay. Absolute quantification of rMRGlu and comparison of glucose metabolism under MDE versus placebo were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Absolute global MRGlu was not significantly changed under MDE versus placebo (MDE: 41,8±11,1 μmol/min/100 g, placebo: 50,1±18,1 μmol/min/100 g, p=0,298). The normalised regional metabolic data showed a significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: Left frontal posterior (-7.1%, p [de

  4. The Ussing Chamber Assay to Study Drug Metabolism and Transport in the Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Beatrice; Mangelsen, Eva; Wingolf, Caroline; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Tannergren, Christer; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus

    2017-06-22

    The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes. While there are limitations to the Ussing chamber assay, the use of human intestinal tissue remains the best laboratory test for characterizing the transport and metabolism of compounds following oral administration. Detailed in this unit is a step-by-step protocol for preparing human intestinal tissue, for designing Ussing chamber experiments, and for analyzing and interpreting the findings. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. A bioenergetics-kinetics coupled modeling study on subsurface microbial metabolism in a field biostimulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Q.; Zheng, Z.; Zhu, C.

    2006-12-01

    Microorganisms in nature conserve energy by catalyzing various geochemical reactions. To build a quantitative relationship between geochemical conditions and metabolic rates, we propose a bioenergetics-kinetics coupled modeling approach. This approach describes microbial community as a metabolic network, i.e., fermenting microbes degrade organic substrates while aerobic respirer, nitrate reducer, metal reducer, sulfate reducer, and methanogen consume the fermentation products. It quantifies the control of substrate availability and biological energy conservation on the metabolic rates using thermodynamically consistent rate laws. We applied this simulation approach to study the progress of microbial metabolism during a field biostimulation experiment conducted in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the experiment, ethanol was injected into a monitoring well and groundwater was sampled to monitor changes in the chemistry. With time, concentrations of ethanol and SO42- decreased while those of NH4+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ increased. The simulation results fitted well to the observation, indicating simultaneous ethanol degradation and terminal electron accepting processes. The rates of aerobic respiration and denitrification were mainly controlled by substrate concentrations while those of ethanol degradation, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis were controlled dominantly by the energy availability. The simulation results suggested two different microbial growth statuses in the subsurface. For the functional groups with significant growth, variations with time in substrate concentrations demonstrated a typical S curve. For the groups without significant growth, initial decreases in substrate concentrations were linear with time. Injecting substrates followed by monitoring environmental chemistry therefore provides a convenient approach to characterize microbial growth in the subsurface where methods for direct observation are currently unavailable. This research was funded by the

  6. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  7. Changes in mouse brain metabolism following a convulsive dose of soman: A proton HRMAS NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvelle, F. [Unite de Biophysique Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, Centre de Recherches du Service Sante des Armees, BP87, 38 702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Dorandeu, F.; Carpentier, P.; Foquin, A. [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, Centre de Recherches du Service Sante des Armees, 24 avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, BP87, 38 702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Rabeson, H.; Graveron-Demilly, D. [Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire Creatis-LRMN, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U630, INSA de Lyon (France); Arvers, P. [Unite de Biophysique Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, Centre de Recherches du Service Sante des Armees, BP87, 38 702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Testylier, G., E-mail: guytestylier@crssa.net [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, Centre de Recherches du Service Sante des Armees, 24 avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, BP87, 38 702 La Tronche Cedex (France)

    2010-01-12

    Soman, an irreversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor, induces status epilepticus and, in sensitive brain areas, seizure-related brain damage (e.g. brain edema and neuronal loss). The brain metabolic disturbances associated with these events are ill known. In the present study, we thus evaluated these changes in a murine model of soman-induced status epilepticus up to 7 days after intoxication. Mice, protected by HI-6 and atropine methyl nitrate, were poisoned with soman (172 μg/kg) and then sacrificed at set time points, from 1 h to 7 days. Brain biopsies from the piriform cortex (Pir) and cerebellum (Cer) were analyzed by {sup 1}H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Spectra were then analyzed using both a supervised multivariate analysis and the QUEST procedure of jMRUI for the quantification of 17 metabolites. The multivariate analysis clearly showed the metabolic differences between a damaged structure (Pir) and a structure with less prominent changes (cerebellum) and helped to globally assess the time course of metabolic changes. Analysis of the individual metabolites showed that the major changes took place in the piriform cortex but that cerebellum was not change-free. The most prominent changes in the former were an early (1-4 h) increase in alanine and acetate, a delayed increase in lactate, glycerophosphocholine and glutamine as well as a delayed decrease in myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate. A week after poisoning, some metabolic disturbances were still present. Further research will be necessary to clarify what could be the involvement of these metabolites in physiological processes and how they might become useful surrogate markers of brain damage and repair.

  8. Changes in mouse brain metabolism following a convulsive dose of soman: A proton HRMAS NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvelle, F.; Dorandeu, F.; Carpentier, P.; Foquin, A.; Rabeson, H.; Graveron-Demilly, D.; Arvers, P.; Testylier, G.

    2010-01-01

    Soman, an irreversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor, induces status epilepticus and, in sensitive brain areas, seizure-related brain damage (e.g. brain edema and neuronal loss). The brain metabolic disturbances associated with these events are ill known. In the present study, we thus evaluated these changes in a murine model of soman-induced status epilepticus up to 7 days after intoxication. Mice, protected by HI-6 and atropine methyl nitrate, were poisoned with soman (172 μg/kg) and then sacrificed at set time points, from 1 h to 7 days. Brain biopsies from the piriform cortex (Pir) and cerebellum (Cer) were analyzed by 1 H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Spectra were then analyzed using both a supervised multivariate analysis and the QUEST procedure of jMRUI for the quantification of 17 metabolites. The multivariate analysis clearly showed the metabolic differences between a damaged structure (Pir) and a structure with less prominent changes (cerebellum) and helped to globally assess the time course of metabolic changes. Analysis of the individual metabolites showed that the major changes took place in the piriform cortex but that cerebellum was not change-free. The most prominent changes in the former were an early (1-4 h) increase in alanine and acetate, a delayed increase in lactate, glycerophosphocholine and glutamine as well as a delayed decrease in myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate. A week after poisoning, some metabolic disturbances were still present. Further research will be necessary to clarify what could be the involvement of these metabolites in physiological processes and how they might become useful surrogate markers of brain damage and repair.

  9. A tale of two methods: combining near-infrared spectroscopy with MRI for studies of brain oxygenation and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff F; Nathoo, Nabeela; Yang, Runze

    2014-01-01

    Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) leads to excellent synergies which can improve the interpretation of either method and can provide novel data with respect to measuring brain oxygenation and metabolism. MRI has good spatial resolution, can detect a range of physiological parameters and is sensitive to changes in deoxyhemoglobin content. NIRS has lower spatial resolution, but can detect, and with specific technologies, quantify, deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase. This paper reviews the application of both methods, as a multimodal technology, for assessing changes in brain oxygenation that may occur with changes in functional activation state or metabolic rate. Examples of hypoxia and ischemia are shown. Data support the concept of reduced metabolic rate resulting from hypoxia/ischemia and that metabolic rate in brain is not close to oxygen limitation during normoxia. We show that multimodal MRI and NIRS can provide novel information for studies of brain metabolism.

  10. A comparative study on genetic and environmental influences on metabolic phenotypes in Eastern (Chinese) and Western (Danish) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia

    2015-01-01

    the risk of clinic diseases e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic phenotypes, similar to most complex traits, can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interplay. Many family and twin studies have demonstrated both genetic...... and environmental factors play important role in the variation of metabolic phenotypes and intra-individual change over time. Although both genetic and environmental factors are involved the development of metabolic disorders, the role of environment should be emphasized as the expression or function of gene can...... be regulated to adapt to existing environmental circumstance. In other words, adaptive evolution in populations under distinct environmental and cultural circumstances could have resulted in varying genetic basis of metabolic factors and development of metabolic disorders or diseases. Thus, it can...

  11. The prevalence of metabolic disorders in various phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a community based study in Southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Rashidi, Homeira; Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-09-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, associated with metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic features of various phenotypes of this syndrome are still debatable. The aim of present study hence was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal features of PCOS phenotypes in comparison to a group of healthy control. A total of 646 reproductive-aged women were randomly selected using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method. The subjects were divided into five phenotypes: A (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries), B (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism), C (hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries) and D (oligo/anovulation + polycystic ovaries). Hormonal and metabolic profiles and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among these groups were compared using ANCOVA adjusted for age and body mass index. Among women with PCOS (n = 85), those of groups A and C had higher serum levels of insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared to PCOS women of group D. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and glucose in group A were higher than in other phenotypes, whereas the metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among group B. Women who had all three components of the syndrome showed the highest level of metabolic disturbances indicating that metabolic screening of the severest phenotype of PCOS may be necessary.

  12. A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hai Quy Tram

    2017-01-01

    A study of the cardio- metabolic risk factors in Vietnamese females with vegan diet. Background. Numerous studies have shown that vegan diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of vegan diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors and the association between duration of vegan diet and those risk factors, are still unclear. Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and influence of duration of vegan diet on cardio- me...

  13. Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Monique; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS) components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, uns...

  14. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  15. Aluminum metabolism studied by [sup 26]Al tracer using AMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology); Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Hotta, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we studied aluminum metabolism using [sup 26]Al as a tracer. To investigate the role of aluminum toxicity in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, aluminum incorporation into the rat cerebrum was studied. When healthy rats were injected intraperitoneally with [sup 26]Al, a considerable amount of the tracer was incorporated into the brain within only 5 days after the injection. This [sup 26]Al accumulation was apparently irreversible, since it persisted even after 75 days. (author).

  16. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, M.

    2007-01-01

    sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7).In spite of the cerebral atrophy of aging, these relative hypometabolic brain areas are considered to be correlated with structural and functional cerebral changes and cognitive dysfunction such as verbal and spatial working memory deficit in the process of normal brain aging. The study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brains can be used for reference and instruction in future clinical studies and in normal brain aging. (author)

  17. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szostak-Węgierek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. Methods One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20–49 years who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study in 2013–2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20–29 years (n = 403, 30–39 years (n = 600 and 40–49 years (n = 585. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Results Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with

  18. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Walerian; Stepaniak, Urszula; Pająk, Andrzej; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Nadrowski, Paweł; Niklas, Arkadiusz; Puch-Walczak, Aleksandra; Drygas, Wojciech

    2017-07-13

    Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20-49 years) who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) in 2013-2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20-29 years (n = 403), 30-39 years (n = 600) and 40-49 years (n = 585). Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with age. Underweight is relatively common in the youngest age group.

  19. Inducing metabolic suppression in severe hemorrhagic shock: Pilot study results from the Biochronicity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, George E; Sokol, Kyle K; Shawhan, Robert R; Eckert, Matthew J; Salgar, Shashikumar; Marko, Shannon T; Hoffer, Zachary S; Keyes, Christopher C; Roth, Mark B; Martin, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Suspended animation-like states have been achieved in small animal models, but not in larger species. Inducing metabolic suppression and temporary oxygen independence could enhance survivability of massive injury. Based on prior analyses of key pathways, we hypothesized that phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition would produce metabolic suppression without worsening organ injury or systemic physiology. Twenty swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a nonselective phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibitor. Animals were assigned to trauma only (TO, n = 3); dimethyl sulfoxide only (DMSO, n = 4), LY drug only (LYO, n = 3), and drug + trauma (LY + T, n = 10) groups. Both trauma groups underwent laparotomy, 35% hemorrhage, severe ischemia/reperfusion injury, and protocolized resuscitation. Laboratory, physiologic, cytokine, and metabolic cart data were obtained. Histology of key end organs was also compared. Baseline values were similar among the groups. Compared with the TO group, the LYO group had reversible decreases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production. Compared with TO, LY + T showed sustained decreases in heart rate (113 vs. 76, p = 0.03), mean arterial pressure (40 vs. 31 mm Hg, p = 0.02), and cardiac output (3.8 vs. 1.9 L/min, p = 0.05) at 6 hours. Metabolic parameters showed profound suppression in the LY + T group. Oxygen consumption in LY + T was lower than both TO (119 vs. 229 mL/min, p = 0.012) and LYO (119 vs. 225 mL/min, p = 0.014) at 6 hours. Similarly, carbon dioxide production was decreased at 6 hours in LY + T when compared with TO (114 vs. 191 mL/min, p = 0.043) and LYO (114 vs. 195 mL/min, p = 0.034) groups. There was no worsening of acidosis (lactate 6.4 vs. 8.3 mmol/L, p = 0.4) or other endpoints. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) showed a significant increase in LY + T when compared with TO at 6 hours (60.5 vs. 2.47, p = 0.043). Tumor necrosis factor α and IL-1β were decreased, and IL-10 increased in

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Associations in a Bariatric Surgery Cohort from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645

  1. Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Suhre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol, ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate, and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate, lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids, and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids. Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

  2. Multiplatform plasma metabolic and lipid fingerprinting of breast cancer: A pilot control-case study in Colombian Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Mónica P; Aldana, Julian; Medina, Jessica; Sánchez, Julián; Guio, José; Wist, Julien; Meesters, Roland J W

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease associated with metabolic reprogramming. The shifts in the metabolome caused by BC still lack data from Latin populations of Hispanic origin. In this pilot study, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches were performed to establish a plasma metabolic fingerprint of Colombian Hispanic women with BC. Data from 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS were combined and compared. Statistics showed discrimination between breast cancer and healthy subjects on all analytical platforms. The differentiating metabolites were involved in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multiplatform approaches in metabolic/lipid fingerprinting studies to broaden the outlook of possible shifts in metabolism. Our findings propose relevant plasma metabolites that could contribute to a better understanding of underlying metabolic shifts driven by BC in women of Colombian Hispanic origin. Particularly, the understanding of the up-regulation of long chain fatty acyl carnitines and the down-regulation of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). In addition, the mapped metabolic signatures in breast cancer were similar but not identical to those reported for non-Hispanic women, despite racial differences.

  3. Multiplatform plasma metabolic and lipid fingerprinting of breast cancer: A pilot control-case study in Colombian Hispanic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Mónica P.; Aldana, Julian; Medina, Jessica; Sánchez, Julián; Guio, José; Wist, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease associated with metabolic reprogramming. The shifts in the metabolome caused by BC still lack data from Latin populations of Hispanic origin. In this pilot study, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches were performed to establish a plasma metabolic fingerprint of Colombian Hispanic women with BC. Data from 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS were combined and compared. Statistics showed discrimination between breast cancer and healthy subjects on all analytical platforms. The differentiating metabolites were involved in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multiplatform approaches in metabolic/lipid fingerprinting studies to broaden the outlook of possible shifts in metabolism. Our findings propose relevant plasma metabolites that could contribute to a better understanding of underlying metabolic shifts driven by BC in women of Colombian Hispanic origin. Particularly, the understanding of the up-regulation of long chain fatty acyl carnitines and the down-regulation of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). In addition, the mapped metabolic signatures in breast cancer were similar but not identical to those reported for non-Hispanic women, despite racial differences. PMID:29438405

  4. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  5. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  6. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura; Chiti, Arturo; Mosconi, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 ± 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 ± 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of amino acid metabolism by cultured rat kidney cells: Study with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissim, I.; States, B.; Yudkoff, M.; Segal, S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study evaluates the metabolism of glutamine and glutamate by normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. The major aim was to evaluate the effect of acute acidosis on the metabolism of amino acid and ammonia formation by cultured NRK cells. Experiments at either pH 7.0 or 7.4 were conducted with phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with either 1 mM [5- 15 N]glutamine, [2- 15 N]glutamine, or [ 15 N]glutamate. Incubation with either glutamine or glutamate as a precursor showed that production of ammonia and glucose was increased significantly at pH 7.0 vs 7.4. In experiments with [5- 15 N]glutamine, the authors found that ∼57 and 43% of ammonia N was derived from 5-N of glutamine at pH 7.4 and 7.0, respectively. Three major metabolic pathways of [2- 15 N]glutamine or [ 15 N]glutamate disposal were identified: (1) transamination reactions involving the pH-independent formation of [ 15 N] aspartate and [ 15 N]alanine; (2) the synthesis of [6- 15 NH 2 ]adenine nucleotide, a process more active at pH 7.4 vs. 7.0; and (3) glutamine synthesis from [ 15 N]glutamate, especially at pH 7.4. The data indicate that NRK cells in culture consume glutamine and glutamate and generate ammonia and various amino acids, depending on the H + concentration in the media. The studies suggest that these cell lines may provide a useful model for studying various aspects of the effect of pH on rat renal ammoniagenesis

  8. Study of beta-cell function (by HOMA model) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M K; Dutta, M K; Mahalle, Namita

    2011-07-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS), which strongly predict risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies implicate insulin resistance (IR) in the development of diabetes, but ignore the contribution of beta-cell dysfunction. Hence, we studied beta-cell function, as assessed by HOMA model, in subjects with MS. We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, biochemical, and insulin measurement. IR and secretion were calculated by HOMA model. Subjects with MS had more IR (HOMA-IR) than controls (3.35 ± 3.14 vs. 1.76 ± 0.53, P = 0.029) and secreted less insulin (HOMA-S) than controls (66.80 ± 69.66 vs. 144.27 ± 101.61, P = 0.0003), although plasma insulin levels were comparable in both groups (10.7 ± 10.2 vs. 8.2 ± 2.38, P = 0.44). HOMA-IR and HOMA-S were related with number of metabolic abnormalities. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio, body fat mass, and percent body fat. HOMA-S was negatively associated with waist hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol and positively with basal metabolic rate. Percent body fat was an independent predictor of HOMA-IR and waist hip ratio of HOMA-S in multiple regression analysis. Subjects with MS have increased IR and decreased insulin secretion compared with healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve IR, insulin secretion, and various components and effects of MS. Hence, there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent ongoing epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  10. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiometric study of the metabolic processes in cell cultures inoculated with E.coli 0111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova-Shindarova, I.

    1977-01-01

    The penetration and propagation of bacteria in tissue cells is accompanied by changes in the metabolic processes. A group of strains, belonging to one serologic type comprises invasive and noninvasive variants. Twenty two E.coli 0111 strains were studied. By labelling strains with 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine and 14C-leucine it was demonstrated that the amino acid and protein synthesis of RC 3 cells inoculated with invasive E.coli 0111 variants becomes more intensive. Amino acid and protein synthesis in noninvasive E.coli 0111 following previous high incorporation of the three labelled compounds is rapidly reduced and remains within control limits. (author)

  12. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zhang Lansheng; Kang Baoan

    1988-08-01

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  13. Cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic changes in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Y.; Loc'h, C.; Ottaviani, M.; Baron, J.C.; Bousser, M.

    1984-09-01

    Using the positron emission tomography, with the O 15 inhalation technique, the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were studied in 37 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. In the territory of the occluded ICA, two pattern of focal anomaly have been observed: a CBF decrease with a ''compensatory'' OEF increase or a matched CBF and CMRO 2 decrease. On the other hand, as compared to age matched control values, CMRO 2 is significantly decreased in the territory of the occluded carotid only in patients with extensive neck vessels obstructive disease

  14. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  15. Changes in protein metabolism after gastric resection studied by 125I-albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, I.; Cerven, J.

    1976-01-01

    The changes were studied in the metabolism of protein using albumin- 125 I in seven patients with benign conditions of the stomach or duodenum before gastrectomy and starting with the second week after the surgery. In the postoperative period body weight was found to be significantly reduced, there was a drop in erythrocyte count, and blood hemoglobin and plasma albumin concentration were decreased. There was a significant rise of plasma volume during this period. Compared with the preoperative findings, the intravascular albumin pool was diminished by 11%, the extravascular albumin pool by 19.%, so that the overall albumin pool was postoperatively found to be reduced by 1/6. (author)

  16. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...... and parietal cortical areas. There was a statistically significant increase of disability (pmetabolism in MS is decreased significantly during a 2......-year observation period, suggesting a deterioration of cortical activity with disease progression. The time-related changes of cortical CMRglc are statistically stronger than changes in TLA measurements and neurologic disability, and might be a useful secondary measure of treatment efficacy...

  17. 13C MRS Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corin O. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well-known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs using 13C MRS.Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal, along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion half way through the study on the second study session.Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e., monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen

  18. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-05-01

    To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, t(max2) and C(max2) for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t(1/2) and CL(int) value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CL(int) and lower absorption in male rats.

  19. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei

    1998-01-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  20. Metabolic activity in the insular cortex and hypothalamus predicts hot flashes: an FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Lin, Nancy U; Makris, Nikos; Skaar, Todd C; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Hall, Janet E

    2012-09-01

    Hot flashes are a common side effect of adjuvant endocrine therapies (AET; leuprolide, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that reduce quality of life and treatment adherence in breast cancer patients. Because hot flashes affect only some women, preexisting neurobiological traits might predispose to their development. Previous studies have implicated the insula during the perception of hot flashes and the hypothalamus in thermoregulatory dysfunction. The aim of the study was to understand whether neurobiological factors predict hot flashes. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine whether metabolic activity in the insula and hypothalamic thermoregulatory and estrogen-feedback regions measured before and in response to AET predict hot flashes. Findings were correlated with CYP2D6 genotype because of CYP2D6 polymorphism associations with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. We measured regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake (rCMRglu) in the insula and hypothalamus on FDG-PET. Of 18 women without hot flashes who began AET, new-onset hot flashes were reported by 10 (55.6%) and were detected objectively in nine (50%) participants. Prior to the use of all AET, rCMRglu in the insula (P ≤ 0.01) and hypothalamic thermoregulatory (P = 0.045) and estrogen-feedback (P = 0.007) regions was lower in women who reported developing hot flashes. In response to AET, rCMRglu was further reduced in the insula in women developing hot flashes (P ≤ 0.02). Insular and hypothalamic rCMRglu levels were lower in intermediate than extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Trait neurobiological characteristics predict hot flashes. Genetic variability in CYP2D6 may underlie the neurobiological predisposition to hot flashes induced by AET.

  1. [DiabeTIC website: a pilot study of satisfaction and impact on metabolic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Ayala Ortega, María del Carmen; Jiménez Millán, Ana Isabel; Piñero Zaldivar, Antonia; García Calzado, Concepción; Prieto Ferrón, Matilde; Silva Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate satisfaction and short-term impact on metabolic control of diabetes monitoring through the DiabeTIC website. A prospective, uncontrolled intervention study was conducted in 32 patients aged 29.7±9.7 years (65% female) incorporated to the telemedicine platform DiabeTIC between March and September 2012. All patients completed a satisfaction questionnaire in the first month, and impact on metabolic control was evaluated at three and six months. In the satisfaction survey conducted in the first month of follow-up, the following mean scores (0-10) were obtained: overall impression with the platform: 8.6±1.8; ease of use: 8.1±1.5; intuitive navigation: 6.7±3.0; value of measurements: 9.1±1.1; importance of the platform in diabetes management: 9.5±0.9; sense of security: 9.5±0.8; value of the library: 9.4±1.1; value of messages: 9.1±1.4, and recommendation to use the platform: 9.4±0.9. Glycosilated hemoglobin concentrations significantly improved at six months as compared to study start (7.0±0.8 versus 8.1±1.9; p=0.007). Nine patients were discharged from DiabeTIC before completing six months of follow-up. Patients with diabetes monitored through the DiabeTIC website report a high degree of satisfaction, showing improved metabolic control at short-term follow-up. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71±5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects

  3. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  4. Studies on muscle metabolism in peripheral vascular disease using 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safi, N.; Chanachai, R.; Blanquet, P.; Texier, L.; Passeron, A.; Guillet, G.

    1982-01-01

    Thallium 201 has been used mostly in cardiology, for the detection of ischemic ''areas'' and infarcted zones in cardiac muscle. This isotope has been chosen, because of its great metabolic similarity to Potassium. But less interest has been shown in the transit and localization of Thallium in the limbs. We have been working on a method based upon the study of muscle metabolism using 201 Tl which could possibly detect the condition before the onset of clinical symptoms. As a preliminary investigation, we have studied the distribution of this isotope, in rats after effort, or in resting state. We have observed an important increase in the muscle uptake of 201 Tl during the period of effort compared to the uptake in a resting state. The ratio of this increased uptake is about two to three times more important. In vitro studies of fibroblast cell cultures reveal a competition between potassium and thallium, the fixation of thallium being diminished in the presence of an excess of potassium and increased when the concentration of potassium is low, in the culture medium

  5. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G.; Clement, Karine; Petit, Francois M.; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  6. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, Julia E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Moore, Lee E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, Yuan-Chin A. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McKay, James D. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Hung, Rayjean J. [Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Karami, Sara [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gaborieau, Valérie [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Zaridze, David G. [Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Carcinogenesis, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mukeriya, Anush [Cancer Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mates, Dana [Institute of Public Health, Bucharest (Romania); Foretova, Lenka [Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bencko, Vladimir [First Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Rothman, Nathaniel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Brennan, Paul [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Chow, Wong-Ho [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Boffetta, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.boffetta@mssm.edu [International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon (France); Tisch Cancer Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Background: The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have among the highest worldwide rates of renal cell cancer (RCC). Few studies have examined whether genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes may modify risk for this cancer. Methods: The Central and Eastern Europe Renal Cell Cancer study was a hospital-based case–control study conducted between 1998 and 2003 across seven centers in Central and Eastern Europe. Detailed data were collected from 874 cases and 2053 controls on demographics, work history, and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Genes [cytochrome P-450 family, N-acetyltransferases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] were selected for the present analysis based on their putative role in xenobiotic metabolism. Haplotypes were calculated using fastPhase. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for country of residence, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and hypertension. Results: We observed an increased risk of RCC with one SNP. After adjustment for multiple comparisons it did not remain significant. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with disease. Conclusion: We observed no association between this pathway and renal cell cancer.

  7. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, Julia E.; Moore, Lee E.; Lee, Yuan-Chin A.; McKay, James D.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Karami, Sara; Gaborieau, Valérie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Zaridze, David G.; Mukeriya, Anush; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Rothman, Nathaniel; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have among the highest worldwide rates of renal cell cancer (RCC). Few studies have examined whether genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes may modify risk for this cancer. Methods: The Central and Eastern Europe Renal Cell Cancer study was a hospital-based case–control study conducted between 1998 and 2003 across seven centers in Central and Eastern Europe. Detailed data were collected from 874 cases and 2053 controls on demographics, work history, and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Genes [cytochrome P-450 family, N-acetyltransferases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] were selected for the present analysis based on their putative role in xenobiotic metabolism. Haplotypes were calculated using fastPhase. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for country of residence, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and hypertension. Results: We observed an increased risk of RCC with one SNP. After adjustment for multiple comparisons it did not remain significant. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with disease. Conclusion: We observed no association between this pathway and renal cell cancer.

  8. The kidney of chicken adapts to chronic metabolic acidosis: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craan, A G; Lemieux, G; Vinay, P; Gougoux, A

    1982-08-01

    Renal adaptation to chronic metabolic acidosis was studies in Arbor Acre hens receiving ammonium chloride by stomach tube 0.75 g/kg/day during 6 days. During a 14-day study, it was shown that the animals could excrete as much as 60% of the acid load during ammonium chloride administration. At the same time urate excretion fell markedly but the renal contribution to urate excretion (14%) did not change. During acidosis, blood glutamine increased twofold and the tissue concentration of glutamine rose in both liver and kidney. Infusion of L-glutamine led to increased ammonia excretion and more so in acidotic animals. Glutaminase I, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase (GPT), and malic enzyme activities increased in the kidney during acidosis but phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity did not change. Glutaminase I was not found in the liver, but hepatic glutamine synthetase rose markedly during acidosis. Glutamine synthetase was not found in the kidney. Renal tubules incubated with glutamine and alanine were ammoniagenic and gluconeogenic to the same degree as rat tubules with the same increments in acidosis. Lactate was gluconeogenic without increment during acidosis. The present study indicates that the avian kidney adapts to chronic metabolic acidosis with similarities and differences when compared to dog and rat. Glutamine originating from the liver appears to be the major ammoniagenic substrate. Our data also support the hypothesis that hepatic urate synthesis is decreased during acidosis.

  9. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno [AP-HP, Centre de Reference de pathologie neuromusculaire Paris-Est, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, (France); Bassez, Guillaume [AP-HP, Centre de Reference de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Paris-Ouest, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil, (France); Carlier, Pierre G. [CEA, I2BM, MIRCen, IdM NMR Laboratory, T-75651 Paris, (France); Clement, Karine [AP-HP, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, ICAN, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, University Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris6, Paris, INSERM, U872 team 7, Paris, (France); Petit, Francois M. [AP-HP, Molecular Genetics and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, Antoine Beclere Hospital, Clamart, (France); Carlier, Robert-Yves [AP-HP, Departement d' imagerie Medicale et Centre d' innovation Technologique, CHU Raymond-Poincare, Garches, (France)

    2013-07-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  10. [A 5-year interval report on study of burn metabolism and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S L

    1992-12-01

    This paper introduces the essential experiences concerning studies of burn metabolism and nutrition in our institute in the past five years. 1. Three new and practical animal models were developed for studying gastro-enteral nutrition in burns. 2. With indirect calorimetry, resting energy expenditure (REE) of 92 burn adult patients were measured and analyzed, and on the basis of which a new formula for calculating nutritional supplement in Chinese burn adults was proposed: kcal/day = 1,000 x M2 (body surface area) + 25 x % TBSA (total burn surface area). 3. Through experimental and clinical studies, it was found that antiouperoxide agents (such as SOD, CAT), tolbutamide, glutamine and Chinese herb decoction Sizunzituang all exhibited modulating effects on postburn metabolism and nutrition, e.g. decreasing catabolism, reducing negative nitrogen balance, stimulating secretion of insulin, enhancing tissue utilization of glucose, maintaining the mass of enteral mucosa and improving functions of viscerae. 4. A new less irritating, simple and easy-to-introduce nasal-enteral nutrition tube was devised, which could pass through the pylorus easily into the duodenum usually within 6hrs without using a stylet. It would be useful in the early postburn enteral nutrition supplementation.

  11. Studies on the metabolism and possible mechanisms of atherogenesis of lipoprotein (a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempler, F.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of atherogenesis are under intensive clinical and experimental investigation. It is commonly accepted that lipoproteins play a major role in atherogenesis. The results of several clinical studies suggest that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In order to obtain information on the physiological and pathological role of LP(a), studies were undertaken to investigate the metabolism, removal sites, and possible atherogenic mechanism of Lp(a). It was found that Lp(a) is not metabolic product of other apoprotein B containing lipoproteins, but appears to be synthesized as a separate lipoprotein. The turnover parameters of Lp(a) resemble those of LDL. Binding studies of Lp(a) with cultured human fibroblasts demonstrated that Lp(a) is bound by the B-E receptor. After binding, Lp(a) is internalized and inhibits cellular cholesterol synthesis. In the presence of dextran sulfate or antibodies to the specific Lp(a) apoprotein or apoprotein B, Lp(a) is avidly taken up by macrophages. A similar mechanism might be responsible for the atherogenic effect of Lp(a). (Author)

  12. Work-family life courses and metabolic markers in mid-life: evidence from the British National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found generally better health among those who combine employment and family responsibilities; however, most research excludes men, and relies on subjective measures of health and information on work and family activities from only 1 or 2 time points in the life course. This study investigated associations between work-family life course types (LCTs) and markers of metabolic risk in a British birth cohort study. Methods Multichannel sequence analysis was used to generate work-family LCTs, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood between 16 and 42 years for men and women in the British National Child Development Study (NCDS, followed since their birth in 1958). Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in mid-life (age 44–45) were tested using multivariate linear regression in multiply imputed data. Results Life courses characterised by earlier transitions into parenthood were associated with significantly increased metabolic risk, regardless of attachment to paid work or marital stability over the life course. These associations were only partially attenuated by educational qualifications, early life circumstances and adult mediators. The positive association between weak labour markets ties and metabolic risk was weaker than might be expected from previous studies. Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors did not differ significantly by gender. Conclusions Earlier transitions to parenthood are linked to metabolic risk in mid-life. PMID:26659761

  13. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Brain metabolism in patients with freezing of gait after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Na Young; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2017-11-01

    Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis. Additionally, we correlated each patient's FOG severity with the brain metabolism using a covariance analysis.Patients with FOG had significantly decreased brain glucose metabolism in the midbrain, bilateral thalamus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right paracentral lobule, and left precentral gyrus (PFDR-corrected brain metabolism were noted in patients with FOG. The covariance analysis identified significant correlations between the FOG severity and the brain metabolism in the right lingual gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and bilateral cerebellar crus I (Puncorrected brain regions in the gait-related neural network, including the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, brainstem, and cerebellum, may significantly contribute to the development of FOG in HIBI. Moreover, the FOG severity may be associated with the visual cortex and cerebellar regions.

  15. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  16. Vitamin A metabolism is changed in donors after living-kidney transplantation: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henze Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidneys are essential for the metabolism of vitamin A (retinol and its transport proteins retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and transthyretin. Little is known about changes in serum concentration after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT as a consequence of unilateral nephrectomy; although an association of these parameters with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance has been suggested. Therefore we analyzed the concentration of retinol, RBP4, apoRBP4 and transthyretin in serum of 20 living-kidney donors and respective recipients at baseline as well as 6 weeks and 6 months after LDKT. Results As a consequence of LDKT, the kidney function of recipients was improved while the kidney function of donors was moderately reduced within 6 weeks after LDKT. With regard to vitamin A metabolism, the recipients revealed higher levels of retinol, RBP4, transthyretin and apoRBP4 before LDKT in comparison to donors. After LDKT, the levels of all four parameters decreased in serum of the recipients, while retinol, RBP4 as well as apoRBP4 serum levels of donors increased and remained increased during the follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusion LDKT is generally regarded as beneficial for allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental for the donors. However, it could be demonstrated in this study that a moderate reduction of kidney function by unilateral nephrectomy, resulted in an imbalance of components of vitamin A metabolism with a significant increase of retinol and RBP4 and apoRBP4 concentration in serum of donors.

  17. Multiple stable isotope tracer technique for studying the metabolic kinetics of amino acids in hepatic failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongqin, Xia; Tengchang, Dai; Jianhua, Zhang; Yaer, Hu; Bingyao, Yu; Xingrong, Xu; Guanlu, Huang; Gengrong, Shen; Yaqiu, Zhou; Hong, Yu

    1987-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the imbalance of amino acid metabolism during hepatic failure, a stable isotope tracer method for observing simultaneously the metabolic kinetics of several amino acids has been established. /sup 15/N-L-Ala, (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Leu and (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Phe were chosen as nonessential, branched chain and aromatic amino acids. A single iv injection of 40 mg N-Ala, 20 mg deuterated Leu and 20 mg deuterated Phe was given to each human subject. Blood samples were taken just before and at different times (up to 60 min) after the injection. Total free amino acids were isolated from the plasma with a small dowex 50 x 8 column and converted to trifluoroacetyl derivatives. Their abundances were then analyzed with a GC-MS system and typical double exponential time course curves were found for all the three labelled amino acids. A two-pool model was designed and applied for compartmental analysis. Significant changes were found in the kinetic parameters of Phe and Leu in patients with fulminant hepatitis or heptic cirrhosis. The half-lives of both Phe pools were longer and the pool sizes were larger than normal subjects, while the half-lives and pool sizes of Leu changes in the opposite direction. No marked change was found in Ala. The significance of intracellular imbalance of Phe and Leu metabolism was discussed. It is evident that the combination of GCMS technique and multiple-tracers labelled with stable isotopes is of great potential for similar purposes.

  18. Causal relationship between adiponectin and metabolic traits: a Mendelian randomization study in a multiethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mente

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear.We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada.Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes.Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002. The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively. The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P = 0.10. The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001. There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001, but not with adiponectin level (P = 0.67.The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance.

  19. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins.

  20. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  1. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease's natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO 2 . A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO 2 and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  2. Alterations in tryptophan and purine metabolism in cocaine addiction: a metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Ashwin A; Rozen, Steve; Mannelli, Paolo; Matson, Wayne; Pae, Chi-Un; Krishnan, K Ranga; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2009-10-01

    Mapping metabolic "signatures" can provide new insights into addictive mechanisms and potentially identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We examined the differences in metabolites related to the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, and oxidative stress pathways between cocaine-dependent subjects and healthy controls. Several of these metabolites serve as biological indices underlying the mechanisms of reinforcement, toxicity, and oxidative stress. Metabolomic analysis was performed in 18 DSM-IV-diagnosed cocaine-dependent individuals with at least 2 weeks of abstinence and ten drug-free controls. Plasma concentrations of 37 known metabolites were analyzed and compared using a liquid chromatography electrochemical array platform. Multivariate analyses were used to study the relationship between severity of drug use [Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores] and biological measures. Cocaine subjects showed significantly higher levels of n-methylserotonin (p cocaine and control groups with no overlap. Alterations in the methylation processes in the serotonin pathways and purine metabolism seem to be associated with chronic exposure to cocaine. Given the preliminary nature and cross-sectional design of the study, the findings need to be confirmed in larger samples of cocaine-dependent subjects, preferably in a longitudinal design.

  3. Timing of food intake during simulated night shift impacts glucose metabolism: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Gupta, Charlotte C; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, night (NE; n = 4, meals; 07:00, 19:00 and 01:30 h) or not eating at night (NEN; n = 7, meals; 07:00 h, 09:30, 16:10 and 19:00 h) condition. Meal tolerance tests were conducted post breakfast on pre-night shift (PRE), SW4 and following return to day shift (RTDS), and glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used with fixed effects of condition and day, and their interactions, and a random effect of subject identifier on the intercept. Fasting glucose and insulin were not altered by day or condition. There were significant effects of day and condition × day (both p night (p = 0.040) and not eating at night (p = 0.006) conditions. Results in this small, healthy sample suggest that not eating at night may limit the metabolic consequences of simulated night work. Further study is needed to explore whether matching food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.

  4. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47% were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in non-diabetic people in China: a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Gu, Dongfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Hixson, James E; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Fanghong; Hu, Dongsheng; Rice, Treva; Kelly, Tanika N; Hamm, L Lee; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang

    2009-03-07

    Since insulin resistance is thought to be the underlying mechanism for metabolic syndrome, affected individuals might be sensitive to a dietary sodium intervention. We aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. 1906 Chinese participants without diabetes, aged 16 years or more, were selected to receive a low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol per day) for 7 days followed by a high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol per day) for an additional 7 days. Participants were excluded from the analysis if metabolic risk factor information was missing or if they did not complete their dietary interventions. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and on days 2, 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of: abdominal obesity, raised blood pressure, high triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol, or high glucose. High salt sensitivity was defined as a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg during low-sodium or an increase of more than 5 mm Hg during high-sodium intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721721. Of the 1881 participants with information regarding metabolic syndrome, 283 had metabolic syndrome. 1853 participants completed the low-sodium diet and 1845 completed the high-sodium diet. Multivariable-adjusted mean changes in blood pressure were significantly greater in participants with metabolic syndrome than in those without on both low-sodium and high-sodium diets (plow-sodium and a 3.13-fold increased odds (1.80-5.43) of high salt-sensitivity during the high-sodium intervention. These results suggest that metabolic syndrome enhances blood pressure response to sodium intake. Reduction in sodium intake could be an especially important component in reducing blood pressure in patients with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  6. Studies of 51Cr-albumin metabolism by the method of the whole body radiometry in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.I.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bolovin, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of investigation on metabolism of human serum 61 Cr-labelled albumin is reported. The method allows to determine albumin and plasma losses without of collecting excreta. The studies of external losses show that healthy individuals lose about 2% or 2.5 g albumin and 60-70 ml plasma a day on the average. Total plasma albumin, extravascular albumin and total metabolic albumin are calculated by means of whole-body radiometry

  7. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  8. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  9. Study on the effect of valproate (VPA) on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuexin; Chen Xuguang; He Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy under valproate treatment. Methods: Fasting serum glucose (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels, insulin resistance index, body weight, BMI were examined in (1) 65 pediatric patients with epilepsy before valproate treatment (2) 65 patients after 3 months' valproate treatment (3) 65 patients after 6 months' treatment and (4) 65 controls. Results: In the patients after 3 months' treatment, the body weight, BMI, fasting insulin levels were significantly higher than those in patients before treatment (P 0.05). The calculated HOMA did not change much throughout the whole study. The proportion of patients with increased appetite after 6 months' treatment was 47 /65 (vs 20 /65 before treatment, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of body weight and BMI asually observed during valproate treatment is mainly due to increased appetite with limited increase of fasting insulin level. Insulin resistance was not found in present study. (authors)

  10. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  11. Cerebral metabolism, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cognitive dysfunction in early multiple sclerosis: an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, Morten; Mathiesen, Henrik K; Tscherning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and neurological disability. METHODS: We studied 20 recently diagnosed, clinically definite, relapsing-remitting MS patients. Global and cortical CMRglc was estimated using PET with 18-F-deoxyglucose and NAA/Cr ratio was measured using multislice echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. All subjects were neuro-psychologically......OBJECTIVES: Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown that cortical cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) normalized to creatine (NAA/Cr) assess neuronal...... deterioration, and several studies have shown reductions in MS. Furthermore, both PET and MRS reductions correlate with cognitive dysfunction in MS. Our aim was to determine if changes in cortical CMRglc in early MS correlate with NAA/Cr measurements of neuronal deterioration, as well as cognitive dysfunction...

  12. Prospective study of serum uric acid levels and incident metabolic syndrome in a Korean rural cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jung Soo; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, paucity of available data regarding the cause and effect relationship between SUA and MetS in healthy adults is still a big challenge which remains to be studied. Therefore, we investigated whether SUA predicts new onset of MetS in a population-based cohort study. The study included 1590 adults (661 men and 929 women) aged 40-70 years without MetS at baseline (2005-2008) and subjects were prospectively followed for 2.6 years. To evaluate the relationship between SUA and MetS, we divided the aforementioned subjects into quintiles (SUA-I to SUA-V) from the lowest to the highest values of SUA. SUA was measured by the enzymatic colorimetric method. We used category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) to characterize the performance of predicted model. During a mean of 2.6 years of follow-up, 261(16.4%) adults developed MetS. MetS variables were significantly related to the baseline SUA level. Waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and serum triglyceride (TG) were significantly higher in the highest quintile of SUA compared to the lowest SUA quintile in men and women. After adjustment for age, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in men and women, subjects in the fifth quintiles of SUA showed significantly higher ORs for incident MetS. The association between hyperuricemia and new onset of MetS were consistently stronger in women than men. Additionally, among women, we found an improvement in the area under the ROC curve in the models that added SUA to core components of MetS. Our study suggests that SUA is significantly correlated with future risk of WC, BP, TG and may predicted as a risk factor for developing MetS. SUA may have a clinical role in predicting new-onset metabolic syndrome among women. Large prospective study is needed to reveal the clinical

  13. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  16. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  17. Metabolic studies of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (FIAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, M.; Oshana, S.; Speelman, D.J.; McLaren, C.; Chen, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic studies of FIAC were carried out in herpes simplex virus type 1 and mock infected Vero cells using HPLC purified [2- 14 C]FIAC. HSV-1 infected and mock infected Vero cells were incubated with 2 μM [2- 14 C]FIAC for 24 hrs. DNA purified from both viral and mock infected cells was hydrolyzed with DNAase 1 and venom phosphodiesterase. The resulting deoxynucleoside monophosphate derivatives were analyzed by HPLC (Whatman SAX column). Only FIAU, the deamination product of FIAC, was found in DNA from both HSV-1 infected and mock infected Vero cells, while FAC, FMAU and FIAC were not detected. Whereas 0.112% of Tdr in DNA from mock infected cells was substituted by FIAU 1.056% of the Tdr in viral DNA from HSV-1 infected cells was substituted by FIAU. HPLC analysis (Whatman SAX column) of medium from HSV-1 infected cell cultures showed that all [2- 14 C] FIAC had been metabolized to [2- 14 C]FIAU, while no [2- 14 C]FIAU could be detected in the medium of mock infected cells. HPLC analysis of HC10 4 extracts of HSV-1 infected cells showed that the percentages of various phosphorylated derivatives were 10% FIAU, 76% FIAU monophosphate, 9% FIAU diphosphate and 5% FIAU triphosphate. These data showed conclusively that FIAU is the active antiviral metabolite of FIAC

  18. Metabolic control over the oxygen consumption flux in intact skeletal muscle: in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguzinski, Piotr; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2006-12-01

    It has been postulated previously that a direct activation of all oxidative phosphorylation complexes in parallel with the activation of ATP usage and substrate dehydrogenation (the so-called each-step activation) is the main mechanism responsible for adjusting the rate of ATP production by mitochondria to the current energy demand during rest-to-work transition in intact skeletal muscle in vivo. The present in silico study, using a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously, analyzes the impact of the each-step-activation mechanism on the distribution of control (defined within Metabolic Control Analysis) over the oxygen consumption flux among the components of the bioenergetic system in intact oxidative skeletal muscle at different energy demands. It is demonstrated that in the absence of each-step activation, the oxidative phosphorylation complexes take over from ATP usage most of the control over the respiration rate and oxidative ATP production at higher (but still physiological) energy demands. This leads to a saturation of oxidative phosphorylation, impossibility of a further acceleration of oxidative ATP synthesis, and dramatic drop in the phosphorylation potential. On the other hand, the each-step-activation mechanism allows maintenance of a high degree of the control exerted by ATP usage over the ATP turnover and oxygen consumption flux even at high energy demands and thus enables a potentially very large increase in ATP turnover. It is also shown that low oxygen concentration shifts the metabolic control from ATP usage to cytochrome oxidase and thus limits the oxidative ATP production.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Urinary Calculi and Metabolic Studies in a Group of Sicilian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Maria Michela; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Tralongo, Pietro; Maringhini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of urinary calculi in children has been increasing in the past years. We performed an analysis of the chemical composition of stones formers of the pediatric population in our geographical area over the years 2005 to 2013. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the determination of the calculus composition of a group of Sicilian children, and metabolic studies were performed to formulate the correct diagnosis and establish therapy. The prevalence of stone formation was much higher for boys than for girls, with a sex ratio of 1.9:1. The single most frequent component was found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate, and calcium oxalates (pure or mixed calculi) were the overall most frequent components. Calcium phosphates ranked 2nd for frequency, most often in mixed calculi, while urates ranked 3rd. The metabolic disorder most often associated with pure calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi was hypocitraturia, while hyperoxaluria was predominantly associated with calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi. Mixed calculi had the highest prevalence in our pediatric population. Our data showed that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was a useful tool for the determination of the calculi composition.

  20. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  1. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in the deficiency of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.M.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of calcium mobilization in rats were determined to estimate the role of testosterone in the metabolism of this ion. Calcium multicompartimental theory was combined to and used in measurements of metabolic balance (for 45 CaCl 2 or 40 CaCl 2 ). Three groups of 60 day old rats were used: G I-control; G II-castrated; G III-castrated and treated with testosterone propionate. Data were obtained from measurements of Ca ++ in samples of plasma, feces and urine. Balance studies suggest that calcium level in blood plasma remained constant in all groups, the increase of bone reabsorption in groups II and III being counterbalanced by the elevation of the urinary excrection. This result implies the equilibrium occurring at renal level. Intestinal calcium absorption remained the same in the three groups of animals, indicating that testosterone has no consistent effect at intestinal level. The increase of total calcium in feces of groups II and III arises from a great endogenous secretion. A significant negative balance of calcium was also observed in these groups. This fact permits the conclusion that in the absence of testosterone the organism doesn't retain calcium efficiently. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil El Midaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Nutrigenetics of cholesterol metabolism: observational and dietary intervention studies in the postgenomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Jones, Peter J H; Eck, Peter K

    2015-08-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is a well-defined responder to dietary intakes and a classic biomarker of cardiovascular health. For this reason, circulating cholesterol levels have become key in shaping nutritional recommendations by health authorities worldwide for better management of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality and one of the most costly health problems globally. Data from observational and dietary intervention studies, however, highlight a marked between-individual variability in the response of cholesterol metabolism to similar dietary protocols, a phenomenon linked to genetic heterogeneity. This review summarizes the postgenomic evidence of polymorphisms within cholesterol-associated genes relative to fasting circulating cholesterol levels under diverse nutritional conditions. A number of cholesterol-related gene-diet interactions are confirmed, which may have clinical importance, supporting a deeper look into the rapidly emerging field of nutrigenetics for meaningful conclusions that may eventually lead to genetically targeted dietary recommendations in the era of personalized nutrition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  5. Metabolic pathway analysis and kinetic studies for production of nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Nguyen, Nhung H A

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a reaction network model of Bacillus subtilis. The model was analyzed using a pathway analysis tool called elementary mode analysis (EMA). The analysis tool was used to study the network capabilities and the possible effects of altered culturing conditions on the production of a fibrinolytic enzyme, nattokinase (NK) by B. subtilis. Based on all existing metabolic pathways, the maximum theoretical yield for NK synthesis in B. subtilis under different substrates and oxygen availability was predicted and the optimal culturing condition for NK production was identified. To confirm model predictions, experiments were conducted by testing these culture conditions for their influence on NK activity. The optimal culturing conditions were then applied to batch fermentation, resulting in high NK activity. The EMA approach was also applied for engineering B. subtilis metabolism towards the most efficient pathway for NK synthesis by identifying target genes for deletion and overexpression that enable the cell to produce NK at the maximum theoretical yield. The consistency between experiments and model predictions proves the feasibility of EMA being used to rationally design culture conditions and genetic manipulations for the efficient production of desired products.

  6. Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The Mexico City Diabetes Study.

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    Rubén López-Molina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB and metabolic syndrome (MS in low income urban Mexican population. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with MS and intake of SB. Results. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 26.5 and 19.8% in males and females respectively. In an adjusted multivariate model, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglyceride were higher as uric acid quartiles increased (p menor que 0.005-0.001. The odds ratio for MS was 1.48 for 3rd uric acid quartile and 2.03 for 4th quartile. Higher consumption of SB was associated with higher uric acid levels (p menor que 0.001. Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia is high. Potential association with intake of SB, resulting in metabolic alterations should be considered.

  7. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed Hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (pZoroastrians of Yazd, Iran.

  8. Mechanistic studies of the metabolic chiral inversion of (R)-ibuprofen in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, T.A.; Adams, W.J.; Kaiser, D.G.; Olanoff, L.S.; Halstead, G.W.; Harpootlian, H.; Van Giessen, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic chiral inversion of R-(-)-ibuprofen has been studied in human subjects by means of specific deuterium labeling and stereoselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology. After simultaneous p.o. administration of a mixture of R-(-)-ibuprofen (300 mg) and R-(-)-[3,3,3-2H3]ibuprofen (304 mg) to four adult male volunteers, the enantiomeric composition and deuterium content of the drug in serum, and of the drug and its principal metabolites in urine, were followed over a period of 24 hr. The results of these analyses indicated that: (1) conversion of R-(-)- to S-(+)-ibuprofen takes place with complete retention of deuterium at the beta-methyl (C-3) position; (2) chiral inversion of R-(-)-[2H3]ibuprofen is not subject to a discernible deuterium isotope effect; and (3) replacement of the beta-methyl hydrogen atoms by deuterium has no effect on any of the serum pharmacokinetic parameters for R-(-)- or S-(+)-ibuprofen. These data indicate that the process whereby R-(-)-ibuprofen undergoes metabolic inversion in human subjects does not involve 2,3-dehydroibuprofen as an intermediate, and that the underlying mechanism cannot, therefore, entail a desaturation/reduction sequence

  9. Altered phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia: a phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Englisch, Susanne; Esser, Andrea; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ende, Gabriele; Zink, Mathias

    2013-12-30

    Phospholipid (PL) metabolism is investigated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Inconsistent alterations of phosphocholine (PC), phosphoethanolamine (PE), glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) have been described in schizophrenia, which might be overcome by specific editing techniques. The selective refocused insensitive nuclei-enhanced polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique was applied in a cross-sectional study involving 11 schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients (SZP) on stable antipsychotic monotherapy and 15 matched control subjects. Metabolite signals were found to be modulated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) content and gray matter/brain matter ratio. Corrected metabolite concentrations of PC, GPC and PE differed between patients and controls in both subcortical and cortical regions, whereas antipsychotic medication exerted only small effects. Significant correlations were found between the severity of clinical symptoms and the assessed signals. In particular, psychotic symptoms correlated with PC levels in the cerebral cortex, depression with PC levels in the cerebellum and executive functioning with GPC in the insular and temporal cortices. In conclusion, after controlling for age and tissue composition, this investigation revealed alterations of metabolite levels in SZP and correlations with clinical properties. RINEPT 31P MRS should also be applied to at-risk-mental-state patients as well as drug-naïve and chronically treated schizophrenic patients in order to enhance the understanding of longitudinal alterations of PL metabolism in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A human dietary arachidonic acid supplementation study conducted in a metabolic research unit: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A

    1997-04-01

    While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the

  11. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and metabolic syndrome: An epidemiologic study among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies linking carbohydrate consumption and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. The association between low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate low-carbohydrate-diet score in relation to MetS among a group of Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 442 Iranian female teachers >20 y of age. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated, dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/International Diabetes Federation definition guidelines. The prevalence of MetS in the lowest and highest quintile of low-carbohydrate-diet score was 17.5% and 18.8%, respectively (P = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between extreme quartiles low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.28). After controlling for age, energy intake, and other potential confounders, low-carbohydrate-diet score was not significantly associated with MetS. A significant association was observed between this score and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. We failed to find a significant relationship between this score and other components of MetS. Diets with lower amounts of carbohydrate and higher contents of fat and protein were not significantly associated with the risk for MetS in a cross-sectional study with a group of Iranian women. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the metabolism and bioactivation of (S)-nicotine and beta-nicotyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigenaga, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    (S)-Nicotine has long been suspected of contributing to the chronic toxicities associated with the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products. The possibility that (S)-nicotine could contribute to these chronic toxicities by causing irreversible damage to cellular macromolecules has prompted studies aimed at characterizing the metabolic pathways of (S)-nicotine that form reactive metabolites which bind covalently. In order to study these processes, (S)-5- 3 H-nicotine was synthesized by catalytic tritiolysis of (S)-5-bromonicotine with carrier-free tritium gas, purified by HPLC and characterized by tritium NMR, diode array VV and HPLC chromatographic analysis. The metabolism of (S)-5- 3 H-nicotine by rabbit liver and lung microsomal enzymes produced reactive intermediates which bound covalently to microsomal macromolecules in a time, NADPH and cytochrome P-450 dependent manner. The results of studies employing rabbit lung microsomes and agents which inhibit or alter the expression of the cytochrome P-450 isozyme composition in this tissue indicated that the covalent binding of (S)-nicotine requires (S)-nicotine Δ 1',5' -iminium ion as an obligate intermediate and the catalytic activity of lung cytochrome P-450 isozyme-2. Investigations of the effects of (S)-nicotine and related tobacco alkaloids on the oxidation of the Parkinson's disease inducing agent MPTP by the mitochondrial enzyme MAO-B were prompted by the inverse correlation between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease. In the author studies (S)-nicotine A 1',5' -iminium bisperchlorate inhibited the MAOB catalyzed oxidation of MPTP by a linear-mixed type mechanism. Subsequent studies identified β-nicotyrine as a MAO-B catalyzed oxidation product of (S)-nicotine A 1',5' -iminium ion

  13. Local muscle metabolic demand induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary contractions at different force levels: a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  14. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-06-13

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  15. The role of life-course socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in the intergenerational transmission of the metabolic syndrome : results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Angelini, Viola; Mierau, Jochen O.; Smidt, Nynke

    Background: The risk of metabolic syndrome is associated between parents and offspring, but studies are inconsistent on differences by sex of parents and offspring. Our aim is to investigate to what extent metabolic syndrome present in fathers and mothers is associated with risk of metabolic

  16. 13C Mrs Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Corin O.; Cao, Jin; Zhu, He; Chen, Li M.; Wilson, George; Kennan, Richard; Gore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs) using 13C MRS. Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz) NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys) were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal), along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion) half way through the study on the second study session. Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e. monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal) was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen synthesis

  17. Study on the metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99mTc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Lun Mingyue

    1994-11-01

    The metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99m Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use were studied. The results of the radioactive tracing study showed that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney, and then in heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, musculus quadriceps femoris, adipose tissue, testes and brain. It should be noted that when smaller dose of this agent was given, more 99m Tc-PAHIDA was concentrated in kidney and, at the same time, the level of its binding to plasma protein was lower. The experimental results indicated that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was rapidly excreted in urine. Autoradiochromatographic examination of the urine showed a single radioactive peak corresponding to the authentic 99m Tc-PAHIDA, indicating that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was excreted in the unchanged form. (3 tabs.)

  18. Studying of a wave activity condition and cellular metabolism of tissues in patients with perioral dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grashkin V.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Perioral dermatitis is a facial skin disease with insuffciently studied ethiology and pathogenetic mechanisms, being one of actual problems of dermatology. It is a chronic relapsing facial skin disease mainly in women of young and middle age (in men and children meets less often. The disease has an independent clinical picture which is different from rosacea, demodecosis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. The standard diagnostic criterion is a visual estimation of expression of an infammation on the basis of signs of exudative reaction which has a subjective character. Possibilities of a radiometric method for an objective estimation of a facial skin functional condition and indicators of an intracellular metabolism in patients with a perioral dermatitis were frst studied.

  19. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkels, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 ( 23 Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  20. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong ? a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bressington, Daniel T; Mui, Jolene; Cheung, Eric F C; Petch, Joel; Clark, Allan B; Gray, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the rela...

  1. An evaluation of the metabolic syndrome in the HyperGEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Cora E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP provided a categorical definition for metabolic syndrome (c-MetS. We studied the extent to which two ethnic groups, Blacks and Whites were affected by c-MetS. The groups were members of the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN, a part of the Family Blood Pressure Program, supported by the NHLBI. Although the c-MetS definition is of special interest in particular to the clinicians, the quantitative latent traits of the metabolic syndrome (MetS are also important in order to gain further understanding of its etiology. In this study, quantitative evaluation of the MetS latent traits (q-MetS was based on the statistical multivariate method factor analysis (FA. Results The prevalence of the c-MetS was 34% in Blacks and 39% in Whites. c-MetS showed predominance of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Three and four factor domains were identified through FA, classified as "Obesity," "Blood pressure," "Lipids," and "Central obesity." They explained approximately 60% of the variance in the 11 original variables. Two factors classified as "Obesity" and "Central Obesity" overlapped when FA was performed without rotation. All four factors in FA with Varimax rotation were consistent between Blacks and Whites, between genders and also after excluding type 2 diabetes (T2D participants. Fasting insulin (INS associated mainly with obesity and lipids factors. Conclusions MetS in the HyperGEN study has a compound phenotype with separate domains for obesity, blood pressure, and lipids. Obesity and its relationship to lipids and insulin is clearly the dominant factor in MetS. Linkage analysis on factor scores for components of MetS, in familial studies such as HyperGEN, can assist in understanding the genetic pathways for MetS and their interactions with the environment, as a first step in identifying the underlying pathophysiological causes of this syndrome.

  2. The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS study: rationale, design, and baseline data

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    Troughton Jacqui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on strategies to combat the forecast epidemic of type-2 diabetes (T2DM and its major vascular sequelae. Metabolic syndrome (MetS comprises a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and T2DM. Our study aims to develop a structured self-management education programme for people with MetS, which includes management of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, and to determine its impact. This paper describes the rationale and design of the TRIMS study, including intervention development, and presents baseline data. Methods Subjects recruited from a mixed-ethnic population with MetS were randomised to intervention or control arms. The intervention arm received structured group education based on robust psychological theories and current evidence. The control group received routine care. Follow-up data will be collected at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be reversal of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group subjects compared to controls at 12 months follow-up. Results 82 participants (44% male, 22% South Asian were recruited between November 2009 and July 2010. Baseline characteristics were similar for both the intervention (n = 42 and control groups (n = 40. Median age was 63 years (IQR 57 - 67, mean waist size 106 cm (SD ± 11, and prescribing of statins and anti-hypertensives was 51% in each case. Conclusion Results will provide information on changes in diabetes and CVD risk factors and help to inform primary prevention strategies in people with MetS from varied ethnic backgrounds who are at high risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Information gathered in relation to the programme's acceptability and effectiveness in a multi-ethnic population would ensure that our results are widely applicable. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT01043770.

  3. Comparison of Metabolic and Hormonal Profiles of Women With and Without Premenstrual Syndrome: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Somayeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mohammadi, Nader; Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Simbar, Masumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-04-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is reported by up to 85% of women of reproductive age. Although several studies have focused on the hormone and lipid profiles of females with PMS, the results are controversial. This study was designed to investigate the association of hormonal and metabolic factors with PMS among Iranian women of reproductive age. This study was a community based cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and metabolic disorders were compared between 354 women with PMS and 302 healthy controls selected from among 1126 women of reproductive age who participated in the Iranian PCOS prevalence study. P values high density lipoprotein (HDL) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were significantly less than they were in women without the syndrome (P rise in the probability of having metabolic syndrome (P = 0.033). There was a significant association between PMS scores and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Further studies are needed to confirm and validate the relationships between lipid profile abnormalities and metabolic disorders with PMS.

  4. Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavret, Severine; Feidt, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Food would seem to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In vivo studies suggest a transfer in intestinal epithelium by diffusion, which appears extensively governed by the physicochemical properties of PAHs, particularly lipophilicity. However, other mechanisms, such as metabolism, are considered to intervene. Our work aimed at testing in vitro intestinal metabolism and defining its impact on transepithelial transport of PAHs. Caco-2 cells were cultivated on permeable filters and incubated with 14 C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Pyr), and phenanthrene (Phe), which differ in their physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cells were able to metabolize the compounds. In basal media, Phe appeared to be the least hydroxylated molecule (45% after a 6-h exposure), followed by Pyr (65%) and finally BaP (96%). Inhibition of PAH metabolism showed a determinant effect on kinetics profiles. Transfer in the basal compartment of BaP, Pyr, and Phe radioactivities was, respectively, 26, 4, and 2 times lower with inhibitors, corroborating that intestinal metabolism of PAHs would have a positive impact on their transfer, an impact that increased with their lipophilicity. Furthermore, after a 6-h incubation, metabolites were also detected in apical medium. These findings suggested that intestinal metabolism might play a key role in intestinal barrier permeability and thus in the bioavailability of tested micropollutants

  5. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

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    Vanessa Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13 or no LcS (n = 15. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16. Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Traits Reveals Novel Gene-Metabolite-Disease Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Andrew W.; Salek, Reza M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Montoliu, Ivan; Da Silva, Laeticia; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Steinbeck, Christoph; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Le Coutre, Johannes; Mooser, Vincent; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on 1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10−8) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10−44) and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10−33), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers. PMID:24586186

  7. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

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    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Ellison, Curtis R; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Hunt, Steven C; Kraja, Aldi T; Arnett, Donna K; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25-93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1-3 times/ month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women.

  8. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wempe MF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Wempe,1 Janet W Lightner,2 Bettina Miller,1 Timothy J Iwen,1 Peter J Rice,1 Shin Wakui,3 Naohiko Anzai,4 Promsuk Jutabha,4 Hitoshi Endou51Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA; 3Department of Toxicology, Azabu University School of Veterinary Medicine, Chuo Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12 is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structure–activity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing or intravenously (orbital sinus administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo studied by 31P-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challiss, R.A.J.; Blackledge, M.J.; Radda, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Phase modulated rotating-frame imaging, a localization technique for phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, has been applied to obtain information on heterogeneity of phosphorus-containing metabolites in skeletal muscle of the rat in vivo. The distal muscles of the rat hindlimb have been studied at rest and during steady-state isometric twitch contraction; the use of a transmitter surface coil and an electrically isolated, orthogonal receiver Helmholtz coil ensure accurate spatial assignment (1 mm resolution). At rest, intracellular pH was higher and PCr/(PCr + P i ) was lower in deeper muscle compared with superficial muscle of the distal hindlimb. Upon steady-state stimulation, the relatively more alkaline pH of deep muscle was maintained, whereas greater changes in PCr/(PCr + P i ) and P i /ATP occurred in the superficial muscle layer. This method allows rapid (75 min for each spectral image) acquisition of quantitative information on metabolic heterogeneity in vivo

  10. Utilization of carbon 13-labelled stable isotopes for studying drug toxicity on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.; Wietzerbin, J.; Tran-Dinh, S.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for studying the effects of two drugs, amphotericine B (AMB), an anti-fungal antibiotic, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG), on the glucose metabolism in brewer yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is presented; AMB interacts with the membrane sterols, inducing formation of pores through which ions and small molecules can pass. DG may enter in the cytosol, where it is phosphoryled by hexokinase into deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (DG6P) which disappears very slowly. DG slows down the glycolysis process and induces the formation of new substances. This paper shows the advantages of utilizing carbon 13-labelled substrates combined to the NMR-13C and NMR-1H techniques. 6 figs., 5 refs

  11. The metabolism of 14C labelled amino acid - A study from the radiological standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Nazard, Raymonde.

    1981-10-01

    The metabolism of fifteen 14 C-labelled amino-acids has been studied in the rat during 680 days. The following results are presented and discussed: elimination by exhaled air, urine and feces; activity retention in 29 tissues or organs; cumulated activities from day 6 to 688. Elimination reached or exceeded 30% during the 48 first hours and then decreased. The retention in the whole body can be represented by three exponentials; one of them representing 3% of the activity would have a half-time of 1400 d. The cumulated activities in some tissues still increased significantly after 600 d. The respective doses in different tissues could vary of a factor 10; it was generally higher by a factor 5 than the doses obtained with glucose [fr

  12. Application of 31P-NMR spectroscopy to the study of striated muscle metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Kushmerick, M.J.; Brown, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    This review presents the principles and limitations of phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P-NMR) spectroscopy as applied to the study of striated muscle metabolism. Application of the techniques discussed include noninvasive measurement of high-energy phosphate, intracellular pH, intracellular free Mg 2+ , and metabolite compartmentation. In perfused cat biceps (fast-twitch) muscles, but not in soleus (slow-twitch), NMR spectra indicate a substantially lower (1 mM) free inorganic phosphate level than when measured chemically (6 mM). In addition, saturation and inversion spin-transfer methods that enable direct measurement of the unidirectional fluxes through creatine kinase are described. In perfused cat biceps muscle, results suggest that this enzyme and its substrates are in simple chemical equilibrium

  13. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M; Crouter, Scott E; Hayman, Laura L; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed to replicate findings with larger samples that include men and women of diverse race/ethnic groups.

  14. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  16. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  17. Gender and race influence metabolic benefits of fitness in children: a cross-sectional study

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    Curtis Vanessa A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing obesity and poor cardiovascular fitness (CVF contribute to higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. While the relative contributions of fitness and body fat on development of insulin resistance (IR in children and adolescents remains unresolved, gender- and race-specific differences likely exist in the degree to which CVF influences IR and risk for T2DM. Better understanding of how gender and race affect interactions between body fat, CVF, and metabolic health would be helpful in designing effective and targeted strategies to reduce obesity-associated disease risk. We evaluated whether metabolic benefits of fitness on reducing inflammation and insulin resistance (IR are affected by gender and race. Methods This cross-sectional study included 203 healthy children (mean age 12.2 y, 50% male, 46% non-Hispanic white (NHW, 54% racially diverse (RD. Fasting insulin, glucose, hsCRP, and adiponectin were measured; race was self-reported; cardiovascular fitness (CVF was evaluated by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. Associations between inflammation and gender, race, and CVF were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Multivariate regression analysis identified independent predictors of IR. Results Fitness and inflammation were inversely related in both males and females (p Conclusions In middle school children, the beneficial effects of fitness vary based on gender and race. High CVF has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect in male and RD children. While BMI is the strongest predictor of IR in the study group as a whole, fitness is a significant predictor of IR only in males, and race is a significant predictor of IR only in females.

  18. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

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    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  19. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Michaela L; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2016-12-30

    The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function. Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. Seventeen healthy normotensive female subjects (23 ± 4 y) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (mouthwash) or placebo mouthwash (placebo) with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were obtained after each intervention together with blood, saliva and urine samples. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP. RMR and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were unaffected by the intervention. We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D and cardio-metabolic health in the elderly : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vitezova (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Chapter 1 of this thesis introduces the reader to the background of the main topic – vitamin D, its metabolism and physiological effects. Since its discovery vitamin D has been recognized as an important factor in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Recently, there

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Taiwan: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2015-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome increases the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. A case-control study. Tertiary university hospital. We retrospectively investigated 181 cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 181 controls from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, in southern Taiwan from 2010 to 2012, comparing their clinical variables. We analyzed the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with Asian modifications. The demographic and clinical characteristics, audiometry results, and outcome were reviewed. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 3.54-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00-6.43, P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components, the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss increased (P for trend Vertigo was associated with a poor outcome (P = .02; 95% CI = 1.13~5.13, adjusted odds ratio = 2.39). The hearing loss pattern may influence the outcome of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (P Vertigo and total hearing loss were indicators of a poor outcome in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  2. Fasting glucose, obesity, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of type 2 diabetes: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Laura F; Vega, Gloria Lena; Leonard, David; Grundy, Scott M

    2012-12-01

    To determine risk for type 2 diabetes in subjects with fasting glucose levels in the ranges of normoglycemia, mild hyperglycemia, and intermediate hyperglycemia and to assess the effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on this risk. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 28,209 relatively healthy subjects participating in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. They were included in the study if they had more than 1 fasting plasma glucose measurement, anthropometry, and other parameters of interest. Three subgroups were identified: normoglycemic (obesity, and metabolic syndrome status. Incident diabetes was assessed at the earliest clinic visit at which the individual exhibited a blood glucose level of more than 7.0 mmol/L or reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Thirty-one percent of men and 15.9% of women had mild hyperglycemia and 11.9% of men and 3.6% of women had intermediate hyperglycemia. Yearly conversion rates to diabetes were low in individuals with normoglycemia and mild hyperglycemia but were strikingly higher in those with intermediate hyperglycemia. In subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia, presence of obesity and/or metabolic syndrome doubled conversion rates to diabetes. This study showed a marked difference in outcomes in subjects with mild and intermediate hyperglycemia. Moreover, obesity and metabolic syndrome were associated with strikingly elevated risk for diabetes in subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia. Thus intermediate hyperglycemia plus obesity/metabolic syndrome seemingly justifies intensive clinical intervention for prevention of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Association between alpha-fetoprotein and metabolic syndrome in a Chinese asymptomatic population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Linmin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Juanwen; Feng, Guofang

    2016-04-27

    Metabolic syndrome is closely associated with an increased risk for fatty liver disease morbidity and mortality. Recently, studies have reported that participants with fatty liver disease have higher serum alpha-fetoprotein levels than those without. We investigated the association between alpha-fetoprotein levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese asymptomatic population. A cross-sectional study was performed with 7,755 participants who underwent individual health examinations. Clinical and anthropometric parameters were collected and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between alpha-fetoprotein and metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher (p alpha-fetoprotein levels than those without, though all alpha-fetoprotein levels were within the reference interval. The association between the components of metabolic syndrome (central obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated fasting plasma glucose) and alpha-fetoprotein levels was evaluated. Alpha-fetoprotein levels in the elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated fasting plasma glucose groups were significantly different (p=0.002, p alpha-fetoprotein in the normal triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose groups. Logistic regression analyses showed an association between alpha-fetoprotein levels and increased risk for metabolic syndrome, the presence of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, but not with obesity, elevated blood pressure, or triglycerides. These results suggest a significant association between alpha-fetoprotein and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (poverweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.

  5. Effect of vitamin E in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with metabolic syndrome: A propensity score-matched cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Hyun Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsVitamin E improves the biochemical profiles and liver histology in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but the role of vitamin E is not clearly defined in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which includes both simple steatosis and steatohepatitis. Co-morbid metabolic syndrome increases the probability of steatohepatitis in NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to determine the short-term effects of vitamin E and off-treatment durability of response in a propensity-score matched cohort of NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome.MethodsA retrospective cohort was constructed by retrieving 526 consecutive NAFLD patients from the electronic medical record data warehouse of a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Among them, 335 patients (63.7% had metabolic syndrome and were eligible for vitamin E therapy. In order to assess the effect of vitamin E, propensity score matching was used by matching covariates between control patients (n=250 and patients who received vitamin E (n=85.ResultsThe PS-matched vitamin E group (n=58 and control group (n=58 exhibited similar baseline metabolic profiles. After 6 months of vitamin E therapy, the mean ALT levels decreased significantly compared to PS-matched control (P<0.01. The changes in metabolic profiles (body weight, lipid and glucose levels did not differ between control and vitamin E groups during the study period.ConclusionsShort-term vitamin E treatment significantly reduces ALT levels in NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome, but metabolic profiles are not affected by vitamin E.

  6. Blood metabolism study on protection of residual renal function of hemodialysis patients by traditional Chinese medicine Kidney Flaccidity Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiong-Dan; Wu, Wei-Hua; Zeng, Yan; Wen, Ji; Li, Xiao-Jun; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Mao-Ping; Hu, Bo; Lei, Chun-Yan; Fan, Junming

    2018-04-30

    In recent years, metabolomics using high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been used to study the metabolic profiles in plasma, urine, stool and tissue in animal model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the previous work, we found that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) "Kidney Flaccidity Compound" (KFC) based on "kidney flaccidity theory" can improve renal function and quality of life of patients with kidney disease. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profiles in peripheral blood of hemodialysis patients administrated by KFC for 1.5 and 3 months and explore the potential metabolic mechanism using UPLC. Results showed that 121 metabolites were different between KFC 3-months group and untreated control, of which 75 were significantly upregulated and 46 were significantly downregulated. In the 1.5-months treatment group, there were 365 metabolites, of which 164 were significantly upregulated and 192 downregulated. There were 6 metabolites and 15 metabolites upregulated 3-fold in 3-months and 1.5-months KFC treatment group, respectively. In addition, more than 60 new metabolites were identified in the peripheral blood in KFC treated patients, including two potential diagnostic markers MGDG 30:8 and 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[[(1R,4S) -2,2,4-trimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-yl]oxy]oxane-3,4,5-triol. The pathway enrichment analysis showed thce differential metabolites mainly enriched in Arginine and proline metabolism, Urea cycle, Tyrosine metabolism, Methionine metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid cycle, and Androgen and estrogen metabolism. The findings are helpful to reveal the mechanism of KFC protects CKD, and to provide a new strategy for recovery renal function in hemodialysis patients.

  7. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  8. Metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits of eccentric endurance exercise - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, H; Saely, C H; Langer, P; Loruenser, G; Marte, T; Risch, L; Hoefle, G; Aczel, S

    2008-04-01

    Eccentric endurance exercise (e.g. hiking downwards) is less strenuous than concentric exercise (e.g. hiking upwards) but its potential to reduce cardiovascular risk is unknown. We randomly allocated 45 healthy sedentary individuals (16 men and 29 women, mean age 48 years) to one of two groups, one beginning with two months of hiking upwards, the other with two months of hiking downwards the same route, with a crossover for a further two months. For the opposite way, a cable car was used where compliance was recorded electronically. The difference in altitude was 540 metres; the distance was covered three to five times a week. Fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles were obtained at baseline and after the two month periods of eccentric and concentric exercise, respectively. Forty-two of the 45 participants completed the study; the compliance rate was therefore 93%. Compared with baseline, eccentric exercise lowered total cholesterol (by 4.1%; P = 0.026), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (by 8.4%, P = 0.001), Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1 ratio (by 10.9%, P < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (by 26.2%, P = 0.017) and C-reactive protein (by 30.0%; P = 0.007); the magnitude of these changes was comparable to that of concentric exercise. Eccentric exercise improved glucose tolerance (by 6.2%, P = 0.023), whereas concentric exercise improved triglyceride tolerance (by 14.9%, P = 0.022). Eccentric endurance exercise is a promising new exercise modality with favourable metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects and is well applicable to sedentary individuals.

  9. METABOLIC SIDE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL AND RISPERIDONE- A SIX MONTHS FOLLOWUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaimathi B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare and analyse the metabolic side effects of Risperidone and Haloperidol in newly diagnosed drug-naive schizophrenic disorder patients attending Govt. Stanley Medical College Hospital during initial 6 months of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newly diagnosed drug-naïve Schizophrenic Patients (n = 60 aged between 18 - 45 years are recruited and randomly allocated into Group A (Risperidone 4 - 6 mg daily and Group B (Haloperidol 5 - 10 mg daily after getting informed consent from the patient’s family members. Patients are followed up monthly for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities like weight gain, rise in blood pressure, elevated fasting, post-prandial blood sugar level, dyslipidaemia for a period of 6 months. RESULTS Risperidone group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.40 to 69.27, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79 to 129.90/83.13; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 135.40/185.00; TC increase from 177.23 to 206.23; LDL from 124.30 to 158.30; HDL 48.83 to 50.07; TG 133.47 to 197.83: Haloperidol group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.07 to 68.48, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79.00 to 124.27/81.67; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 119.87/167.10; TC increase from 177.23 to 197.40; LDL from 119.77 to 139.00; HDL remained 48.83; TG 133.47 to 171.40. CONCLUSION This study showed that patients in both the groups had weight gain, rise in blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides level, but the rise was significant in patients on Risperidone when compared to those on Haloperidol during the 6-month followup.

  10. Study on the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran-Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery (CRA) hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods:A total of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into NDR group (non-diabetic retinopathy), NPR group (non-proliferative retinopathy), and PR group (proliferative retinopathy) with 40 cases in each group according to DR clinical staging. Moreover, 50 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was used to detect EDV, PSV, RI, and PI of CRA and OA.Results:The levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, HDL-C was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. EDV, PSV, and PI of CRA and OA in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, RI was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. Conclusions: The lipid metabolism disorder can promote the occurrence and development of DR. The change of CRA and OA hemodynamics is an important pathological basis for developing DR. Clinical detection of serum lipid level and monitoring of the changes of fundus artery hemocynamic parameters are of great significance in early detecting DR.

  11. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-01-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of [ 14 C]lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM

  12. Metabolic profiling studies on the toxicological effects of realgar in rats by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lai; Liao Peiqiu; Wu Huifeng; Li Xiaojing; Pei Fengkui; Li Weisheng; Wu Yijie

    2009-01-01

    The toxicological effects of realgar after intragastrical administration (1 g/kg body weight) were investigated over a 21 day period in male Wistar rats using metabonomic analysis of 1 H NMR spectra of urine, serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts. Liver and kidney histopathology examination and serum clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. 1 H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from realgar treated animals showed increased excretion of urinary Kreb's cycle intermediates, increased levels of ketone bodies in urine and serum, and decreased levels of hepatic glucose and glycogen, as well as hypoglycemia and hyperlipoidemia, suggesting the perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of choline containing metabolites and betaine in serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts and increased serum creatine indicated altered transmethylation. Decreased urinary levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetylglycine and hippurate suggested the effects on the gut microflora environment by realgar. Signs of impairment of amino acid metabolism were supported by increased hepatic glutamate levels, increased methionine and decreased alanine levels in serum, and hypertaurinuria. The observed increase in glutathione in liver tissue aqueous extracts could be a biomarker of realgar induced oxidative injury. Serum clinical chemistry analyses showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase as well as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating slight liver and kidney injury. The time-dependent biochemical variations induced by realgar were achieved using pattern recognition methods. This work illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabonomic approach on the study of the biochemical effects induced by traditional Chinese medicine

  13. A comparative study of the effect of icodextrin based peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis on lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiroğlu, A K; Ustündag, S; Kayabaşi, H; Yilmaz, Z; Yildirım, Y; Sen, S; Yilmaz, M E

    2013-09-01

    Dyslipidemia is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease. Excessive peritoneal glucose absorption from high glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may enhance disturbances on the lipid metabolism of patients on peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effect of icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis therapy with hemodialysis (HD) therapy on lipid metabolism. A total of 157 non-diabetic patients on dialysis at least for 3 months; 78 patients on Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (44 M, 34 F) and 79 patients in HD group (47M, 32F) were included into the study. After 12 h of fasting and before the dialysis session, serum urea, creatinin, glucose, Sodium, potasium, and albumin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein a were measured. TG (P = 0018) and VLDL (P = 0.022) were lower in CAPD group than HD group, HDL-C (P < 0.001) and Apo A (P = 0.001) were higher in CAPD group than in HD group. A total of 24.4% in CAPD group and 11.4% in HD group (P < 0.034) had normal serum levels of TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. More patients in CAPD group (47.4%) had high serum Apo A levels than in HD group (21.5%) (P = 0.001). We suggest that patients receiving icodextrin-based CAPD may have better TG, HDL-C, and Apo A levels than patients on HD.

  14. Air pollution, weight loss and metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery: a potential model for study of metabolic effects of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R; Gauderman, W J; Minor, H; Youn, H A; Lurmann, F; Cromar, K R; Chatzi, L; Belcher, B; Fielding, C R; McConnell, R

    2018-05-01

    Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Residential distances to major roads and the average two-year follow-up exposure to particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone were estimated. Associations of exposure with change in outcome and with attained outcome two years post-surgery were examined. Major-roadway proximity was associated with reduced EWL and less improvement in lipid profile and ALP after surgery. NO 2 was associated with less improvement in HbA 1c and lower attained HDL levels and change in triglycerides over two years post-surgery. PM 2.5 was associated with reduced EWL and reduced beneficial change or attained levels for all outcomes except HbA 1c . Near-roadway, PM 2.5 and NO 2 exposures at levels common in developed countries were associated with reduced EWL and metabolic benefits of LAGB. This novel approach provides a model for investigating metabolic effects of other exposures. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in a current depressive episode: Population-based study: Metabolic syndrome in current depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Kapczinski, Flávio; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2017-09-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 972 subjects with a mean age of 25.81 (±2.17) years. Both BD and MDD patients showed higher prevalence of MetS compared to the population sample (BD = 46.9%, MDD = 35.1%, population = 22.1%, p depressive episode compared to the general population. Moreover, there was a significant difference on BMI values in the case of BD and MDD subjects (p = 0.016). Metabolic components were significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, independently of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabolism. Applications of proton and sup 13 C NMR to the study of glutamate metabolism in cultured glial cells and human brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portais, J.C.; Pianet, I.; Merle, M.; Raffard, G.; Biran, M.; Labouesse, J.; Canioni, P. (Bordeaux-2 Univ., 33 (FR)); Allard, M.; Kien, P.; Caille, J.M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 33 Bordeaux (FR))

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism of cells from the central nervous system both in vitro on perchloric acid extracts obtained either from cultured tumoral cells (C6 rat glioma) or rat astrocytes in primary culture, and in vivo within the human brain. Analysis of carbon 13 NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts prepared from cultured cells in the presence of NMR (1-{sup 13}C) glucose as substrate allowed determination of the glutamate and glutamine enrichments in both normal and tumoral cells. Preliminary results indicated large changes in the metabolism of these amino acids (and also of aspartate and alanine) in the C6 cell as compared to its normal counterpart. Localized proton NMR spectra of the human brain in vivo were obtained at 1.5 T, in order to evaluate the content of various metabolites, including glutamate, in peritumoral edema from a selected volume of 2 x 2 x 2 cm{sup 3}. N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine, creatine, choline and inositol derivative resonances were observed in 15 min spectra. N-acetyl-aspartate was found to be at a lower level in contrast to glutamate which was detected at a higher level in the injured area as compared to the controlateral unaffected side.

  17. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  18. Further studies on the intermediary metabolism of bone in vitro and a monoclonal cell line (MMB-1) derived from bone: effects of parathyroid hormone and acetazolamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism/mechanisms by which PTH affects Ca homeostasis between blood and bone have not been clearly established. Most studies of metabolic acid production in bone took place during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since that time, assay techniques for metabolic acid production have been improved for greater sensitivity, more has been learned as to how PTH mediates its cellular responses, and techniques for cell isolation and culture have dramatically improved. These improvements have made possible new approaches to the study of short term effects of PTH on metabolic acid production in bone. Chapter 1 explores the potential of bone to utilize substrates other than glucose for metabolic energy transfer. Chapter 2 characterizes glucose metabolism in mouse calvaria in vitro and explores effects of PTH, acetazolamide, and C1 13,850 on calvaria oxidative metabolism. Chapter 3 describes PTH effects on glucose metabolism of MMB-1 cells, a monoclonal cell line reported to possess osteoblast-like characteristics

  19. Dynapenia and metabolic health in obese and nonobese adults aged 70 years and older: The LIFE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynapenia and metabolic risk factors in obese and nonobese older adults. METHODS: A total of 1453 men and women (age >/= 70 years) from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study were categorized a...

  20. A metabolomics-based method for studying the effect of yfcC gene in Escherichia coli on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiyue; Xie, Yuping; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Sufang; Tan, Haidong; Yang, Fengxu; Lian, Rongwei; Tian, Jing; Xu, Guowang

    2014-04-15

    Metabolomics is a potent tool to assist in identifying the function of unknown genes through analysis of metabolite changes in the context of varied genetic backgrounds. However, the availability of a universal unbiased profiling analysis is still a big challenge. In this study, we report an optimized metabolic profiling method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for Escherichia coli. It was found that physiological saline at -80°C could ensure satisfied metabolic quenching with less metabolite leakage. A solution of methanol/water (21:79, v/v) was proved to be efficient for intracellular metabolite extraction. This method was applied to investigate the metabolome difference among wild-type E. coli, its yfcC deletion, and overexpression mutants. Statistical and bioinformatic analysis of the metabolic profiling data indicated that the expression of yfcC potentially affected the metabolism of glyoxylate shunt. This finding was further validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions showing that expression of aceA and aceB, the key genes in glyoxylate shunt, was upregulated by yfcC. This study exemplifies the robustness of the proposed metabolic profiling analysis strategy and its potential roles in investigating unknown gene functions in view of metabolome difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of empowerment model on indicators of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, a randomized clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Vahedi, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education is a major subject in achieving optimal glycemic control. Effective empowerment approach can be beneficial for improving patients' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of empowerment model on indicators of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. a randomized controlled trial of 103 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the intervention (empowerment approach training) or the control group (conventional training) 2014. Empowerment approach training were performed for the experimental group for eight weeks. Data collection tool included demographic information form and indicators of metabolic control checklist. Analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, paired t-test, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. Before the intervention, two groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic variables, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and other indicators of metabolic control. After the intervention, average HbA1C and other metabolic indicators except for LDL showed significant differences in the experimental group compared to the control group. study results indicated the positive effects of applying the empowerment model on the metabolic control indicators. Therefore, applying this model is recommended to nurses and the relevant authorities in order to improve clinical outcomes in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Work-family life courses and metabolic markers in mid-life: evidence from the British National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have found generally better health among those who combine employment and family responsibilities; however, most research excludes men, and relies on subjective measures of health and information on work and family activities from only 1 or 2 time points in the life course. This study investigated associations between work-family life course types (LCTs) and markers of metabolic risk in a British birth cohort study. Multichannel sequence analysis was used to generate work-family LCTs, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood between 16 and 42 years for men and women in the British National Child Development Study (NCDS, followed since their birth in 1958). Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in mid-life (age 44-45) were tested using multivariate linear regression in multiply imputed data. Life courses characterised by earlier transitions into parenthood were associated with significantly increased metabolic risk, regardless of attachment to paid work or marital stability over the life course. These associations were only partially attenuated by educational qualifications, early life circumstances and adult mediators. The positive association between weak labour markets ties and metabolic risk was weaker than might be expected from previous studies. Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors did not differ significantly by gender. Earlier transitions to parenthood are linked to metabolic risk in mid-life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1 PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O + polycystic ovaries (P + hyperandrogenism (H 2 P + O, 3 P + H, and 4 O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III 2005 guidelines and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6% followed by P + O (22.2%; H + O (11.2%; and P + H (0.9%. Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50% and P + H + O (37.04%, had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10% (P ≤ 0.001. Body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI, waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI, were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff

  4. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sujata

    2013-07-01

    1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome in these women. Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1) PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O) + polycystic ovaries (P) + hyperandrogenism (H) 2) P + O, 3) P + H, and 4) O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III 2005 guidelines) and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR)). Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6%) followed by P + O (22.2%); H + O (11.2%); and P + H (0.9%). Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50%) and P + H + O (37.04%), had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10%) (P ≤ 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR) = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI)), waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI)) and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI)), were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff ≥ 3.8) and 34.94% (HOMA-IR cutoff ≥ 3.5). The prevalence of

  5. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  6. The study of regional cerebral glucose metabolic change in human being normal aging process by using PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Mingjue; Huang Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: With the technique development, PET has been more and more applied in brain function research. The aim of this study was to investigate the tendency of regional cerebral glucose metabolism changes in human being normal aging process by using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging data acquired from 252 healthy normal subjects (age ranging: 21 to 88 years old) were divided into 6 groups according to their age: 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-88. All 5 groups with age ≥31 years old were compared to the control group of 21-30 years old, and pixel-by-pixel t-statistic analysis was applied using the SPM2. The hypo-metabolic areas were identified by MNI space utility (MSU) software and the voxel value of each brain areas were calculated (P 60 years old showed significant metabolic decreases with aging mainly involved bilateral frontal lobe (pre-motto cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal pole), temporal lobe (temporal pole), insula, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. The most significant metabolic decrease area with aging was the frontal lobe , followed by the anterior cingulate cortex, temporal lobe, insula and cerebellum at predominance right hemisphere (P<0.0001). Parietal lobe, parahippocampal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus remain metabolically unchanged with advancing aging. Conclusions: Cerebral metabolic function decrease with normal aging shows an inconstant and unsymmetrical process. The regional cerebral metabolic decrease much more significantly in older than 60 years old healthy volunteers, mainly involving bilateral frontal lobe, temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum at right predominance hemisphere. (authors)

  7. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author) [fr

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

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    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  9. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

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    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  10. Heavy Metal Exposure and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Human and Model System Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Green, Adrian; Hoyo, Cathrine; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade. Data from 36 epidemiological studies involving 17 unique countries/regions and 13 studies leveraging model systems are included in this review. Epidemiological and model system studies support a possible association between heavy metal exposure and MS or comorbid conditions; however, results remain conflicting. Epidemiological studies were predominantly cross-sectional and collectively, they highlight a global interest in this question and reveal evidence of differential susceptibility by sex and age to heavy metal exposures. In vivo studies in rats and mice and in vitro cell-based assays provide insights into potential mechanisms of action relevant to MS including altered regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and oxidative stress. Heavy metal exposure may contribute to MS or comorbid conditions; however, available data are conflicting. Causal inference remains challenging as epidemiological data are largely cross-sectional; and variation in study design, including samples used for heavy metal measurements, age of subjects at which MS outcomes are measured; the scope and treatment of confounding factors; and the population demographics vary widely. Prospective studies, standardization or increased consistency across study designs and reporting, and consideration of molecular mechanisms informed by model

  11. Impact of social integration on metabolic functions: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study of US older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Li, Ting; Ji, Yinchun

    2013-12-20

    Metabolic functions may operate as important biophysiological mechanisms through which social relationships affect health. It is unclear how social embeddedness or the lack thereof is related to risk of metabolic dysregulation. To fill this gap we tested the effects of social integration on metabolic functions over time in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States and examined population heterogeneity in the effects. Using longitudinal data from 4,323 adults aged over 50 years in the Health and Retirement Study and latent growth curve models, we estimated the trajectories of social integration spanning five waves, 1998-2006, in relation to biomarkers of energy metabolism in 2006. We assessed social integration using a summary index of the number of social ties across five domains. We examined six biomarkers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the summary index of the overall burden of metabolic dysregulation. High social integration predicted significantly lower risks of both individual and overall metabolic dysregulation. Specifically, adjusting for age, sex, race, and body mass index, having four to five social ties reduced the risks of abdominal obesity by 61% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}] = 0.39 [0.23, 0.67], p = .007), hypertension by 41% (OR [95% CI] = 0.59 [0.42, 0.84], p = .021), and the overall metabolic dysregulation by 46% (OR [95% CI] = 0.54 [0.40, 0.72], p < .001). The OR for the overall burden remained significant when adjusting for social, behavioral, and illness factors. In addition, stably high social integration had more potent metabolic impacts over time than changes therein. Such effects were consistent across subpopulations and more salient for the younger old (those under age 65), males, whites, and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study

  12. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes: The EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...

  13. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Mortensen, L H

    2008-01-01

    . RESULTS: In age-adjusted analyses, IQ was significantly inversely related to four of the five individual components comprising the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, high BMI, high triglycerides and high blood glucose, but not low HDL-cholesterol. After controlling for a range of covariates that included...... socioeconomic position, higher IQ scores were associated with a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome itself (odds ratio(1 SD increase in IQ) 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98). Structural equation modelling revealed that education was not a mediator of the relationship between IQ and the metabolic syndrome...

  14. Metabolism and transport studies of exogenous compounds thanks to 13C uniform isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravin, F.

    2008-12-01

    The study of many exogenous compounds does not raise difficulties when they are isolated, purified and in quantities sufficient for the usual detection methods used in biology (Chromatography, NMR, Mass Spectrometry, etc). When they are found in a biological fluid (blood, urines,..), they are often in infinitesimal amount such as the effect of their biological matrices or the background noise that make their detection and their quantification very delicate. The use of internal standards uniformly enriched with carbon 13 and/or nitrogen 15 makes it possible to obtain a signal more easily recognizable and identifiable thanks to the presence of the isotopes (peaks shifted in a mass spectrum for example). This is why, complementary to the analytical and biochemical studies of zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism, we were interested in building mass spectra of molecules enriched (rates between 0 and 1) by various isotopes ( 13 C, 15 N, 18 O and 2 H). In parallel we studied the influence of the 13 C enrichment on the reactivity of a given molecule, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. (author)

  15. Consanguinity, endogamy and inborn errors of metabolism in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Al-Mamari, Watfa; Islam, M Mazharul; Al-Yahyaee, Said A

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman, like many other Arab countries, has relatively high rates of consanguinity. Reports suggest that the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is also high in Oman. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the number of patients with IEM being followed at the only two tertiary centers in Oman treating such patients, and to calculate the consanguinity rates among these families. The electronic medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. A total of 285 patients with IEM were being followed at the 2 centers involved; 162 (56.8%) were male and 123 (43.2%) were female. The history of consanguinity was documented or available for 241 patients: 229 patients (95%) were born to consanguineous parents related as second cousins or closer. First-cousin marriages were reported in 191 families (79.3%), while 31 patients (12.9%) were born to second cousins. The parents of 5 patients (2%) were related as double first cousins, and 2 patients (1%) were born to first cousins once removed. The average coefficient of inbreeding (F) in our study was 0.081. Seventeen patients (6%) had associated comorbid conditions other than IEM. Our study highlights the clinical burden of IEM in Oman and emphasizes the high consanguinity rates among the parents of affected patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy within a Natural History Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina M Boca

    Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate in their levels between DMD patients and healthy controls while adjusting for age and study site and allowing for an interaction between disease status and age. Increased metabolites included arginine, creatine and unknown compounds at m/z of 357 and 312 while decreased metabolites included creatinine, androgen derivatives and other unknown yet to be identified compounds. Furthermore, the creatine to creatinine ratio is significantly associated with disease progression in DMD patients. This ratio sharply increased with age in DMD patients while it decreased with age in healthy controls. Overall, this study yielded promising metabolic signatures that could prove useful to monitor DMD disease progression and response to therapies in the future.

  17. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  18. Metabolic syndrome among adults of surendranagar District of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps. Demographics, personal details along with anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. The MetS was diagnosed as per the definition provided by Joint Interim Statement 2009. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS among studied population was found to be 41.01% (females 44.21% and males 37.91%. Abdominal obesity (66.38%, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (64.69%, and high blood pressure (40.59% appeared as the most prevalent components. MetS showed a significant association with age, body mass index, total cholesterol, habit of chewing tobacco, and history of hypertension and hyperglycemia. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MetS shows that population of Saurashtra is at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes. This highlights the need for extensive diabetes and CVD prevention and control program in this region.

  19. Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-02-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2): N=27) individuals with normal weight (NW: BMI<18.5-24.9 kg/m(2): N=21) individuals during exposure to personalized stress, alcohol cue, and neutral-relaxing situations using a validated, autobiographical, script-driven, guided-imagery paradigm. Metabolic factors, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and leptin, were examined for their association with VS activation. Consistent with previous studies, stress and alcohol cue exposure each increased activity in cortico-limbic regions. Compared with NW individuals, OW/OB individuals showed greater VS activation in the neutral-relaxing and stress conditions. FPG was correlated with VS activation. Significant associations between VS activation and metabolic factors during stress and relaxation suggest the involvement of metabolic factors in striatal dysfunction in OW/OB individuals. This relationship may contribute to non-homeostatic feeding in obesity.

  20. Apoptosis, energy metabolism, and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells: a study of human melanoma multicellular spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; Eide, K; Skøyum, R; Hystad, M E; Lyng, H

    1996-09-01

    The magnitude of the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells in tumours is generally believed to reflect the efficiency of the vascular network. Theoretical studies have suggested that the hypoxic fraction might also be influenced by biological properties of the tumour cells. Quantitative experimental results of cell energy metabolism, hypoxia- induced apoptosis, and radiobiological hypoxia are reported here. Human melanoma multicellular spheroids (BEX-c and WIX-c) were used as tumour models to avoid confounding effects of the vascular network. Radiobiological studies showed that the fractions of hypoxic cells in 1000-microM spheroids were 32 +/- 12% (BEX-c) and 2.5 +/- 1.1% (WIX-c). The spheroid hypoxic volume fractions (28 +/- 6% (BEX-c) and 1.4 +/- 7% (WIX-c)), calculated from the rate of oxygen consumption per cell, the cell packing density, and the thickness of the viable rim, were similar to the fractions of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Large differences between tumours in fraction of hypoxic cells are therefore not necessarily a result of differences in the efficiency of the vascular network. Studies of monolayer cell cultures, performed to identify the biological properties of the BEX-c and WIX-c cells leading to this large difference in fraction of hypoxic cells, gave the following results: (1) WIX-c showed lower cell surviving fractions after exposure to hypoxia than BEX-c, (2) WIX-c showed higher glucose uptake and lactate release rates than BEX-c both under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and (3) hypoxia induced apoptosis in WIX-c but not in BEX-c. These observations suggested that the difference between BEX-c and WIX-c spheroids in fraction of hypoxic cells resulted partly from differences in cell energy metabolism and partly from a difference in capacity to retain viability under hypoxic stress. The induction of apoptosis by hypoxia was identified as a phenomenon which has an important influence on the magnitude of the fraction of

  1. The 24-month metabolic benefits of the healthy living partnerships to prevent diabetes: A community-based translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Carolyn F; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Caroline S; Katula, Jeffrey A; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale clinical trials and translational studies have demonstrated that weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity reduced the development of diabetes in overweight individuals with prediabetes. These interventions also reduced the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and risk factors linked to other chronic conditions including obesity-driven cancers and cardiovascular disease. The Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD) was a clinical trial in which participants were randomized to receive a community-based lifestyle intervention translated from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) or an enhanced usual care condition. The objective of this study is to compare the 12 and 24 month prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the two treatment arms of HELP PD. The intervention involved a group-based, behavioral weight-loss program led by community health workers monitored by personnel from a local diabetes education program. The enhanced usual care condition included dietary counseling and written materials. HELP PD included 301 overweight or obese participants (BMI 25-39.9kg/m 2 ) with elevated fasting glucose levels (95-125mg/dl). At 12 and 24 months of follow-up there were significant improvements in individual components of the metabolic syndrome: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, HDL, triglycerides and blood pressure and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. This study demonstrates that a community diabetes prevention program in participants with prediabetes results in metabolic benefits and a reduction in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group compared to the enhanced usual care group. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  3. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...... respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...... different basal metabolome concentrations in the plasma of pigs and humans. Humans had higher contents of phosphatidylcholines, oleic acid, and carnitine in plasma, possibly reflecting a higher intake of meats and fats. In pigs, betaine, choline, creatinine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine were higher...

  4. Studies on radiocalcium metabolism in pigs which suffer from a hereditary form of rickets (pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabe, C. von; Harmeyer, J.; Schmitt, R. (Veterinary School Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Physiology; Veterinary School, Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1983-05-01

    Intestinal calcium absorption and calcium kinetics of plasma have been studied in pigs which suffer from pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets using /sup 45/Ca. On two consecutive days 200-250 ..mu..Ci of /sup 45/CaCl/sub 2/ was administered either orally or intravenously. The experiments were carried out in order to find out: (1) if kinetic measurements can provide suitable information on possible changes in calcium hemostasis during the development of the rachitic symptoms; (2) whether kinetic parameters of calcium metabolism can be used as indices to characterize the metabolic disturbance of calcium hemostasis.

  5. Studies on radiocalcium metabolism in pigs which suffer from a hereditary form of rickets (pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabe, C. von; Harmeyer, J.; Schmitt, R.; Veterinary School, Hannover

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal calcium absorption and calcium kinetics of plasma have been studied in pigs which suffer from pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets using 45 Ca. 200-250 μCi of 45 CaCl 2 administered either orally or intravenously on two consecutive days. The experiments were carried out in order to find out: (1) if kinetic measurements can provide suitable information on possible changes in calcium hemostasis during the development of the rachitic symptoms; (2) whether kinetic parameters of calcium metabolism can be used as indices to characterize the metabolic disturbance of calcium hemostasis. (author)

  6. Utilization of stable isotopes for the study of in vivo compartmental metabolism of poly-insaturate fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, N.; Croset, M.; Lecerf, J.; Lagarde, M.; Pachiaudi, C.; Normand, S.; Riou, J.P.; Chirouze, V.; Tayot, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the compartmental metabolism of the 22:6n-3 fatty acid, and particularly the role of the transport plasmatic forms for the tissue uptake (especially brain), a technique is developed using carbon 13 stable isotope and an isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to gaseous chromatography technique. This method has been validated in rat with docosahexaenoic acid enriched in 13 C and esterified in triglycerides. The compartmental metabolism is monitored by measuring the variation of 22:6n-3 isotopic enrichment in the various lipoprotein lipidic fractions, in blood globules and in the brain. 1 fig., 1 tab., 12 refs

  7. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  8. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  9. In vivo NMR study of yeast fermentative metabolism in the presence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Changes in the ion levels of nutrient media alter the intracellular ... influence the metabolic behaviour of microorganisms. We clearly have already ... during the sugar fermentation by cultures of S. cerevisiae. (Martini et al. 2004 ...

  10. Sympathetic nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism: novel concepts derived from recent studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Janine J.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Kooijman, Sander; Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Meurs, Illiana M.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Important players in triglyceride (TG) metabolism include the liver (production), white adipose tissue (WAT) (storage), heart and skeletal muscle (combustion to generate ATP), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) (combustion toward heat), the collective action of which determine plasma TG levels.

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma fibrinogen among subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bayanfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state. METHODS: The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714, but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval: 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008. The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%. CONCLUSION: Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.   Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Fibrinogen, Prediction 

  12. The effect of sugar and artificial sweetener on molecular markers of metabolic syndrome: a mice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subali, D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of aspartame, as one of the most widely used sweetener, has been approved in many types of food products. Moreover, many studies have proven that replacing sugar with aspartame would contribute favorable effects on several health parameters; such as, body weight, blood glucose level, and inflammatory status. In this experiment, we examined the effects of aspartame consumption on some biomarkers; which potentially acted as early signals for a personal metabolic status. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aspartame on the expression of a number of molecular markers related with appetite regulation (fto, fat accumulation markers (fabp4 and alt2 and inflammation marker (tnf-α in Sprague Dawley rats. The population of Clostridium coccoides was also observed to give an insight about the effect of sweetener consumption on gut microbiota profiles. 15 healthy, male, eight-weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet and divided into 3 groups (n=5 for each: water only, sucrose (30% b/v, and aspartame (0.15% b/v. Body weight was measured weekly and blood glucose measurement was carried out on day 1 and 40. At the end of the experiment, all rats were euthanized and blood was collected from the vein. The liver, brain, and visceral adipose tissue were excised, weighed, and grinded with liquid nitrogen. Feces samples were collected on day 0 and 40. At the end of our experimental period; the body weight, liver weight, and blood glucose level of sucrose-treated rats were significantly higher (p <0.05 than aspartame and control group. Sucrose showed the lowest level of fto gene expression; yet, the fto gene expression in aspartame group was still lower than the control group. Expression of several genes considered as metabolic syndrome-related biomarkers were measured (fabp4, alt2, and tnf-α; and our data demonstrated that sucrose treatment gave the highest increase in expression level of those genes; while aspartame treatment

  13. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Camhi

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO. Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women.Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2. Time (mins/day in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time. Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data or logistic regression (categorical data after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate.Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9, MHO (n = 37; 80% spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02, more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02, and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03. MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day compared to MUO.Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed

  14. Studies with nitrogen-15-labelled amino acids for a quantitative description of nitrogen metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, W.; Faust, H.; Czarnetzki, H.D.; Winkler, E.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of glycine in healthy and stressed persons has been studied by continuous infusion or oral administration. The results of our studies show that (1) Breakdown of protein is increased in stress conditions; (2) Amino acids are also synthesized to protein in stress, the percentage of amino acids used for synthesis being smaller in stress conditions; (3) The urea synthesis during stress is increased and accelerated; (4) In the isotopic steady state 23% of the 15 N-glycine administered by infusion to healthy persons and 41% of the amount administered to patients after cholecystectomy is eliminated (urea 16%/26%; ammonia 4%/5%); using a single oral dose 24% is eliminated as total N after 24h (19% as 15 N-urea and 4% as 15 N-ammonia); (5) Depending on the method of gastric surgery the absorption and elimination rate of glycine-N varied; the more rapid intestinal absorption of glycine in comparison with healthy persons leads to a higher 15 N elimination via urine, and causes a disturbance of the nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen balance. (author)

  15. Isotope pattern deconvolution as a tool to study iron metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castrillón, José Angel; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Lucena, Juan José; García-Tomé, Maria Luisa; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Isotope pattern deconvolution is a mathematical technique for isolating distinct isotope signatures from mixtures of natural abundance and enriched tracers. In iron metabolism studies measurement of all four isotopes of the element by high-resolution multicollector or collision cell ICP-MS allows the determination of the tracer/tracee ratio with simultaneous internal mass bias correction and lower uncertainties. This technique was applied here for the first time to study iron uptake by cucumber plants using 57Fe-enriched iron chelates of the o,o and o,p isomers of ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (EDDHA) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Samples of root, stem, leaves, and xylem sap, after exposure of the cucumber plants to the mentioned 57Fe chelates, were collected, dried, and digested using nitric acid. The isotopic composition of iron in the samples was measured by ICP-MS using a high-resolution multicollector instrument. Mass bias correction was computed using both a natural abundance iron standard and by internal correction using isotope pattern deconvolution. It was observed that, for plants with low 57Fe enrichment, isotope pattern deconvolution provided lower tracer/tracee ratio uncertainties than the traditional method applying external mass bias correction. The total amount of the element in the plants was determined by isotope dilution analysis, using a collision cell quadrupole ICP-MS instrument, after addition of 57Fe or natural abundance Fe in a known amount which depended on the isotopic composition of the sample.

  16. Isotope pattern deconvolution as a tool to study iron metabolism in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Castrillon, Jose A.; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia Alonso, J.I. [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain); Lucena, Juan J.; Garcia-Tome, Maria L.; Hernandez-Apaolaza, Lourdes [Autonoma University of Madrid, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Isotope pattern deconvolution is a mathematical technique for isolating distinct isotope signatures from mixtures of natural abundance and enriched tracers. In iron metabolism studies measurement of all four isotopes of the element by high-resolution multicollector or collision cell ICP-MS allows the determination of the tracer/tracee ratio with simultaneous internal mass bias correction and lower uncertainties. This technique was applied here for the first time to study iron uptake by cucumber plants using {sup 57}Fe-enriched iron chelates of the o,o and o,p isomers of ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (EDDHA) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Samples of root, stem, leaves, and xylem sap, after exposure of the cucumber plants to the mentioned {sup 57}Fe chelates, were collected, dried, and digested using nitric acid. The isotopic composition of iron in the samples was measured by ICP-MS using a high-resolution multicollector instrument. Mass bias correction was computed using both a natural abundance iron standard and by internal correction using isotope pattern deconvolution. It was observed that, for plants with low {sup 57}Fe enrichment, isotope pattern deconvolution provided lower tracer/tracee ratio uncertainties than the traditional method applying external mass bias correction. The total amount of the element in the plants was determined by isotope dilution analysis, using a collision cell quadrupole ICP-MS instrument, after addition of {sup 57}Fe or natural abundance Fe in a known amount which depended on the isotopic composition of the sample. (orig.)

  17. Aiptasia as a model to study metabolic diversity and specificity in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses

    KAUST Repository

    Raedecker, Nils

    2017-11-23

    The symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium provides the foundation of coral reefs in oligotrophic waters. Understanding the nutrient-exchange between these partners is key to identifying the fundamental mechanisms behind this symbiosis. However, deciphering the individual role of host and algal partners in the uptake and cycling of nutrients has proven difficult, given the endosymbiotic nature of this relationship. In this study, we highlight the advantages of the emerging model system Aiptasia to investigate the metabolic diversity and specificity of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. For this, we combined traditional measurements with nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling to investigate carbon and nitrogen cycling both at the organismal scale and the cellular scale. Our results suggest that the individual nutrient assimilation by hosts and symbionts depends on the identity of their respective symbiotic partner. Further, δ13C enrichment patterns revealed that alterations in carbon fixation rates only affected carbon assimilation in the cnidarian host but not the algal symbiont, suggesting a \\'selfish\\' character of this symbiotic association. Based on our findings, we identify new venues for future research regarding the role and regulation of nutrient exchange in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In this context, the model system approach outlined in this study constitutes a powerful tool set to address these questions.

  18. Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Rogers, P.J.; Ellman, M.G.; Miles, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [( 14 C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([ 3 H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [ 14 C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [ 3 H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [ 3 H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) dpm.kg-1.min-1) using the known [ 14 C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [ 3 H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

  19. Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin eRohleder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired sensorimotor gating occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and can be measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI paradigm of the acoustic startle response. This assay is frequently used to validate animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders and to explore the therapeutic potential of new drugs. The underlying neural network of PPI has been extensively studied with invasive methods and genetic modifications. However, its relevance for healthy untreated animals and the functional interplay between startle- and PPI-related areas during a PPI session is so far unknown. Therefore, we studied awake rats in a PPI paradigm, startle control and background noise control, combined with behavioral [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Subtractive analyses between conditions were used to identify brain regions involved in startle and PPI processing in well-hearing Black hooded rats. For correlative analysis with regard to the amount of PPI we also included hearing-impaired Lister hooded rats that startled more often, because their hearing threshold was just below the lowest prepulses. Metabolic imaging showed that the brain areas proposed for startle and PPI mediation are active during PPI paradigms in healthy untreated rats. More importantly, we show for the first time that the whole PPI modulation network is active during passive PPI sessions, where no selective attention to prepulse or startle stimulus is required. We conclude that this reflects ongoing monitoring of stimulus significance and constant adjustment of sensorimotor gating.